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physiological

physiological

physiological Sentence Examples

  • It is sometimes said that lime acts as a poison on some plants and not on others, and sometimes that it is the physiological dryness of calcareous soils that is the important factor.

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  • Whether it was physiological or psychological didn't matter at this point.

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  • Notwithstanding the fact, however, that these cells are capable of acting as very efficient lenses the explanation given by Haberlandt has not been widely accepted and evidence both morphological and physiological has been brought forward against it.

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  • Examples of physiological hypertrophy are found in the ovaries, uterus and mammary glands, where there is an increased functional activity required at the period of gestation.

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  • - p elagic floating Hydrozoa with great differentiation of parts, each performing a special function; generally regarded as colonies showing differentiation of individuals in correspondence with a physiological division of labour.

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  • All soils which are physically dry are also physiologically dry; and hence only the physiological dryness or wetness of soils need be considered in ecology.

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  • It may be, however, that there is no special mechanism, but that this power is a particular differentiation of a physiological kind, existing in all vegetable protoplasm, or in that of certain cells.

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  • With regard to the occurrence of plants, such as Juncus effusus, which possess xerophytic characters and yet live in situations which are not ordinarily of marked physiological dryness, it should be remembered that such habitats are liable to occasional physical drought; and a plant must eventually succumb if it is not adapted to the extreme conditions of its habitat.

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  • (From Lankester, "Limulus an Arachnid.) of adaptation to the changed physiological conditions of respiration, and not of morphological significance, since a pair of renal excretory tubes of this nature is found in certain Amphipod Crustacea (Talorchestia, &c.) which have abandoned a purely aquatic life.

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  • An absolutely imperceptible physiological difference arising as a variation may be of selective value, and it may carry with it correlated variations which appeal to the human eye but are of no selective value themselves.

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  • by Fisher, Plant Geography upon a Physiological Basis (Oxford, 1903f 904).

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  • Anatomy and the study of animal mechanism, animal physics and animal chemistry, all of which form part of a true zoology, were excluded from the usual definition of the word by the mere accident that the zoologist had his museum but not his garden of living specimens as the botanist had; 1 and, whilst the zoologist was thus deprived of the means of anatomical and physiological study - only later supplied by the method of preserving animal bodies in alcohol - the demands of medicine for a knowledge of the structure of the human animal brought into existence a separate and special study of human anatomy and physiology.

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  • Anatomy and the study of animal mechanism, animal physics and animal chemistry, all of which form part of a true zoology, were excluded from the usual definition of the word by the mere accident that the zoologist had his museum but not his garden of living specimens as the botanist had; 1 and, whilst the zoologist was thus deprived of the means of anatomical and physiological study - only later supplied by the method of preserving animal bodies in alcohol - the demands of medicine for a knowledge of the structure of the human animal brought into existence a separate and special study of human anatomy and physiology.

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  • Upon our knowledge of its minute structure or cytology, combined with a study of its physiological activities, depends the ultimate solution of all the important problems of nutrition.

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  • Evolution, or development, is, in fact, at present employed in biology as a general name for the history of the steps by which any living being has acquired the morphological and the physiological characters which distinguish it.

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  • Evolution, or development, is, in fact, at present employed in biology as a general name for the history of the steps by which any living being has acquired the morphological and the physiological characters which distinguish it.

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  • In 1900 a high school for shipbuilding was founded, and in 1901 an institute for seamen's and tropical diseases, with a laboratory for their physiological study, was opened, and also the first public free library in the city.

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  • The treatment is to empty the stomach by tube or by a non-depressant emetic. The physiological antidotes are atropine and digitalin or strophanthin, which should be injected subcutaneously in maximal doses.

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  • He had already acquired a considerable reputation in physiological research.

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  • Morphologically, the spiders are remarkable for the concentration and specialization of their structure, which is accompanied with high physiological efficiency.

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  • This physiological wasting is termed senile atrophy.

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  • Many other points of physiological optics are touched on, in general erroneously.

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  • Schimperl made a distinct advance when he distinguished between physical and physiological dryness or wetness of the soil.

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  • He retired to Darmstadt, where he practised as a physician and contributed regularly to pathological and physiological magazines.

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  • Yet the idea of a " physiological " arrangement on the same kind of principle found another follower, or, as he thought, inventor, in Edward Newman, who in 1850 communicated N ewman.

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  • Colour and Constitution.-In this article a summary of the theories which have been promoted in order to connect the colour of organic compounds with their constitution will be given, and the reader is referred to the article Colour for the physical explanation of this property, and to Vision for the physiological and psychological bearings.

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  • It is sometimes maintained, for example, by Schimper, that their xerophytic characters are related to the physiological dryness of the habitat: this, however, is denied by others who maintain (Clements, 1905: 127) that the xerophytism is due to the persistence of ancestral structures.

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  • Ludwig, under whom he studied at Zurich, decided him to devote his attention to physiological chemistry, and therefore he went, after his graduation (18J4), to Heidelberg, where R.

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  • However, until more is known of the exact chemical composition of naturalas contrasted with agriculturalsoils, and until more is known of the physiological effects of lime, it is impossible to decide the vexed question of the relation of limeloving and lime-shunning plants to the presence or absence of calcium carbonate in the soil.

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  • In Scorpio the completion of the horizontal plate by oblique flaps, so as to form an actual diaphragm shutting off the cavity of the prosoma from the rest of the body, possibly gives to the organs contained in the anterior chamber a physiological advantage in respect of the supply of arterial blood and its separation from the venous blood of the mesosoma.

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  • William of Conches, a pupil of Bernard's, devoting himself to psychological and physiological questions, was of less importance for the specific logico-metaphysical problem.

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  • Their physiological activities gradually fail owing to the constructive processes having become so exhausted from long use that the destructive ones are able to overtake them.

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  • William of Conches, a pupil of Bernard's, devoting himself to psychological and physiological questions, was of less importance for the specific logico-metaphysical problem.

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  • Everything you saw, that your eyeballs tracked to, how long you looked at it—and not just everything you ever looked at, but your physiological response.

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  • of the precise anatomical, not to say the physiological, knowledge which appears to be displayed by the insect in stinging only the nerve-centres of its prey.

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  • The discovery of a single fossil creature in a geological stratum of a wrong period, the detection of a single anatomical or physiological fact irreconcilable with origin by descent with modification, would have been destructive of the theory and would have made the reputation of the observer.

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  • The differentiation of the plants substance so indicated is, however, physiological only; there is no histological difference between the cells of these regions that can be associated with the several properties they possess.

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  • Evolution means the gradual development of highly organized from lowly organized forms; that is, of forms in which the physiological division of labor is more complete, from those in which it is less complete; of forms possessing a variety of organs, from forms possessing but few.

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  • The investigation of these may raise and solve interesting physiological problems, but throw no light on the facts and genetic relationship which a rational explanation of distribution requires.

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  • From the point of view of the economy of the globe this classification by species is perhaps less important than that by mode of life and physiological character in accordance with environment.

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  • This method, which in process of time was dignified by the title of a Physiological Arrangement, was insisted upon with more or less pertinacity by the author throughout a long series of publications, some of them separate books, some of them contributed to the memoirs issued by many scientific bodies of various European countries, ceasing only at his death, which in July 1857 found him occupied upon a Conspectus, Generum Avium, that in consequence remains unfinished.

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  • The views of Bonaparte were, it appears, also shared by an ornithological amateur of some distinction, John Hogg, who propounded a scheme which, as he subsequently stated (Zoologist, 1850, p. 2797), was founded strictly in accordance with them; but it would seem that, allowing his convictions to be warped by other considerations, he abandoned the original " physiological " basis of his system, so that this, when published in 1846 (Edinb.

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  • For the Heteronemertines arguments have been adduced to prove that here they have the physiological significance of a special respiratory apparatus for the central nervous tissue, which in all these forms is strongly charged with haemoglobin.

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  • According to our present knowledge of physiological and pathological processes, we must regard the cell as the ultimate biological unit - a unit of structure and a unit of function; this was first put forward by Schleiden in 1838, and by Schwann in 1839, but we owe to Virchow the full recognition of the fundamental importance of the living cell in all the processes of life, whether in health or disease.

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  • Thus, associ- 1~e] ions of Agropyrum (Triticum) junceum, of Carex arenaria, of ~ ~nmophila (Psamma) arenaria, and of other plants occur on sa rid dunes: the associations are related by the general identity ph the habitat conditions, namely, the physiological dryness f d the loose soil; but they are separated by differences in f~1

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  • He showed that all the organs of plants are built up of cells, that the plant embryo originates from a single cell, and that the physiological activities of the plant are dependent upon the individual activities of these vital units.

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  • It is true that in the unicellular plants all the vital activities are performed by a single cell, but in the multicellular plants there is a more or less highly developed differentiation of physiological activity giving rise to different tissues or groups of cells, each with a special function.

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  • He also admitted among his characteristics a physiological consideration (apparently derived from Oken 1) dividing the class A y es into two sections Altrices and Praecoces, according as the young were fed by their parents or, from the first, fed themselves.

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  • The earliest scientific result of the study of plants was the recognition of the fact that the various parts of the body are associated with the performance of different kinds of physiological work; that they are, in fact, organs discharging special functions.

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  • In 1857 Pasteur decisively proved that fermentation was a physiological process, for he showed that the yeast which produced fermentation was no dead mass, as assumed by Liebig, but consisted of living organisms capable of growth and multiplication.

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  • AdaptationThe morphological and physiological differentiation of the plant-body has, so far, been attributed to (I) the nature of the organism, that is to its inherent tendency towards higher organization, and (2) to the indefinite results of the external conditions acting as a stimulus which excites the organism to variation, but does not direct the course of variation.

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  • Moreover, we have good reasons for inferring that different constellations of external causes may determine whether the internal physiological disturbances induced by a given agent shall lead to pathological and dangerous variations, or to changes which may be harmless or even advantageous to the plant concerned.

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  • These conditions may be purely physiological, e.g.

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  • Related to the physiological drought, such plants possess some xerophytic characters; and, related to the physical wetness, the plants possess the aeration channels.

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  • In the physiological process of intestinal digestion, the precursors of such fats are split up into these two radicles.

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  • Galen was as devoted to anatomical and, so far as then understood, physiological research as to practical medicine.

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  • The iatro-physical school of medicine grew out of physiological theories.

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  • Chemical, physiological and pathological research is exploring the secret of these more refined kinds of "anchorage" of molecules.

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  • In no field were Swedenborg's researches more noteworthy than in those of physiological science.

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  • Other physiological speculations of Servetus are noted by G.

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  • 2, physiological; R.

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  • Arecoline is an oil, and the physiological action of the betel nut is alone due to this substance.

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  • Chloral and potassium bromide may be given as physiological antidotes.

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  • In 1817 Dr Cross of Glasgow wrote his defence of a scientific physiognomy based on general physiological principles.

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  • Helmholtz's contributions to physiological optics are of great importance.

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  • Equally distinguished were his labours in physiological acoustics.

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  • His work on Sensations of Tone (1862) may well be termed the principle of physiological acoustics.

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  • His own plagiarisms were doubtless facilitated by the physiological effects of opium.

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  • This iron deposit is not merely mechanical but is due to the physiological activity of the organism which, according to Winogradsky, liberates energy by oxidizing ferrous and ferric oxide in its protoplasm - a view not accepted by H.

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  • Regarding the chemical nature of toxins less is known than regarding their physiological action.

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  • there is morphological differentiation, which can be traced in the distinction of the members of the body, root, stem, leaf, &c.; there is physiological differentiation, which can be traced in the adaptation of these members to various functions.

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  • Moreover, had the evolution of plants proceeded along the line of adaptation, the vegetable kingdom could not be subdivided, as it is, into the morphological groups Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Phanerogamia, but only into physiological groups, Xerophyta, Hygrophyta, Tropophyta, &c.

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  • that cells or groups of cells have a restraining power on one another which prevents any physiological over-activity.

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  • But this example, combined with the Cartesian principles, set many active and ingenious spirits to work to reconstruct the whole of medicine on a physiological or even a mechanical basis - to endeavour to form what we should now call physiological or scientific medicine.

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  • His object was to make all the anatomical and physiological acquisitions of his age, even microscopical anatomy, which he diligently studied, available for use in the practice of medicine.

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  • Cullen's system was largely based on the new physiological doctrine of irritability, but is especially noticeable for the importance attached to nervous action.

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  • The remarkable physiological discoveries of Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) and Marshall Hall (1790-1857) for the first time rendered possible the discrimination of diseases of the spinal cord.

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  • In 1872, Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) gave a new beginning to our knowledge of the chemistry of secretion and of excretion; and later students have increased the range of physiological and pathological chemistry by investigations not only into the several stages of albuminoid material and the transitions which all foodstuffs undergo in digestion, but even into the structure of protoplasm itself.

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  • Thus the reciprocity of the various organs, maintained throughout the divisions of physiological labour, is not merely a mechanical stability; it is also a mutual equilibration in functions incessantly at work on chemical levels, and on those levels of still higher complexity which seem to rise as far beyond chemistry as chemistry beyond physics.

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  • Palmer; Elements of Physiological Psychology (1889, rewritten as Outlines of Physiological Psychology, in 1890); Primer of Psychology (1894); Psychology, Descriptive and Explanatory (1894); and Outlines of Descriptive Psychology (1898); in a "system of philosophy," Philosophy of the Mind (1891); Philosophy of Knowledge (1897); A Theory of Reality (1899); Philosophy of Conduct (1902); and Philosophy of Religion (2 vols., 1905); In Korea with Marquis Ito (1908); and Knowledge, Life and Reality (1909).

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  • 18, Bureau of Plant Industry, U.S. Department of Agriculture), who attributes it not to any specific parasite but to a disturbance of the normal physiological activity of the cells.

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  • p. 444), he is ready to amend nervous into psychical shocks, which is no doubt what he ought to have meant but could not say without ruining the illusory bridge between the psychical and the physiological which is suggested in the phrase nervous shock."

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  • His views as to the physiological functions of the spinal cord are also in agreement with recent research, and he anticipated many of the pre-eminent offices of the ductless glands which students of the present time are only beginning to discover.

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  • in 1811, and the endowments were diverted four years later to the support of an athenaeum, and afterwards of a gymnasium, with which a physiological cabinet and a botanical garden are connected.

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  • The physiological and psychical aspects of sound are treated in the article Hearing.

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  • von Helmholtz treats the theoretical aspects of sound in his Vorlesungen fiber die mathematischen Principien der Akustik (1898), and the physiological and psychical aspects in his Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen (1st ed., 1863; 5th ed., 1896), English translation by A.

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  • His followers were chiefly engaged in the arrangement and classification of plants, and while descriptive botany made great advances the physiological department of the science was neglected.

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  • It is probable that the milk of ruminants possesses certain physical and physiological distinctions from that of non-ruminant animals, which will account for the virtues attributed to the milk of the ass and mare.

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  • In addition to his labours on neurological and even physiological problems he made many contributions to other branches of medicine, his published works dealing, among other topics, with liver and kidney diseases, gout and pulmonary phthisis.

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  • At the present day feiy groups of the animal kingdom are so well known to the microscopist, few groups present more interesting affinities to the morphologist, and few multicellular animals such a low physiological condition.

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  • He was one of the earliest converts to the views of Lavoisier, which he helped to promulgate by his voluminous writings, but though his name appears on a large number of chemical and also physiological and pathological memoirs, either alone or with others, he was rather a teacher and an organizer than an original investigator.

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  • He was an active worker in physiological chemistry, and carried out many analyses of the products of living organisms, among them being one of the gastric juice which, at the end of 1823, resulted in the notable discovery that the acid contents of the stomach contain hydrochloric acid which is separable by distillation.

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  • It is important, because such a concrescence is by no means universal, and does not occur, for example, in Mytilus or in Arca; further, because when its occurrence is once appreciated, the reduction of the gill-plates of Anodonta to the plume-type of the simplest ctenidium presents no difficulty; and, lastly, it has importance in reference to its physiological significance.

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  • Many of the young men and women, who were supposed to be qualifying as specialists in the various spheres of industrial and commercial enterprise, were in reality devoting their time to considering how human society in general, and Russian society in particular, could be reconstructed in accordance with the latest physiological, biological and sociological principles.

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  • The prizes shall be awarded as follows: For physical science and chemistry, by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; for physiological or medical work, by the Caroline Institution at Stockholm; for literature, by the Stockholm Academy, and for peace work, by a committee of five members elected by the Norwegian Storthing.

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  • The beans were first introduced into England in the year 1840; but the plant was not accurately described till 1861, and its physiological effects were investigated in 1863 by Sir Thomas R.

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  • But he had also to endure countless objections to his mathematical statement of Weber's law, to his unnecessary assumption of units of sensation, and to his unjustifiable transfer of the law from physical to physiological stimuli of sensations, involving in his opinion his parallelistic view of body and mind.

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  • He accepts Fechner's extension of Weber's law of the external stimuli of sense, while judiciously remarking that " the physiological interpretation is entirely hypothetical."

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  • He accepts psychophysical parallelism in the sense that every psychical process has a physical accompaniment, every physiological function has a psychical meaning, but neither external stimulus nor physiological stimulus is cause of a psychical process, nor vice versa.

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  • According to his phenomenalism, the external stimulus and the physiological stimulus are both parallels of the same psychical process; the external body, as well as my body, is merely an object abstracted from an idea of my experience; and what is really known in every case is a unitary experience; divisible, but not separable, into body and soul, physical and psychical factors of one and the same unitary experience.

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  • M`Kendrick, of Glasgow, he investigated the physiological action of light, and examined the changes which take place in the electrical condition of the retina under its influence.

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  • Connected with the university are also physiological, pathological and chemical institutes, five clinical departments and a laboratory.

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  • The few works which have since appeared, before the rise of the physiological school of Sir Charles Bell and Charles Darwin, are undeserving of notice, the development of phrenology having given to pure physiognomy the coup de grace by taking into itself whatever was likely to live of the older science.

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  • The physiological school of physiognomy was foreshadowed by Parsons and founded by Sir Charles Bell, whose Essay on the Anatomy of the Expression, published in 1806, was the first scientific study of the physical manifestation of emotions in the terms of the muscles which produce these manifestations.

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  • It is a vast mine of experimental observation on the symptoms of poisoning of all kinds, on the appearances which poisons leave in the dead body, on their physiological action, and on the means of detecting them.

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  • Brodie, in ascertaining the physiological properties of nucleo-proteids, found that when they were intravascularly injected into pigmented rabbits, coagulation of the blood resulted, but of the eight albinoes which they used, none clotted.

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  • This is apparently owing to the facts that too much has been attempted in the definition, and that differences arise according as we aim at a morphological or a physiological definition.

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  • The only physiological peculiarity exhibited in common by all spores is that they germinate and initiate the production of a new fungus-plant.

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  • zygospores, oospores, brand-spores, aecidiospores, ascospores, basidiospores, &c. Little or nothing is gained by these definitions, however, which are especially physiological.

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  • About fifty species of Saccharomyces are described more or less completely, but since many of these cannot be distinguished by the microscope, and some have been found to develop physiological races or varieties under special conditions of - ?u growth, the limits are still far too ill-defined for complete ep botanical treatment of the genus.

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  • Mucor, Exoasci, Ustilagineae, higher Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes); and (2) the question as to the physiological nature and meaning of fermentation.

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  • The terms biologic forms, biological species, physiological species, physiological races, specialized forms have all been applied to these; perhaps the term biologic forms is the most satisfactory.

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  • Fish were supposed to be born in the water without sexual connexion, and on the basis of this old physiological fallacy the Cathars equally with the Catholic framed their rule of fasting.

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  • Ray himself published an account of his foreign travel in 1673, entitled Observations topographical, moral, and physiological, made on a Journey through part of the Low Countries, Germany, Italy, and France.

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  • In the first volume a chapter "De plantis in genere" contains an account of all the anatomical and physiological knowledge of the time regarding plants, with the recent speculations and discoveries of Caesalpinus, Grew, Malpighi and Jung; and Cuvier and Dupetit Thouars, declaring that it was this chapter which gave acceptance and authority to these authors' works, say that "the best monument that could be erected to the memory of Ray would be the republication of this part of his work separately."

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  • The contracted state, instead of rapidly subsiding after discontinuance of the stimulus, slowly and only partially wears off, the muscle remaining in a condition of physiological "contracture."

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  • In the physiological basis of sense exist many impressions which, apart from and devoid of psychical accompaniment, reflexly influence motor (muscular) innervation.

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  • There is close interconnexion between the two aspects of the double activity that in physiological theory constitute the chemical life of protoplasm, between dissimilation and assimilation.

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  • Two theories of a physiological nature have been proposed to account for the separation of the complex reactions of these conditions of hypnotism from volition and from memory.

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  • The physiological derangement which is the basis of the abeyance of volition may, if hypnotism be profound, pass into more widespread derangement, exhibiting itself as the hypnotic lethargy.

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  • Moreover, by the processes the subject has gone through he has had those physiological activities upon which his volitional power depends excessively deranged, and not improbably permanently enfeebled.

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  • Do not employ such physiological antagonists as pilocarpine or morphine, for the lethal actions of all these drugs exhibit not mutual antagonism but coincidence.

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  • Well-defined polypetalous and gamopetalous genera sometimes occur in the same order, and even Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons are classed together where they have some .striking physiological character in common.

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  • In comparison with the higher plants, algae exhibit so much simplicity of structure, while the conditions under which they grow are so much more readily controlled, that they have frequently been the subject of physiological investigation with a view chiefly to the application of the results to the study of the higher plants.

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  • The experiment of Engelmann referred to deserves to be mentioned here, if only in illustration .of the use to which algae have been put in the study of physiological problems. Engelmann observed that certain bacteria were motile only in the presence of oxygen, and that they retained their motility in a microscopic preparation in the neighbourhood of an algal filament when they had come to rest elsewhere on account of the exhaustion of oxygen.

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  • The strict psychological use of the term "image" is by analogy from the physiological for a purely mental idea which is taken as being observed by the eye of the mind.

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  • Thiourea and many of its unsymmetrical derivatives have marked physiological action; thiourea causes a slowing of the pulse and respiration, cardiac failure, and death in convulsions; phenyl-, ethyland acetyl-thiourea are actively toxic. The most important derivative pharmacologically is allyl-thiourea, also known as thiosinamine or rhodallin, NH2 CS NH CH2 CH:CH2.

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  • In the effects of exercise, of physiological activity and the gross results of such external agencies as food, temperature, climate, light, pressure and so forth the intrinsic factor appears to become more important.

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  • A difference in calibre, elasticity or branching of a blood vessel, the smallest variation in a nerve or group of vessel-cells, any anatomical or physiological divergence, is reflected throughout the organism.

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  • Observed cases of correlation cover almost every kind of anatomical and physiological fact, and range from simple cases such as the relation between height of body and length of face to such an unexpected nexus as that between fertility and height in mothers of daughters.

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  • Bateson is pre-eminent, would appear to simplify the problem of variation, especially on its mechanical and physiological sides.

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  • No food passes into the hepatic caecum, which has been definitely shown on embryological and physiological grounds to be the simplest persistent form of the vertebrate liver.

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  • It has been held by some that a phenomenon so widely diffused over the western world must be attributable to physiological causes, such as alcoholism, syphilis, the abuse of narcotics and so on.

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  • The fourth essay is a systematic treatment of the nature of colour, with a description of many curious experiments and a discussion of the rainbow, halos, parhelia, diffraction, and the more purely physiological phenomena of colour.

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  • In 1860 he gave over the physiological part of his teaching to a new chair, retaining the zoological, with which his career had begun.

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  • While resident in Italy for his health from 1845 to 1847, he occupied himself with researches on the electrical organ of the torpedo and on nervous organization generally; these he published in1853-1854(Neurologische Untersuchungen, Gottingen), and therewith his physiological period may be said to end.

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  • This was followed by a series of " Physiological Letters " in the Allgemeine Zeitung, by an essay on " Glauben and Wissen," and by the most important piece of this series, " Der Kampf urn die Seele by (Gottingen, 1857).

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  • The term " electricity " is applied to denote the physical agency which exhibits itself by effects of attraction and repulsion when particular substances are rubbed or heated, also in certain chemical and physiological actions and in connexion with moving magnets and metallic circuits.

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  • He seems in this way to have educated in himself a very precise " electrical sense," making use of his own nervous system as a kind of physiological galvanometer.

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  • Woman, for certain physiological reasons, is always for primitive peoples hedged round with sanctity, whilst man does all he can to inspire awe of his powers in woman by keeping religion largely in his own hands.

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  • His investigations occupied almost the whole field of science, including physiology, physiological optics, physiological acoustics, chemistry, mathematics, electricity and magnetism, meteorology and theoretical mechanics.

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  • In physiological science he investigated quantitatively the phenomena of animal heat, and he was one of the earliest in the field of animal electricity.

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  • His great work on Physiological Optics (1856-1866) is by far the most important book that has appeared on the physiology and physics of vision.

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  • He explained accurately the mechanism of the bones of the ear, and he discussed the physiological action of the cochlea on the principles of sympathetic vibration.

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  • The pamphlet begins by re-stating with reference to sight the general theory that perception of an objective world rests upon an instinctive causal postulation, which even when it misleads still remains to haunt us (instead of being, like errors of reason, open to extirpation by evidence), and proceeds to deal with physiological colour, i.e.

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  • In 1828 he made inquiries about a chair at Heidelberg; and in 1830 he got a shortened Latin version of his physiological theory of colours inserted in the third volume of the Scriptores ophthalmologici minores (edited by Radius).

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  • None of these systems, which are chiefly due to the medical bacteriologists, has maintained its position, owing to the difficulty of applying the characters and to the fact that such properties are physiological and liable to great fluctuations in culture, because a given organism may vary greatly in such respects according to its degree of vitality at the time, its age, the mode of nutrition observed; or, at any rate, the strictest rules should be followed in accepting the evidence adduced to render the union of any forms probable.

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  • Even when used in conjunction with purely morphological characters, these physiological properties are too variable to aid us in the discrimination of species and genera, and are apt to break down at critical periods.

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  • The fact that every bacterial cell in a species in most cases appears equally capable of performing all the physiological functions of the species has led most authorities, however, to regard it as the individual - a view which cannot be consistent in those cases where a simple or branched filamentous series exhibits differences between free apex and fixed base and so forth.

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  • Beyerinck and Jegunow have shown that some partially anaerobic sulphur bacteria can only exist in strata at a certain depth below the level of quiet waters where SH 2 is being set free below by the bacterial decompositions of vegetable mud and rises to meet the atmospheric oxygen coming down from above, and that this zone of physiological activity rises and falls with the variations of partial pressure of the gases due to the rate of evolution of the SH 2.

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  • These facts show the great difficulty of the problem, which is probably insoluble by present methods of analysis; the only test, in fact, for the existence of a toxin is its physiological effect.

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  • In the case of physiological antagonism of drugs this relationship does not hold.

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  • Among the other university institutions are the academic hospital, the maternity hospital, the physiological institution, the chemical laboratory, the zoological museum, the botanical garden and the observatory on the Kdnigsstuhl.

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  • The physiological as well as the chemical antidotes must be employed.

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  • The only alkaloids likely to remain in the prepared opium, and capable of producing well-marked physiological results, are morphine, codeine and narceine.

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  • Although the excretory function of these has been demonstrated by physiological methods, however, their morphological relations are not clear.

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  • There is a physiological interpretation of the Garden of Eden.

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  • Its physiological effects are much more persistent and injurious than sulphuretted hydrogen, producing temporary paralysis of the olfactory nerves and inflammation of the mucous membrane.

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  • It comprises five faculties (literature and philosophy, jurisprudence, mathematics, natural science and medicine), and is well equipped with zoological, mineralogical and geological museums, a physiological institute, a cabinet of anthropology, and botanical gardens.

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  • Insectivorous or, as they are sometimes more correctly termed, carnivorous plants are, like the parasites, the climbers, or the succulents, a physiological assemblage belonging to a number of distinct natural orders.

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  • It does not resemble phosphorus in its physiological action and cannot be used to replace it.

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  • The development of phenomena under this law may be divided into three stages - the physical, the physiological, the intellectual and moral.

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  • From inclination and from weak health he never engaged much in practice as a physician, his interests lying in the deeper problems of medical and physiological science.

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  • His principal work, Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, consists in part of memoirs, read in 1796 and 1 797 to the Institute, and is a sketch of physiological psychology.

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  • While he was engaged in physiological researches, he composed a dissertation on the nature and propagation of sound, and an answer to a prize question concerning the masting of ships, to which the French Academy of Sciences adjudged the second rank in the year 5727.

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  • The only physiological discovery which can be safely attributed to him is that of the contractility of the iris.

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  • In physiological matters he is in advance of Aristotle and Galen, though we can hardly assert - as has sometimes been thought - that he anticipated Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood.

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  • In 1832 he wrote a paper for the Royal Society of London on the "Organs of the Human Voice," in which he gave many illustrations of the physiological action of these parts, and in 1833 a Bridgewater treatise, The Hand: its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as evincing Design.

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  • The seventh book consists largely of the discussion of various physiological questions.

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  • The early segmentation of the embryo differs in the several groups, but usually the first leaf or leaves, the apex of the stem and the first root are differentiated early, while a special absorbent organ (the foot) maintains for some time the physiological connexion between the sporophyte and the prothallus.

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  • The rigidity of the integument caused by the deposition of dense chitin upon it is intimately connected with the physiological activity and form of all the internal organs, and is undoubtedly correlated with the total disappearance of the circular muscular layer of the body-wall present in Chaetopods.

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  • It is not enough merely to repel the incursions of physiological science, armed with hypotheses and theories valid enough in their own sphere, upon the domain of consciousness.

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  • But no one can tell whether the study of physiological phenomena in general, and of nervous phenomena in particular, will not reveal to us, besides the vis viva or kinetic energy of which Leibnitz spoke, and the potential energy which was a later and necessary adjunct, some new kind of energy which may differ from the other two by rebelling against calculation" (Bergson, Time and Free Will, Eng.

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  • This argument has been met in recent times by the application to mind of the physiological theory of heredity, according to which changes produced in the mind (brain) of a parent, by association of ideas or otherwise, tend to be inherited by his offspring; so that the development of the moral sense or any other faculty or susceptibility of existing man may be hypothetically carried back into the prehistoric life of the human race, without any change in the manner of derivation supposed.

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  • The physiological action of stramonium resembles that of belladonna, except that stramonium relaxes to a greater extent the unstriped muscle of the bronchial tubes; for this reason it is used in asthma to relieve the bronchial spasm.

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  • In it, for the first time, the results of human and comparative anatomy, as well as of chemistry and other departments of physical science, were brought to bear on the investigation of physiological problems. The most important portion of the work was that dealing with nervous action and the mechanism of the senses.

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  • South-west of these buildings, on the other side of the Johannisthal Park, are clustered the medical institutes and hospitals of the university - the infirmary, clinical and other hospitals, the physico-chemical institute, pathological institute, physiological institute, ophthalmic hospital, pharmacological institute, the schools of anatomy, the chemical laboratory, the zoological institute, the physicomineralogical institute, the botanical garden and also the veterinary schools, deaf and dumb asylum, agricultural college and astronomical observatory.

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  • P. de Candolle in botany, and before he had reached his majority he was engaged with Pierre Prevost in original work on problems of physiological chemistry, and even of embryology.

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  • We may therefore consider it settled that the different species of the group are now in that degree of physiological differentiation which enables them to produce offspring with each other, but does not permit of the progeny continuing the race, at all events unless reinforced by the aid of one of the pure forms.

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  • In most of the older classifications great importance was attached to these physiological characters, and a number of genera were established which, owing to the numerous annectent forms which have since been discovered, must be abandoned.

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  • This case arises when the visual angle, under which the object appears, is approximately a minute of arc; it is due to the physiological construction of the retina, for the ends of nerve fibres, which receive the impression of light, have themselves a definite size.

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  • But owing to the physiological effect carbon bisulphide has on the workmen, coupled with the chemical action of impure carbon bisulphide on iron which has frequently led to conflagrations, the employment of carbon bisulphide must remain restricted.

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  • Efforts have been made during the last few years to introduce this solvent on a large scale, but its high price and its physiological effect on the workmen have hitherto militated against it.

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  • Binz, for instance, defines it as treating of the origin, nature, chemical and physical qualities, physiological actions, and therapeutical uses of drugs; in France and in Italy it is restricted to the mere description of medicines and their preparations, the action and uses of which as remedies are included in the term therapeutics.

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  • In works such as Pareira's Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics (1842), the physiological effects of medicines are usually described, but very briefly as compared with the materia medica.

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  • Numerous researches have demonstrated these points with regard to individual groups of substances, but hitherto it has not been possible to formulate any fixed laws regarding the relationship between chemical constitution and physiological action.

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  • The antagonism between certain drugs has been much studied in relation to their use as antidotes in poisoning, the aim being to counteract the effects rather than to obtain a direct physiological antagonistic action.

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  • The close alliance between pharmacology, therapeutics and clinical medicine has induced many authors to treat the subject from a clinical point of view, while its relationships to chemistry and physiology have been utilized to elaborate a chemical and physiological classification respectively as the basis for systematic description.

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  • A physiological classification according to an action on the brain, heart, kidney or other important organ becomes still more bewildering, as many substances produce the same effects by different agencies, as, for instance, the kidneys may be acted upon directly or through the circulation, while the heart may be affected either through its muscular substance or its nervous apparatus.

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  • - When pure oxygen is inhaled the only effect is a slight increase of the amount of the gas in the blood, but this has no particular physiological effect.

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  • Whether it was physiological or psychological didn't matter at this point.

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  • physiological adaptations to high intensity training interventions in team sports.

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  • Physiological arousal declines but remains higher than normal and the body replenishes the hormones released by the adrenal glands.

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  • Extending upward from sea level to 10,000 feet, the efficient zone provides aircrews with a near-ideal physiological environment.

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  • Butchers Broom contains active alkaloids that have many physiological effects.

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  • anaemiaosuppressive agents such as chick anemia virus, Gumboro disease or Mareks disease, or more general physiological stress, may all be factors.

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  • Other physiological effects are not well defined but can involve reduced carbon dioxide assimilation and reduced protein synthesis.

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  • Physiological maneuvers result in an even greater augmentation in vein size, however these are difficult to sustain during venous puncture.

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  • bothersome physiological effects could be evidence of accidental harm or of self-defense.

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  • We still make primitive, physiological preparations for battle, just like pulling back a bowstring.

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  • The physiological concomitants of this psychological effort form the basis for the operations of the " lie-detector " .

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  • Recent technological advances have refined the ability of pacemakers to mimic physiological cardiac conduction.

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  • Causes of incontinence In older people a number of common physiological changes may affect the ability to maintain continence In older people a number of common physiological changes may affect the ability to maintain continence.

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  • physiological correlates of social behavior in bighorn sheep: a field study using electrocardiogram telemetry.

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  • dissolved in 500-1,000 ml of physiological saline solution was periodically administered via the i.p. port system.

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  • excitatory transmission in the brain, then drugs acting at these receptors are likely to have physiological consequences.

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  • The machines produced dialysis fluid at a physiological concentration.

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  • In premature foals from a normal uterus, it is tempting to give " physiological " doses of steroids.

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  • The first chapter of this lactate parable will center around a key physiological process called glycolysis.

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  • The question is: What physiological systems help to maintain heart rate homeostasis?

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  • irrigateing is best carried out by irrigating with physiological saline or ordinary tap water.

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  • lipotropic agent which promotes the physiological utilization of fat.

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  • messenger molecules, with their synthesis or physiological activity or destruction.

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  • Such damage occurs under normal physiological conditions and may be exacerbated by environmental mutagens.

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  • We have a large collection of mouse mutants with well-characterised auditory defects but only a superficial study of their physiological responses to various stimuli.

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  • Physiological Properties of TTX TTX is an especially potent neurotoxin, specifically blocking voltage-gated sodium channels on the surface of nerve membranes.

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  • Results suggested a possible impact on root and physiological parameters and exposure resulted in lower N utilization.

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  • APR is a sequence of physiological changes that swing into action upon the detection of invading pathogens.

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  • It should be distinguished from physiological phimosis, which is a normal part of penile development.

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  • As a result most studies use physiological ' surrogates ' to predict these changes.

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  • physiological arousal in many species of animal.

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  • physiological saline or ordinary tap water.

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  • physiological psychology or cross-cultural perspectives.

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  • physiological adaptations take place.

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  • physiological correlates of social behavior in bighorn sheep: a field study using electrocardiogram telemetry.

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  • physiological optics, and psychophysics.

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  • It is actually very difficult to use essential oils for purely physiological or purely psychological treatment.

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  • There are also physiological explanations for the experience of a sensed presence.

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  • The After Effects: I think we can now see why an essentially physiological event can change people's lives so profoundly.

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  • physiological in nature.

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  • physiological saline gelled with 8% of a polysaccharide.

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  • We concentrate on human and mammalian physiology, tho we draw on examples from other animals to illustrate physiological principles.

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  • Ethical practice Safety and injury General wellbeing, which can cover psychological as well as physiological wellbeing.

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  • It is actually very difficult to use essential oils for purely physiological or purely psychological treatment.

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  • psychophysics of tactile perception and its peripheral physiological basis.

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  • radiopharmaceutical in the organs of interest reflects the physiological processes involved.

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  • realist notions of physiological need or innate desire.

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  • rebus naturalibus Zabarella points out that the art of medicine adopts the physiological part from the philosophy of nature.

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  • receptive mood, with all the physiological benefits that this brings.

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  • The behavioral and physiological effects of culling red deer.

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  • Cleansing is best carried out by irrigating with physiological saline or ordinary tap water.

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  • Fitzgerald, M. and Fulton, B.P. (1992) The physiological properties of developing sensory neurons.

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  • Physiological correlates of social behavior in bighorn sheep: a field study using electrocardiogram telemetry.

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  • stages of pregnancy some substantial physiological changes occur.

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  • Accordingly we evaluated the physiological demands of a swim bench to determine if it is reliable and valid for freestyle swimming.

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  • Then it is intended to identify a physiological or pharmacological switch that can promote or increase neuronal synchrony.

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  • theorizencept of a physiological signal is central to much theorizing on the control of food intake.

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  • D.Phil Oxford University 1990: Behavioral and physiological thermoregulation in solitary bees.

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  • Symptoms include reduced root growth, and inhibition of various physiological processes including transpiration, respiration and photosynthesis.

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  • visualize complex physiological concepts.

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  • He pushed the sensualistic principles of Condillac to their last consequences, being in full agreement with the materialistic views of Cabanis, though the attention of the latter was devoted more to the physiological, that of Tracy to the psychological or "ideological" side of man.

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  • It is clear from Liebig's publications that he first regarded yeast as a lifeless, albuminoid mass; but, although later he considered they were living cells, he would never admit that fermentation was a physiological process, the chemical aspect being paramount in the mind of this distinguished investigator.

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  • In 1857 Pasteur decisively proved that fermentation was a physiological process, for he showed that the yeast which produced fermentation was no dead mass, as assumed by Liebig, but consisted of living organisms capable of growth and multiplication.

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  • In 1879 C. Nageli formulated his well-known molecularphysical theory, which supported Liebig's chemical theory on the one hand and Pasteur's physiological hypothesis on the other: "Fermentation is the transference of the condition of motion of the molecules, atomic groups and atoms of the various compounds constituting the living plasma, to the fermenting material, in consequence of which equilibrium in the molecules of the latter is destroyed, the result being their disintegration."

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  • The World was consigned to his desk; and although doctrines in all essential respects the same constitute the physical portion of his Principia, it was not till after the death of Descartes that fragments of the work, including Le Monde, or a treatise on light, and the physiological tracts L'Momme and La Formation du foetus, were given to the world by his admirer Claude Clerselier (1614-1684) in 1664.

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  • - p elagic floating Hydrozoa with great differentiation of parts, each performing a special function; generally regarded as colonies showing differentiation of individuals in correspondence with a physiological division of labour.

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  • Schelling's theory is a bold attempt to revitalize nature in the light of growing physical and physiological science, and by so doing to comprehend the unity of the world under the idea of one principle of organic development.

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  • The discovery of a single fossil creature in a geological stratum of a wrong period, the detection of a single anatomical or physiological fact irreconcilable with origin by descent with modification, would have been destructive of the theory and would have made the reputation of the observer.

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  • The group has until recent years been regarded as comprising three classes distinguished by well-marked physiological featuresthe Algae (including the Seaweeds) which contain chlorophyll, the Fungi which have no chlorophyll and therefore lead a saprophytic or parasitic mode of life, and the Lichens which are composite organisms consisting of an alga and a fungus living together in a mutual parasitism (symbiosis); Bacteria were regarded as a section of Fungi.

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  • Looking back over the progress of form and tissue-differentiation in the Thallophyta, we find that, starting from the simplest unicellular forms with no external differentiation of the body, we can trace an increase in complexity of organization everywhere determined by the principles of the division of physiological labor and of the adaptation of the organism to the needs of its environment.

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  • Fifthly, we have to vecord the foundation of the modern study of physiological anatomy (i.e.

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  • Physiological and Morphological Di,fferentiation.The first indication of this differentiation in the vegetative body of the plant can be seen not only in the terrestrial green plants which have been particularly referred to, but also in the bulkier seaweeds.

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  • It may be, however, that there is no special mechanism, but that this power is a particular differentiation of a physiological kind, existing in all vegetable protoplasm, or in that of certain cells.

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  • The differentiation of the plants substance so indicated is, however, physiological only; there is no histological difference between the cells of these regions that can be associated with the several properties they possess.

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  • When we come to phenomena such as proliferations, vivipary, the development of Lammas shoots, adventitious buds, epicormic branches, and to those malformations of flowers known as peloria, phyllody, virescence, &c. while assured that definite, and in many cases recognizable, physiological disturbances are,at work, we find ourselves on the borderland between patho~gical and physiological variation, where each case must be examined with dtie regard to all the circumstances, and no generalization seems possible beyond what has been sketched.

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  • Moreover, we have good reasons for inferring that different constellations of external causes may determine whether the internal physiological disturbances induced by a given agent shall lead to pathological and dangerous variations, or to changes which may be harmless or even advantageous to the plant concerned.

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  • Until much more advance has been made by ecologists in the investigation of the nature of habitat factors, and until the effect of the factors on the plants has been more closely investigated by physiologists, it will remain impossible to place ecology on a physiological basis: all that is possible at present is to give a physiological bias to certain aspects of ecological research.

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  • Schimperl made a distinct advance when he distinguished between physical and physiological dryness or wetness of the soil.

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  • All soils which are physically dry are also physiologically dry; and hence only the physiological dryness or wetness of soils need be considered in ecology.

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  • by Fisher, Plant Geography upon a Physiological Basis (Oxford, 1903f 904).

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  • Thus, associ- 1~e] ions of Agropyrum (Triticum) junceum, of Carex arenaria, of ~ ~nmophila (Psamma) arenaria, and of other plants occur on sa rid dunes: the associations are related by the general identity ph the habitat conditions, namely, the physiological dryness f d the loose soil; but they are separated by differences in f~1

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  • Related to the physiological drought, such plants possess some xerophytic characters; and, related to the physical wetness, the plants possess the aeration channels.

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  • It is sometimes maintained, for example, by Schimper, that their xerophytic characters are related to the physiological dryness of the habitat: this, however, is denied by others who maintain (Clements, 1905: 127) that the xerophytism is due to the persistence of ancestral structures.

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  • With regard to the occurrence of plants, such as Juncus effusus, which possess xerophytic characters and yet live in situations which are not ordinarily of marked physiological dryness, it should be remembered that such habitats are liable to occasional physical drought; and a plant must eventually succumb if it is not adapted to the extreme conditions of its habitat.

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  • It is sometimes said that lime acts as a poison on some plants and not on others, and sometimes that it is the physiological dryness of calcareous soils that is the important factor.

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  • However, until more is known of the exact chemical composition of naturalas contrasted with agriculturalsoils, and until more is known of the physiological effects of lime, it is impossible to decide the vexed question of the relation of limeloving and lime-shunning plants to the presence or absence of calcium carbonate in the soil.

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  • Upon our knowledge of its minute structure or cytology, combined with a study of its physiological activities, depends the ultimate solution of all the important problems of nutrition.

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  • He showed that all the organs of plants are built up of cells, that the plant embryo originates from a single cell, and that the physiological activities of the plant are dependent upon the individual activities of these vital units.

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  • It is true that in the unicellular plants all the vital activities are performed by a single cell, but in the multicellular plants there is a more or less highly developed differentiation of physiological activity giving rise to different tissues or groups of cells, each with a special function.

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  • Notwithstanding the fact, however, that these cells are capable of acting as very efficient lenses the explanation given by Haberlandt has not been widely accepted and evidence both morphological and physiological has been brought forward against it.

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  • The earliest scientific result of the study of plants was the recognition of the fact that the various parts of the body are associated with the performance of different kinds of physiological work; that they are, in fact, organs discharging special functions.

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  • Evolution means the gradual development of highly organized from lowly organized forms; that is, of forms in which the physiological division of labor is more complete, from those in which it is less complete; of forms possessing a variety of organs, from forms possessing but few.

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  • there is morphological differentiation, which can be traced in the distinction of the members of the body, root, stem, leaf, &c.; there is physiological differentiation, which can be traced in the adaptation of these members to various functions.

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  • AdaptationThe morphological and physiological differentiation of the plant-body has, so far, been attributed to (I) the nature of the organism, that is to its inherent tendency towards higher organization, and (2) to the indefinite results of the external conditions acting as a stimulus which excites the organism to variation, but does not direct the course of variation.

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  • Moreover, had the evolution of plants proceeded along the line of adaptation, the vegetable kingdom could not be subdivided, as it is, into the morphological groups Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Phanerogamia, but only into physiological groups, Xerophyta, Hygrophyta, Tropophyta, &c.

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  • The investigation of these may raise and solve interesting physiological problems, but throw no light on the facts and genetic relationship which a rational explanation of distribution requires.

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  • From the point of view of the economy of the globe this classification by species is perhaps less important than that by mode of life and physiological character in accordance with environment.

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  • He retired to Darmstadt, where he practised as a physician and contributed regularly to pathological and physiological magazines.

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  • finds that, though more than 170 sorts of birds are mentioned, 2 yet what is said of them amounts on the whole to very little, and this consists more of desultory observations in illustration of his general remarks (which are to a considerable extent physiological or bearing on the subject of reproduction) than of an attempt at a connected account of birds.

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  • He also admitted among his characteristics a physiological consideration (apparently derived from Oken 1) dividing the class A y es into two sections Altrices and Praecoces, according as the young were fed by their parents or, from the first, fed themselves.

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  • It is plain that Blyth saw, and perhaps he was the first to see it, that geographical distribution was not unimportant in suggesting the affinities and differences of natural groups (pp. 258, 259); and, undeterred by the precepts and practice of the hitherto dominant English school of Ornithologists, he declared that " anatomy, when aided by every character which the manner of propagation, the progressive changes, and other physiological data supply, is the only sure basis of classification."

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  • This method, which in process of time was dignified by the title of a Physiological Arrangement, was insisted upon with more or less pertinacity by the author throughout a long series of publications, some of them separate books, some of them contributed to the memoirs issued by many scientific bodies of various European countries, ceasing only at his death, which in July 1857 found him occupied upon a Conspectus, Generum Avium, that in consequence remains unfinished.

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  • The views of Bonaparte were, it appears, also shared by an ornithological amateur of some distinction, John Hogg, who propounded a scheme which, as he subsequently stated (Zoologist, 1850, p. 2797), was founded strictly in accordance with them; but it would seem that, allowing his convictions to be warped by other considerations, he abandoned the original " physiological " basis of his system, so that this, when published in 1846 (Edinb.

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  • Yet the idea of a " physiological " arrangement on the same kind of principle found another follower, or, as he thought, inventor, in Edward Newman, who in 1850 communicated N ewman.

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  • Many other points of physiological optics are touched on, in general erroneously.

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  • He had already acquired a considerable reputation in physiological research.

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  • For the Heteronemertines arguments have been adduced to prove that here they have the physiological significance of a special respiratory apparatus for the central nervous tissue, which in all these forms is strongly charged with haemoglobin.

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  • Ludwig, under whom he studied at Zurich, decided him to devote his attention to physiological chemistry, and therefore he went, after his graduation (18J4), to Heidelberg, where R.

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  • Colour and Constitution.-In this article a summary of the theories which have been promoted in order to connect the colour of organic compounds with their constitution will be given, and the reader is referred to the article Colour for the physical explanation of this property, and to Vision for the physiological and psychological bearings.

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  • of the precise anatomical, not to say the physiological, knowledge which appears to be displayed by the insect in stinging only the nerve-centres of its prey.

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  • In 1900 a high school for shipbuilding was founded, and in 1901 an institute for seamen's and tropical diseases, with a laboratory for their physiological study, was opened, and also the first public free library in the city.

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  • The treatment is to empty the stomach by tube or by a non-depressant emetic. The physiological antidotes are atropine and digitalin or strophanthin, which should be injected subcutaneously in maximal doses.

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  • In Scorpio the completion of the horizontal plate by oblique flaps, so as to form an actual diaphragm shutting off the cavity of the prosoma from the rest of the body, possibly gives to the organs contained in the anterior chamber a physiological advantage in respect of the supply of arterial blood and its separation from the venous blood of the mesosoma.

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  • (From Lankester, "Limulus an Arachnid.) of adaptation to the changed physiological conditions of respiration, and not of morphological significance, since a pair of renal excretory tubes of this nature is found in certain Amphipod Crustacea (Talorchestia, &c.) which have abandoned a purely aquatic life.

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  • Morphologically, the spiders are remarkable for the concentration and specialization of their structure, which is accompanied with high physiological efficiency.

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  • An absolutely imperceptible physiological difference arising as a variation may be of selective value, and it may carry with it correlated variations which appeal to the human eye but are of no selective value themselves.

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  • Examples of physiological hypertrophy are found in the ovaries, uterus and mammary glands, where there is an increased functional activity required at the period of gestation.

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  • Their physiological activities gradually fail owing to the constructive processes having become so exhausted from long use that the destructive ones are able to overtake them.

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  • This physiological wasting is termed senile atrophy.

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  • According to our present knowledge of physiological and pathological processes, we must regard the cell as the ultimate biological unit - a unit of structure and a unit of function; this was first put forward by Schleiden in 1838, and by Schwann in 1839, but we owe to Virchow the full recognition of the fundamental importance of the living cell in all the processes of life, whether in health or disease.

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  • that cells or groups of cells have a restraining power on one another which prevents any physiological over-activity.

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  • These conditions may be purely physiological, e.g.

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  • In the physiological process of intestinal digestion, the precursors of such fats are split up into these two radicles.

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  • Galen was as devoted to anatomical and, so far as then understood, physiological research as to practical medicine.

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  • But this example, combined with the Cartesian principles, set many active and ingenious spirits to work to reconstruct the whole of medicine on a physiological or even a mechanical basis - to endeavour to form what we should now call physiological or scientific medicine.

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  • The iatro-physical school of medicine grew out of physiological theories.

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  • His object was to make all the anatomical and physiological acquisitions of his age, even microscopical anatomy, which he diligently studied, available for use in the practice of medicine.

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  • Cullen's system was largely based on the new physiological doctrine of irritability, but is especially noticeable for the importance attached to nervous action.

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  • The remarkable physiological discoveries of Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) and Marshall Hall (1790-1857) for the first time rendered possible the discrimination of diseases of the spinal cord.

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  • In 1872, Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) gave a new beginning to our knowledge of the chemistry of secretion and of excretion; and later students have increased the range of physiological and pathological chemistry by investigations not only into the several stages of albuminoid material and the transitions which all foodstuffs undergo in digestion, but even into the structure of protoplasm itself.

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  • As a part of these discoveries has arisen another but kindred doctrine that of hormones (Starling), juices prepared, not for excretion, not even for partial excretion, but for the fulfilment of physiological equilibrium.

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  • Thus the reciprocity of the various organs, maintained throughout the divisions of physiological labour, is not merely a mechanical stability; it is also a mutual equilibration in functions incessantly at work on chemical levels, and on those levels of still higher complexity which seem to rise as far beyond chemistry as chemistry beyond physics.

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  • So various are the conditions of selfregulation in various animals, both in respect of their peculiar and several modes of assimilating different foods, and of protecting themselves against particular dangers from without, that, as we might have expected, the bloods taken from different species, or even perhaps from different individuals, are found to be so divergent that the healthy serum of one species may be, and often is, poisonous to another; not so much in respect of adventitious substances, as because the phases of physiological change in different species do not harmonize; each by its peculiar needs has been modified until, in their several conditions of life, they vary so much about the mean as to have become almost if not quite alien one to another.

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  • Chemical, physiological and pathological research is exploring the secret of these more refined kinds of "anchorage" of molecules.

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  • According to Plutarch, apart from its mystic virtues arising from the magical combination of 4 X 4, its sweet odour had a benign physiological effect on those who offered it.'

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  • Palmer; Elements of Physiological Psychology (1889, rewritten as Outlines of Physiological Psychology, in 1890); Primer of Psychology (1894); Psychology, Descriptive and Explanatory (1894); and Outlines of Descriptive Psychology (1898); in a "system of philosophy," Philosophy of the Mind (1891); Philosophy of Knowledge (1897); A Theory of Reality (1899); Philosophy of Conduct (1902); and Philosophy of Religion (2 vols., 1905); In Korea with Marquis Ito (1908); and Knowledge, Life and Reality (1909).

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  • 18, Bureau of Plant Industry, U.S. Department of Agriculture), who attributes it not to any specific parasite but to a disturbance of the normal physiological activity of the cells.

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  • p. 444), he is ready to amend nervous into psychical shocks, which is no doubt what he ought to have meant but could not say without ruining the illusory bridge between the psychical and the physiological which is suggested in the phrase nervous shock."

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  • In no field were Swedenborg's researches more noteworthy than in those of physiological science.

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  • His views as to the physiological functions of the spinal cord are also in agreement with recent research, and he anticipated many of the pre-eminent offices of the ductless glands which students of the present time are only beginning to discover.

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  • Other physiological speculations of Servetus are noted by G.

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  • in 1811, and the endowments were diverted four years later to the support of an athenaeum, and afterwards of a gymnasium, with which a physiological cabinet and a botanical garden are connected.

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  • The physiological and psychical aspects of sound are treated in the article Hearing.

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  • von Helmholtz treats the theoretical aspects of sound in his Vorlesungen fiber die mathematischen Principien der Akustik (1898), and the physiological and psychical aspects in his Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen (1st ed., 1863; 5th ed., 1896), English translation by A.

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  • 2, physiological; R.

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  • His followers were chiefly engaged in the arrangement and classification of plants, and while descriptive botany made great advances the physiological department of the science was neglected.

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  • It is probable that the milk of ruminants possesses certain physical and physiological distinctions from that of non-ruminant animals, which will account for the virtues attributed to the milk of the ass and mare.

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  • In addition to his labours on neurological and even physiological problems he made many contributions to other branches of medicine, his published works dealing, among other topics, with liver and kidney diseases, gout and pulmonary phthisis.

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  • Arecoline is an oil, and the physiological action of the betel nut is alone due to this substance.

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  • At the present day feiy groups of the animal kingdom are so well known to the microscopist, few groups present more interesting affinities to the morphologist, and few multicellular animals such a low physiological condition.

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  • He was one of the earliest converts to the views of Lavoisier, which he helped to promulgate by his voluminous writings, but though his name appears on a large number of chemical and also physiological and pathological memoirs, either alone or with others, he was rather a teacher and an organizer than an original investigator.

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  • He was an active worker in physiological chemistry, and carried out many analyses of the products of living organisms, among them being one of the gastric juice which, at the end of 1823, resulted in the notable discovery that the acid contents of the stomach contain hydrochloric acid which is separable by distillation.

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  • It is important, because such a concrescence is by no means universal, and does not occur, for example, in Mytilus or in Arca; further, because when its occurrence is once appreciated, the reduction of the gill-plates of Anodonta to the plume-type of the simplest ctenidium presents no difficulty; and, lastly, it has importance in reference to its physiological significance.

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  • Many of the young men and women, who were supposed to be qualifying as specialists in the various spheres of industrial and commercial enterprise, were in reality devoting their time to considering how human society in general, and Russian society in particular, could be reconstructed in accordance with the latest physiological, biological and sociological principles.

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  • The prizes shall be awarded as follows: For physical science and chemistry, by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; for physiological or medical work, by the Caroline Institution at Stockholm; for literature, by the Stockholm Academy, and for peace work, by a committee of five members elected by the Norwegian Storthing.

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  • The beans were first introduced into England in the year 1840; but the plant was not accurately described till 1861, and its physiological effects were investigated in 1863 by Sir Thomas R.

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  • Thus it would be advisable to use the physiological antidote only when the dose of the poison - assuming estimation to be possible - was known to be comparatively small.

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  • But he had also to endure countless objections to his mathematical statement of Weber's law, to his unnecessary assumption of units of sensation, and to his unjustifiable transfer of the law from physical to physiological stimuli of sensations, involving in his opinion his parallelistic view of body and mind.

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  • He accepts Fechner's extension of Weber's law of the external stimuli of sense, while judiciously remarking that " the physiological interpretation is entirely hypothetical."

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  • He accepts psychophysical parallelism in the sense that every psychical process has a physical accompaniment, every physiological function has a psychical meaning, but neither external stimulus nor physiological stimulus is cause of a psychical process, nor vice versa.

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  • According to his phenomenalism, the external stimulus and the physiological stimulus are both parallels of the same psychical process; the external body, as well as my body, is merely an object abstracted from an idea of my experience; and what is really known in every case is a unitary experience; divisible, but not separable, into body and soul, physical and psychical factors of one and the same unitary experience.

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  • M`Kendrick, of Glasgow, he investigated the physiological action of light, and examined the changes which take place in the electrical condition of the retina under its influence.

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  • Connected with the university are also physiological, pathological and chemical institutes, five clinical departments and a laboratory.

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  • It is a physiological antagonist of chloral hydrate, morphine and physostigmine, and may be given in poisoning by these drugs.

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  • Chloral and potassium bromide may be given as physiological antidotes.

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  • The famous sage of Balwearie, Michael Scot, while court astrologer to the emperor Frederick II., wrote his treatise De hominis phisiognomia, much of which is physiological and of curious interest.

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  • The few works which have since appeared, before the rise of the physiological school of Sir Charles Bell and Charles Darwin, are undeserving of notice, the development of phrenology having given to pure physiognomy the coup de grace by taking into itself whatever was likely to live of the older science.

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  • The physiological school of physiognomy was foreshadowed by Parsons and founded by Sir Charles Bell, whose Essay on the Anatomy of the Expression, published in 1806, was the first scientific study of the physical manifestation of emotions in the terms of the muscles which produce these manifestations.

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  • In 1817 Dr Cross of Glasgow wrote his defence of a scientific physiognomy based on general physiological principles.

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  • It is a vast mine of experimental observation on the symptoms of poisoning of all kinds, on the appearances which poisons leave in the dead body, on their physiological action, and on the means of detecting them.

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  • Brodie, in ascertaining the physiological properties of nucleo-proteids, found that when they were intravascularly injected into pigmented rabbits, coagulation of the blood resulted, but of the eight albinoes which they used, none clotted.

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  • This is apparently owing to the facts that too much has been attempted in the definition, and that differences arise according as we aim at a morphological or a physiological definition.

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  • The only physiological peculiarity exhibited in common by all spores is that they germinate and initiate the production of a new fungus-plant.

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  • zygospores, oospores, brand-spores, aecidiospores, ascospores, basidiospores, &c. Little or nothing is gained by these definitions, however, which are especially physiological.

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  • About fifty species of Saccharomyces are described more or less completely, but since many of these cannot be distinguished by the microscope, and some have been found to develop physiological races or varieties under special conditions of - ?u growth, the limits are still far too ill-defined for complete ep botanical treatment of the genus.

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  • Mucor, Exoasci, Ustilagineae, higher Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes); and (2) the question as to the physiological nature and meaning of fermentation.

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  • The terms biologic forms, biological species, physiological species, physiological races, specialized forms have all been applied to these; perhaps the term biologic forms is the most satisfactory.

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  • Egtfally great gaps, however, may exist between males and females, between climatic phases or summer and winter forms. The attempt to find a physiological criterion has similarly failed; many forms that have been universally accepted as true species produce fertile hybrids (see Hybridism).

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  • Fish were supposed to be born in the water without sexual connexion, and on the basis of this old physiological fallacy the Cathars equally with the Catholic framed their rule of fasting.

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  • Ray himself published an account of his foreign travel in 1673, entitled Observations topographical, moral, and physiological, made on a Journey through part of the Low Countries, Germany, Italy, and France.

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  • In the first volume a chapter "De plantis in genere" contains an account of all the anatomical and physiological knowledge of the time regarding plants, with the recent speculations and discoveries of Caesalpinus, Grew, Malpighi and Jung; and Cuvier and Dupetit Thouars, declaring that it was this chapter which gave acceptance and authority to these authors' works, say that "the best monument that could be erected to the memory of Ray would be the republication of this part of his work separately."

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  • The contracted state, instead of rapidly subsiding after discontinuance of the stimulus, slowly and only partially wears off, the muscle remaining in a condition of physiological "contracture."

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  • In the physiological basis of sense exist many impressions which, apart from and devoid of psychical accompaniment, reflexly influence motor (muscular) innervation.

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  • There is close interconnexion between the two aspects of the double activity that in physiological theory constitute the chemical life of protoplasm, between dissimilation and assimilation.

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  • Two theories of a physiological nature have been proposed to account for the separation of the complex reactions of these conditions of hypnotism from volition and from memory.

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  • The physiological derangement which is the basis of the abeyance of volition may, if hypnotism be profound, pass into more widespread derangement, exhibiting itself as the hypnotic lethargy.

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  • Moreover, by the processes the subject has gone through he has had those physiological activities upon which his volitional power depends excessively deranged, and not improbably permanently enfeebled.

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  • Do not employ such physiological antagonists as pilocarpine or morphine, for the lethal actions of all these drugs exhibit not mutual antagonism but coincidence.

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  • Well-defined polypetalous and gamopetalous genera sometimes occur in the same order, and even Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons are classed together where they have some .striking physiological character in common.

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  • In comparison with the higher plants, algae exhibit so much simplicity of structure, while the conditions under which they grow are so much more readily controlled, that they have frequently been the subject of physiological investigation with a view chiefly to the application of the results to the study of the higher plants.

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  • The experiment of Engelmann referred to deserves to be mentioned here, if only in illustration .of the use to which algae have been put in the study of physiological problems. Engelmann observed that certain bacteria were motile only in the presence of oxygen, and that they retained their motility in a microscopic preparation in the neighbourhood of an algal filament when they had come to rest elsewhere on account of the exhaustion of oxygen.

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  • The strict psychological use of the term "image" is by analogy from the physiological for a purely mental idea which is taken as being observed by the eye of the mind.

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  • Thiourea and many of its unsymmetrical derivatives have marked physiological action; thiourea causes a slowing of the pulse and respiration, cardiac failure, and death in convulsions; phenyl-, ethyland acetyl-thiourea are actively toxic. The most important derivative pharmacologically is allyl-thiourea, also known as thiosinamine or rhodallin, NH2 CS NH CH2 CH:CH2.

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  • In the effects of exercise, of physiological activity and the gross results of such external agencies as food, temperature, climate, light, pressure and so forth the intrinsic factor appears to become more important.

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  • A difference in calibre, elasticity or branching of a blood vessel, the smallest variation in a nerve or group of vessel-cells, any anatomical or physiological divergence, is reflected throughout the organism.

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  • Observed cases of correlation cover almost every kind of anatomical and physiological fact, and range from simple cases such as the relation between height of body and length of face to such an unexpected nexus as that between fertility and height in mothers of daughters.

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  • Bateson is pre-eminent, would appear to simplify the problem of variation, especially on its mechanical and physiological sides.

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  • No food passes into the hepatic caecum, which has been definitely shown on embryological and physiological grounds to be the simplest persistent form of the vertebrate liver.

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  • It has been held by some that a phenomenon so widely diffused over the western world must be attributable to physiological causes, such as alcoholism, syphilis, the abuse of narcotics and so on.

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  • The fourth essay is a systematic treatment of the nature of colour, with a description of many curious experiments and a discussion of the rainbow, halos, parhelia, diffraction, and the more purely physiological phenomena of colour.

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  • In 1860 he gave over the physiological part of his teaching to a new chair, retaining the zoological, with which his career had begun.

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  • While resident in Italy for his health from 1845 to 1847, he occupied himself with researches on the electrical organ of the torpedo and on nervous organization generally; these he published in1853-1854(Neurologische Untersuchungen, Gottingen), and therewith his physiological period may be said to end.

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  • This was followed by a series of " Physiological Letters " in the Allgemeine Zeitung, by an essay on " Glauben and Wissen," and by the most important piece of this series, " Der Kampf urn die Seele by (Gottingen, 1857).

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  • The term " electricity " is applied to denote the physical agency which exhibits itself by effects of attraction and repulsion when particular substances are rubbed or heated, also in certain chemical and physiological actions and in connexion with moving magnets and metallic circuits.

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  • He seems in this way to have educated in himself a very precise " electrical sense," making use of his own nervous system as a kind of physiological galvanometer.

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  • Woman, for certain physiological reasons, is always for primitive peoples hedged round with sanctity, whilst man does all he can to inspire awe of his powers in woman by keeping religion largely in his own hands.

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  • His investigations occupied almost the whole field of science, including physiology, physiological optics, physiological acoustics, chemistry, mathematics, electricity and magnetism, meteorology and theoretical mechanics.

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  • In physiological science he investigated quantitatively the phenomena of animal heat, and he was one of the earliest in the field of animal electricity.

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  • Helmholtz's contributions to physiological optics are of great importance.

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  • His great work on Physiological Optics (1856-1866) is by far the most important book that has appeared on the physiology and physics of vision.

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  • Equally distinguished were his labours in physiological acoustics.

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  • He explained accurately the mechanism of the bones of the ear, and he discussed the physiological action of the cochlea on the principles of sympathetic vibration.

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  • His work on Sensations of Tone (1862) may well be termed the principle of physiological acoustics.

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  • The pamphlet begins by re-stating with reference to sight the general theory that perception of an objective world rests upon an instinctive causal postulation, which even when it misleads still remains to haunt us (instead of being, like errors of reason, open to extirpation by evidence), and proceeds to deal with physiological colour, i.e.

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  • In 1828 he made inquiries about a chair at Heidelberg; and in 1830 he got a shortened Latin version of his physiological theory of colours inserted in the third volume of the Scriptores ophthalmologici minores (edited by Radius).

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  • He was a genius in all the known branches of learning; at twenty-three his physiological discoveries had made him famous throughout Europe.

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  • His own plagiarisms were doubtless facilitated by the physiological effects of opium.

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  • None of these systems, which are chiefly due to the medical bacteriologists, has maintained its position, owing to the difficulty of applying the characters and to the fact that such properties are physiological and liable to great fluctuations in culture, because a given organism may vary greatly in such respects according to its degree of vitality at the time, its age, the mode of nutrition observed; or, at any rate, the strictest rules should be followed in accepting the evidence adduced to render the union of any forms probable.

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  • Even when used in conjunction with purely morphological characters, these physiological properties are too variable to aid us in the discrimination of species and genera, and are apt to break down at critical periods.

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  • The fact that every bacterial cell in a species in most cases appears equally capable of performing all the physiological functions of the species has led most authorities, however, to regard it as the individual - a view which cannot be consistent in those cases where a simple or branched filamentous series exhibits differences between free apex and fixed base and so forth.

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  • Beyerinck and Jegunow have shown that some partially anaerobic sulphur bacteria can only exist in strata at a certain depth below the level of quiet waters where SH 2 is being set free below by the bacterial decompositions of vegetable mud and rises to meet the atmospheric oxygen coming down from above, and that this zone of physiological activity rises and falls with the variations of partial pressure of the gases due to the rate of evolution of the SH 2.

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  • This iron deposit is not merely mechanical but is due to the physiological activity of the organism which, according to Winogradsky, liberates energy by oxidizing ferrous and ferric oxide in its protoplasm - a view not accepted by H.

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  • Regarding the chemical nature of toxins less is known than regarding their physiological action.

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  • These facts show the great difficulty of the problem, which is probably insoluble by present methods of analysis; the only test, in fact, for the existence of a toxin is its physiological effect.

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  • In the case of physiological antagonism of drugs this relationship does not hold.

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  • Among the other university institutions are the academic hospital, the maternity hospital, the physiological institution, the chemical laboratory, the zoological museum, the botanical garden and the observatory on the Kdnigsstuhl.

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  • In the spring of 1844 he gained the first Ast]ey Cooper prize by a physiological essay on the thymus gland, and the following year was elected a fellow of the Royal Society.

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  • The physiological as well as the chemical antidotes must be employed.

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  • The only alkaloids likely to remain in the prepared opium, and capable of producing well-marked physiological results, are morphine, codeine and narceine.

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  • Although the excretory function of these has been demonstrated by physiological methods, however, their morphological relations are not clear.

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  • There is a physiological interpretation of the Garden of Eden.

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  • Its physiological effects are much more persistent and injurious than sulphuretted hydrogen, producing temporary paralysis of the olfactory nerves and inflammation of the mucous membrane.

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  • It comprises five faculties (literature and philosophy, jurisprudence, mathematics, natural science and medicine), and is well equipped with zoological, mineralogical and geological museums, a physiological institute, a cabinet of anthropology, and botanical gardens.

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  • Insectivorous or, as they are sometimes more correctly termed, carnivorous plants are, like the parasites, the climbers, or the succulents, a physiological assemblage belonging to a number of distinct natural orders.

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  • It does not resemble phosphorus in its physiological action and cannot be used to replace it.

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  • The development of phenomena under this law may be divided into three stages - the physical, the physiological, the intellectual and moral.

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  • From inclination and from weak health he never engaged much in practice as a physician, his interests lying in the deeper problems of medical and physiological science.

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  • His principal work, Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, consists in part of memoirs, read in 1796 and 1 797 to the Institute, and is a sketch of physiological psychology.

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  • While he was engaged in physiological researches, he composed a dissertation on the nature and propagation of sound, and an answer to a prize question concerning the masting of ships, to which the French Academy of Sciences adjudged the second rank in the year 5727.

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  • The only physiological discovery which can be safely attributed to him is that of the contractility of the iris.

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  • In physiological matters he is in advance of Aristotle and Galen, though we can hardly assert - as has sometimes been thought - that he anticipated Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood.

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  • In 1832 he wrote a paper for the Royal Society of London on the "Organs of the Human Voice," in which he gave many illustrations of the physiological action of these parts, and in 1833 a Bridgewater treatise, The Hand: its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as evincing Design.

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  • The seventh book consists largely of the discussion of various physiological questions.

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  • The early segmentation of the embryo differs in the several groups, but usually the first leaf or leaves, the apex of the stem and the first root are differentiated early, while a special absorbent organ (the foot) maintains for some time the physiological connexion between the sporophyte and the prothallus.

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  • The rigidity of the integument caused by the deposition of dense chitin upon it is intimately connected with the physiological activity and form of all the internal organs, and is undoubtedly correlated with the total disappearance of the circular muscular layer of the body-wall present in Chaetopods.

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  • It is not enough merely to repel the incursions of physiological science, armed with hypotheses and theories valid enough in their own sphere, upon the domain of consciousness.

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  • But no one can tell whether the study of physiological phenomena in general, and of nervous phenomena in particular, will not reveal to us, besides the vis viva or kinetic energy of which Leibnitz spoke, and the potential energy which was a later and necessary adjunct, some new kind of energy which may differ from the other two by rebelling against calculation" (Bergson, Time and Free Will, Eng.

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  • This argument has been met in recent times by the application to mind of the physiological theory of heredity, according to which changes produced in the mind (brain) of a parent, by association of ideas or otherwise, tend to be inherited by his offspring; so that the development of the moral sense or any other faculty or susceptibility of existing man may be hypothetically carried back into the prehistoric life of the human race, without any change in the manner of derivation supposed.

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  • The physiological action of stramonium resembles that of belladonna, except that stramonium relaxes to a greater extent the unstriped muscle of the bronchial tubes; for this reason it is used in asthma to relieve the bronchial spasm.

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  • In it, for the first time, the results of human and comparative anatomy, as well as of chemistry and other departments of physical science, were brought to bear on the investigation of physiological problems. The most important portion of the work was that dealing with nervous action and the mechanism of the senses.

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  • South-west of these buildings, on the other side of the Johannisthal Park, are clustered the medical institutes and hospitals of the university - the infirmary, clinical and other hospitals, the physico-chemical institute, pathological institute, physiological institute, ophthalmic hospital, pharmacological institute, the schools of anatomy, the chemical laboratory, the zoological institute, the physicomineralogical institute, the botanical garden and also the veterinary schools, deaf and dumb asylum, agricultural college and astronomical observatory.

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  • P. de Candolle in botany, and before he had reached his majority he was engaged with Pierre Prevost in original work on problems of physiological chemistry, and even of embryology.

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  • We may therefore consider it settled that the different species of the group are now in that degree of physiological differentiation which enables them to produce offspring with each other, but does not permit of the progeny continuing the race, at all events unless reinforced by the aid of one of the pure forms.

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  • In most of the older classifications great importance was attached to these physiological characters, and a number of genera were established which, owing to the numerous annectent forms which have since been discovered, must be abandoned.

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  • This case arises when the visual angle, under which the object appears, is approximately a minute of arc; it is due to the physiological construction of the retina, for the ends of nerve fibres, which receive the impression of light, have themselves a definite size.

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  • But owing to the physiological effect carbon bisulphide has on the workmen, coupled with the chemical action of impure carbon bisulphide on iron which has frequently led to conflagrations, the employment of carbon bisulphide must remain restricted.

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  • Efforts have been made during the last few years to introduce this solvent on a large scale, but its high price and its physiological effect on the workmen have hitherto militated against it.

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  • Binz, for instance, defines it as treating of the origin, nature, chemical and physical qualities, physiological actions, and therapeutical uses of drugs; in France and in Italy it is restricted to the mere description of medicines and their preparations, the action and uses of which as remedies are included in the term therapeutics.

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  • In works such as Pareira's Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics (1842), the physiological effects of medicines are usually described, but very briefly as compared with the materia medica.

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  • Numerous researches have demonstrated these points with regard to individual groups of substances, but hitherto it has not been possible to formulate any fixed laws regarding the relationship between chemical constitution and physiological action.

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  • The antagonism between certain drugs has been much studied in relation to their use as antidotes in poisoning, the aim being to counteract the effects rather than to obtain a direct physiological antagonistic action.

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  • The close alliance between pharmacology, therapeutics and clinical medicine has induced many authors to treat the subject from a clinical point of view, while its relationships to chemistry and physiology have been utilized to elaborate a chemical and physiological classification respectively as the basis for systematic description.

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  • A physiological classification according to an action on the brain, heart, kidney or other important organ becomes still more bewildering, as many substances produce the same effects by different agencies, as, for instance, the kidneys may be acted upon directly or through the circulation, while the heart may be affected either through its muscular substance or its nervous apparatus.

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  • - When pure oxygen is inhaled the only effect is a slight increase of the amount of the gas in the blood, but this has no particular physiological effect.

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  • The uptake and distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in the organs of interest reflects the physiological processes involved.

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  • The stated approach of Burnett is to examine the history of drinks beyond any purely realist notions of physiological need or innate desire.

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  • In De rebus naturalibus Zabarella points out that the art of medicine adopts the physiological part from the philosophy of nature.

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  • There is nothing like giving to put you into an open, receptive mood, with all the physiological benefits that this brings.

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  • The behavioral and physiological effects of culling red deer.

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  • Fitzgerald, M. and Fulton, B.P. (1992) The physiological properties of developing sensory neurons.

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  • In the later stages of pregnancy some substantial physiological changes occur.

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  • Accordingly we evaluated the physiological demands of a swim bench to determine if it is reliable and valid for freestyle swimming.

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  • Then it is intended to identify a physiological or pharmacological switch that can promote or increase neuronal synchrony.

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  • The concept of a physiological signal is central to much theorizing on the control of food intake.

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  • D.Phil Oxford University 1990: Behavioral and physiological thermoregulation in solitary bees.

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  • Symptoms include reduced root growth, and inhibition of various physiological processes including transpiration, respiration and photosynthesis.

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  • Animations are the #1 most effective way to help students visualize complex physiological concepts.

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  • A good pediatrician can help to quell the fears of new parents, but he can also spot any developmental or physiological problems early on, which can often lead to more effective treatment.

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  • The difference between daytime and nighttime potty training basically boils down to a learned action versus a physiological development.

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  • Evo cat food offers cat owners a way to provide their pets with a diet suited to their particular nutritional and physiological foods.

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  • Yoga and meditation use breathing to decrease physiological responses.

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  • When people look for fun ways to relieve stress they are looking for a way to relieve the physiological symptoms that are related to stress.

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  • Physiological responses are things such as a suppressed immune system, accelerated heart rate, raised blood pressure, problems with digestion and increased respiration.

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  • Rolling it around can provide a physical outlet for pent up physiological symptoms.

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  • Many people use these to keep their physiological response to stress at a low level.

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  • Kava Kava is effective in reducing anxiety because it helps heightened physiological responses from stress return to a relaxed state.

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  • Anger has a physiological component, which means you may experience an increase in blood pressure and heart rate.

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  • Try Relaxation Techniques: [[Relaxation Imagery Exercises| Relaxation imagery exercises]] and breathing exercises can help you calm down physiological responses to your stress, which then will help you feel much better mentally as well.

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  • Taking a walk, run, or bicycle ride are all great ways to lower physiological responses to stress and help you ease your mind.

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  • Go back to your journal and read about the physiological responses you had to each episode.

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  • Knowing the physiological signs of anger will help you anticipate rage and take action to control it.

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  • By following these steps, you should have been able to identify what angers you, common themes of your anger, and physiological reactions to stress that lead to rage.

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  • The physical effects of stress result from the body activating certain physiological systems and inactivating or slowing others to conserve resources.

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  • Eventually, the individual learns to associate the physiological and biological changes in the body that take place under a false or real danger and the learned behavior repeatedly results in a panic attack.

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  • During moments of intense anxiety or panic, your body's "fight or flight" response kicks into gear, which naturally leads to intense physiological responses.

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  • This will slow down your physiological responses to stress and slow down your breathing.

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  • This is because the medication just takes the edge off the physiological responses to the anxiety.

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  • A client will identify physiological responses to stress and then learn how to lower them with stress reduction techniques.

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  • There are physiological reactions to stress that cause you to feel anger to the point of outbursts.

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  • All of these physiological responses, along with others, prepare your body to either fight or retreat.

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  • At any age, proper diet is essential, but is most important to teens who are setting the physiological groundwork for their future.

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  • This research was summarized in Physiological Chemistry and Physics (1978).

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  • Alcohol rehab is a process where an alcohol dependant person restores his/her physiological, psychological and mental equilibrium by participation in a structured and professionally monitored program.

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  • For years, scientists have been studying both the psychological and the physiological causes of drug addiction.

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  • This is why the physiological causes of drug addiction should be taken just as seriously as the psychological causes.

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  • No matter which route is taken, it is essential for the addict to know that the physiological causes of drug addiction can be hard to combat.

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  • One of the causes of depression is physiological.

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  • Telling a lie - especially a lie that is meant to conceal something significant - usually prompts a physiological response from the person telling the lie.

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  • Even if the person does not actually sense the physiological response, it has an effect nonetheless.

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  • The nose is closely connected to the brain, so when a person tells a lie it is not uncommon for the act of lying to prompt a neurological response that creates an unnoticeable physiological reaction on the nose.

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