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physics

physics

physics Sentence Examples

  • His whole theory appears to be vitiated by the confusion of physics and psychology.

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  • This makes a great deal of sense: If nutrition isn't governed by universal laws (as physics is) and instead affects different people differently, then the way you will know certain things is by learning through trial and error, through your own experience.

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  • Clausius as ordinary professor of physics in the university of Bonn.

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  • The appeal to authority cannot be permitted in economics any more than in chemistry, physics or astronomy.

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  • Human philosophy, theoretical physics, poetry, Italian Masters, romance.

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  • Possessing an immense range of knowledge, he has filled up lacunae in nearly every part of physics, by experiment, by calculation, and by clear accurate thought.

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  • Magnus, he turned his attention to physics, and graduated in 1864 with a thesis on the depolarization of light.

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  • He understood that latent heat (as they say in physics) of patriotism which was present in all these men he had seen, and this explained to him why they all prepared for death calmly, and as it were lightheartedly.

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  • In 1834 he was appointed professor of physics, but in 5839 contracted an affection of the eyes while studying the phenomena of colour and vision, and, after much suffering, resigned.

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  • are: - (1) The extensive work on the fundamental notions of physics, called Communia Naturalium, which is found in the Mazarin library at Paris, in the British Museum, and in the Bodleian and University College libraries at Oxford; (2) on the fundamental notions of mathematics, De Cornmunibus Mathematicae, part of which is in the Sloane collection, part in the Bodleian; (3) Baconis Physica, contained among the additional MSS.

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  • LEOPOLDO NOBILI (1784-1835), Italian physicist, born at Reggio nell' Emilia in 1784, was in youth an officer of artillery, but afterwards became professor of physics in the archducal museum at Florence, the old habitat of the Accademia del Cimento.

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  • He was summoned from his seclusion in 1871 to become the first holder of the newly founded professorship of Experimental Physics in Cambridge; and it was under his direction that the plans of the Cavendish Laboratory were prepared.

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  • He was summoned from his seclusion in 1871 to become the first holder of the newly founded professorship of Experimental Physics in Cambridge; and it was under his direction that the plans of the Cavendish Laboratory were prepared.

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  • He was appointed professor of physics at Berlin in 1839, and died there on the 12th of July 1877.

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  • The only circumstance which physics has to consider is the transference of movement from one particle to another, and the change of its direction.

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  • In 18J4 he left Berlin to become professor of physics in Basel University, removing nine years afterwards to Brunswick Polytechnic, and in 1866 to Karlsruhe Polytechnic. In 1871 he accepted the chair of physical chemistry a t Leipzig.

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  • And as the undefinable essence of the force moving the heavenly bodies, the undefinable essence of the forces of heat and electricity, or of chemical affinity, or of the vital force, forms the content of astronomy, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, and so on, just in the same way does the force of free will form the content of history.

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  • The science of Descartes was physics in all its branches, but especially as applied to physiology.

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  • The first book, after a short introduction upon the nature of theology as understood by Aquinas, proceeds in 119 questions to discuss the nature, attributes and relations of God; and this is not done as in a modern work on theology, but the questions raised in the physics of Aristotle find a place alongside of the statements of Scripture, while all subjects in any way related to the central theme are brought into the discourse.

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  • These were so highly thought of that in 1909 he was appointed extraordinary professor of theoretical physics at the university of Zurich.

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  • Thury, professor of physics at Geneva, who was also convinced of the operation of an unknown force.

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  • physics and astronomy.

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  • The following branches have especially felt his influence: - chemical physics, capillarity and viscosity, theory of gases, flow of liquids, photography, optics, colour vision, wave theory, electric and magnetic problems, electrical measurements, elasticity, sound and hydrodynamics.

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  • But it seems pretty clear that if there is any change in weight consequent on chemical change, it is too minute to be of im- portance to the chemist, though the methods of modern physics may settle the question.

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  • In preparation for these he spent the winter of 1877-1878 in reading up original treatises like those of Laplace and Lagrange on mathematics and mechanics, and in attending courses on practical physics under P. G.

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  • His first contributions to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids," and "Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by means of Surfaces."

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  • His Logic, Metaphysics, Physics, De Caelo, are treatises giving a synoptic view of Aristotelian doctrine.

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  • Yet Hobbes appears (as Clarke points out) to have vaguely felt the difficulty; and in a passage of his Physics (chap. 25, sect.

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  • In 1845 he was appointed to the chair of chemistry, physics and technology at the Wiesbaden Agricultural Institution, and three years later he became the first director of the chemical laboratory which he induced the Nassau government to establish at that place.

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  • For eight years subsequently he held the chair of Physics and Astronomy in King's College, London, but resigned in 1868 and retired to his estate of Glenlair in Kirkcudbrightshire.

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  • Returning to New Haven in 1869, he was appointed professor of mathematical physics in Yale College in 1871, and held that position till his death, which occurred at New Haven on the 28th of April 1903.

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  • For eight years subsequently he held the chair of Physics and Astronomy in King's College, London, but resigned in 1868 and retired to his estate of Glenlair in Kirkcudbrightshire.

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  • Einstein's work is so important and has proved fertile in so many various branches of physics that it is not possible to do more than enumerate a few of the most salient papers.

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  • In both these doctrines of a priori science Descartes has not been subverted, but, if anything, corroborated by the results of experimental physics; for the so-called atoms of chemical theory already presuppose, from the Cartesian point of view, certain aggregations of the primitive particles of matter.

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  • In 1911 he accepted the chair of physics in Prague, only to be induced to return to his own polytechnic school at Zurich as full professor in the following year.

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  • 1868), devoted himself to solar research, and became chief assistant in the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington.

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  • In both these doctrines of a priori science Descartes has not been subverted, but, if anything, corroborated by the results of experimental physics; for the so-called atoms of chemical theory already presuppose, from the Cartesian point of view, certain aggregations of the primitive particles of matter.

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  • 1868), devoted himself to solar research, and became chief assistant in the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington.

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  • Scarcely any member of the Arabian circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and music, was left untouched by the treatises of Avicenna, many of which probably varied little, except in being commissioned by a different patron and having a different form or extent.

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  • He graduated, at West Point in 1853, served for two years in the artillery, was assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy at West Point in 1855-1860, and while on leave (1860-1861) was professor of physics at Washington university, St Louis.

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  • in the British Museum; (4) the fragment called Quinta Pars Compendii Theologiae, in the British Museum; (5) the Compendium Studii Theologiae, in the British Museum; (6) the logical fragments, such as the Summulae Dialectices, in the Bodleian, and the glosses upon Aristotle's physics and metaphysics in the library at Amiens.

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  • He was professor of mathematics at Gratz (1864-1867), of physics at Prague (1867-1895), and of physics at Vienna (1895-1901).

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  • From 1879 to 1884 he was Cavendish professor of experimental physics in the university of Cambridge, in succession to Clerk Maxwell; and in 1887 he accepted the post of professor of natural philosophy at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, which he resigned in 1905.

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  • In this way he has gone over a great portion of the field of physics, and in many cases has either said the last word for the time being, or else started new and fruitful developments.

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  • And the chief contribution of Aristotle to theism is a theory, found in his Physics as well as his Metaphysics, of God as first mover of the universe, himself unmoved.

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  • From 1863 to 1870 he was secretary and recorder to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and in the last year of his life he lectured on mathematical physics at Harvard.

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  • Rohault's version of the Cartesian physics was translated into English; and Malebranche found an ardent follower in John Norris (1667-171 I).

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  • It thus draws upon physics for the explanation of the phenomena with the space-relations of which it is specially concerned.

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  • In 1891 he was appointed lecturer in physics at Stockholm and four years later became full professor.

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  • His eldest son, Eilhard Ernst Gustav, born at Berlin on the 1st of August 1852, became professor of physics at Erlangen in 1886, and his younger son, Alfred, born at Berlin on the 18th of July 1856, was appointed to the extraordinary professorship of Egyptology at Bonn in 1892.

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  • In 1875 he was transferred to the Science and Art Department at South Kensington, and on the foundation of the Royal College of Science he became director of the solar physics observatory and professor of astronomical physics.

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  • Charles, however, has given good grounds for supposing that it is merely a preface, and that the work went on to discuss grammar, logic (which Bacon thought of little service, as reasoning was innate), mathematics, general physics, metaphysics and moral philosophy.

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  • (Oxon.)], Spirit Identity and Spirit Teaching; Zbllner, Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (the part relating to spiritualism has been translated into English under the title Transcendental Physics by C. C. Massey); Report of the Seybert Commission on Spiritualism (Philadelphia, 1887); Professor Th.

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  • From about 1796 Ampere gave private lessons at Lyons in mathematics, chemistry and languages; and in 1801 he removed to Bourg, as professor of physics and chemistry, leaving his ailing wife and infant son at Lyons.

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  • Science, he says, may be compared to a tree; metaphysics is the root, physics is the trunk, and the three chief branches are mechanics, medicine and Ouvres, viii.

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  • In 1867 he became privatdozent in Berlin University, and in the following year was chosen professor of physics at the Zurich Polytechnic: then, after a year or two at Wurzburg, he was called in 1872 to Strassburg, where he took a great part in the organization of the new university, and was largely concerned in the erection of the Physical Institute.

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  • The majority of them are addressed to Mersenne, and deal with problems of physics, musical theory (in which he took a special interest), and mathematics.

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  • He became teacher of science successively at the French gymnasium in Berlin, and at the military academy, and on the foundation of the university of Berlin in 1810 he was chosen professor of physics.

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  • His earlier papers were mostly concerned with crystallography, and the reputation they gained him led to his appointment as Privatdozent at Konigsberg, where in 1828 he became extraordinary, and in 1829 ordinary, professor of mineralogy and physics.

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  • But he did not stop short in the region of what is usually termed physics.

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  • The attention he had paid to chemistry in the earlier part of his career enabled him to hold his own in this position, but he found his work more congenial when in 1887 he was transferred to the professorship of physics.

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  • This general law, known as the principle of the "dissipation of energy," was first adequately pointed out by Lord Kelvin in 1852; and was applied by him to some of the principal problems of cosmical physics.

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  • But he also produced original work in mathematical and experimental physics.

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  • After that, apparently, logic was to be treated; then, possibly, mathematics and physics; then speculative alchemy and experimental science.

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  • After studying at Tubingen and Erlangen, he taught chemistry and physics, first at Keilhau, Thuringia, and then at Epsom, England, but most of his life was spent at Basel, where he undertook the duties of the chair of chemistry and physics in 1828 and was appointed full professor in 1835.

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  • After serving for a short time in the artillery, he was appointed in 1797 professor of mathematics at Beauvais, and in 1800 he became professor of physics at the College de France, through the influence of Laplace, from whom he had sought and obtained the favour of reading the proof sheets of the Mecanique celeste.

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  • Kirchhoff's mathematical teaching that he took up the study of mathematical physics at Konigsberg under F.

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  • In 1859 he became privat-docent in physics and chemistry at Breslau, where in the preceding year he had graduated as Ph.

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  • Meyer, became professor of physics at Breslau in 1864.

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  • He was the author of over 70 papers on mechanics and physics published in the transactions of learned societies, notably Sub-Mechanics of the Universe, issued by the Royal Society, whose gold medal he won in 1888.

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  • A further differentiation of the provinces of chemistry and physics is shown by the classifications of matter.

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  • Chemistry and physics, however, meet on common ground in a well-defined branch of science, named physical chemistry, which is primarily concerned with the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition, and, more generally, with the elucidation of natural phenomena on the molecular theory.

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  • Although for a long time lecturers and professors had been attached to universities, generally their duties had also included the study of physics, mineralogy and other subjects, with the result that chemistry received scanty encouragement.

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  • Physical Chemistry We have seen how chemistry may be regarded as having for its province the investigation of the composition of matter, and the changes in composition which matter or energy may effect on matter, while physics is concerned with the general properties of matter.

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  • The limiting law expressing the behaviour of gases under varying temperature and pressure assumes the form pv= RT; so stated, this law is independent of chemical composition and may be regarded as a true physical law, just as much as the law of universal gravitation is a true law of physics.

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  • He died on the 18th of January 1878 in Paris, where from 1837 he had been professor of physics at the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle.

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  • His Son, Alexandre Edmond Becquerel (1820-1891), was born in Paris on the 24th of March 1820, and was in turn his pupil, assistant and successor at the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle; he was also appointed professor at the short-lived Agronomic Institute at Versailles in 1849, and in 1853 received the chair of physics at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers.

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  • His contributions to the theories of Elasticity and of Waves rank high among modern developments of mathematical physics, although they are mere units among the 150 scientific papers attached to his name in the Royal Society's Catalogue.

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  • Every branch of physics gives rise to an application of mathematics.

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  • In 1887 Svante Arrhenius, professor of physics at Stockholm, put forward a new theory which supposed that the freedom of the opposite ions from each other was not a mere momentary freedom at the instants of molecular collision, but a more or less permanent freedom, the ions moving independently of each other through the liquid.

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  • PIERRE JULES CESAR JANSSEN (1824-1907), French astronomer, was born in Paris on the 22nd of February 1824, and studied mathematics and physics at the faculty of sciences.

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  • In 1831 he returned to Berlin as lecturer on technology and physics at the university.

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  • Thomson (Applications of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry, 47) that on dynamical principles there must be a reciprocal relation between the changes of dimensions produced by magnetization and the changes of magnetization attending mechanical strain.

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  • After attending the Ecole Polytechnique at Paris, he became professor of physics successively at Bologna (1832), Ravenna (1837) and Pisa (1840).

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  • In 1850 he returned to Göttingen and began to prepare his doctor's dissertation, busying himself meanwhile with "Naturphilosophic" and experimental physics.

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  • This double cultivation of his scientific powers had the happiest effect on his subsequent work; for the greatest achievements of Riemann were effected by the application in pure mathematics generally of a method (theory of potential) which had up to this time been used solely in the solution of certain problems that arise in mathematical physics.

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  • where he took the first prize in mathematics and physics; at the Ecole Polytechnique, where he stood first at the exit examination in 1819; and at the Ecole des Mines (1819-1822), where he began to show a decided preference for the science with which his name is associated.

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  • " These writings contained," says Haureau, " the text of the Organon, the Physics, the Metaphysics, the Ethics, the De anima, the Parva naturalia and a large number of other treatises of Aristotle, accompanied by continuous commentaries.

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  • Permission was given to lecture on the logical books, both those which had been known all along and those introduced since 1128, but the veto upon the Physics is extended to the Metaphysics and the summaries of the Arabian commentators.

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  • in that year makes no mention of any Aristotelian works except the Physics.

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  • Even in 1847 astronomy, physics, logic and other subjects of the kind had to be taught in several of the lyceums through the medium of Latin.

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  • The principal contributors to the " Transactions " of this section of the academy were--for anatomy and physiology, Coloman Balogh, Eugene Jendrassik, Joseph Lenhossek and Lewis Thanhoffer; for zoology, John Frivaldszky, John Kriesch and Theodore Margo; for botany, Frederick Hazslinszky, Lewis Juranyi and Julius Klein; for mineralogy and geology, Joseph Szabo, Max Hantken, Joseph Krenner, Anthony Koch and Charles Hoffman; for physics, Baron Lorando Eotviis, Coloman Szily and Joseph Sztoczek; for chemistry, Charles Than and Vincent Wartha; for meteorology, Guido Schenzl.

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  • As good text-books, for which the so-called " Ladies' Prize " was awarded by the academy, we may mention the Termeszettan (Physics) and Termeszettani foldrajz (Physical Geography) of Julius Greguss.

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  • Molecular physics also attracted his notice, and he announced in 1824 his purpose of treating the subject in a separate work.

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  • The theory of probabilities, which Laplace described as common sense expressed in mathematical language, engaged his attention from its importance in physics and astronomy; and he applied his theory, not only to the ordinary problems of chances, but also to the inquiry into the causes of phenomena, vital statistics and future events.

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  • Anatomy and the study of animal mechanism, animal physics and animal chemistry, all of which form part of a true zoology, were excluded from the usual definition of the word by the mere accident that the zoologist had his museum but not his garden of living specimens as the botanist had; 1 and, whilst the zoologist was thus deprived of the means of anatomical and physiological study - only later supplied by the method of preserving animal bodies in alcohol - the demands of medicine for a knowledge of the structure of the human animal brought into existence a separate and special study of human anatomy and physiology.

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  • Thus he carried on the narrative of orderly development from the point at which it was left by Kant and Laplace - explaining by reference to the ascertained laws of physics and chemistry the configuration of the earth, its mountains and seas, its igneous and its stratified rocks, just as the astronomers had explained by those same laws the evolution of the sun and planets from diffused gaseous matter of high temperature.

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  • Finally, it brought the simplest living matter or formless protoplasm before the mental vision as the startingpoint whence, by the operation of necessary mechanical causes, the highest forms have been evolved, and it rendered unavoidable the conclusion that this earliest living material was itself evolved by gradual processes, the result also of the known and recognized laws of physics and chemistry, from material which we should call not living.

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  • Thus mysticism was finally banished from the domain of biology, and zoology became one of the physical sciences - the science which seeks to arrange and discuss the phenqmena of animal life and form, as the outcome of the operation of the laws of physics and chemistry.

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  • General Tendencies Since Darwin Darwin may be said to have founded the science of bionomics, and at the same time to have given new stimulus and new direction to morphography, physiology, and plasmology, by uniting them as contributories to one common biological doctrine-the doctrine of organic evolution-itself but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry.

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  • For medicine in England Harvey did what William Gilbert did for physics and Robert Boyle for chemistry: he insisted upon direct interrogation of natural processes, and thereby annihilated the ascendancy of mere authority, which, while nations were in the making, was an essential principle in the welding together of heterogeneous and turbulent peoples.

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  • conceptions will be opened out, not in bacteriology only, but also in biological chemistry and in molecular physics.

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  • As the prevalence of the conceptions signified and inspired by the word "phlogiston" kept alive ontological notions of disease, so the dissipation of vitalistic conceptions in the field of physics prepared men's minds in pathology for the new views opened by the discoveries of Pasteur on the side of pathogeny, and of J.

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  • Thus the reciprocity of the various organs, maintained throughout the divisions of physiological labour, is not merely a mechanical stability; it is also a mutual equilibration in functions incessantly at work on chemical levels, and on those levels of still higher complexity which seem to rise as far beyond chemistry as chemistry beyond physics.

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  • A condition of this reform was the need of a preliminary training of the mind of the pupil in pure science, even in physics and chemistry; that is to say, before introduction into his professional studies.

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  • He spent about three months in the Low Countries, and in March 1737 returned to Cirey, and continued writing, making experiments in physics (he had at this time a large laboratory), and busying himself with iron-founding, the chief industry of the district.

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  • His work in physics concerns us less than any other here; it is, however, not inconsiderable in bulk, and is said by experts to give proof of aptitude.

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  • The he Board of Education directly administers the following educational institutions - the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, with its branch at Bethnal Green, from both of which objects are lent to various institutions for educational purposes; the Royal College of Science, South Kensington, with which is incorporated the Royal School of Mines; the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom and the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street; the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington; and the Royal College of Art, South Kensington.

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  • These miners' schools (Bergschule, ecoles des mineurs) give elementary instruction in chemistry, physics, mechanics, mineralogy, geology and mathematics and drawing, as well as in such details of the art of mining as will best supplement the practical information already acquired in underground work.

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  • Kastner (1783-1857), was appointed in 1821 to the chair of physics and chemistry at the latter university.

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  • He graduated from U.S. Naval Academy in 1873 and was instructor in physics and chemistry there during 18 75-9.

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  • In 1883 he was appointed professor of physics at the Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, 0., and six years later accepted a similar position at Clark University.

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  • In 1892 he was appointed professor and head of the department of physics at the university of Chicago.

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  • He received medals and prizes from many learned societies and in 1907 was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics.

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  • deals with physics and may be regarded as a summary of the Speculum Naturale.

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  • HERMANN FRANZ MORITZ KOPP (1817-1892), German chemist, was born on the 30th of October 1817 at Hanau, where his father, Johann Heinrich Kopp (1777-1858), a physician, was professor of chemistry, physics and natural history at the Lyceum.

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  • He must not be confused with Emil Kopp (1817-1875), who, born at Warselnheim, Alsace, became in 1847 professor of toxicology and chemistry at the Ecole superieure de Pharmacie at Strasburg, in 1849 professor of physics and chemistry at Lausanne, in 1852 chemist to a Turkey-red factory near Manchester, in 1868 professor of technology at Turin, and finally, in 1871, professor of technical chemistry at the Polytechnic of Zurich, where he died in 1875.

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  • - (Dr Bridges.) The first and greatest aim of the Positive Philosophy is to advance the study of society into the third of the three stages, - to remove social phenomena from the sphere of theological and metaphysical conceptions, and to introduce among them the same scientific observation of their laws which has given us physics, chemistry, physiology.

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  • Social physics will consist of the conditions and relations of the facts of society, and will have two departments, - one, statical, containing the laws of order; the other dynamical, containing the laws of progress.

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  • Comte's special object is a study of social physics, a science that before his advent was still to be formed; his second object is a review of the methods and leading generalities of all the positive sciences already formed, so that we may know both what system of inquiry to follow in our new science, and also where the new science will stand in relation to other knowledge.

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  • Comte's series or hierarchy is arranged as follows: (i) Mathematics (that is, number, geometry, and mechanics), (2) Astronomy, (3) Physics, (4) Chemistry, (5) Biology, (6) Sociology.

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  • Physics and Chemistry.-Bulletin des sciences physiques (1888); L'Eclairage electrique (1894); Le Radium (1904); Revue generale des sciences pures et appliquees (1890); Revue pratique de l'electriciti (1892).

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  • Abbott, produced in 1861 a valuable Report on the Physics and Hydraulics of the Mississippi River.

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  • p. 215), but Felice Fontana (1730-1805), professor of physics at the university of Pisa, and afterwards director of the museum at Florence, had already anticipated the invention in 1775, though no doubt this fact was unknown to Rittenhouse.

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  • In 1734 he was admitted a member of the London Royal Society, four years later he entered the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and in 1753 he was appointed to the newly-instituted chair of experimental physics in the College de Navarre.

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  • Stimulated by the example of Charles IV., who had founded the university of Prague in 1348, Casimir on the 12th of May 1364 established and richly endowed the first university of Cracow, which had five professors of Roman law, three of Canon law, two of physics, and one master of arts.

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  • His earliest research work was undertaken in Rutherford's laboratory in Manchester, whither he went as lecturer in physics after leaving Oxford.

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  • On his final return to Basel in 1682, he devoted himself to physical and mathematical investigations, and opened a public seminary for experimental physics.

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  • There, in addition to the learned lectures by which he endeavoured to revive mathematical science in the university, he gave a public course of experimental physics.

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  • The early lessons which he had received from his father were continued by his uncle Daniel, and such was his progress that at the age of twenty-one he was called to undertake the duties of the chair of experimental physics, which his uncle's advanced years rendered him unable to discharge.

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  • The problem of the stresses in rarefied gaseous media arising from inequalities of temperature, which is thereby opened out, involves some of the most delicate considerations in molecular physics.

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  • densus, thick), in physics, the mass or quantity of matter contained in unit volume of any substance: this is the absolute density; the term relative density or specific gravity denotes the ratio of the mass of a certain volume of a substance to the mass of the same volume of some standard substance.

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  • - Density and density determinationsare discussed in all works on practical physics; reference may be made to B.

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  • (1901); Kohlrausch, Practical Physics; Ostwald, Physico-Chemical Measurements.

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  • molecula, the diminutive of moles, a mass), in chemistry and physics, the minutest particle of matter capable of separate existence.

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  • Franklin sailed again for America in August 1762, hoping to be able to settle down in quiet and devote the remainder of his life to experiments in physics.

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  • COUNT MIKHAIL MIKHAILOVICH SPERANSKI (1772-1839), Russian statesman, the son of a village priest, spent his early days at the ecclesiastical seminary in St Petersburg, where he rose to be professor of mathematics and physics.

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  • His college career was distinguished, especially in mental philosophy, mathematics and physics.

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  • This being so, not only were physics and mathematics impossible as sciences of necessary objective truth, but our apparent consciousness of a permanent self and object alike must be delusive.

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  • Carneades also assailed Stoic theology and physics.

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  • In solar physics Huggins suggested a spectroscopic method for viewing the red prominences in daylight; and his experiments went far towards settling a much-disputed question regarding the solar distribution of calcium.

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  • A third group, of increasing importance, comprises cases in which curves or surfaces arise out of the application of graphic methods in engineering, physics and statistics.

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  • His voluminous writings in philology, natural history, physics and mathematics often accordingly have a good deal of the historical interest which attaches to pioneering work, however imperfectly performed; otherwise they now take rank as curiosities of literature merely.

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  • This description, quoted from James Clerk Maxwell's article in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, represents the historical position of the subject up till about 1860, when Maxwell began those constructive speculations in electrical theory, based on the influence of the physical views of Faraday and Lord Kelvin, which have in their subsequent development largely transformed theoretical physics into the science of the aether.

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  • Wood, have been written largely on the basis of the general physics of the aether; while the Collected Papers of Lord Rayleigh should be accessible to all who desire a first-hand knowledge of the development of the optical side of the subject.

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  • Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to physics.

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  • It is presented as a historic document rather than as a current physics resource.

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  • The first book teaches physics - in the wide sense which the Greeks assigned to this term - by means of extracts.

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  • The introduction of the coefficients now called Laplace's, and their application, commence a new era in mathematical physics.

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  • In 1854 he turned his attention to solar physics, and for the purpose of obtaining a daily photographic representation of the state of the solar surface he devised the photo-heliograph, described in his report to the British Association, "On Celestial Photography in England" (1859), and in his Bakerian Lecture (Phil.

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  • The results obtained in the years1862-1866were discussed in two memoirs, entitled "Researches on Solar Physics," published by De la Rue, in conjunction with Professor Balfour Stewart and Mr B.

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  • With all the important work he accomplished in physics - the enunciation of Boyle's law, the discovery of the part taken by air in the propagation of sound, and investigations on the expansive force of freezing water, on specific gravities and refractive powers, on crystals, on electricity, on colour, on hydrostatics, &c. - chemistry was his peculiar and favourite study.

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  • After that date two more became known; the whole was familiar to John of Salisbury in 1159; while the Physics and Metaphysics came into notice about 1200.

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  • Daunou (October 1795), which divided the pupils of the " central schools " into three groups, according to age, with corresponding subjects of study: (r) twelve to fourteen, = drawing, natural history, Greek and Latin, and a choice of modern languages; (2) fourteen to sixteen, - mathematics, physics, chemistry; (3) over sixteen, - general grammar, literature, history and constitutional law.

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  • Another brother, Christian Heinrich Pfaff (1773-1852), graduated in medicine at Stuttgart in 1793, and from 1801 till his death was professor of medicine, physics and chemistry at the university of Kiel.

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  • In 1871 he began to turn his attention to experimental physics, his earlier researches bearing upon the polarization of light and his later work upon the electrical discharge in rarefied gases.

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  • There is hardly a branch of mathematical physics which is independent of these functions.

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  • Though he did not altogether neglect logic and physics, he maintained that virtue is the only real aim of men.

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  • He was educated at Upsala University, where in 1839 he became privat docent in physics.

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  • In 1858 he succeeded Adolph Ferdinand Svanberg (1806-1857) in the chair of physics at Upsala, and there he died on the 21st of June 1874.

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  • After spending a short time in Strassburg he was appointed lecturer in physics at Stockholm University in 1885, but in 1891 returned to Upsala, where in 1896 he became professor of physics.

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  • He excelled in logic, the theory of knowledge, ethics and physics.

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  • Clark (1891); Glazebrook and Shaw's Physics (1901).

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  • Forster in 1887, which undertakes researches with reference to physics and mechanics, particularly as applied to technical industries.

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  • The systems of Plato and Aristotle sought to adjust the rival claims of physics and ethics (although the supremacy of the latter was already acknowledged); but the popular religions were thrown overboard.

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  • It might seem, indeed, that Stoicism indicates a falling off from Plato and Aristotle towards materialism, but the ethical dualism, which was the ruling tendency of the Stoa, could not long endure its materialistic physics, and took refuge in the metaphysical dualism of the Platonists.

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  • Subsequently he became professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and in 1876 he was appointed professor of astronomy and director of the Harvard College observatory.

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  • He soon turned to the law, though for a time he was teacher of physics in a small local college; eventually went into politics, and did excellent work in 1847 as governor of his native state.

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  • They naturally divide themselves into researches on sound, light and electricity, but extend into other branches of physics as well.

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  • Physics, iv.

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  • 7repi aXoaoOlas: On philosophy (perhaps cited in Physics, ii.

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  • those of the Physics, vii., and those of the De Anima, ii., discovered by Torstrik; or two discussions of the same subject, e.g.

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  • The different works are more or less connected by a system of references, which give rise to difficulties, especially when they are cross-references: for example, the Analytics and Topics quote one another: so do the Physics and the Metaphysics; the De Vita and De Respiratione and the De Partibus Animalium; this latter treatise and the De Animalium Incessu; the De Interpretatione and the De Anima.

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  • from 335-334 to 322; and from the references of one work to another Zeller has further suggested a chronological order of composition during this period of twelve years, beginning with the treatises on Logic and Physics, and ending with that on Metaphysics.

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  • This is obvious enough in the Metaphysics: it has two openings (Books A and a); then comes a nearly consecutive theory of being (B, F, E, Z, H, 0), but interrupted by a philosophical lexicon A; afterwards follows a theory of unity (1); then a summary of previous books and of doctrines from the Physics (K); next a new beginning about being, and, what is wanted to complete the system, a theory of God in relation to the world (A); finally a criticism of mathematical metaphysics (M, N), in which the argument against Plato (A 9) is repeated almost word for word (M 4-5).

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  • Physics, vii.

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  • Thus he would enter in the Metaphysics a reference to the Physics, and in the Physics a reference to the Metaphysics, precisely because both were manuscripts in his library.

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  • In order to refer back to the Physics, the De Coelo, and the De Generatione, this work begins by stating that the first causes of all nature and all natural motion, the stars ordered according to celestial motion and the bodily elements with their transmutations, and generation and corruption have all been discussed; and by adding that there remains to complete this investigation, what previous investigators called meteorology.

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  • We have to remember the traces of his separate discourses, and his own double versions; and that, as in ancient times Simplicius, who had two versions of the Physics, Book vii., suggested that both were early versions of Book viii.

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  • He gradually became a logician out of his previous studies: out of metaphysics, for with him being is always the basis of thinking, and common principles, such as that of contradiction, are axioms of things before axioms of thought, while categories are primarily things signified by names; out of the mathematics of the Pythagoreans and the Platonists, which taught him the nature of demonstration; out of the physics, of which he imbibed the first draughts from his father, which taught him induction from sense and the modification of strict demonstration to suit facts; out of the dialectic between man and man which provided him with beautiful examples of inference in the Socratic dialogues of Xenophon and Plato; out of the rhetoric addressed to large audiences, which with dialectic called his attention to probable inferences; out of the grammar taught with rhetoric and poetics which led him to the logic of the proposition.

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  • But at any rate the process was gradual; and Aristotle was advanced in metaphysics, mathematics, physics, dialectics, rhetoric and poetics, before he became the founder of logic.

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  • The Physics, De Coelo, De Generatione et Corruptione, Meteorologica.

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  • But Zeller does not give enough weight either to the evidence of early composition contained in the Politics and Meteorology, or to the evidence of subsequent contemporaneous composition contained in the cross-references, e.g between the Physics and the Metaphysics.

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  • Lastly, though the Metaphysics often quotes the Physics, and is therefore regarded as being subsequent, it is itself quoted in the Physics (i.

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  • Zeller tries to get over this difficulty of cross-reference by detaching Metaphysics, Book A, from the rest and placing it before the Physics.

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  • The truth is that the Metaphysics both precedes and follows the Physics, because it had been all along occupying Aristotle ever since he began to differ from Plato's metaphysical views and indeed forms a kind of presupposed basis of his whole system.

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  • It gives too much weight to Aristotle's logic, and too little to his metaphysics, on account of two prejudices of the commentators which led them to place both logic and physics before metaphysics.

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  • Aristotle rightly used all the sciences of his day, and especially his own physics, as a basis of his metaphysics.

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  • For example, at the very outset he refers to the Physics (ii.

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  • This and other applications of the science of nature to the science of all being induced the commentators to adopt this order, and entitle the science of being the Sequel to the Physics (re, But Aristotle knew nothing of this title, the first known use of which was by Nicolaus Damascenus, a younger contemporary of Andronicus, the editor of the Aristotelian writings, and Andronicus was probably the originator of the title, and of the order.

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  • On the other hand, Aristotle entitles the science of all being " Primary Philosophy " (irpcori OeXoaoOla), and the science of physical being " Secondary Philosophy " (SEUTEpa 49eXoa041a), which suggests that his order is from Metaphysics to Physics, the reverse of his editor's order from Physics to Metaphysics.

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  • Thus the traditional order puts Physics before Metaphysics without Aristotle's authority.

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  • It is, however, not the real order for studying the philosophy of Aristotle, because there is more Metaphysics in his Physics than Physics in his Metaphysics, and more Metaphysics in his Logic than Logic in his Metaphysics.

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  • The commentators themselves were doubtful about the order: Boethus proposed to begin with Physics, and some of the Platonists with Ethics or Mathematics; while Andronicus preferred to put Logic first as Organon (Scholia, 25 b 34 seq.).

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  • Primary philosophy, Metaphysics, the science of being, is the solid foundation of all parts of his philosophical system; not only in the Physics, but also in the De Coelo (i.

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  • E 2), and would in the classification include not only metaphysics and mathematics, but also physics, ethics, economics, politics, necessary and fine art; or in short.

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  • Such is the great mind of Aristotle manifested in the large map of learning, by which we have now to determine the order of his extant philosophical writings, with a view to studying them in their real order, which is neither chronological nor traditional, but philosophical and scientific. Turning over the pages of the Berlin edition, but passing over works which are perhaps spurious, we should put first and foremost speculative philosophy, and therein the primary philosophy of his Metaphysics (980 a 211093 b 29); then the secondary philosophy of his Physics, followed by his other physical works, general and biological, including among the latter the Historia Animalium as preparatory to the De Partibus Animalium, and the De Anima and Parva Naturalia, which he called " physical " but we call " psychological" (184 a 10-967 b 27); next, the practical philosophy of the Ethics, including the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia as earlier and the Nicomachean Ethics as later (1094-124 9 b 25), and of the Politics (1252-1342), with the addition of the newly discovered Athenian Constitution as ancillary to it; finally, the productive science, or art, of the Rhetoric, including the earlier Rhetoric to Alexander and the later Rhetorical Art, and of the Poetics, which was unfinished (1354-end).

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  • Aristotle, who made this great discovery, must have had great difficulty in developing the new investigation of reasoning processes out of dialectic, rhetoric, poetics, grammar, metaphysics, mathematics, physics and ethics; and in disengaging it from other kinds of learning.

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  • He really left the Peripatetics to combine his scattered discourses and treatises into a system, to call it logic, and logic Organon, and to put it first as the instrument of sciences; and it was the Stoics who first called logic a science, and assigned it the first place in their triple classification of science into logic, physics, ethics.

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  • 4, 1 359 b To; cf, 1 35 6 b 9, 1 357 a 30, b 25); and in the Metaphysics he evidently refers to it as " the science which considers demonstration and science," which he distinguishes from the three speculative sciences, mathematics, physics and primary philosophy (Met.

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  • Therefore his contemporary, Cicero, who knew the early dialogues on Philosophy, the Eudemus and the Protrepticus, and also among the mature scientific writings the Topics, Rhetoric, Politics, Physics and De Coelo, to some extent, was justified by Aristotle's example and precept in drawing the line between two kinds of books, one written popularly, called exoteric, the other more accurately (Cic. De Finibus, v.

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  • Zabarella to the Arabians, and himself gifted with great logical powers, always deserves study in his editions of the Organon and the Physics, and in his Doctrinae Peripateticae.

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  • PIERRE CURIE (1859-1906), French physicist, was born in Paris on the 15th of May 1859, and was educated at the Sorbonne, where he subsequently became professor of physics.

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  • In 1903 they were awarded the Davy medal of the Royal Society in recognition of this work, and in the same year the Nobel prize for physics was divided between them and Henri Becquerel.

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  • 1 Within the limit of this article it is not possible to give a complete account of this most intricate branch of physics; the writer therefore confines himself to a summary of the problems which now engage scientific attention, referring the reader for details to H.

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  • At the same time, while accepting the Schellingian parallelistic identity of all things in God, Fechner was restrained by his accurate knowledge of physics from the extravagant construction of Nature, which had failed in the hands of Schelling and Hegel.

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  • Then in 1855 he published his Atomenlehre, partly founded on his physics, but mainly on his metaphysics.

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  • Fechner first confused physics and metaphysics in psychophysics, and next proceeded to confuse them again in his work on evolution (Einige Ideen zur SchOpfungs and Entwicklungs-geschichte der Organismen, 1873).

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  • Their interest to the metaphysician is their opposition to physics on the one hand and to theism on the other.

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  • Ernst Mach is a conspicuous instance of a confusion of physics and psychology ending in a scepticism like that of Hume.

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  • If he has any originality, it consists in substituting for the association of ideas the " economy of thinking," by which he means that all theoretical conceptions of physics, such as atoms, molecules, energy, &c., are mere helps to facilitate our consideration of things.

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  • " Meta physics," says he, " has no direct interest in the origin of ideas " (254), and " we have nothing to do here with the psychological origin of the perception " (35).

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  • But, with these modifications he accepted the general physics of Aristotle, the metaphysical dualism of matter and form, and the psychology founded upon it.

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  • His opinion with respect to the relation between his science and his religion is expressed in a lecture on mental education delivered in 1854, and printed at the end of his Researches in Chemistry and Physics.

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  • Richard Taylor and William Francis (1855); Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics, Taylor and Francis (1859); Lectures on the Chemical History of a Candle (edited by W.

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  • In 1883 he was appointed lecturer in Trinity College, and in the following year Cavendish professor of experimental physics in the university of Cambridge, a position he occupied until his resignation in 1918.

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  • He developed a great research laboratory of experimental physics, attracting numerous workers from many countries and colonies; advances were made in the investigation of the conduction of electricity through gases, in the determination of the charge and mass of the electron and in the development of analysis by means of positive rays.

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  • In 1905 he held the professorship of physics in the Royal Institution, London, in addition to his Cambridge professorship. He was knighted in 1908 and awarded the O.M.

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  • He was the recipient of many British and foreign awards and honours, amongst these being the Royal and Hughes medals of the Royal Society in 1894 and 1902 respectively, the Hodgkins medal of the Smithsonian Institute of Washington in 1902, the Nobel Prize for physics in 1906, enrolment as honorary graduate of many universities, and as honorary fellow of numerous American and continental scientific academies.

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  • In 1918 he was appointed master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and in the following year was elected to a newly established professorship of physics in the Cavendish Laboratory, where he continued to prosecute his researches.

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  • In addition to a large number of publications in the Proceedings of the Royal Society and the Philosophical Magazine, he has published A Treatise on the Motion of Vortex Rings (1884); The Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry (1886); Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism (1892); Elements of the Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism (18 95, 5th ed.

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  • 1921); The Discharge of Electricity through Gases (1897); The Conduction of Electricity through Gases (1903); and, with Prof. Poynting, a number of text-books upon physics.

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  • Here we get the link with physics and chemistry alluded to above, which is obtained by the recognition of new forms of energy, interchangeable with what may be called mechanical energy, or that associated with sensible motions and changes of configuration.

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  • For many years, indeed, he came to represent to ordinary Englishmen the typical or ideal professor of physics.

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  • The two young men stood for chairs of physics and natural history respectively, first at Toronto, next at Sydney, but they were in each case unsuccessful.

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  • The original memoirs themselves on radiant heat and on magnetism were collected and issued as two large volumes under the following titles: Diamagnetism and Magne-crystallic Action (1870); Contributions to Molecular Physics in the Domain of Radiant Heat (1872).

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  • From 1811 he was professor of physics at Breslau until 1832, when he accepted an invitation to Berlin.

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  • For his early education he proceeded first to the college of Charleville, and afterwards to that of Reims. in 1788 he returned to Mezieres, where he was attached to the school of engineering as draughtsman to the professors of physics and chemistry.

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  • He was for many years professor of higher physics in Turin University.

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  • He was educated first at the college of the Oratorians at Beaune, and then in their college at Lyons - where, at sixteen, the year after he had been learning physics, he was made a teacher of it.

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  • In 1768 Monge became professor of mathematics, and in 1771 professor of physics, at Mezieres; in 1778 he married Mme Horbon, a young widow whom he had previously defended in a very spirited manner from an unfounded charge; in 1780 he was appointed to a chair of hydraulics at the Lyceum in Paris (held by him together with his appointments at Mezieres), and was received as a member of the Academie; his intimate friendship with C. L.

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  • Winkler (1703-1770), professor of physics at Leipzig, substituted a leather cushion for the hand.

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  • The word " Induction," which occurs in only three or four passages throughout all his works (and these again minor ones), is never used by him with the faintest reminiscence of the import assigned to it by Bacon; and, as will be seen, he had nothing but scorn for experimental work in physics.

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  • All these controversial writings on mathematics and physics represent but one half of his activity after the age of p y g Years.

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  • Upon every subject that came within the sweep of his system, except mathematics and physics, his thoughts have been productive of thought.

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  • He then taught physics in Cyzicus and the Propontis, and subsequently, accompanied by a number of pupils, went to Athens.

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  • The Epicurean philosophy is traditionally divided into the three branches of logic, physics and ethics.

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  • In the Epicurean physics there are two parts - a general metaphysic and psychology, and a special explanation of particular phenomena of nature.

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  • This aspect of the Epicurean physics becomes clearer when we look at his mode of rendering particular phenomena intelligible.

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  • MARIE ALFRED CORNU (1841-1902), French physicist, was born at Orleans on the 6th of March 1841, and after being educated at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole des Mines, became in 1867 professor of experimental physics in the former institution, where he remained throughout his life.

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  • In 1899, at the jubilee commemoration of Sir George Stokes, he was Rede lecturer at Cambridge, his subject being the undulatory theory of light and its influence on modern physics; and on that occasion the honorary degree of D.Sc. was conferred on him by the university.

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  • Abauzit at an early age acquired great proficiency in languages, physics and theology.

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  • In later life, he gave up speculative thought and turned to scientific research, especially in mathematics, physics and astronomy.

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  • In 1873 he was appointed professor of physics and telegraphy at the Imperial College of Engineering, Tokio.

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  • On his return to London six years later he became professor of applied physics at the Finsbury College of the City and Guilds of London Technical Institute, and in 1884 he was chosen professor of electrical engineering at the Central Technical College, South Kensington.

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  • He followed his father's trade, but found time to acquire a knowledge of Latin, Greek, mathematics, physics, anatomy and other subjects.

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  • The laboratory examination may be used in subjects like physics, chemistry, geology, zoology, botany, anatomy, physiology, to test powers of manipulation and knowledge of experimental methods.

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  • In 1816 he was invited to Jena to fill the chair of theoretical philosophy (including mathematics and physics, and philosophy proper), and entered upon a crusade against the prevailing Romanticism.

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  • The grand-duke, however, continued to pay him his stipend, and in 1824 he was recalled to Jena as professor of mathematics and physics, receiving permission also to lecture on philosophy in his own rooms to a select number of students.

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  • The whole falls under the three heads of mechanics, physics and " organic " - the content under each varying somewhat in the three editions of the Encyklopadie.

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  • The great commentaries exist only for the Posterior Analytics, Physics, De Caelo, De Anima and Metaphysics.

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  • He studied mathematics and physics in his native town, Groningen, where in 1879 he took his doctor's degree on presenting a dissertation entitled New Proofs of the Earth's Rotation.

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  • In 1913 the Nobel prize for physics was conferred upon him.

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  • An application of these results to solar physics in conjunction with Sir Norman Lockyer led to the view that at least the external layers of the sun cannot consist of matter in the liquid or solid forms, but must be composed of gases or vapours.

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  • Perhaps the most original, and certainly the most permanent in their influence, were his memoirs on the theory of electricity and magnetism, which virtually created a new branch of mathematical physics.

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  • Robiquet (1780-1840); and in the following year he became professor of physics in the College de France, there succeeding P. L.

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  • From this time Regnault devoted almost all his attention to practical physics; but in 1847 he published a four-volume treatise on Chemistry which has been translated into many languages.

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  • Fourcroy at the Ecole Polytechnique, where subsequently (1809) he became professor of chemistry, and from 1808 to 1832 he was professor of physics at the Sorbonne, a post which he only resigned for the chair of chemistry at the Jardin des Plantes.

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  • He became professor of experimental physics, first at Palermo and then at Rome, and was appointed to a similar situation at Turin in 1748.

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  • The founder of logic anticipated the latest logic of science, when he recognized, not only the deduction of mathematics, but also the experience of facts followed by deductive explanations of their causes in physics.

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  • On the whole, however, Aristotle, Bacon and Mill, purged from their errors, form one empirical school, gradually growing by adapting itself to the advance of science; a school in which Aristotle was most influenced by Greek deductive Mathematics, Bacon by the rise of empirical physics at the Renaissance, and Mill by the Newtonian combination of empirical facts and mathematical principles in the Principia.

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  • Further, he perceived that the difference between the progressive and regressive orders extends from mathematics to physics, and that there are two kinds of syllogism: one progressing a priori from real ground (I) Some M is P.

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  • In his definite classification of the sciences,'" into First Philosophy, Mathematics and Physics, it has no place.

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  • We need devices, indeed, to determine priority or superior claim to be " better known absolutely or in the order of nature," but on the whole the problem is fairly faced.4 Of science Aristotle takes for his examples sometimes celestial physics, more often geometry or arithmetic, sometimes a concrete science, e.g.

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  • Celestial physics, with its pure forms and void of all matter save extension, is not such an exemplary science after all.

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  • It is a heuristic process liable to failure, and its application by a nation of talkers even to physics where non-expert opinion is worthless somewhat discredited it.

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  • The example of Aristotle's view of celestial physics as a science of pure forms exhibits both points.

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  • Despite the fact that their philosophic interests lay rather in ethics and physics, their activity The in what they classified as the third department of specula Stoics.

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  • Democritean physics without a calculus had necessarily proved sterile of determinate concrete results, and this was more than enough to ripen the naturalism of the utilitarian school into scepticism.

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  • Plato is full of the faith of mathematical physics.

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  • In scientific method, then, it could but advance, provided physics and mathematics did not again fail of accord.

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  • The new method of physics is verifiable by its fruitfulness, and so free of any immediate danger from dialectic. Its germinal thought may not have been new, but, if not new, it had at least needed rediscovery from the beginning.

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  • Mill aspired after a doctrine of method such as should satisfy the needs of the natural sciences, notably experimental physics and chemistry as understood in the first half of the 19th century and, mutatis mutandis, of the moral sciences naturalistically construed.

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  • we are more dependent in physics, less so in ethics.

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  • same is true of physical quantities such as potential, temperature, &c., throughout small regions in which their variations are continuous; and also, without restriction of dimensions, of moments of inertia, &c. Hence, in addition to its geometrical applications to surfaces of the second order, the theory of quadric functions of position is of fundamental importance in physics.

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  • But one most important connexion with modern physics must be pointed out.

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  • Hence it is customary to speak of their theories as a mixture of theosophy and physics, or theosophy and chemistry, as the case may be.

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  • Three years later he was elected to the Berlin Academy of Sciences, which in 1754 put him in charge of its chemical laboratory and in 1760 appointed him director of its physics class.

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  • Man's place is not even central, as he appears a temporary inhabitant of a minor planet in one of the lesser stellar systems. Every science is involved, and theology has come into conflict with metaphysics, logic, astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology, zoology, biology, history and even economics and medicine.

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  • In science the process has been reversed; nature ascends, so to speak, into the region of the supernatural and subdues it to itself; the marvellous or miraculous is brought under the domain of natural law, the canons of physics extend over metaphysics, and religion takes its place as one element in the natural relationship of man to his environment.

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  • After acting as assistant to Berthollet, he became successively professor of chemistry at the faculty of sciences and the normal and veterinary schools at Alfort, and then (1820) professor of physics at the Ecole Polytechnique, of which he was appointed director in 1830.

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  • In 1815, in conjunction with Alexis Therese Petit (1791-1820), the professor of physics at the Ecole Polytechnique, he made careful comparisons between the mercury and the air thermometer.

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  • The universities of Bologna, Padua and Salerno had been famous through the middle ages for the study of law, physics and medicine; and during the 15th and 16th centuries the first two still enjoyed celebrity in these faculties.

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  • This early work indicated that whilst there were a number of cases in which the square 1 A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (2 vols.), by James Clerk Maxwell, sometime professor of experimental physics in the university of Cambridge.

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  • Succeeding Maxwell as Cavendish professor of physics at Cambridge in 1880, he soon devoted himself especially to the exact redetermination of the practical electrical units in absolute measure.

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  • Electric Waves.-In the decade 1880-1890, the most important advance in electrical physics was, however, that which originated with the astonishing researches of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894).

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  • Speculative or theoretical natural philosophy has to deal with natural substances and qualities and is subdivided into physics and metaphysics.

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  • Physics inquires into the efficient and material causes of things; metaphysics, into the formal and final causes.

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  • The principal objects of physics are concrete substances, or abstract though physical qualities.

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  • The research into abstract qualities, the fundamental problem of physics, comes near to the metaphysical study of forms, which indeed differs from the first only in being more general, and in having as its results a form strictly so called, i.e.

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  • Following this summary philosophy come the sciences proper, rising like a pyramid in successive stages, the lowest floor being occupied by natural history or experience, the second by physics, the third, which is next the peak of unity, by metaphysics.

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  • Of the sciences, physics, as has been already seen, deals with the efficient and material, i.e.

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  • In physics, however, these matters are treated only as regards their material or efficient causes, and the result of inquiry into any one case gives no general rule, but only facilitates invention in some similar instance.

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  • 10 The knowledge of final causes does not lead to works, and the consideration of them must be rigidly excluded from physics.

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  • Physics inquires into the same qualities, but does not push its investigations into ultimate reality or reach the more general causes.

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  • In physics you wisely note, and therein I agree with you, that after the notions of the first class and the axioms concerning them have been by induction well made out and defined, syllogism may be applied safely; only it must be restrained from leaping at once to the most general notions, and progress must be made through a fit succession of steps."

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  • The son of a tea merchant, he was for some time engaged in business in Leith and in Australia, but, returning to his studies of physics at Edinburgh, he became assistant to J.

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  • Of other papers in which he dealt with this and kindred branches of physics may be mentioned "Observations with a Rigid Spectroscope," "Heating of a Disc by Rapid Motion in Vacuo," "Thermal Equilibrium in an Enclosure Containing Matter in Visible Motion," and "Internal Radiation in Uniaxal Crystals."

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  • In 1870, the year in which he was very seriously injured in a railway accident, he was elected professor of physics at Owens 1 On the 6th of November 1878 his body was stolen from St Mark's churchyard in New York, but recovered in 1881 upon the payment of $20,000, and buried in the crypt of the cathedral in Garden City.

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  • In 1858 he became professor of physiology in Heidelberg, and in 1871 he was called to occupy the chair of physics in Berlin.

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  • His great work on Physiological Optics (1856-1866) is by far the most important book that has appeared on the physiology and physics of vision.

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  • For the later years of his life his labours may be summed up under the following heads: (1) On the conservation of energy; (2) on hydro-dynamics; (3) on electro-dynamics and theories of electricity; (4) on meteorological physics; (5) on optics; and (6) on the abstract principles of dynamics.

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  • Two children were born of this marriage, a son, Robert, who died in 1889, after showing in experimental physics indications of his father's genius, and a daughter, who married a son of Werner von Siemens.

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  • He had a marvellous capacity for work, and between 1516 and 1520, in addition to all his other duties, he published commentaries on the Summulae of Petrus Hispanus, and on the Dialectics, Physics and lesser scientific works of Aristotle, which became the text-books of the university.

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  • Its numerous editions bear witness to its popularity, and until the final fall of Aristotle's physics it continued a popular textbook.

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  • Yet Leibnitz and Sir William Hamilton recognize him as the best modern exponent of the physics and metaphysics of Aristotle.

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  • For the most part he lived in England and Holland, devoting himself to the study of physics and making a living, apparently, by the manufacture of meteorological instruments.

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  • If the recognition of physics and logic as two studies coordinate with ethics is sufficient to differentiate the mature Zeno from the Cynic author of the Republic, no less than from his own heterodox disciple Aristo, the Cleanthes.

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  • Herein lies the key to the entire system of the Stoics, as Cleanthes's epoch-making discovery continually received fresh applications to physics, ethics and epistemology.

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  • So absolutely is the " rare and priceless wisdom " for which we strive identical with virtue itself that the three main divisions of philosophy current at the time and accepted by Zeno - logic, physics and ethics - are defined as the most generic or comprehensive virtues.

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  • The reaction came and left nothing of it all; for five centuries the dominant tone of the older and the newer schools alike was frankly materialistic. " If," says Aristotle, " there is no other substance but the organic substances of nature, physics will be the highest of the sciences," a conclusion which passed for axiomatic until the rise of Neoplatonism.

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  • The analogues therefore of metaphysical problems must be sought in physics; particularly that problem of the causes of things for which the Platonic idea and the Peripatetic " constitutive form " had been, each in its turn, received solutions.

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  • Thus that harmony of separate doctrines which contributes to the impressive simplicity of the Stoic physics is only attained at the cost of offending healthy common sense, for Body itself is robbed of a characteristic attribute.

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  • In Heraclitus the constant flux is a metaphysical notion replaced by the interchange of material elements which Chrysippus stated as a simple proposition of physics.

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  • But they rarely prosecuted researches in physics or astronomy, and the newly created sciences of biology and comparative anatomy received no adequate recognition from them.

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  • No other theory was possible upon the foundation of the Stoic physics.

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  • The ethical theory of the Stoics stands in the closest connexion with their physics, psychology and cosmology.

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  • The physical basis of the system remained unchanged but neglected; all creative force or even original research in the departments of physics and metaphysics vanished.

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  • But his attention is claimed for physics chiefly as a means of elevating the mind, and as making known the wisdom of Providence and the moral government of the world.

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  • Berthollet's most remarkable contribution to chemistry was his Essai de statique chimique (1803), the first systematic attempt to grapple with the problems of chemical physics.

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  • We shall therefore endeavour to apply to this subject the methods used in Thermodynamics, and where these fail us we shall have recourse to the hypotheses of molecular physics.

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  • He was educated at Midhurst grammar school and at the Royal College of Science, where he was trained in physics, chemistry, astronomy, geology and biology.

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  • In physics, Descartes had prepared the way for the final triumph of the mechanical explanation of the world in Newton's system.

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  • He obtained a B.Sc. from London University in 1875 with high honours and a D.Sc. in 1878, when he became professor of experimental physics in University College, Bristol.

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  • By that time he had removed to London, becoming professor of Physics in the City and Guilds of London Technical College, Finsbury, in 1885 and subsequently its principal.

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  • The education which he received at Malmesbury included a smattering of logic and physics; but moral philosophy and history, especially the latter, were the subjects to which he devoted most attention.

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  • 1861), was in 'goo appointed professor of physics in the university of Liverpool.

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  • Schering the Disquisitiones arithmeticae, (2) Theory of Numbers, (3) Analysis, (4) Geometry and Method of Least Squares, (5) Mathematical Physics, (6) Astronomy, and (7) the Theoria motus corporum coelestium.

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  • After acting as privat-docent at Berlin for some time, he became extraordinary professor of physics at Breslau in 1850.

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  • Four years later he was appointed professor of physics at Heidelberg, and in 1875 he was transferred to Berlin, where he died on the 17th of October 1887.

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  • Kirchhoff's contributions to mathematical physics were numerous and important, his strength lying in his powers of stating a new physical problem in terms of mathematics, not merely in working out the solution after it had been so formulated.

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  • ad, to, gregare, to collect together), in physics, a collective term for the forms or states in which matter exists.

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  • This idea of universal activity has in a sense made physics itself a branch of history.

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  • 20) points out, it is an earlier form of the Valentinian doctrine, but there are things in it which remind us of the Stoic physics, and much use is made of the Aristotelian distinction between ivEpyeca and &uvaµcs.

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  • In 1847 he was made professor of physics at Bonn; and from that time his scientific activity took a new and astonishing turn.

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  • He published numerous works on different branches of physics, including A Complete Treatise on Electricity (1777), Treatise on the Nature and Properties of Air and other permanently Elastic Fluids (1781), History and Practice of Aerostation (1785), Treatise on Magnetism (1787), Elements of Natural and Experimental Philosophy (1803), Theory and Practice of Medical Electricity (1780), and Medical Properties of Factitious Air (1798).

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  • Besides pictures, the master seems also to have shown and explained to his visitors some of his vast store of notes and observations on anatomy and physics.

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  • some portion of his labours in those sciences and give them to the world, an incalculable impulse would have been given to all those enquiries by which mankind has since been striving to understand the laws of its being and control the conditions of its environment, - to mathematics and astronomy, to mechanics, hydraulics, and physics generally, to geology, geography, and cosmology, to anatomy and the sciences of life.

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  • Logic, ethics and physics, psychology, theory of knowledge and metaphysics are all fused together by Plato in a semi-religious synthesis.

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  • The details of physics, for example, were abandoned to the scientific specialist, and philosophy restricted itself in this department to the question of the relation of the physical universe to the ultimate ground or author of things.

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  • In the same way, physics may be said to assume the notion of material atoms and forces.

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  • We also possess in fragments a History of Physics, a treatise On Stones, and a work On Sensation, and certain metaphysical 'Airopiac, which probably once formed part of a systematic treatise.

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  • His works embraced politics, astronomy, medicine, music, theology, jurisprudence, physics, grammar and history.

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  • But the work there was not to his liking, and after a short time he gave it up for an instructorship in natural science at the university of Wooster, Ohio, which in turn he resigned in order to return to Troy as assistant professor of physics.

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  • Finally, in 1876, he became the first occupant of the chair of physics at the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, a position which he retained until his premature death on the 16th of April 1901.

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  • When the managers of the Johns Hopkins University asked advice in Europe as to whom they should make their professor of physics, he was pointed out in all quarters as the best man for the post.

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  • In the interval between his election and the assumption of his duties at Baltimore, he studied physics under Helmholtz at Berlin, and carried out a well-known research on the effect of an electrically charged body in motion, showing it to give rise to a magnetic field.

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  • Hence our only guides are such general laws of mechanics and physics as we can hardly believe any circumstances will falsify.

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  • In 1730 he became professor of physics, and in 1733 he succeeded Daniel Bernoulli in the chair of mathematics.

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  • He achieved the rare distinction of obtaining an optime for both Greek and for physics.

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  • He went, however, to the university of Bologna, where his famous kinswoman, Laura Bassi, was professor of physics, and it is to her influence that his scientific impulse has been usually attributed.

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  • of the quadrangle, the Rockefeller Hall of Physics (1906) and the New York State College of Agriculture (completed in 1907); and S.E.

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  • 1849), the department of physics under Prof. E.

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  • He dedicated no small portion of his time to the study of pure mathematics, to investigations in physics and chemistry, and even to anatomy and architecture; and there can be no doubt that this varied learning enhanced considerably the value of many of his judicial decisions.

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  • Applications to Physics are numerous, but are usually only of special interest.

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  • During the years 1833-1843 he contributed very largely to the first edition of the [[Penny]] Cyclopaedia, writing chiefly on mathematics, astronomy, physics and biography.

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  • Jean Pierre Minckelers, professor of natural philosophy in the university of Louvain, and later of chemistry and physics at Maestricht, made experiments on distilling gas from coal with the view of obtaining a permanent gas sufficiently light for filling balloons, and in 1785 experimentally lighted his lecture room with gas so obtained as a demonstration to his students, but no commercial application was made of the fact.

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  • The nature of the dream, in which the elder Scipio appears to his (adopted) grandson, and describes the life of the good after death and the constitution of the universe from the Stoic point of view, gives occasion for Macrobius to discourse upon many points of physics in a series of essays interesting as showing the astronomical notions then current.

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  • "Because reference to the Deity will not serve for a physical explanation in physics, or a chemical explanation in chemistry, it does not therefore follow," as Professor Ward says (op. cit.

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  • In 1757 he settled in St Petersburg as member of the imperial academy of sciences and professor of physics, and remained there till his retirement in 1798.

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  • Experiment in physics became the fashion.

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  • On completing his noviciate, which was spent at Rome, he studied mathematics and physics at the Collegium Romanum; and so brilliant was his progress in these sciences that in 1740 he was appointed professor of mathematics in the college.

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  • And many scientific thinkers, while professing allegiance to a theory which insists upon the independence of each parallel series, in reality tacitly assume the superior importance if not the controlling force of the physical over the psychical terms. But a mere insistence upon the complete independence of the physical series coupled with the belief that its changes are wholly explicable as modes of motion, that the study of molecular physics is competent to explain all the phenomena of life and organic movements, is sufficient to eliminate the possibility of spontaneity and free origination from the universe.

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  • He became professor of physics at Bologna in 1798, in succession to his teacher Sebastiano Canterzani (1734-1819).

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  • Even Socrates, in spite of his aversion to physics, was led by pious reflection to expound a teleological view of the physical world, as ordered in all its parts by divine wisdom for the realization of some divine end; and, in the metaphysical turn which Plato gave to this view, he was probably anticipated by Euclid of Megara, who held that the one real being is " that which we call by many names, Good, Wisdom, Reason or God," to which Plato, raising to a loftier significance the Socratic identification of the beautiful with the useful, added the further name of Absolute Beauty, explaining how man's love of the beautiful finally reveals itself as the yearning for the end and essence of being.

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  • The physics and psychology of Descartes were much studied in England, and his metaphysical system was certainly the most important antecedent of Locke's; but Descartes hardly touched ethics proper.

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  • In 1763 he entered Göttingen university, where in 1769 he became extraordinary professor of physics, and six years later ordinary professor.

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  • Solar physics has profited enormously by the abolition of glare during total eclipses.

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  • Their characteristic physics.

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  • The physics.

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  • The first two are occupied entirely with his Syntagma philosophicum; the third contains his critical writings on Epicurus, Aristotle, Descartes, Fludd and Lord Herbert, with some occasional pieces on certain problems of physics; the fourth, his Institutio astronomica, and his Commentarii de rebus celestibus; the fifth, his commentary on the tenth book of Diogenes Laertius, the biographies of Epicurus, N.

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  • It is divided, according to the usual fashion of the Epicureans, into logic (which, with Gassendi as with Epicurus, is truly canonic), physics and ethics.

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  • In the second part of the Syntagma, the physics, there is more that deserves attention; but here, too, appears in the most glaring manner the inner contradiction between Gassendi's fundamental principles.

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  • While approving of the Epicurean physics, he rejects altogether the Epicurean negation of God and particular providence.

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  • But others were not slow to draw the obvious conclusions; and it may be conjectured that Gorgias's sceptical development of the Zenonian logic contributed, not less than Protagoras's sceptical development of the Ionian physics, to the diversion of the intellectual energies of Greece from the pursuit of truth to the pursuit of culture.

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  • He became professor of mathematics in the Jesuits' college at Cologne in 1817 and in the polytechnic school of Nuremberg in 1833, and in 1852 professor of experimental physics in the university of Munich, where he died on the 7th of July 1854.

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  • Nowadays "Ohm's Law," as it is called, in which all that is most valuable in the pamphlet is summarized, is as universally known as anything in physics.

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  • In 1215 the same prohibition was repeated, specifying the Metaphysics and Physics, and the Commentaries by the Spaniard Mauritius (i.e.

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  • But under the influence of Thomas Thomson (1773-1852), the professor of chemistry, he developed a taste for experimental science and especially for molecular physics, a subject which formed his main preoccupation throughout his life.

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  • Pictet in physics, C. G.

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  • By attention to crop rotation, soil physics and world-wide search for plants adapted to the Great Plains (such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture has long been conducting), a very great deal can be accomplished - no one can say how much; but certainly the Western must long remain at a great disadvantage in comparison with the Eastern portion of the state as regards the growth of cereals.

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  • Leslie's main contributions to physics were made by the help of the "differential thermometer," an instrument whose invention was contested with him by Count Rumford.

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  • This chair he exchanged for that of mathematics and physics at Yale in 1825; in 1836, when this professorship was divided, he retained that of astronomy and natural philosophy.

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  • In 1774 he was appointed professor of physics in the gymnasium of Como, and in 1777 he travelled through Switzerland, where he formed an intimate friendship with H.

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  • In 1779 a chair of physics was founded in Pavia, and Volta was chosen to occupy it.

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  • A short sojourn at Freiburg in Switzerland was followed by his appointment in 1831 to the newly-created chair of mathematical physics at the university of Turin.

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  • His writings cover the entire range of mathematics and mathematical physics.

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  • These are mainly embodied in his three great treatises, Cours d'analyse de l'Ecole Polytechnique (1821); Le Calcul infinitesimal (1823); Lecons sur les applications du calcul infinitesimal a la g'ometrie (1826-1828); and also in his courses of mechanics (for the Ecole Polytechnique), higher algebra (for the Faculte des Sciences), and of mathematical physics (for the College de France).

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  • During his university course, which began in 1740, Kant was principally attracted towards mathematics and physics.

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  • His lectures, at first mainly upon physics, gradually expanded until nearly all descriptions of philosophy were included under them.

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  • His memory began to fail, and a large work at which he wrought night and day, on the connexion between physics and metaphysics, was found to be only a repetition of his already published doctrines.

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  • to the pure forms of conjunction of the manifold in time, and in the modes of combination of schemata and categories we have the foundation for the rational sciences of mathematics and physics.

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  • He studied at the university of Halle, where he took his doctor's degree in 1826 and became extraordinary professor of physics in 5828.

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  • Three years later he removed to Göttingen as professor of physics, and remained there till 1837, when he was one of the seven professors who were expelled from their chairs for protesting against the action of the king of Hanover (duke of Cumberland) in suspending the constitution.

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  • A period of retirement followed this episode, but in 1843 he accepted the chair of physics at Leipzig, and six years later returned to Göttingen, where he died on the 23rd of June 1891.

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  • Human philosophy, theoretical physics, poetry, Italian Masters, romance.

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  • Every major physics concept is treated, but should arrive to the student in a real-world context. The book departs from the "physics for physicists" approach of concentrating on physics principles and trying to find applications.

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  • Keywords: Solid state physics, Lattice dynamics, Lattice sums, convergence acceleration, Incomplete gamma Function.

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  • accelerator physics research in particle physics in UK universities.

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  • accelerator physics.

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  • He took over the writing of the recent advances in Physics pieces for Science Progress.

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  • geometric algebra can be applied to any subject in mathematics, physics or engineering which is in some part rooted in geometry.

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  • They will be talking about the link between brain anatomy, physiology & intelligence, blending physics, chemistry and biology.

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  • Rayleigh discovered the gas argon and was awarded the Nobel prize for physics in 1904.

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  • astronomy cosmology particle physics WATER ON THE SUN.

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  • It publishes papers which report results of research in nuclear physics and related fields such as nuclear astrophysics.

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  • Proven record of high quality research in experimental particle physics or particle astrophysics.

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  • Physics and Arts Subjects: Physics 2X, 2Y at a grade point average of 14.

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  • aviator r in the physics quot chance favors.

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  • The beautiful crystal balls appear to defy the laws of physics, creating the magical illusion that they are floating in mid air.

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  • billiard ball model of physics.

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  • RESEARCH GROUPS Palaeobiology Research Group We welcome applications from students with backgrounds in geology, zoology, biology, and occasionally physics and/or biomathematics.

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  • biotic aspect, why are physics and chemistry linked to the same aspect?

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  • Under Thomson and Rutherford, it became the birthplace of nuclear physics.

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  • I agree, physics reveals phenomena at which the mind truly boggles.

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  • The measurements of the guage boson properties enables the Standard Model of particle physics to be tested to incredibly high precision.

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  • Breaking the Laws of Physics, again, Monterey engineers added a spacious cuddy cabin to last years wildly popular 228 SI.

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  • The causal link is there for all to see: ye canna ' change the laws of physics.

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  • The downward causation observed in physics or biology does not have such a strong impact.

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  • Physics impacts on all aspects of our technological society, from highspeed fibreoptic telecommunications and ultra-fast computing to solar cells and nuclear power.

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  • A bad situation while he was and gun sights 9 gram clay poker chips badash of physics PokerProducts.com at.

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  • To think that cognitive science is somehow essentially concerned with intelligent behavior is like thinking that physics is essentially a science of meter readings.

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  • Nature of problem: The forthcoming experiments at the high energy electron-positron collider LEP2 will be mainly concerned with WW physics and Higgs search.

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  • collider experiments, addressing a broad range of issues in modern particle physics.

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  • collider physics, particle theory is nowadays also studied in the context of the early universe.

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  • commenced employment with the University in January 1963 in the Department of Physics.

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  • complexityeas are no longer pipe dreams; they already exist within the bewildering complexities of quantum physics.

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  • cosmology particle physics WATER ON THE SUN.

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  • cosmology elements of the A-level Physics syllabus.

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  • Rev. Lett.) astronomy cosmology particle physics WATER ON THE SUN.

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  • Traveling with ATLAS into the micro cosmos into an area of unknown physics.

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  • The new devices are based on the physics of photonic bandgap crystals.

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  • A particle physics Grid for the UK GridPP is the UK's contribution to analyzing this data deluge.

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  • derided the ideas from statistical physics and countered by producing " Art of the Absurd " .

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  • In addition we have frequently richly detailed games with advanced 3D graphics, high quality sound and even realistic physics.

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  • Includes research into physics of the plasma, its optimization and its application and plasma diagnostics.

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  • Her research interests span the field of chemical physics: from high resolution spectroscopy to laser diagnostics and even astrochemistry and radioastronomy.

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  • discoveryhelp to tell millions about these wonderful, discoveries in physics that belong to every man, woman and child on earth.

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  • distributed free to all UK Physics Departments.

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  • doctorate in physics from Warsaw University in 1938.

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  • eigenvalue problem appears in a number of branches of Physics.

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  • Rev. Lett., 30 April 2001.) atomic physics computers Einstein quantum theory COMPLEXITY AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER.

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  • elder statesmanhn Wheeler, one of the distinguished elder statesmen of American physics today: " .

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  • The " advanced physics " package covers electromagnetism, quantum and nuclear physics and thermodynamics in twenty simulations.

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  • electroweak interactions in particle physics.

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  • elementary particle physics must get a copy.

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  • Their armsas Ellis down manually under accepted component of physics at the.

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  • emersed in biochemistry and atomic physics.

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  • In physics, to sustain oneself is to keep far away from thermodynamic equilibrium, which is death by another name.

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  • Physics is a classic example of complexity in studies.

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  • Particle physics experiments are performed at accelerators where the products of head-on collisions between matter and antimatter are studied with huge detectors.

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  • experimental quantum physics, mathematics, logic, computer science and information theory.

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  • Theoretical Physics hypertext faux pas These are the things not to do!

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  • The night they put the fizz in into physics was the jolly sub's merry headline.

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  • flunked the only nuclear physics course he took before dropping out altogether.

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  • formalism used in particle physics.

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  • frontiers of the physics and technology of nanometre-scale structures.

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  • Only today I received a call from Physics wanting to open a discussion on a joint research bid with cultural geographers!

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  • geometric algebra can be applied to any subject in mathematics, physics or engineering which is in some part rooted in geometry.

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  • Women constitute 19% of the 1999/2000 first-year physics grad students and 29% in astronomy.

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  • gram clay poker chips badash of physics PokerProducts.com at.

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  • You can read all about gyroscopes and the physics behind them in this issue's feature article, galloping gyroscopes.

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  • Now for the first time, the AGEIA PhysX Processor delivers the computing horsepower necessary to enable true, advanced physics in games.

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  • The language of physics or chemistry lectures is often imprecise.

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  • improper to speak about the physics integration into the game engine.

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  • incoherent scattering, similar to the phenomenon of localization in physics.

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  • inexorable logic of my own special branch of physics.

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  • John Meaney has a degree in Physics and Computer Science, plus a black belt in shotokan karate.

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  • laboratoryl submitted his et barthelemy with july villari e. L v the live further awayif in physics laboratories he did this.

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  • laws of physics.

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  • laws of physics and stops dead in the swift water.

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  • In order to then find those final leptons, we have used a standard detector in particle physics: the DØ detector.

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  • I wrote a rather lighthearted article about brownie badges for " Physics World " .

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  • While working for his physics degree he used a mainframe and during post-graduate work was writing programs in Fortran.

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  • Via MetaFilter, a bit of physics in action: Bush's necktie produces TV wardrobe malfunction.

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  • Did you know you can learn a lot of physics from making maple syrup?

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  • Particle physics experiments so far directly establish only values for the square of neutrino mass differences.

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  • mathematical physics had led Euler to a wide study of differential equations.

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  • We use ideas and tools from the broad fields of fluid mechanics, physics and applied mathematics.

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  • For the last year I have been using PBL to teach mechanics to first year engineering and physics students.

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  • Candidates must have a Degree in meteorology or a Degree in mathematics, physics or geography plus an M.S. or Diploma in applied meteorology.

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  • Knowledge of cloud and aerosol physics, boundary layer meteorology, and radiative transfer will also be useful.

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  • molecular biology involved, nor chemistry or quantum physics with string theory.

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  • mousetrap cars, boats, books, plans, kits, instructions, and physics lessons, all new earth.. .

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  • At the end of the Physics, Aristotle argues from the nature of moved movers that they require a first unmoved mover.

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  • Marciano reported on the possible muon physics using the muons from a Neutrino Factory.

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  • As a high school computer nerd turned postdoc physics nerd, I am acutely aware of this seduction.

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  • neutrino physics.

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  • operates in isolation - doctors and dentists depend on chemistry, biology, physics and engineering.

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  • This covers areas from accelerator physics through engineering design, ion optics, radio-frequency engineering, magnet design and a host more.

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  • Topics cover physics, chemistry and biology, including optical illusions and the psychology of science.

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  • particle physics Grid.

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  • particle physics must get a copy.

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  • particle acceleratorenergy frontier of the present and future generation of particle physics accelerators is the TeV regime.

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  • Particle physicists are waiting for 2007 when a new particle accelerator opens in the world's largest particle physics laboratory, CERN.

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  • Keywords: elementary, particle physics, Hadrons, Phase space, Monte carlo, Rapidity, Integration, Importance sampling.

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  • particle physics experiments relys on large scale distributed computing systems.

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  • particle physics laboratory supported by PPARC.

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  • particle physics community has been at the cutting-edge of Grid development.

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  • particle physics detectors ever built, ATLAS will also pose a computing challenge of monumental scale.

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