How to use Piers in a sentence
The city has immense coal piers.
The harbour is enclosed by two stone piers, and there is good anchorage in the bay.
The oldest mention of Robin Hood at present known occurs in the second edition - what is called the B text - of Piers the Plowman, the date of which is about 1377.
In the rolls of parliament of 1437 mention is made of Piers Venables, a robber who took to the woods "like as it had been Robin Hood and his meyne."
The walls, piers and arches, are all built in brick, covered with stucco, a great portion of which is preserved down to the present day.Advertisement
The piers carrying the arches have shafts at their angles, the earliest examples known, and the decoration of the walls consists of friezes, borders, and impost-bands, all enriched with conventional patterns interwoven with cufic characters and modelled in stucco.
In the earliest mosque at old Delhi, they adopted the piers and bracketed capitals of the Jaina builders, whom they probably employed to build their mosque.
The covered aisles of the court of the Jumma Musjid at Jaunpur are in three storeys with piers, bracket-capitals and architraves, bearing therefore no resemblance to the arcades of Kairawan and Cordova, and constituting a different style.
As a contrast to the Ahmedabad mosques, the Kadam Rasul mosque at Gaur in Bengal possesses some characteristics which resemble those of the mosque of Tulun in Cairo, possibly due to the fact that it is entirely built in brick, with massive piers carrying pointed arches.
The control of the harbour, piers, pleasure grounds, &c., was acquired from the lord of the manor by the local board in 1886.Advertisement
The town, which is quite modern, contains many churches and chapels of all denominations, a town hall, public libraries, the Victoria hospital, three piers, theatres, ball-rooms, and other places of public amusement, including a lofty tower, resembling the Eiffel Tower of Paris.
The whole of the eastern side of Darling Harbour is occupied by a succession of wharves and piers, there being in all 4000 ft.
Black ironwood is likewise used in building wagons, while sneezewood is largely utilized for supports for piers and other marine structures, being impervious to the attacks of the Teredo navalis.
Guy, the 2nd, distinguished himself in the Scottish campaigns of Edward I., who warned him at his death against Piers Gaveston.
Thus "the great unknown" from the Oberland is the ideal character, "who illustrates how God does his work for the world and for the church through a divinely trained and spiritually illuminated layman," just as William Langland in England about the same time drew the figure of Piers Plowman.Advertisement
The present Westminster Bridge, of iron on granite piers, was opened in 1862, but another preceded it, dating from 1750; the view from which was appreciated by Wordsworth in his sonnet beginning " Earth has not anything to show more fair."
The harbour, originally constructed as a refuge for British ships of war, is one of the best on the east coast, and has been improved by the widening of the piers and the extension of the breakwaters.
The port has two piers.
A rectangular trough of boards, whose dimensions depend chiefly on the size of the planks available, is set up on the higher part of the ground at one side of the claim to be worked, upon trestles or piers of rough stone-work, at such an inclination that the stream may carry off all but the largest stones, which are kept back by a grating of boards about 2 in.
There are two piers, and a railway viaduct of eleven arches crosses the harbour.Advertisement
He erected a stone bridge with wooden piers across the Rhine at Mainz, and began a canal between the Altmiihl and the Rednitz to connect the Rhine and the Danube, but this work was not finished.
His son Thomas, who inherited the title, took the lead among the nobles of Edward II.'s time in opposition to Piers Gaveston and the Despensers, and was beheaded for treason at Pontefract.
These " pilgrim signs " are frequently alluded to in literature - notably in the Canterbury Tales and in Piers Plowman.
On the other hand, when the bottom was rocky so that the piles could not be driven, they were steadied at their bases by being enveloped in a mound of loose stones, in the manner in which the foundations of piers and breakwaters are now constructed.
In many cases the span is fixed by local conditions, such as the convenient sites for piers, or the requirements of waterway or navigation.Advertisement
On the other hand, a girder imposes only a vertical load on its piers and abutments, and not a horizontal thrust, as in the case of an arch or suspension chain.
The objection to continuity is that very small alterations of level of the supports due to settlement of the piers may very greatly alter the distribution of stress, and render the bridge unsafe.
Some piers are said still to exist.
Bridges with stone piers and timber superstructures were no doubt constructed from Roman times onward, but they have perished.
The bridge over the East Dart near Tavistock had three piers, with slabs FIG.
The chains pass over lofty piers on which they usually rest on saddles carried by rollers, and are led down on either side to anchorages in rock chambers.
There are wrought iron saddles and steel rollers on the piers.
Intermediate piers support the trusses in the side spans.
The opening bridge between the river towers consists of two leaves or bascules, pivoted near the faces of the piers and rotating in a vertical plane.
There was an idea of using suspension chains combined with a girder, and in fact the tower piers were built so as to accommodate chains.
Though each girder has been made continuous over the four spans it has not quite the proportions over the piers which a continuous girder should have, FIG.
The side spans are erected first on staging and anchored to the piers.
The shore piers carry cantilevers projecting one way over the river openings and the other way over a shore span where it is secured to an anchorage.
The cantilever rests on two river piers 120 ft.
Eads, the engineer, determined to establish the piers and abutments on rock at a depth for the east pier and east abutment of 136 ft.
Wire cables were used in the erection, by which the members were lifted from barges and assembled, the operations being conducted from the side piers.
It is formed by a crescent-shaped arch, continued on one side by four, on the other side by two lattice girder spans, on iron piers.
The lattice girders of the side spans were first rolled into place, so as to project some distance beyond the piers, and then the arch ribs were built out, being partly supported by wire-rope cables from (3) Draw or Bascule Bridges.
In these bridges each bascule is prolonged backwards beyond the hinge so as to balance at the hinge, the prolongation sinking into the piers when the bridge is opened.
The end lifts which transfer the weight of the bridge to the piers when the span is closed consist of massive eccentrics having a throw of 4 in.
The substructure of a bridge comprises the piers, abutments and foundations.
Occasionally metal work or woodwork is used for intermediate piers.
When girders form the superstructure, the resultant pressure on the piers or abutments is vertical, and the dimensions of these are simply regulated by the sufficiency to bear this vertical load.
The intermediate piers should also have considerable stability, so as to counterbalance the thrust arising when one arch is loaded while the other is free from load.
The piers require to be carried above the platform, and their design must be modified according to the type of suspension bridge adopted.
When the resultant pressure is not vertical on the piers these must be constructed to meet the inclined pressure.
Piers and abutments are of masonry, brickwork, or cast or wrought iron.
In some cases the piers are cast iron cylinders io ft.
Formerly when bridge piers had to be placed where a firm bearing stratum could only be reached at a considerable depth, a timber cofferdam was used in which piles were driven down to the firm stratum.
On the piles the masonry piers were built.
The piers of the Benares bridge were single iron caissons, 65 ft.
When the headway is great or the river deep, timberbraced piers or clusters of piles at distances of 50 ft.
Skeleton towers on the piers supported chains attached to the arched ribs at suitable points.
Cost of piers (n-1) P. Cost of main girders nG.
It is, however, unstable unless rigidly fixed at the piers.
In the Forth bridge stability is obtained partly by the great excess of dead over live load, partly by the great width of the river piers.
The compression members are of timber, except the struts and bottom chord panels next the river piers, which are of steel.
By the construction of extensive piers and breakwaters a fine harbour of refuge has been created; and its inner harbour is deep enough for the largest lake-steamers.
In Hoboken are the piers of the North German Lloyd, the Hamburg American, the Netherlands American, the Scandinavian and the Phoenix steamship lines.
But there are references which suggest its previous award in Piers Plowman and Chaucer.
A broadside entitled Davy Dycars Dreame, a short and seemingly alliterative poem in the manner of Piers Plowman, brought him into trouble with the privy council, but he was dismissed with a reprimand.
It has two large piers, alongside of which vessels of almost any tonnage can lie.
One of these piers is served by the railway, and here most of the great liners are berthed.
The accounts of the palaces of the native kings must be taken with some reserve, from the tendency to use descriptive terms not actually untrue, but which convey erroneous ideas taken from European architecture; thus what are called columns of porphyry and jasper supporting marble balconies might perhaps be better described as piers carrying slabs, while the apartments and terraces must have been more remarkable for number and extent than architectural grandeur, being but low one-storied buildings.
The herring fishery has developed to considerable proportions, the harbour having been enlarged and protected by piers and a breakwater.
The discharge of a river at a weir can be regulated as required and considerably increased in flood-time by introducing a series of openings in the centre of a solid weir, with sluice-gates or panels which slide in grooves at the sides of upright frames or masonry piers erected at convenient intervals apart, FIG.
Means of transportation for these products are furnished by the rivers, which are generally navigable as far north as the " fall line " passing through Augusta, Milledgeville, Macon and Columbus; by ocean steamship lines which have piers at St Mary's, Brunswick, Darien and Savannah; and by railways whose mileage in January 1909 was 6,871.8 m.
There are two piers and numerous warehouses.
These improvements comprise a series of inner breakwaters and piers and an outer breakwater of stone and cement, 4 m.
An interesting passage in Piers Plowman furnishes us with a proof of the extent to which these songs penetrated into England.
One led due north from York past forts at Catterick Bridge, Piers Bridge, Binchester, Lanchester, Ebchester to the wall and to Scotland, while branches through Chester-le-Street reached the Tyne Bridge (Pons Aelius) at Newcastle and the Tyne mouth at South Shields.
The harbour is enclosed by north and south piers, and there is a depth of 29 ft.
Hoy is commonly approached from Stromness, there being piers at n Linksess, the nearest point to Graemsay, and at Hackness, South Ness and North Bay, the last three all on the harbour of Long Hope.
Sandford (awarded the V.C.) in C3 had sighted the viaduct about half a mile off, and running into the iron piers at oi knots had jammed the vessel with its 52 tons of amatol hard and fast.
Fire had been opened from shore, and both ships were accordingly blown up where they stranded about a mile east of the piers.
Two coastal motor boats, CMB24 and 30, dashed ahead and torpedoed the piers.
They may be supported by iron standards or brick piers, back and front, bearing up a flat bar of iron on which the slates may rest; the use of the bar will give wider intervals between the supports, which will be found convenient for filling and emptying the beds.
This is afforded, either by means of a so-called sleeping dike (slaperdyk) behind the weak spot, as, for instance, between Kadzand and Breskens in Zeeland-Flanders, and again between 's Gravenzande and Loosduinen; or by means of piers or breakwaters (hoofden, heads) projecting at intervals into the sea and composed of piles, or brushwood and stones.
It has a central tower surmounted by a spire of the 14th century, which necessitated the building of a massive stone screen across the chancel arch to support the piers.
On the west side of the Forth Bridge, in the fairway, lies the rocky islet of Bimar with a lighthouse, and immediately to the east is the island of Inchgarvie (Gaelic, "the rough island"), which once contained a castle used as a State prison, the ruins of which were removed to make way for one of the piers of the Forth Bridge.
The harbour, artificially constructed, and equipped with a jetty and piers, admits vessels of 250 tons.
The length of the chains (from rock-fastenings) is 1715 ft., and between the piers 590 ft.; the length of the roadway between the piers is 550 ft.
It having been found that considerable hollow spaces existed below the foundations of some of the piers, five bore-holes from the top of the roadway were pierced vertically through each pier of both barrages, and similar holes were drilled at intervals along all the lock walls.
It consists of a bridge of i i 1 arches, each 5 metres span, with piers of 2 metres thickness.
There is frequent communication daily by steamer with the railway piers at Craigendoran and Gourock, and Glasgow merchants are thus enabled to reside here all the year round.
The attached angleshafts of piers are found here for the first time, and their capitals are enriched, as also the frieze surmounting the walls, with other conventional patterns.
The columns supporting the roof and gallery are irregularly placed, with a view to artistic effect; and the general form of the piers, arches and pillars is most graceful.
Vast vertical walls of rock shoot up to a height of 600 ft., cut by their perpendicular joints into quadrangular piers and projections, some of which stand out alone as cathedral-like islets in front of the main cliff.
Under the Congested Districts (Scotland) Act of 18 97, £35, 0 0 0 a year was devoted within certain districts of Argyll, Inverness, Ross and Cromarty, Sutherland, Caithness, Orkney and Shetland, to assisting migration, improving the breeds of live stock, building piers and boatslips, making roads and bridges, developing home industries, &c.
The harbour is protected by two main piers, of which the western is a fine structure by Sir John Rennie, and divided into four parts by others; it has a wet dock and extensive quayage.
These uprights are supported on huge piers of masonry and concrete, the foundations for which were carried down, by the aid of iron caissons and compressed air, to a depth of about 15 metres on the side next the Seine, and about 9 metres on the other side.
The New English Dictionary quotes Piers Plowman as containing the earliest personification of the name.
There is daily winter communication with Brodick and Lamlash by steamer from Ardrossan, and in summer by many steamers which call not only at these piers, but at Corrie,Whiting Bay and Loch Ranza.
The harbour, enclosed by two piers, accommodates the herring fleet, but the fisheries, the staple industry, have declined.
A large fishing industry is carried on from the harbour, which is formed by the mouth of the river and protected by two piers.
The inner harbour, or old port, contains two basins, one of 10 acres and another of 60 acres, formed by the construction of a pier eastward from Fort de la Moune, with two cross piers.
With the exception of the north piers and a small portion of the wall above, which are Norman, the tower dates from the end of the 15th century.
Two of the tower piers and a part of one arch give some indication of the grandeur of the building.
It previously consisted of a tower and chancel (with a fine Decorated window) built by Bishop Gower, the piers of the chancel arch being partly built on earlier Norman work, the Herbert Chapel (originally St Ann's) of about the same date as the chancel and rebuilt in the early part of the 16th century, and a nave built in 1739.
Two long piers shelter the harbour, and vessels drawing 25 ft.
The harbour, one of the safest for small craft in the west country, is sheltered by two long and massive stone piers.
New quays have been made all the way from the old Immacolatella landing-place to the new and spacious Capitaneria di Porto, on the eastern side of which is a new harbour used mainly for the coal trade, and piers such that the largest liner can lie alongside the jetty.
The practical limit of height was reached when the sectional area of the masonry of the piers of the exterior walls in the lower storey had to be made so great, in order to support safely the weight of the dead load of the walls and floors and the accidental load imposed upon the latter in use, as to affect seriously the value of the lower storeys on account of the loss of light and floor space.
Various devices were successively made to reduce the size of the exterior piers.
The dimensions of the exterior piers ceased to control the height of the building, which was limited alone by the possibility of securing adequate foundations, and by a consideration of the amount of floor space which could be devoted without too great loss to a system of passenger lifts of sufficient capacity to afford speedy access to all parts of the building.
The advantages that led to the very rapid introduction of this system were not only the power of greatly reducing the size of the piers, but the enormous facility afforded for quick construction, the small amount of materials relatively used and the proportionately small load upon the foundations, and the fact that as the walls are supported at each storey directly from the cage, the masonry can be begun at any storey independently of the masonry below it.
The bases are either grouted with cement, or bolted to the foundations, but where cast column bases rest on masonry piers or footings any considerable grouting is not advisable.
There are two piers, and a parade along the seawall; and the sea-bathing is good.
But his most offensive act was to promote to the position of chief councillor of the crown, and disperser of the royal favors, a clever but vain and ostentatious Gascon knight, one Piers Gaveston, who had been the companion of his boyhood, and had been banished by Edward I.
Piers was given the royal title of earl of Cornwall, and married to the kings niece; when Edward went over to France to do homage for Gascony, he even made his friend regent during his absence, in preference to any of his kinsmen.
It was his regular habit to refer those who came to him on matters of state to his good brother Piers, and to refuse to discuss them in person.
The manor afterwards descended to the families of Fitz Piers, Bohun and Strafford, and was granted by Henry VIII.
Over the central portion of the nave, a square area at the angles of which stand the four piers, and at a height of 179 ft.
Jak Upland (John Countryman) took the place of Piers Ploughman, and upbraided the clergy, and especially the friars, for their wealth and luxury.
His son and successor, Sir Piers Edgecumbe, went to France with Henry VIII.
Sir Richard's eldest son, Piers or Peter Edgecumbe (1536-1607), was a member of parliament under Elizabeth for about thirty years.
In 1882 the Commissioners of Public Works were given further powers to lend money to fishermen on the recommendation of the inspectors of fisheries; and under an act of 1883 the Land Commission was authorized to pay from time to time such sums, not exceeding in all £250,000, as the Commissioners of Public Works might require, for the creation of a Sea Fishery Fund, such fund to be expended - a sum of about £240,000 has been expended - on the construction and improvement of piers and harbours.
Its effects are felt as far south as Sulina, and tend to necessitate the farther extension into the sea of the guiding piers of that port.
These consisted of two piers forming a seaward prolongation of the fluvial channel, begun in 1858 and completed in 1861.
In 1871 it was found expedient to lengthen the piers seaward, and in 1876 the south jetty was prolonged, so as to bring its end exactly opposite the lighthouse on the north pier.
In 1894, owing to the constantly increasing size of vessels frequenting the Danube, it was found necessary to deepen the entrance still further, and to construct two parallel piers between the main jetties, reducing the breadth of the river to 500 ft., and thereby increasing the scour.
With his associates he produced the banishment of the royal favourite, Piers Gaveston, in 1308; compelled Edward in 1310 to surrender his power to a committee of "ordainers," among whom he himself was numbered; and took up arms when Gaveston returned to England in January 1312.
There are ferries at St Catherine's and Otter, and piers at Tarbert, Ardrishaig, Kilmory, Crarae, Furnace, Inveraray, Strachur and elsewhere.
The harbour, enclosed by piers and divided into two basins, lies on the south side of the castle peninsula.
In the 14th century Lincoln and Stamford were several times the meeting-places of parliament or important councils, the most notable being the Lincoln Parliament of 1301, while at Stamford in 1309 a truce was concluded between the barons, Piers Gaveston and the king.
There are piers at the town itself and at Boscombe, and the bathing is excellent.
Between the extremities of these two piers and those of the breakwater are the two entrances to the harbour.
Everett has a fine harbour with several large iron piers.
The pipes are carried on a 100 year old multi-span bridge, consisting of an elaborate steel superstructure on masonry abutments and piers.
At Chepstow the piers were large cast iron cylinders which themselves formed the caissons, the air locks being fitted on top of them.
The bridge piers are both within large sheet piled cofferdams, which were constructed by our own skilled piling resources.
Piers Steward took 5 for 4 including a hat trick.
The nave arches are borne on octagonal piers, probably of an earlier church.
Note the relatively slender piers and rounded cutwaters, evidence of French influence on bridge design, as is the level roadway.
All the communities were well served by good wooden piers.
The main part of the church had wooden rib vaults and circular piers.
His stunts on seaside piers included jumping into the sea in a sack.
Dramatically located some 270 meters above sea level, crossing Hewenden Beck on 16 masonry piers.
The house was not attached to the brick piers in any way.
Weston is typical of a British Victorian holiday center with piers, amusements, saucy postcards and donkeys giving children rides along the beach.
However both the piers were, by then, pretty seedy places.
The piers, of which there were 181 single and 12 double, supporting the superstructure, were formed from five cast iron columns.
The concrete piers for the vanished timber superstructure can be seen clearly in the water.
The Entrance Hall features a tiled floor, natural stone piers and exposed timber beams, supporting a viewing gallery above.
Stallybrass) - and for the bandit (see "Roberdes Knaues" in the Prologue of Piers the Plowman, 1.44, and the note in Warton's Hist.
Harbour works were begun in 1857, piers and jetties were constructed, dredgers imported, and controversy raged over the various schemes for harbour improvement.
The substructure consists of (a) the piers and end piers or abutments, the former sustaining a vertical load, and the latter having to resist, in addition, the oblique thrust of an arch, the pull of a suspension chain, or the thrust of an embankment; and (b) the foundations below the ground level, which are often difficult and costly parts of the structure, because the position of a'bridge may be fixed by considerations which preclude the selection of a site naturally adapted for carrying a heavy structure.
The west front and a large portion of the north half of the nave and aisle have perished, but the remains include the rest of the nave, the two transepts, the chancel and choir, the two western piers of the tower and the sculptured roof of the east end.
Nick Stevens Swanage, Old and New Pier Both piers at Swanage can be rewarding sites for the snorkel diver.
I continue my walk past elegant townhouses overlooking piers that fade into warehouses long abandoned and reborn.
She explained to Piers Morgan that 50 Cent was "the complete antithesis of what you would imagine."
Born in Surrey, England in 1965, Piers Morgan gained his fame first in the United Kingdom as a journalist.
His show, Piers Morgan Tonight, began in January 2011.
While studying film at the University of Southern California, Ferrera met her boyfriend, Ryan Piers Williams, an aspiring director who currently works for Steven Soderbergh.
Piers Morgan - This newspaper journalist turned editor of Great Britain's Daily Mirror and News of the World left the printed word for television a few years back and is best know in the States as a judge on America's Got Talent.
Her audition stunned both viewers and the judges, including Simon Cowell, Piers Morgan, former winner of The Celebrity Apprentice, and Amanda Holden.
David Hasselhoff has been on the judging panel for each season of the successful show, along with Sharon Osborne and Piers Morgan.
These voyages depart from Chelsea Piers in Manhattan and provide stunning views of the city's skyline.
The only way to access the island is via ferry boats, which leave the piers along the Embarcadero.
Depending upon your area, you may have a large selection of public waterways, fishing piers, creeks, and even stocked lakes.
Many rental properties have boating docks and fishing piers.
Jerry Springer is set to host the fourth season with judges David Hasselhoff and Piers Morgan.
During the preliminary rounds former Baywatch star David Hasselhoff, British journalist Piers Morgan, and Ozzy Osbourne's wife, Sharon, are given the task of booting off the worst wannabe singers, dancers, magicians and comedians.
Piers Morgan was born in Newick, East Sussex, England on March 30, 1965.
Over the pond, Piers Morgan has several regular television series, including a talk show, a travel program, and Piers Morgan's Life Stories, which delves into the lives of celebrities.
Piers Morgan is not your ordinary reality television show personality.
Piers Stefan Pughe-Morgan was born March 30, 1965 in Sussex, England.
Piers, along with his three siblings, was raised by his mother, Gabrielle O'Meara, and grandmother.
Piers Morgan landed his first newspaper job with the Surrey and South London Newspaper as a reporter for the South London News and the Streatham and Tooting News.
While Piers Morgan is still involved in the newspaper industry, he turned his gears toward television.
That same year, he hosted a three-part series titled, Piers Morgan on Sandbanks, in which he looked at the popularity of the Sandbanks on Southern England's Dorset Coast.
In 2009, he started as host of Piers Morgan Life Stories.
Piers Morgan's first role in U.S. reality television came as a judge on NBC's America's Got Talent, where, in 2006, he replaced American Idol 's Simon Cowell, and sat beside singer Brandy and actor David Hasselhoff.
Just to show that he can take it as good as he can give it, Piers Morgan stepped up to the plate in 2008 as a contestant on the first season of Donald Trump's The Celebrity Apprentice.
Piers Morgan continues to make England his home.
He was named after Piers Courage, a race car driver and brewery heir.
Piers Morgan was punched three times by British celebrity Jeremy Clarkson over accusations Morgan made about Clarkson's personal and professional life.
The judges for this season were David Hasselhoff, Piers Morgan, and singer/actress Brandy.
The original judging team for the show was supposed to be Simon Cowell, David Hasselhof and Cheryl Crow, but eventually Hasselhof and Crow were replaced with Piers Morgan and Amanda Holden.
In the end, Trace Adkins and Piers Morgan were the final two men standing.
The winner of the first season of The Celebrity Apprentice was Piers Morgan, who returned for season two as an advisor in the board room.
There are two piers enclosing a harbour with a total area of 48 acres, having a depth of about 16 ft.
There are two piers, of which the Palace pier, near the site of the old chain pier (1823), which was washed away in 1896, is near the centre of the town, while the West pier is towards Hove.
Perhaps the oldest remains are some of the piers -and buttresses of the bridge over the Moselle, which may date from about 28 B.C. The well-preserved amphitheatre just outside the modern town to the south-east was probably built in the reign of Trajan or Hadrian.
Three or four piers or sometimes bridges of masonry are run out into the bed of the river, frequently from both sides at once, raising the level of the stream and thus giving a water power sufficient to turn the gigantic wheel or wheels, sometimes almost 40 ft.
The tidal harbour, which is owned by a company, is enclosed by two piers and a breakwater, the area being about 30 acres, and the quayage 1400 yds.
Docks, wharves, piers, curing stations and warehouses have been provided or enlarged to cope with the growth of the trade, and an esplanade has been constructed along the front.
The earl's memory remained green for a long time, and in the Vision of Piers Plowman his name is linked with that of Robin Hood.
The choir opens into a beautiful cloister, the massive vaulting of which is supported on heavy piers adorned with statuary, between which intervene slender columns arranged in pairs and surmounted by delicately carved capitals.
During the 13th and 14th centuries the castle and lordship changed hands very frequently; they were granted successively to Hubert de Burgh, whose son forfeited them after the battle of Evesham, to Richard, earl of Cornwall, whose son Edmund died without issue; to Piers Gaveston, and lastly to John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and so to the Crown as parcel of the duchy of Lancaster.
Whole forests, vast quarries of granite, and hills of gravel were used in fringing the water margins, constructing wharves, piers and causeways, redeeming flats, and furnishing piling and solid foundations for buildings.
The numerous harbours are chiefly artificial, usually located at the mouths of streams, the improvements consisting of two parallel piers extending into the lake and protecting a dredged channel.
Of stone bridges in Great Britain, the earliest were the cyclopean bridges still existing on Dartmoor, consisting of stone piers bridged by stone slabs.
Remarkably high timber piers were built.
The two centre piers are 24 ft.