Picea Sentence Examples
In the spruce firs (Picea), the cones are pendent when mature and their scales persistent; the leaves are arranged all round the shoots, though the lower ones are sometimes directed laterally.
The most important of the firs, in an economic sense, is the Norway spruce (Picea excelsa), so well known in British plantations, though rarely attaining there the gigantic height and grandeur of form it often displays in its native woods.
The Norway spruce seems to have been the "Picea" of Pliny, but is evidently often confused by the Latin writers with their "Abies," the Abies pectinate of modern botanists.
The black spruce (Picea nigra) is a tree of more formal growth than the preceding.
The white spruce (Picea alba), sometimes met with in English plantations, is a tree of lighter growth than the black spruce, the branches being more widely apart; the foliage is of a light glaucous green; the small light-brown cones are more slender and tapering than in P. nigra, and the scales have even edges.Advertisement
The wood is inferior to that of Picea excelsa, but, being soft and easily worked, is largely employed in the countries to which it is indigenous for all the purposes of carpentry.
Burgundy pitch is also prepared from it by a similar process as that from Picea excelsa.
The fir appears in the Siberian varieties Picea obovata and P. ayanensis.
Forests of conifers (Picea obovata) and deciduous trees - Przhevalsky's poplar, birch, mountain ash, &c., and a variety of bushes - are common everywhere.
Picea obovata is cultivated.Advertisement
The species of timber almost exclusively planted are the red fir (Picea excelsa) and the mountain pine (Pinus montana).
Of the Coniferae, Podocarpus and Pinus longifolia alone descend to the tropical zone; Abies Brunoniana and Smithiana and the larch (a genus not seen in the western mountains) are found at 8000, and the yew and Picea Webbiana at 10,000 ft.
In the less exposed localities, on northern slopes and sheltered valleys, the European forms become more numerous, and we find species of alder, birch, ash, elm, maple, holly, hornbeam, Pyrus, &c. At greater elevations in the interior, besides the above are met Corylus, the common walnut, found wild throughout the range, horse chestnut, yew, also Picea Webbiana, Pinus, excelsa, Abies Smithiana, Cedrus Deodara (which tree does not grow spontaneously east of Kumaon), and several junipers.
Tree vegetation, which reaches up as high as 6500 and 8150 ft., the latter limit on the north and west, consists of magnificent forests of birch, poplar, aspen, and Coniferae, such as Pinus cembra, Abies sibirica, Larix sibirica, Picea obovata, and so on, though the fir is not found above 2500 ft., while the meadows are abundantly clothed with brightlycoloured, typical assortments of herbaceous plants.
A pine needle grown iji continuous light differs from one grown under ordinary conditions in the absence of hypodermal fibres, in the absence of the characteristic infoldings of the mesophyll cell-walls, in the smaller size of the resin-canals, &c. The endodermis in Pinus, Picea and many other genera is usually a well-defined layer of cells enclosing the vascular bundles, and separated from them by a tissue consisting in part of ordinary parenchyma and to some extent of isodiametric tracheids; but this tissue, usually spoken of as the pericycle, is in direct continuity with other stem-tissues as well as the pericycle.Advertisement
It has been suggested that transfusion-tracheids represent, in part at least, the centripetal xylem, which forms a distinctive feature of cycadean leaf-bundles; these short tracheids form conspicuous groups laterally attached to the veins in Cunninghamia, abundantly represented in a similar position in the leaves of Sequoia, and scattered through the so-called pericycle in Pinus, Picea, &c. It is of interest to note the occurrence of precisely similar elements in the mesophyll of Lepidodendron leaves.
In northern Europe this belt is characterized by such species as Picea excelsa (spruce), which extends south to the mountains of the Mediterranean region; Pinus sylvestris (Scottish fir), reaching from the far north to western Spain, Persia and Asia Minor; Juniperus communis, &c. In north Siberia Pinus Cembra (Cembra or Arolla Pine) has a wide range; also Abies sibirica (Siberian silver fir), Larix sibirica and Juniperus Sabina (savin).
In the North American area Picea alba, P. nigra, Larix americana, Abies balsamea (balsam fir), Thuja canadensis (hemlock spruce), Pinus Strobus (Weymouth pine), Thuja occidentalis (white cedar), Taxus canadensis are characteristic species.
In addition to the foliage-leaves several genera also possess scale-leaves of various kinds, represented by budscales in Pinus, Picea, &c., which frequently persist for a time at the base of a young shoot which has pushed its way through the yielding cap of protecting scales, while in some conifers the bud-scales adhere together, and after being torn near the base are carried up by the growing axis as a thin brown cap. The cypresses, araucarias and some other genera have no true bud-scales; in some species, e.g.
Farther east and north comes the Turkestan pine (Picea Schrenkiana), while at lower levels there grow willows, black and white poplars, tamarisk, Celtis, as well as Elaeagnus (wild olive), Hippophae rhamnoides (sallow thorn), Rubus fructicosus (blackberry), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn) and P. A rmeniaca (apricot).Advertisement
Spruce Fir (Picea) - Usually stately evergreen cone-bearing trees of the northern world and mountains, including among them the common Norway Spruce and the Douglas Fir, usually doing best in moist valley soils.
Picea Ajanensis - The finest of the Japanese Spruces, distinguished from all others by the bluish silver tint of the young branches on the undersides, but which are upturned so that the whole tree has a silvery appearance.
Douglas Fir (Picea Douglasi) - Among the noblest trees of the west American forests, this is one of the best trees ever introduced, both for ornament and timber.
Picea Sitchensis - In places where this Spruce thrives it is a very beautiful tree, because of the bluish silvery-grey tone of its needle-like leaves.
Picea Pungens - An American Spruce most valuable for this country, hardy, standing exposure in high places better than any other.Advertisement