Spener, the founder of the Pietists (1635-1705).
He came strongly under the influence of the pietists, particularly of Spener, and there was a mystic vein in his thought; but other elements of his nature were too powerful to allow him to attach himself wholly to that party.
Arndt has always been held in very high repute by the German Pietists.
He did not, like the later Pietists, insist on the necessity of a conscious crisis of conversion, nor did he encourage a complete breach between the Christian and the secular life.
Another Adiaphorist controversy between Pietists and their opponents, respecting the lawfulness of amusements, arose in 1681, when Anton Reiser (1628-1686) denounced the opera as antichristian.
But differences between the Pietists of Halle and himself soon became apparent.
At first he went to Jena, but Zinzendorf at once sought to secure him as a fellow labourer, though the count wished to obtain from him a declaration which would remove from the Pietists of Halle all blame with regard to the disruption.
During the second half of this missionary period of his life he superintended as bisho p the churches of Pennsylvania, defended the Moravian colonies against the Indians at the time of war between France and England, became the apologist of his body against the attacks of the Lutherans and the Pietists, and did much to moderate the mystical extravagances pf Zinzendorf, with which his simple, practical and healthy nature was out of sympathy.
Of the Pietists of the second class one of the leaders was Philip William Otterbein (1726-1813), born in Dillenburg, Nassau, whose system of class-meetings was the basis of a secession from which grew the United Brethren in Christ, commonly called the "New Reformed Church," organized in 1800.
Spener and the Pietists of Halle.
His brother Gottfried Daniel Krummacher (1774-1837), who studied theology at Duisburg and became pastor successively in Berl (1798), Wiilfrath (1801) and Elberfeld (1816), was the leader of the "pietists" of Wupperthal, and published several volumes of sermons, including one entitled Die Wanderungen Israels durch d.
The name of Pietists was given to the adherents of the movement by its enemies as a term of ridicule, like that of "Methodists" somewhat later in England.
As forerunners of the Pietists in the strict sense, not a few earnest and powerful voices had been heard bewailing the shortcomings of the Church and advocating a revival of practical and devout Christianity.
They gave rise to the name "Pietists."
His first work, published in 1828, as an answer to Hugh James Rose's Cambridge lectures on rationalist tendencies in German theology, showed a good deal of sympathy with the German "pietists," who had striven to deliver Protestantism from its decadence; this sympathy was misunderstood, and Pusey was himself accused of holding rationalist views.
GERMAN BAPTIST BRETHREN, or German Brethren, a sect of Anabaptist Pietists which originated in Germany, and whose members are popularly known in the United States as "Dunkers," "Dunkards" or "Tunkers," corruptions of the German verb tunken, " to dip," in recognition of the sect's continued adherence to the practice of trine immersion.
In 1687 he made the daring innovation of lecturing in German instead of Latin, and in the following year published a monthly periodical (Scherzhafte and ernsthafte, verniinftige and einfdltige Gedanken ilber allerhand lustige and niitzliche Bucher and Fragen) in which he ridiculed the pedantic weaknesses of the learned, taking the side of the Pietists in their controversy with the orthodox, and defending mixed marriages of Lutherans and Calvinists.
Germany, harassed by the Thirty Years' War and deadened by a rigid Lutheranism, can show little besides Andrea and Johann Arndt until the coming of the Pietists (see Pietism), A.
Many Pietists soon maintained that the new birth must always be preceded by agonies of repentance, and that only a regenerated theologian could teach theology, while the whole school shunned all common worldly amusements, such as dancing, the theatre, and public games.
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