Piedmont Sentence Examples
It also had a few fiefs in Piedmont and in Genoese territory.
Immediately after the battle of Rieti a Carbonarist mutiny broke out in Piedmont independently of events in the south.
If Piedmont was to be fitted for the part which optimists expected it to play, everything must be built up anew.
Lombardy (especially Como, Milan and Bergamo), Piedmont and Venetia are the chief silk-producing regions.
The greatest quantity is produced in Lombardy, Piedmont, Venetia and Tuscany.Advertisement
Santarosa entered the service of Napoleon during the annexation of Piedmont to France, and was sub-prefect of Spezia from 1812 to 1814.
But so long as Piedmont was not completely crushed none of the princes dared to take decisive measures against their subjects; in spite of Custozza, Charles Albert still had an army, and Austria, with revolutions in Vienna, Hungary and Bohemia on her hands, could not intervene.
The situation in Piedmont was far from promising, the exchequer was empty, the army disorganized, the country despondent and suspicious of the king.
The industry is chiefly developed in Lombardy, Piedmont and Liguria; to some extent also in Campania, Venetia and Tuscany, and to a less extent in Lazio (Rome), Apulia, Emilia, the Marches, Umbria, the Abruzzi and Sicily.
Navigable canals had in 1886 a total length of abput 655 m.; they are principally situated in Piedmont, Lombardy and Venetia, and are thus practically confined to the P0 basin.Advertisement
After joining the "Giovine Italia" he entered the Sardinian navy, and, with a number of companions on board the frigate "Euridice," plotted to seize the vessel and occupy the arsenal of Genoa at the moment when Mazzini's Savoy expedition should enter Piedmont.
Feudalism was abolished in 1836, and in 1848 complete political union with Piedmont was granted, the viceregal government being suppressed, and the island being divided into three divisions of which Cagliari, Sassari and Nuoro were the capitals.
The greatest number of savings banks exists in Lombardy; Piedmont and Venetia come next.
Milan and Piedmont were comparatively well governed; but repugnance to Austrian rule in the former case, and the contagion of French Jacobinical opinions in the latter, brought those populations into increasing hostility to the rulers.
Piedmont was declared to be a military division at the disposal of France (April 21, r8oi); and on the 21st of September 1802, Bonaparte, then First Consul for life, issued a decree for its definitive incorporation in the French Republic. About that time, too, Elba fell into the hands of Napoleon.Advertisement
The latter immediately proclaimed the constitution, but the new king, Charles Felix, who was at Modena at the time, repudiated the regents acts and exiled him to Tuscany; and, with his consent, an Austrian army invaded Piedmont and crushed the constitutionalists at Novara.
Both the king and his minister realized that Piedmont alone, even with the help of the National Society, could not expel Austria from Italy without foreign assistance.
Lucchinos brother John, arch bishop of Milan, now assumed the lordship of the city, and extended the power of the Visconti over Genoa and the whole of north Italy, with the exception of Piedmont, Verona, Mantua, Ferrara and Venice.
Of the nominally independent states the chief were the kingdom of Sardinia, ruled over by the house of Savoy, and comprising Piedmont, the isle of Sardinia and nominally Savoy and Nice, though the two provinces last named had virtually been lost to the monarchy since the campaign of 1793.
Piedmont was organized in six departments on the model of those of France, and a number of French veterans were settled by Napoleon in and near the fortress of Alessandria.Advertisement
On the 27th of April 1831, Charles Albert succeeded Charles Felix on the throne of Piedmont.
The duke of Modena and Charles Louis of Parma (Marie Louise was now dead) abandoned their capitals; in both cities provisional governments were set up which subsequently proclaimed annexation to Piedmont.
But the only state capable of taking the initiative was Piedmont, and the king still hesitated.
The mob, egged on by the republicans, attacked the palace where the king was lodged, and he escaped with difficulty, returning to Piedmont with the remnants of his army.
On the 6th of August Radetzky re-entered Milan, and three days later an armistice was concluded between Austria and Piedmont, the latter agreeing to evacuate Lombardy and Venetia.Advertisement
Thus were despotism and foreign predominance re-established throughout Italy save in Piedmont.
He made desperate efforts to conciliate the population, and succeeded with a few of the nobles, who were led to believe in the possibility of an Italian confederation, including Lombardy and Venetia which would be united to Austria by a personal union alone; but the immense majority of all classes rejected these advances, and came to regard union with Piedmont with increasing favor.
In Piedmont itself it was at first less successful; and Cavour, although he aspired ultimately to a united Italy with Rome as the capital,1 openly professed no ambition beyond the expulsion of Austria and the formation of a North Italian kingdom.
There it was agreed that France should supply 200,000 men and Piedmont 100,000 for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, that Piedmont should be expanded into a kingdom of North Italy, that central Italy should form a separate kingdom, on the throne of which the emperor contemplated placing one of his own relatives, and Naples another, possibly under Lucien Murat; the pope, while retaining only the Patrimony of St Peter (the Roman province), would be president of the Italian confederation.
In exchange for French assistance Piedmont would cede Savoy and perhaps Nice to France; and a marriage between Victor Emmanuels daughter Clothilde and Jerome Bonaparte, to which Napoleon attached great importance, although not made a definite condition, was also discussed.
Austria agreed on condition that Piedmont should disarm and should not be admitted to the congress.
When war seemed imminent volunteers from all parts of Italy, especially from Lombardy, had come pouring into Piedmont to enrol themselves in the army or in the specially raised volunteer corps (the cornrnand of which was given to Garibaldi), and to go to Piedmont became a test of patriotism throughout the country.
At Vienna the war party was in the ascendant; the convention for disarmament had been signed, but so far from its being carried out, the reserves were actually called out on the 12th of April; and on the 23rd, before Cavours decision was known at Vienna, an Austrian ultimatum reached Turin, summoning Piedmont to disarm within three days on pain of invasion.
The duchessregent of Parma also withdrew to Austrian territory, and on the 11th of June annexation to Piedmont was proclaimed.
In January 1866 the Rattazzi ministry fell, after completing the fusion of Lombardy with Piedmont, and Cavour was again summoned by the king to the head of affairs.
But Garibaldi poured scorn on all suggestions of compromise; and Cavour saw that the situation could only be saved by the armed participation of Piedmont in the liberation of south Italy.
In the contest for liberty which began in 1796 and closed with annexation to Piedmont in 1859, Reggio took vigorous part.
In the centre were 8000 French infantry (the ancestors of the later Picardie and Piedmont regiments) under the seigneur de Molart, and 5000 Italian infantry.
For three hours the professional regiments of all sorts in the French lines rivalled one another in enduring the fire unmoved, the forerunners of the military systems of to-day, landsknechts, Picardie and Piedmont, showing the feudal gendarmerie that they too were men of honour.
He extended his influence by the subjugation of Marseilles in 1257, then one of the most important maritime cities of the world, and two years later several communes of Piedmont recognized Charles's suzerainty In 1262 Pope Urban IV.
He was now one of the most powerful sovereigns of Europe, for besides ruling over Provence and Anjou and the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, he was imperial vicar of Tuscany, lord of many cities of Lombardy and Piedmont, and as the pope's favourite practically arbiter of the papal states, especially during the interregnum between the death of Clement IV.
The " Fall Line," the boundary between the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont Plateau, has a very irregular course across North Carolina, but lies in a general S.W.
The Piedmont Plateau Region extends from this line to the Blue Ridge Escarpment, toward which its mean elevation increases at the rate of about 32 ft.
In the Mountain Region and in the Piedmont Plateau Region the rivers have numerous falls and rapids which afford a total water power unequalled perhaps in any other state than Maine on the Atlantic Coast, the largest being on the Yadkin, Roanoke and Catawba; and in crossing some of the mountains, especially the Unakas, the streams have carved deep narrow gorges that are much admired for their scenery.
In the Piedmont Plateau Region oaks, hickories and elms are the most common.
The species of fauna that are at all characteristic of this part of the United States are found in the Piedmont Plateau Region and the western portion of the Coastal Plain Region.
For the Coastal Plain Region it is 54 in.; for the Piedmont Plateau Region, 48 in.; and for the Mountain Region, 53 in.
Throughout much of the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions the decomposition of felspar and of other aluminous minerals has resulted in a deep soil of clay with which more or less sand is mixed.
Farmers of the Piedmont Plateau formerly kept large numbers of horses and cattle from April to November in ranges in the Mountain Region, but with the opening of portions of that country to cultivation the business of pasturage declined, except as the cotton plantations demanded an increased supply of mules; there were 25,259 mules in 1850, 110,011 in 1890, 138,786 in 1900, and 181,000 in 1910.
At the beginning of the 20th century a great number of minerals were found in the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions, but most of them in such small quantities as to be of little or no commercial value, and in 1902 the total value of the products of the mines and quarries was only $927,376; but in 1907 their value was $2,961,381, and in 1908, $2,145,947.
The cotton mills are mostly in the Piedmont Plateau Region; durham|Durham, Durham county, and Winston, Forsyth county, are leading centres of tobacco manufacture; and High Point (pop. in 1900, 4163) in Randolph is noted for its manufacture of furniture.
The news of the ratification of peace with Spain brought at once the thought that an offensive plan of campaign in Piedmont was thenceforth inevitable.
As for the neighbouring land, Piedmont, it was already French in all but name.
On the 21st of April 1801 he issued a decree which constituted Piedmont as a military district dependent on France; for various reasons he postponed the final act of incorporation to the 21st of September 1802.
In the middle ages it was a strong fortress defending the confines of Piedmont towards Liguria, but the fortifications on the rock above the town were demolished in 1800 by the French, to whom it had been ceded in 1796.
Planting may be done as late as April 15 in the Piedmont region of North Carolina, and continue as late as the end of May.
It may not begin until September ro in Piedmont, North Carolina.
These railway communications, and the situation of the city (on the Piedmont Plateau) on the water-parting between the streams flowing into the Atlantic Ocean and those flowing into the Gulf of Mexico, have given Atlanta its popular name, the "Gate City of the South."
In 1887 the Piedmont Exposition was held in Atlanta.
In 1858 the representatives of Austria, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Piedmont, Russia, the Holy See, Sweden, Tuscany and Turkey appropriated the sum of 400,000 francs in recognition of the use of his instruments in those countries.
Finally, Pinar del Rio is dominated by a prominent mountain range and by outlying piedmont hills and mesas.
By direction of Talleyrand, then minister for foreign affairs, the French commissary repaired in state to the old man's residence in Turin, to congratulate him on the merits of his son, whom they declared "to have done honour to mankind by his genius, and whom Piedmont was proud to have produced, and France to possess."
In 1859 Siena was the first Tuscan city that voted for annexation to Piedmont and the monarchy of Victor Emmanuel II., this decision (voted 26th June) being the initial step towards the unity of Italy.
Upon the restoration of the Bourbon government (May 15, 1849) he was excluded from the amnesty and compelled to flee to Piedmont.
Implicated in the Mazzinian conspiracy at Milan (February 6, 1853), he was expelled from Piedmont, and obliged to take refuge at Malta, whence he fled to Paris.
On the 15th of June 1859 he returned to Italy after publishing a letter repudiating the aggrandizement of Piedmont, and proclaiming himself a republican and a partisan of national unity.
During the war of 1848, after the expulsion of the Austrians from Venice, Cibrario was sent to that city with Colli to negotiate its union with Piedmont.
It was he who in 1853 dictated the vigorous memorandum of protest against the confiscation by Austria of the property of Lombard exiles who had been naturalized in Piedmont.
He conducted the business of the department with great skill, and ably seconded Cavour in bringing about the admission of Piedmont to the congress of Paris on an equal footing with the great powers.
His practice was not confined to his own country, but extended also to Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Switzerland, Piedmont and Egypt.
In the Alps it is profitably cultivated up to an altitude of 1870 ft., and in the north of Piedmont as high as 3180 ft.
He promoted good relations with France, then fighting with Piedmont against the Austrians in Lombardy, and strongly urged on the king the necessity of an alliance with Piedmont and a constitution as the only means whereby the dynasty might be saved.
At his death, however, France was in possession of Savoy and Piedmont.
The Piedmont, Lombardy, mainland of Venetia, Tuscany and the interior of Naples belonged to the Lombards.
In the meanwhile his son Oddone married Adelaide, eldest daughter and heiress of Odelrico Manfredi, marquess of Susa, a descendant of Arduino of Ivrea, king of Italy, who ruled over the counties of Turin, Auriate, Asti, Bredulo, Vercelli, &c., corresponding roughly to modern Piedmont and part of Liguria (1045).
Thomas II., after capturing several cities and castles in Piedmont, lost them again and was made prisoner by the citizens of Turin, but was afterwards liberated.
When Amadeus succeeded to the throne these were divided into the county of Savoy (his own territory), the princi pality of Piedmont ruled by his nephew Philip, prince of Achaea (a title acquired through his wife, Isabella of Villehardouin, heiress of Achaea and the Morea), and Vaud ruled by his brother Louis.
The French invaded Piedmont, but were totally defeated at the siege of Turin by Victor Amadeus and Prince Eugene of Savoy (1706), and eventually driven from the country.
By the treaty of Utrecht (1713) Victor received the long-coveted Montferrat and was made king of Sicily; but in 1718 the powers obliged him to exchange that kingdom for Sardinia, which conferred on the rulers of Savoy and Piedmont the title subsequently borne by them until they assumed that of kings of Italy.
By the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, following on the defeat of the French, Savoy gained some further accessions of territory in Piedmont.
The revolution in Milan and Vienna aroused a fever of patriotic enthusiasm in Tuscany, where war against Austria was demanded; Leopold, giving way to popular pressure, sent a force of regulars and volunteers to co-operate with Piedmont in the Lombard campaign.
When in 1859 France and Piedmont made war on Austria, Leopold's government failed to prevent numbers of young Tuscan volunteers from joining the Franco-Piedmontese forces.
The popular demands presented by Corsini were for the abdication of Leopold in favour of his son, an alliance with Piedmont and the reorganization of Tuscany in accordance with the eventual and definite reorganization of Italy.
The duke unwillingly complied, but when the French entered Piedmont and demanded the cession of the fortresses of Turin and Verrua, he refused, and while still professing to negotiate with Louis, joined the league of Austria, Spain and Venice.
But after a brief stay in the island he returned to Piedmont and left his new possessions to a viceroy, which caused much discontent among the Sicilians; and when the Quadruple Alliance decreed in 1718 that Sicily should be restored to Spain, Victor was unable to offer any opposition, and had to content himself with receiving Sardinia in exchange.
The peroration contains a noble appeal to the Italian liberator of his dreams, and a parallel from Macedonian history, which, read by the light of this century, sounds like a prophecy of Piedmont.
Returning to Italy on the outbreak of the revolution of 1848, he was appointed commander of a division of the pontifical forces, and fought against the Austrians in Venetia until the fall of Vicenza, when he returned to Piedmont as major-general.
When on the outbreak of the war of 1859 Francis V., duke of Modena, was expelled and a provisional government set up, Farini was sent as Piedmontese commissioner to that city; but although recalled after the peace of Villafranca he was determined on the annexation of central Italy to Piedmont and remained behind, becoming a Modenese citizen and dictator of the state.
Annexation to Piedmont having been voted by plebiscite and the opposition of Napoleon III.
His first task was to set his house in order; he reorganized the finances, created the army, and started Piedmont on a path which if not liberalism was at least progress.
After the battle he asked terms of Radetzky, who demanded the occupation by Austria of a large part of Piedmont and the heir to the throne as a hostage.
It penetrated Piedmont and Lombardy in 1041 and Normandy in 1042.
The Waldenses, under their more modern name of the Vaudois, have survived to the present day in the valleys of Piedmont, and have been regarded as at once the most ancient and the most evangelical of the medieval sects.
There, in the recesses of Piedmont, where the streams of the Pelice, the Angrogne, the Clusone and others cleave the sides of the Alps into valleys which converge at Susa, a settlement of the Waldensians was made who gave their name to these valleys of the Vaudois.
Attacked in Dauphine and Piedmont at the same time, the Vaudois were hard pressed; but luckily their enemies were encircled by a fog when marching upon their chief refuge in the valley of the Angrogne, and were repulsed with great loss.
After this Charles II., duke of Piedmont, interfered to save his territories from further confusion, and promised the Vaudois peace.
The most severe trial to which the Vaudois of Piedmont were subjected occurred in 1655.
Moreover, Dr Gilly's book (A Visit to the Valleys of Piedmont), chancing to fall into the hands of an officer who had lost his leg at Waterloo, Colonel Beckwith, suggested an object for the energies of one who was 10th at the age of twenty-six to sink into enforced idleness.
On the New York side of the Hudson the rocks are crystalline, the surface a region of low hills, a continuation of the crystalline area of Connecticut, and comparable with the Piedmont plateau of the Southern states.
Cathedral Park in the southern portion, Spearfish Canon in the north, and the extensive fossil forest at the foot of Mattie's Peak are noteworthy; while the Crystal Cave, near Piedmont, and the Wind Cave, near Hot Springs, are almost unrivalled.
Igneous intrusions consist only of unimportant dikes of trap. The most striking and uniformly characteristic geologic feature of the mountains is their internal structure, consisting of innumerable parallel, long and narrow folds, always closely appressed in the eastern part of any crosssection (Piedmont Plateau to Great Valley), less so along a central zone (Great Valley and Valley Ridges), and increasingly open on the west (Allegheny and Cumberland Plateaus).
The Fall Line, which forms the boundary between the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont Plateau, is a zone in which a descent of about 100 ft.
The part of Maryland within the Piedmont Plateau extends west from the Fall Line to the base of Catoctin Mountain, or the west border of Frederick county, and has an area of about 2500 sq.
The soils of the Piedmont Plateau east of Parr's Ridge are, like the underlying rocks, exceptionally variable in composition, texture and colour.
West of Parr's Ridge in the Piedmont, the principal soils are those the character of which is determined either by decomposed red sandstone or by decomposed limestone.
The Indian-corn, wheat and livestock sections of the state, are in the Piedmont Plateau, the Hagerstown Valley and the central portion of the East Shore.
Peaches and pears grow in large quantities in Kent and neighbouring counties on the East Shore and in Washington and Frederick counties; apples grow in abundance in all parts of the Piedmont Plateau.
The Maryland building stone, of which there is an abundance of good quality, consists chiefly of granites, limestones, slate, marble and sandstones, the greater part of which is quarried in the east section of the Piedmont Plateau especially in Cecil county, though some limestones, including those from which hydraulic cement is manufactured, and some sandstones are obtained from the western part of the Piedmont Plateau and the east section of the Appalachian region; the value of stone quarried in the state in 1907 was $1,439,355, of which $1,183,753 was the value of granite, $142,825 that of limestone, $98,918 that of marble, and $13,859 that of sandstone.
Materials for porcelain, including flint, feldspar and kaolin, abound in the east portion of the Piedmont, the kaolin chiefly in Cecil county, and material for mineral paint in Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, as well as farther north-west.
General Hunter, who replaced Sigel, won a combat at Piedmont, and marched on the 8th of June towards Lynchburg.
Between these extremes were the small farmers of the" Barrens" 2 in Kentucky and of the Piedmont Region in Virginia.
Threatened with imprisonment in his turn, he fled to Piedmont, where he obtained a university professorship and became preceptor of the crown prince Humbert.
In 1860 he prepared the legislative unification of Italy, opposed the idea of an alliance between Piedmont and Naples, and, after the fall of the Bourbons, was sent to Naples as administrator of justice, in which capacity he suppressed the religious orders, revoked the Concordat, proclaimed the right of the state to Church property, and unified civil and commercial jurisprudence.
But on the outbreak of the war between Piedmont and Austria in 1848 he hurried back to Italy, and although at first his services were rejected both by the Piedmontese government and the Lombard provisional government, he was afterwards given the command of a Lombard brigade.
In January 1860 Fanti became minister of war and marine under Cavour, and incorporated the League's army in that of Piedmont.
This subdivision is already necessary in Maryland, where the mountain belt is represented by the Blue Ridge, which is rather a narrow upland belt than a ridge proper where the Potomac cuts across it; while the piedmont belt, relieved by occasional monadnocks stretches from the eastern base of the Blue Ridge to the coastal plain, into which it merges.
The height and massiveness of the mountains decrease to the south-west, where the piedmont belt sweeps westward around them in western Georgia and eastern Alabama Some of the residual mountains hereabouts are reduced to a mere skeleton or framework by the retrogressive penetration of widening valleys between wasting spurs; the very type of vanishing forms, Certain districts within the mountains, apparently consisting of less resistant crystalline rocks, have been reduced to basin-like peneplains in the same time that served only to grade the slopes and subdue the summits of the neighboring mountains of more resistant rocks; the best example of this kind is the Asheville peneplain in North Carolina, measuring about 40 by 20 m.
The piedmont belt may be described as a maturely dissected peneplain over much of its extent; it is indeed one of the best examples of that class of forms. Its uplands are of fairly accordant altitude, which gradually decreases from 500 to 1000 ft.
The piedmont belt merges south-eastward into the coastal plain, the altitudes of the piedmont uplands and of the coastal plain hills being about the same along their line of junction.
Many of the rivers, elsewhere well graded, have rapids as they pass from the harder rocks of the piedmont to the semi-consolidated strata of the coastal plain.
Its inner border affords admirable examples of topographical discordance where it sweeps north-westward square across the trend of the piedmont belt, the ridges and valleys, and the plateau of the Appalachians, which are all terminated by dipping gently beneath the unconformable cover of the coastal The, lain strata.
The central section of the Great Plains, between latitudes 42 and 36, occupying eastern Colorado and western Kansas, is, briefly stated, for the most part a dissected fluviatile plain; that is, this section was once smoothly covered with a gently sloping plain of gravel and sand that had been spread far forward on a broad denuded area as a piedmont deposit by the rivers which issued from the mountains; and since then it has been more or less dissected by the erosion of valleys.
Along the eastern side of the Front Range in Colorado most of the upturned stratified formations have been so well worn down that, except for a few low piedmont ridges, their even surface may now be included with that of the plains, and the crystalline core of the range is exposed almost to the mountain base.
Some of the gravels then occurred as piedmont deposits along the western border of the old mountains; these gravels are now more or less dissected by new-cut valleys.
It appears in the cores of some of the western mountains, in some of the deep canyons of the west, as in the Grand Canyon of the Colorado in northern Arizona, and over considerable areas in northern Wiscpnsin and Minnesota, in New England and the piedmont plateau east of the Appalachian Mountains, and in a few other situations.
South-east of the Appalachian Valley region, the Piedmont Plateau also crosses the Alabama border from the N.E.
The Piedmont Plateau is a lowland worn down by erosion on hard crystalline rocks, then uplifted to form a plateau.
In the Appalachian Valley region the Coosa is the principal river; and in the Piedmont Plateau, the Tallapoosa.
The largest and southernmost, a broad belt extending from the " fall-line " to a line passing through Clarkesville, Habersham county, Cartersville, Bartow county and Buchanan, Haralson county (approximately), is known as the Piedmont Belt or Plateau, being a region of faint relief eroded on highly complicated crystalline rocks.
North of the Piedmont Belt lie the Appalachian Mountains Region and the Great Valley Region, the former to the east, the latter to the west of a dividing line from Cartersville northward.
The former region consists of detached mountain masses of crystalline rocks, not yet eroded down to the level of the Piedmont Belt.
All of these rise in the upper part of the Piedmont Plateau, through which they pursue a rapid course over rocky beds, and are navigable only south of the " fall-line," at which and north of which they furnish an abundance of water-power.
In the Piedmont Plateau and Appalachian Mountains Regions the surface soil is generally sandy, but in considerable areas the subsoil is a red clay derived largely from the decomposition of hornblende.
The museum of antiquities and the picture gallery, of which it has the custody, are both of high interest - the former for the local antiquities of Piedmont and Sardinia (notably from Industria) and for the Egyptian treasures collected by Donati and Drovetti, and the latter for its Van Dycks and pictures by north Italian masters.
Turin was always a place of importance and military strength, in spite of numerous vicissitudes, till at length it was made the chief town of Piedmont by Amadeus, first duke of Savoy.
The French were masters once more from 1640 to 1706, and again from 1798 till 181 4, when Piedmont was restored to the house of Savoy.
From Bosnia their influence extended into Italy (Piedmont).
The German politicians and the Prussian diplomatists accredited to Rome had worked too openly at undermining the papal hierarchy, and had veiled their sympathies for Piedmont far too lightly to lead the Vatican to expect, after the 10th of September 1870, a genuine and firm intervention on the part of Prussia on behalf of the temporal power of the Holy See.
And rightly; for he had always had a warm heart for Italy; and had it not been for the anti-ecclesiastical policy of the house of Piedmont, he would not, in the 'sixties, have been wholly averse from reconciliation.
The south-west part is a north-eastern prolongation of the Virginia Piedmont, is known as the Cumberland Prong, and extends N.N.E.
After the folding the whole region was worn down nearly to sea-level, forming a low plain which bevelled across the geological structure of the entire state, including the Piedmont area to the south-east and the plateau area to the north-west.
On the southern side the mountains extending from near Turin to near Trieste subside into the great plain of Piedmont, Lombardy and Venetia.
In 1349 the Dauphine fell to France, while in 1388 the county of Nice passed from Provence to the house of Savoy, which too held Piedmont as well as other lands on the Italian side of the Alps.
The folds run, in general, in the direction of the chain, and together they form an arc around the plain of Lombardy and Piedmont.
Finely crystallized specimens of pyrite are obtained from many other localities, especially from Cornwall, Elba and Traversella, near Ivrea, in Piedmont.
After spreading desolation through North Italy and striking terror into the citizens of Rome, Alaric was met by Stilicho at Pollentia (a Roman municipality in what is now Piedmont), and the battle which then followed on the 6th of April 402 (Easter-day) was a victory, though a costly one for Rome, and effectually barred the further progress of the barbarians.
Having been refused the command of the imperial troops in Piedmont, he tried in vain to negotiate a separate peace with France; but in 1556 France and Spain concluded a five years' truce, by which each was to retain what it then occupied.
At the time of the Reformation they had gone over to Protestantism, and during the wars of the 16th century the new religion made great progress in Piedmont.
The principal river of northern Italy is the Po, which rises to the west of Piedmont and is fed not from glaciers like the Swiss torrents, but by rain and snow, so that the water has a somewhat higher temperature, a point to which much importance is attached for the valuable meadow irrigation known as marcite.
Lombardy is quite as well off as Piedmont for the means of irrigation and, as already said, its canals have the advantage that being drawn from the lakes Maggiore and Como they exercise a moderating influence on the Ticino and Adda rivers, which is much wanted in the Dora Baltea.
The system is due to the ability of the great Count Cavour; what he originated in Piedmont has been also carried out in Lombardy.
In Italy the older title of king of Piedmont has been R absorbed in the newer kingdom of Italy; this is not the case in Germany, where the title German emperor iii.
Criminal statistics, though slowly diminishing, are still high - murders, which are the most frequent crimes, having been 27 per 100,000 inhabitants in1897-1898and 25'23 per 100,000 in 1903, as against 2.57 in Lombardy, 2.00 in the district of Venetia, 4.50 in Tuscany and 5.24 in Piedmont.
While this siege was in progress Alboin was also engaged in other parts of Italy, and at its close he was probably master of Lombardy, Piedmont and Tuscany, as well as of the regions which afterwards went by the name of the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento.
It was the apparent triumph of the principles of disorder in the revolutions of Naples and Piedmont, combined with increasingly disquieting symptoms of discontent in France, Germany and among his own people, that completed Alexander's conversion.
Upon the fall of Venice he fled to Piedmont, where he remained until, in 1859, he assumed the command of a Garibaldian regiment.
At first he favoured French policy in Italy, contributed to the annexation of Piedmont by France in 1799, and was an admirer of Napoleon; but he afterwards changed his views, realizing the necessity for the union of all Italians and for their freedom from foreign control.
After the separation of Piedmont from France in 1814 he retired into private life, but, fearing persecution at home, became a French citizen.
This was preceded, on the 10th of March, by the revolt of the garrison of Alessandria and the military revolution in Piedmont, which in its turn was suppressed, as a result of negotiations at Laibach, by Austrian troops.
In the same year he was elected president of the assembly of the Romagna after the rejection of pontifical rule by those provinces, and prepared their annexation to Piedmont.
When on the 18th of March Field Marshal Radetzky, feeling that the position of the Austrian garrison was untenable, sounded the rebels as to their terms, some of the leaders were inclined to agree to an armistice which would give time for the Piedmontese troops to arrive (Piedmont had just declared war), but Cattaneo insisted on the complete evacuation of Lombardy.
In 1860 Garibaldi summoned him to Naples to take part in the government of the Neapolitan provinces, but he would not agree to the union with Piedmont without local autonomy.
Among the most important are the Sacro Monte (1486) at Varallo in Piedmont, and those at Guimiliau (1581), Plougastel (1602), St Thegonnec (1610), and Pleyben near Quimper (1670), in Brittany, all in good preservation.
Its Gothic cathedral, founded in 1037 and reconstructed in 1405, is the largest in Piedmont, and has a 13th century octagonal baptistery.
He was given command of the Neapolitan army which was to co-operate with Piedmont against the Austrians, but when he reached Bologna the king, who had already changed his mind, recalled him and his troops.
Passing westward across the "fall-line," the next province is the Piedmont, a part of the extensive Piedmont Belt reaching from Pennsylvania to Alabama.
The Coastal Plain of Virginia is covered with pine forests which merge westward with the hard woods of the Piedmont Belt, where oaks formerly prevailed, but where a second growth of pine now constitutes part of the forest.
Many of these species spread into the Piedmont Belt.
In the Piedmont Province temperature conditions are naturally less stable, owing to the distance from the sea and to the greater inequality of surface topography.
The crystalline rocks of the Piedmont area are covered with residual soils of variable composition and moderate fertility.
Since 1880 there has been a rapid development in textile manufacture, for which the water power of the Piedmont region is used.
Among the best-known wines in Piedmont are the Barolos and the wines of Asti, which are made from a species of muscatel grapes.
He took part in the insurrection of 1848, though opposed to the fusion of Lombardy with Piedmont.
In 1848 Piacenza was the first of the towns of Lombardy to join Piedmont; but it was reoccupied by the Austrians till 1859.
On the outbreak of the revolution of 1821, of which he disapproved, although he was suspected of sympathizing with it, he was forced into exile; and though not long after he was allowed to return to Piedmont, all public service was denied him.
He was appointed a member of the commission on the electoral law, and became first constitutional prime-minister of Piedmont, but only held office a few months.
The next six years he passed at the castle of Vico Nuovo, in Piedmont, as a guest of the family of La Rovere, at first dividing his time between military expeditions in the summer, and study, chiefly of medicine and natural history, in the winter, until a severe attack of rheumatic gout brought his military career to a close.
As Tuscan minister of the interior in 1859 he promoted the union of Tuscany with Piedmont, which took place on4the 12th of March 1860.
But in 1539 he entered the service of Guillaume du Bellay-Langey, elder brother of Jean, and would appear to have been with him (he was governor of Piedmont) till his death on 9th January 1543.
It consists of an upland plateau now dissected by streams into a series of hills and ridges, and corresponds to the Piedmont Belt farther to the S.W.
Granite is found in Morris and Sussex counties, but is not extensively quarried; there are extensive quarries of sandstone in the Piedmont section; and limestone and trap rock are important mineral resources.
These mountains are still the chief source of copper, but the ores, chiefly cuprite, malachite and chrysocolla, are also found in various parts of the Piedmont region.
Austria, weakened by the revolution, sent an envoy to London to request the mediation of England, based on a large cession of Italian territory; Lord Palmerston rejected the terms he might have obtained for Piedmont.
Other glaciers are of the Piedmont type.
Meantime the Swiss left attack had closed with the French infantry bands and the "aventuriers" (afterwards the famous corps of Picardie and Piedmont), who were commanded on this day be the famous engineer Pedro Navarro.
After spending three years at Rome, he was sent to the Jesuit settlement at Mondovi in Piedmont, where he studied and at the same time taught Greek, and, though not yet in orders, gained some reputation as a preacher.
Vendome at first opposed great obstacles to the plan which the prince had formed for carrying succours into Piedmont; but after a variety of marches and counter-marches, in which both commanders displayed signal ability, the two armies met at Cassano (August 16, 1705), where a deadly engagement ensued, and Prince Eugene received two severe wounds which forced him to quit the field.
This accident decided the fate of the battle and for the time suspended the prince's march towards Piedmont.
The city is situated in the Piedmont region near the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains.
The French emperor had ultimately to yield to the determination of the inhabitants of central Italy, when it was backed by the arguments of the British foreign office, and Tuscany, Modena, Parma, as well as a portion of the states of the Church, were united to Piedmont.
But, when he found himself unable to resist the annexation of central Italy to Piedmont, he reverted to the old arrangement.
He declined to intervene in the affairs of Italy by confining the great liberator to Sicily; he protested against the presence of the French fleet at Gaeta; and when other foreign nations denounced the conduct of Piedmont, he defended it by quoting Vattel and citing the example of William III.
On the north and north-east lie the broad plains of Piedmont and Lombardy, traversed by the Po, the chief tributaries of which from the Ligurian Apennines are the Scrivia (Olubria), Trebbia (Trebia) and Taro (Taros).
Cumberland is served by the Baltimore & Ohio, the Western Maryland, the Pennsylvania, the Cumberland & Pennsylvania (from Cumberland to Piedmont, Virginia), and the George's Creek & Cumberland railways, the last a short line extending to Lonaconing (19 m.); by an electric line extending to Western Port, Maryland; and by the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, of which it is a terminus.
Coveting the treasures of Bern, they sent Brune to invade Switzerland and remodel its constitution; in revenge for the murder of General Duphot, they sent Berthier to invade the papal states and erect the Roman Republic; they occupied and virtually annexed Piedmont.
The oldest, the Astesana, from Asti in Piedmont, is arranged as a kind of text-book of morality on a scholastic basis; later manuals are merely lists of questions and answers.
South Carolina is mainly in the Coastal Plain, and Piedmont Plateau regions, but in the north-west it extends slightly into the Appalachian Mountain region.
Locally the Coastal Plain region is known as the low country, and the Piedmont Plateau and Appalachian Mountain regions are known as the up-country.
This line, at which the south-east flowing rivers fall from higher levels in the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont Plateau down to somewhat lower levels in the softer rocks of the Coastal Plain, passes in a general south-west direction from the North Carolina border north-east of Cheraw through Camden and Columbia to the Savannah river opposite Augusta, Georgia.
The Piedmont Plateau region, rising gradually from an elevation of about 500 ft.
In the Piedmont Plateau region the current of the rivers is usually swift, and not infrequently there are falls or rapids; but in the Coastal Plain region the current becomes sluggish, and in times of high water the rivers spread over wide areas.
In general the soils of the Piedmont Plateau region are such as have been formed by the disintegration of the underlying rocks.
On the more level areas of the Piedmont Plateau the granitic soil is a grey mixture of sand and clay, but on the hillsides of the river basins it is a heavy clay of reddish colour, the sand having been washed down to form the soils of the Coastal Plain.
In all sections of the Piedmont Plateau the subsoil is a reddish or yellowish clay.
The Austrians evacuated Venice on the 26th of March, and Manin became president of the Venetian republic. He was already in favour of Italian unity, and though not anxious for annexation to Piedmont (he would have preferred to invoke French aid), he gave way to the will of the majority, and resigned his powers to the Piedmontese commissioners on the 7th of August.
This must be remembered in considering nearly all his writings, and also in estimating his position, both in relation to the ruling clerical party - the Jesuits - and also to the politics of the court of Piedmont after the accession of Charles Albert in 1831.
The treaty of Cateau-Cambrsis (August 1559) finally put an end to the Italian follies, Naples, Milan and Piedmont; but it also lost Savoy, making a gap in the frontier for a century.
Turin, the capital of Piedmont, was taken by Henri de Lorraine, comte dHarcourt; the alliance with rebellious portugal facilitated the occupation of Roussillon and almost the whole of Catalonia, and Spain was reduced to defending herself; while the embarrassments of the Habsburgs at Madrid made those of Vienna more tractable.
The French armies, notwithstanding the disappearance of Cond and Turenne, had still glorious days before them with Luxembourg at Fleurus, at Steenkirk and at Neerwinden (1690*1693), and with Catinat in Piedmont, at Staffarda, and at Marsaglia; but these successes alternated with reverses.
The peace of Amiens, which cost him Egypt, could only seem to him a temporary truce; whilst he was gradually extending his authority in Italy, the cradle of his race, by the union of Piedmont, and by his tentative plans regarding Genoa, Parma, Tuscany and Naples.
When in 1859 a second war between Piedmont and Austria became imminent, the revolutionary agitation, never completely quelled, broke out once more.
Formerly the ibex was common on the mountain-ranges of Germany, Switzerland and Tirol, but is now confined to the Alps which separate Valais from Piedmont, and to the lofty peaks of Savoy, where its existence is mainly due to game-laws.
He found Napoleon willing to aid Prussia as he had aided Piedmont, and was ready to accept his assistance.
A similar movement broke out in Piedmont in March 1821.
Cromwell's envoy, Sir Samuel Morland (1625-1695), had brought back from Piedmont MSS.
Having added largely to his patrimonial possessions he became very powerful, and in 1416 the German king Sigismund erected Savoy into a duchy; after this elevation Amadeus added Piedmont to his dominions.
He induced Nicholas, however, to appoint him as apostolic vicar-general in Savoy, Piedmont and other parts of his own dominions, and to make him a cardinal.
After the time of Charlemagne a marquisate of Susa was established; and the town became in the 11th century the capital of Adelaide countess of Savoy, who was mistress of the whole of Piedmont.
After the fall of Rome he fled to Piedmont, where he organized the expedition to Sapri in 1857, but shortly after his arrival there he was defeated and severely wounded by the Bourbon troops.
When the Crimean War broke out, the king strongly supported Cavour in the proposal that Piedmont should join France and England against Russia so as to secure a place in the councils of the great Powers and establish a claim on them for eventual assistance in Italian affairs (1854).
Victor Emmanuel's object now was the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy and the expansion of Piedmont into a North Italian kingdom, but he did not regard the idea of Italian unity as coming within the sphere of practical politics for the time being, although a movement to that end was already beginning to gain ground.
Cavour resigned office, and by the peace of Zurich (loth of November 1859) Austria ceded Lombardy to Piedmont but retained Venetia; the central Italian princes who had been deposed by the revolution were to be reinstated, and Italy formed into a confederation of independent states.
As a result of the events of 1859-60, those provinces were all annexed to Piedmont, and when Garibaldi decided on the Sicilian expedition Victor Emmanuel assisted him in various ways.
The whole peninsula, except Rome and Venice, was now annexed to Piedmont, and on the 18th of February 1861 the parliament proclaimed Victor Emmanuel king of united Italy.
The Roman question yet remained unsolved, for Napoleon, although he had assisted Piedmont in 1859 and had reluctantly consented to the annexation of the central and southern provinces, and of part of the Papal States, would not permit Rome to be occupied, and maintained a French garrison there to protect the pope.
He was a keen sportsman and would spend many days at a time pursuing chamois or steinbock in the Alpine fastnesses of Piedmont with nothing but bread and cheese to eat.
He always used the dialect of Piedmont when conversing with natives of that country, and he had a vast fund of humorous anecdotes and proverbs with which to illustrate his arguments.
The height of the plant varies greatly with season, soil and manuring; in some districts it varies from 3 to 8 ft., but in the Piedmont province it is not unusual to see them from 8 to 16 ft.
The very finest hemp, that grown in the province of Piedmont, Italy, is, however, very similar to flax, and in many cases the two fibres are mixed in the same material.
Anita died near Comacchio, and he himself fled across the peninsula, being assisted by all classes of the people, to Tuscany, whence he escaped to Piedmont and ultimately to America.
When Guillaume du Bellay went to Piedmont, Jean was put in charge of the negotiations with the German Protestants, principally through the humanist Johann Sturm and the historian Johann Sleidan.
This third visit to the great city lasted from the autumn of 1618 to that of 1619; the direct object of it was to assist in negotiating the marriage of the prince of Piedmont with Chretienne of France, but nearly all his time was spent in preaching and works of mercy, spiritual or corporal.
In 17 9 7 Perugia was occupied by the French; in 1832, 1838 and 18s4 it was visited by earthquakes; in May 1849 it was seized by the Austrians; and, after a futile insurrection in 1859, it was finally united, along with the rest of Umbria, to Piedmont, in 1860.
Birth and marriage rates vary considerably, being highest in the centre and south (Umbnia, the Marches, Apulia, Abruzzi and Molise, and Calabria) and lowest in the north (Piedmont, Liguria and Venetia), and in Sardinia.
The death-rate is highest in Apulia, in the Abruzzi and Molise, and in Sardinia, and lowest in the north, especially in Venetia and Piedmont.
The districts of Italy which show between 1881 and 1903 the greatest increase of new institutions, or of gifts to old ones, are Lombardy, Piedmont, Liguria, while Sardinia, Calabria and Basilicata stand lowest, Latium standing comparatively low.
In Genoa the government was particularly unpopular, for the Genoese resented being handed over to their old enemy Piedmont like a flock of sheep. Nevertheless the king strongly disliked the Austrians, and would willingly have seen them driven from Italy.
Charles Albert felt a certain interest in Liberal ideas and was always surrounded by young nobles of Carbonarist and anti-Austrian tendencies, and was therefore regarded with suspicion by his royal relatives, Metter nich, too, had an instinctive dislike for him, and proposed to exclude him from the succession by marrying one of the kings daughters to Francis of Modena, and getting the Salic law abolished so that the succession would pass to the duke and Austria would thus dominate Piedmont.
The Liberal movement had gained ground in Piedmont as in Naples among the younger nobles and officers, and the events of Spain and southern Italy aroused much excitement.
He upheld the papacy in principle, regarded Austria as the great enemy of Italian regeneration, and believed that the means of expelling her were only to be found in Piedmont.
The king, who had sought death in vain all day, had to ask terms of Radetzky; the latter demanded Accession a slice of Piedmont and the heir to the throne (Victor of Victor Emmanuel) as a hostage, without a reservation for Emmanuel the consent of parliament.
But the young king was determined to abide by his fathers oath, and had therefore to agree to an Austrian occupation of the territory between the P0, the Ticino and, the Sesia, and of half the citadel of Alessandria, until peace should be concluded, the evacuation of all districts occupied by his troops outside Piedmont, the dissolution of his corps of Lombard, Polish and Hungarian volunteers and the withdrawal of his fleet from the Adriatic.
In spite of the fact that he was pursued by the armies of four Powers, he succeeded in reaching San Marino; but his force melted away and, after hiding in the marshes of Ravenna, he fled across the peninsula, assisted by nobles, peasants and priests, to the Tuscan coast, whence he reached Piedmont and eventually America, to await a new call to fight for Italy (see GARIBALDI).
Cavours ideal for the present was the expulsion of Austria from Italy and the expansion of Piedmont into a north Italian kingdom; and, although he did not yet think of Italian unity as a question of practical policy, he began to foresee it as a future possibility.
Lord Malmesbury urged the Sardinian government to yield; but Cavour refused to disarm, or to accept the principle of a congress, unless Piedmont were admitted to it on equal terms with the other Powers.
On the 11th the two emperors met at Villafranca, where they agreed that Lombardy should be ceded to Piedmont, and Venetia retained by Austria but governed by Liberal methods; that the rulers of Tuscany, Parma and Modena, who had been again deposed, should be restored, the Papal States reformed, the Legations given a separate administration and the pope made president of an Italian confederation including Austria as mistress of Venetia.
Farini, who in August was elected dictator of Parma as well as Modena, and Ricasoli, who since, on the withdrawal of the Sardinian commissioner Boncompagni, had become supreme in Tuscany, were now the men who by their energy and determination achieved the annexation of central Italy to Piedmont, in spite of the strenuous opposition of the French emperor and the weakness of many Italian Liberals.
La Farina was accordingly sent to Palermo to urge the immediate annexation of Sicily to Piedmont.
But Garibaldi, who wished to keep a free hand, distrusted Cavour and scorned all counsels of expediency, refused to agree; Sicily was the necessary base for his projected invasion of Naples; it would be time enough to announce its union with Piedmont when Victor Emmanuel had been proclaimed king of United Italy in Rome.
On the annexation of Piedmont to France in 1796, a touching compliment was paid to him in the person of his aged father.
The 16th century boasts the names of Bernardino Fungai, Guidoccio Cossarelli, Giacomo Pacchiarotto, Girolamo del Pacchia and especially Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1537), who while especially celebrated for his frescoes and studies in perspective and chiaroscuro was also an architect of considerable attainments (see Rome); Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, otherwise known as 11 Sodoma (1477-1549), who, born at Vercelli in Piedmont, and trained at Milan in the school of Leonardo da Vinci, came to Siena in 1504 and there produced some of his finest works, while his influence on the art of the place was considerable; Domenico Beccafumi, otherwise known as Micharino (1486-1550), noted for the Michelangelesque daring of his designs; and Francesco Vanni.
He induced both France and Spain to evacuate the fortresses which they still held in Piedmont, made a profitable exchange of territory with the Bernese, and acquired an extension of seaboard by the purchase of Tenda and Oneglia (see Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy).
On re-entering Milan Charles Albert was badly received and reviled as a traitor by the Republicans, and although he declared himself ready to die defending the city the municipality treated with Radetzky for a capitulation; the mob, urged on by the demagogues, made a savage demonstration against him at the Palazzo Greppi, whence he escaped in the night with difficulty and returned to Piedmont with his defeated armp. The French Republic offered to intervene in the spring of 1848, but Charles Albert did not desire foreign aid, the more so as in this case it would have had to be paid for by the cession of Nice and Savoy.
Amadeus did homage, in 1405, to the bishop for those of the newly acquired lands which he held from the bishop. But, after his power had been strengthened by his elevation (1417) by the emperor to the rank of a duke, and by his succession to the principality of Piedmont (1418, long held by a cadet branch of his house), Amadeus tried to purchase Geneva from its bishop, John of Pierre-Seise or Rochetaillee (1418-1422).
It is marked off from the Piedmont Plateau by a " Fall Line " extending from Washington (D.C.) north-east through Baltimore to a point a little south of the north-east corner of the state, and is divided by the Chesapeake Bay into two parts known as the East Shore and the West Shore.
Victor Emmanuel repaired to Radetzky's camp, where he was received with every sign of respect, and the field-marshal offered not only to waive the claim that Austria should occupy a part of Piedmont, but to give him an extension of territory, provided he revoked the constitution and substituted the old blue Piedmontese flag for the Italian tricolour, which savoured too much of revolution.
Located in the Piedmont area of North Carolina, the Burlington Outlet Village is within reasonable driving distance from the state's major cities like Greensboro, Raleigh, Durham and Winston-Salem.
The Piedmont is home to major cities Raleigh, Durham, Greensboro, and Fayetteville.
Along with Chianti, Italian winemakers produce red and white wines throughout the country, with major wine regions in Piedmont, Tuscany, Lombardy, Umbria, Vento, Emilia Romagna, and Alto-Adige.
Another wine from the Piedmont region, Barbera (pronounced bar-BEAR-a) wines from the Barbera grape are one of Italy's most popular winemaking grapes.
For Piedmont, completed in 1836 and 1841; was suppressed, like all other Italian concordats, by the formation of the kingdom of Italy.
For the Two Sicilies, completed in 1834; lasted until the invasion of the kingdom of Naples by Piedmont.
The hills of Tuscany, and of Monferrato in Piedmont, produce the most celebrated Italian vintages.
A certain amount of linseed-oil is made in Lombardy, Sicily, Apulia and Calabria; colza in Piedmont, Lombardy, Venetia and Emilia; and castor-oil in Venetia and Sicily.
Silkworm-rearinr establishments of importance now exist in the Marches, Umbria, in the Abruzzi, Tuscany, Piedmont and Venetia.
The chief silk-producing provinces arc Lombardy, Venetia and Piedmont.
At Saluzzo in Piedmont there is a stock with hanging ears, arched face and tall stature, kept for its dairy qualities; and in the Biellese the merino breed is maintained by some of the larger proprietors.
Peasant proprietorship is most common in Lombardy and Piedmont, but it is also found elsewhere.
The industry centres chiefly in Piedmont (province of Novara), Venetia (province of Vicenza), Tuscany (Florence), Lombardy (Brescia), Campania (Caserta), Genoa, Umbria, the Marches and Rome.
In 1902-1903 there were 219 match factories scattered throughout Italy, but especially in Piedmont, Lombardy and Venetia.
The beetroot-sugar industry has attained considerable proportions in Umbria, the Marches, Lazio, Venetia and Piedmont since 1890.
Furniture and cabinet-making in great factories are carried on particularly in Lombardy and Piedmont.
The greatest proportion of strikes takes place in northern Italy, especially Lombardy and Piedmont, where manufacturing industries are most developed.
Distributive co-operation is confined almost entirely to Piedmont, Liguria, Lombardy, Venetia, Emilia and Tuscany, and is practically unknown in Basilicata, the Abruzzi and Sardinia.
Lombardy and Piedmont are much better provided with railways in proportion to their area than any other parts of Italy; next come Venetia, Emilia and the immediate environs of Naples.
These lines exist principally in Lombardy (especially in the province of Milan), in Piedmont, especially in the province of Turin, and in other regions of northern and central Italy.
The kings uncle is duke of Aosta, his son is prince of Piedmont and his cousin is duke of Genoa.
The ratio of local electors to population is in Piedmont 79%, but in Sicily less than.
He retired to the island of Sardinia, while the French despoiled Piedmont, thereby adding fuel to the resentment rapidly growing against them in every part of Europe.
Venice; but on the 7th of July the assembly declared in favor of fusion with Piedmont, and Manin, who had been elected president resigned his powers to the royal com- Danicle Mania and missioners.
In Piedmont the Pinelli-Revel ministry, which had continued the negotiations for an alliance with Leopold and the pope, resigned as it could not count on a parliamentary majority, and in December the returned exile Gioberti formed a new ministry.
His proposal to reinstate Leopold and the pope with Piedmontese arms, so as to avoid Austrian intervention, was rejected by both potentates, and met with opposition even in Piedmont, which would thereby have forfeited its prestige throughout Italy.
When the terms of the Austro-Piedmontese armistice were announced in the Chamber at Turin they aroused great indignation, but the king succeeded in convincing the deputies Piedmont that they were inevitable.
Radetzky, not satisfied with this, laid an embargo on the property of many Lombard emigrants who had settled in Piedmont and become naturalized, accusing them of complicity.
One section of public opinion desired to make Piedmonts co-operation subject to definite promises by the Powers; but the latter refused to bind, themselves, and both Victor Emmanuel and Cavour realized that, even without such promises, participation would give Piedmont a claim.
The Corniche road was improved; and public works in various parts of Piedmont, and the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics attested the foresight and wisdom of the great organizer of industry and quickener of human energies.
Piedmont was shown to possess the qualities necessary to constitute the nucleus of a great nation.