The process causes physical difficulty and effort.
I sense physical weakness.
We've got a few thousand kids in real danger of immediate, physical harm.
"You're going to need some serious physical therapy," Wynn said and took a few notes.
She had her purse, and it wasn't as though he had done any physical harm.
As generally happens, Pierre did not feel the full effects of the physical privation and strain he had suffered as prisoner until after they were over.
She moved to face him, distracted by the fact he shifted his body to keep from breaking their physical contact.
At her inquiry, the doctor said the air tube had not caused any physical damage to Alex's vocal cords.
No one can tell the physical difference until the injections wear off.
Deidre felt the pain again, the one without a physical source but which she felt as if a knife was piercing her soul.
All her emotional and physical efforts were directed toward helping him recover and taking care of things at home.
Robots are free from the physical limits our human bodies have.
So we've determined you have no physical coordination or skills.
The physical ramifications of not feeding for over thirty hours commanded attention.
What if physical conditions have built up high walls about us?
Her misery increased at the physical reminder that she hadn.t figured out what to do about him yet.
Gabriel leaned his hip against the counter and crossed his arms in physical disagreement.
Since she had begun looking after him, he had always experienced this physical consciousness of her nearness.
To the men who fought against the rising truths of physical philosophy, it seemed that if they admitted that truth it would destroy faith in God, in the creation of the firmament, and in the miracle of Joshua the son of Nun.
He was not long for this world, and she was no Jenn-- a woman there for his physical pleasure.
He'd granted favors to women as a way of releasing his frustration, but never with any real affection-- just physical need.
She heard the sounds of a physical scuffle and another shot from Dan's direction.
Second, as technology advances, it will make things in the physical world fall in price.
Her chest was clenched so tight, she felt physical pain.
Anyway, being good looking doesn't disqualify him from physical labor.
Despite his apparently delicate build Prince Andrew could endure physical fatigue far better than many very muscular men, and on the night of the battle, having arrived at Krems excited but not weary, with dispatches from Dokhturov to Kutuzov, he was sent immediately with a special dispatch to Brunn.
All that was left was the physical act of being gone.
It had no physical source, but it hurt her physically nonetheless.
The struggle between the old views and the new was long and stubbornly fought out in physical philosophy.
These physical discomforts rendered rational thought and remembrance near impossible.
First, many things in the physical world that we think of as scarce are not really scarce, just presently beyond our ability to capture.
It was so much more than their physical joining; she'd felt him from the inside.
The chance for physical harm was too great.
To create a fake identity, one would need at a minimum, our age, physical description and picture.
Drinking became more and more a physical and also a moral necessity.
The battle got so bad that the only way to prevent the annihilation of every being in the universe was to divide the physical and divine worlds.
Billie and Willie were journeymen criminals, and both had spent time in jail for a number of offenses, mostly physical in nature.
Despite her anger, she recognized the physical effort he put into his words.
That physical attraction was responsible for the pounding of her heart right now.
The doctor said this restlessness did not mean anything and was due to physical causes; but Princess Mary thought he wished to tell her something, and the fact that her presence always increased his restlessness confirmed her opinion.
Her sense of self-consciousness grew as the physical contact made her appreciative of the size and heat of his body.
Evidently, vampirism enhances physical appearance.
She was close to completing training to become a physical therapist and would graduate at the end of the summer.
Is there a logical end to that—a physical or economic law of some kind that says only 10 percent or 20 percent or 30 percent of people can ever be this wealthy?
He was in a state of physical suffering as if from corporal punishment, and could not avoid expressing it by cries of anger and distress.
I decided that there was no reason, except my deplorable ignorance of the great facts that underlie our physical existence.
He was the sexiest man she'd ever seen, and the swirling aura of command only amplified his physical appeal.
Obviously there was a mutual physical attraction between them, but that was all.
Just as I could not stand his terrible physical labor but should die of it in a week, so he could not stand my physical idleness, but would grow fat and die.
His physical strength and agility during the first days of his imprisonment were such that he seemed not to know what fatigue and sickness meant.
It was deeper, beyond the physical joining, the sense of being one.
My physical limitations are forgotten--my world lies upward, the length and the breadth and the sweep of the heavens are mine!
He was accepting his obligation to her while shutting off everything but the physical side of him.
Is the value of the city just the value of the buildings, cars, furniture, and other physical items in the city?
If the source of power lies neither in the physical nor in the moral qualities of him who possesses it, it must evidently be looked for elsewhere--in the relation to the people of the man who wields the power.
They both suffered the same physical discomforts, yet did not feel ill.
Pierre's physical condition, as is always the case, corresponded to his mental state.
The last weeks passed in her mother's bedroom had strained Natasha's physical strength.
It's just physical, because they don't have time to have real relationships.
Fatigued, overwhelmed, Deidre was unable to summon the physical strength to move or the willpower to order him away.
Physical ills were miserable, but this depression was unbearable.
The millions are awake enough for physical labor; but only one in a million is awake enough for effective intellectual exertion, only one in a hundred millions to a poetic or divine life.
Irresistible drowsiness overpowered him, red rings danced before his eyes, and the impression of those voices and faces and a sense of loneliness merged with the physical pain.
Napoleon's short hair was wet and matted on the forehead, but his face, though puffy and yellow, expressed physical satisfaction.
He remembered only the dull gray weather now rainy and now snowy, internal physical distress, and pains in his feet and side.
The physical pain penetrated his mental anguish, and he lowered his weapons.
The barn represented work, and by the look of him and the feel of his smooth hands, he knew how to avoid physical labor.
From all this talk he saw only one thing: that to defend Moscow was a physical impossibility in the full meaning of those words, that is to say, so utterly impossible that if any senseless commander were to give orders to fight, confusion would result but the battle would still not take place.
His illness pursued its normal physical course, but what Natasha referred to when she said: "This suddenly happened," had occurred two days before Princess Mary arrived.
Pain streaked through her, the kind of pain with no physical source. Katie began to cry, unable to see an end to her ordeal that would mean she – or her baby – lived. She hugged her stomach and sobbed for the loss of Rhyn, her own life, their child's.
So the physical mechanisms have been serially transformed, yet the law has never hiccupped.
But as I see it, physical labor is as essential to him, as much a condition of his existence, as mental activity is to you or me.
In the end, the speed at which a human operator can move has a physical limit.
Being superior to physical suffering, it sometimes chanced that they were superior to any consolation which the missionaries could offer; and the law to do as you would be done by fell with less persuasiveness on the ears of those who, for their part, did not care how they were done by, who loved their enemies after a new fashion, and came very near freely forgiving them all they did.
Such a view of existence has been common throughout the history of thought, and especially among physical scientists.
In another annual called the Gem appeared the poem on the story of "Eugene Aram," which first manifested the full extent of that poetical vigour which seemed to advance just in proportion as his physical health declined.
In 1867 he became privatdozent in Berlin University, and in the following year was chosen professor of physics at the Zurich Polytechnic: then, after a year or two at Wurzburg, he was called in 1872 to Strassburg, where he took a great part in the organization of the new university, and was largely concerned in the erection of the Physical Institute.
He worked hard at his book on refraction, and dissected the heads of animals in order to explain imagination and memory, which he considered physical processes.'
The true physical conception is motion, the ultimate ground of which is to be sought in God's infinite power.
bog xerophytes), or that the physical drought of summer is unfavourable to shade-loving plants.
More original, perhaps, is the argument in the immediately preceding work, The Destiny of Man, viewed in the Light of his Origin (1884), which is, in substance, that physical evolution is a demonstrated fact; that intellectual force is a later, higher and more potent thing than bodily strength; and that, finally, in most men and some "lower animals" there is developed a new idea of the advantageous, a moral and non-selfish line of thought and procedure, which in itself so transcends the physical that it cannot be identified with it or be measured by its standards, and may or must be enduring, or at its best immortal.
(2) Physical state.
was conferred upon Brewster by Marischal College, Aberdeen; in 1815 he was made a member of the Royal Society of London, and received the Copley medal; in 1818 he received the Rumford medal of the society; and in 1816 the French Institute awarded him one-half of the prize of three thousand francs for the two most important discoveries in physical science made in Europe during the two preceding years.
The sensation was almost physical.
Early on they had attempted to find some modicum of common ground in the relationship aside from raw, physical sex.
Jeffrey Byrne's wife was in far better physical shape than she had let on, and the pair managed 20 miles before finally calling it quits, not because she was tired, but because, as she said, her what-sis was so sore.
"What kind of physical shape do you suppose Byrne is in?" asked Fred as he eyed a gorgeous blonde in scarlet bike pants.
Some of the bikers were Dean's age or older and a few were in physical shape that made you wonder if they realized what they were undertaking.
If exhaustion truly was mental as much as physical, he'd conquered its demon as he edged to the side of the road without slowing his pace, allowing an infrequent car to pass.
"I guess I should have asked whether you meant a physical feature or personality," Carmen clarified and then paused, thinking.
What physical feature does he like best about you?
It wasn't as if she were wearing a bikini, and her only physical attributes were a flat abdomen and smooth curves – well, those and her breasts, but they were over proportioned - out of balance, so to speak.
Judging by what she has told me, I don't think Josh actually intends her any physical harm.
Lori is in physical danger — doubly so because she's pregnant.
He'd accepted that sparring was the only real, physical interaction he'd ever have with her.
His body adjusted to the physical blows while his magic absorbed the purple lightning.
Of course, that was physical attraction.
He intended her no physical harm.
He didn't get physical until he decided she thought she was too good for him.
There had always been a physical attraction between them and unless she had misinterpreted his expression, there still was.
I can do physical labor, you know.
He thought physical pain was the source of her tears.
She knew very well she had some physical assets that drew men, even if her body wasn't ideal like Toni's.
I can't stand physical fighting, she ordered.
The physical connection was making it hard to control her emotions and the memory of the other times he'd kissed her.
First there were the natural sciences, themselves only just emerging from a confused conception of their true method; especially those which studied the borderland of physical and mental phenomena, the medical sciences; and pre-eminently that science which has since become so popular, the science of biology.
The two books mentioned remained unnoticed by the reading public, and Lotze first became known to a larger circle through a series of works which aimed at establishing in the study of the physical and mental phenomena of the human organism in its normal and diseased states the same general principles which had been adopted in the investigation of inorganic phenomena.
In 1852 he graduated at Harvard, and became computer to the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. He made his name by contributions on mathematical and physical subjects in the Mathematical Monthly.
The physical divisions of the Mediterranean given above hold good in describing the form of the sea-bed.
The fundamental conception that underlay all Berthelot's chemical work was that all chemical phenomena depend on the action of physical forces which can be determined and measured.
This system is of much service in following out mathematical, physical and chemical problems in which it is necessary to represent four variables.
In physical appearance, Hastings "looked like a great man, and not like a bad man."
There is now no doubt that William Gascoigne, a young gentleman of Yorkshire, was the first 1 Gran, History of Physical Astronomy, p. 449.
By De la Rue's advice, Pritchard began his career there with a determination of the physical libration of the moon, or the nutation of its axis.
He studied at Upsala from 1876 to 1881 and at Stockholm from 1881 to 1884, then returning to Upsala as privat-docent in physical chemistry.
In 1904 he delivered at the university of California a course of lectures, the object of which was to illustrate the application of the methods of physical chemistry to the study of the theory of toxins and antitoxins, and which were published in 1907 under the title Immunochemistry.
An, matter, 'coii, life), in philosophy, a term applied to any system which explains all life, whether physical or mental, as ultimately derived from matter ("cosmic matter," Weldstoff).
12 He had several writings in hand during the early years of his residence in Holland, but the main work of this period was a physical doctrine of the universe which he termed The World.
Such explanation of physical phenomena is the main problem of Descartes, and it goes on encroaching upon territories once supposed proper to the mind.
The physical theory, in its earlier form in The World, and later in the Principles of Philosophy (which the present account follows), rests upon the metaphysical conclusions of the Meditations.
Besides the last two parts of the Principles of Philosophy, the physical writings of Descartes include the Dioptrics and Meteors, as well as passages in the letters.
Fleeming Jenkin was educated at first in Scotland, but in 1846 the family went to live abroad, owing to financial straits, and he studied at Genoa University, where he took a first-class degree in physical science.
That to fit the actions and distances covered by Alexander into such a scheme, assuming that he went by Seistan and Kandahar, would involve physical impossibilities has been pointed out by Count Yorck v.
Certain features - the high physical courage, the impulsive energy, the fervid imagination - stand out clear; beyond that disagreement begins.
There is no reason to suppose the human voice has varied, during the period of which we have evidence, more than other physical attributes.
As contrasted with Indra the war god, Varuna is the lord of the natural laws, the upholder of the physical and moral order of the universe.
The flora of Argentina should be studied according to natural zones corresponding to the physical divisions of the country - the rich tropical and sub-tropical regions of the north, the treeless pampas of the centre, the desert steppes of the south, and the arid plateaus of the north-west.
The deplorable physical condition of Alexius's immediate successor, Theodore III.
Men physically unfit are wholly exempted, and men who have not, at the tinie of the examination, attained the required physical standard are put back for re-examination after an interval.
Magnus, and was one of the founders of the Berlin Physical Society.
In 18J4 he left Berlin to become professor of physics in Basel University, removing nine years afterwards to Brunswick Polytechnic, and in 1866 to Karlsruhe Polytechnic. In 1871 he accepted the chair of physical chemistry a t Leipzig.
His early mathematical and physical papers, written under the name of J.
It may further be added that materialism can be shown to be an inadequate philosophy in its attempts to account even for the physical universe, for this is inexplicable without the assumption of mind distinct from, and directive of, matter.
This is due in part to the different physical conditions there prevailing and in part to the invasion of the north-eastern portion of the continent by a number of plants characteristically Melanesian.
Physical surroundings rather than latitude determine the character of the flora.
The chief difficulty in deciding their ethnical relations is their remarkable physical difference from the neighbouring peoples.
There is evidence in the languages, too, which supports the physical separation from their New Zealand neighbours and, therefore, from the Polynesian family of races.
The migrations must have always been dependent upon physical difficulties, such as waterless tracts or mountain barriers.
They have no great physical courage.
New South Wales was the first country which endeavoured to settle its labour grievances through the ballot-box and to send a great party to parliament as the direct representation of Labour, pledged to obtain through legislation what it was unable to obtain by strikes and physical force.
- For Physical Geography: Barton, Australian Physiography (Brisbane, 1895); Wall, Physical Geography of Australia (Melbourne, 1883); Taylor, Geography of New South Wales (Sydney, 1898); Saville Kent, The Great Barrier Reef of Australia (London, 1893); A.
He was president of the mathematical and physical section of the British Association at Bradford in 1873 and of the London Mathematical Society in 18 741876.
He felt then, and still more after the Reform Act of 1866, that "we must educate our masters," 1 and he rather scandalized his old university friends by the stress he laid on physical science as opposed to classical studies.
His marvellous physical and moral equilibrium gave him an evenness of temper which always renaered his society charming.
But soon coming to the conclusion that engineering was not his vocation he abandoned it in favour of physical science, and in October 1878 began to attend the lectures of G.
Later in the same year he became assistant to Helmholtz in the physical laboratory of the Berlin Institute.
In 1825 he migrated to Lemberg, where he taught the physical sciences.
materia, matter), in philosophy, the theory which regards all the facts of the universe as explainable in terms of matter and motion, and in particular explains all psychical processes by physical and chemical changes in the nervous system.
The business of the scientist is to explain everything by the physical causes which are comparatively well understood and to exclude the interference of spiritual causes.
He was of gigantic strength, which he maintained by constant physical exercises.
- For physical description and material on minerals see the Report on the Geology of Vermont: Descriptive, Theoretical, Economical and Scenographical (2 vols., Claremont, N.H., 1861); G.
degree at the university of Zurich and published his first papers on physical subjects.
External facts are not the causes of mental states, nor are mental states the causes of physical facts.
So far as the physical universe is concerned, we are merely spectators; the only action that remains for us is contemplation.
A physical occurrence is but the occasion (opportunity, occasional cause) on which God excites in me a corresponding mental state; the exercise of my will is the occasion on which God moves my body.
The responsibilities and anxieties of government unassisted by parliament, and the continued struggle against the force of anarchy, weighed upon him and exhausted his physical powers.
E14/YyaCa; Ev, in, €pyov, work), in physical science, a term which may be defined as accumulated mechanical work, which, however, may be only partially available for use.
The system consisting of the earth and the pound therefore possesses an amount of energy which depends on the relative positions of its two parts, on account of the latent physical connexion existing between them.
The most striking physical feature is the Aravalli range of mountains, which intersects the country almost from end to end in a line running from south-west to north-east.
Ethical and sociological developments of this theory succeed its physical and psychological treatment, the consideration of the antinomy of freedom being especially important.
Marconi's successes and the demonstrations he had given of the thoroughly practical character of this system of electric wave telegraphy stimulated other inventors to enter the same field of labour, whilst theorists began to study carefully the nature of the physical operations involved.
Pierce, The Physical Review, July 1907, March 1909, on crystal rectifiers for electric oscillations.
The term " telephony " was first used by Philipp Reis of Friedrichsdorf, in a lecture delivered before the Physical Society of Frankfort in 1861.1 But, although this lecture and Reis's subsequent work received considerable notice, little progress was made until the subject was taken up between 1874 and 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell, a native of Edinburgh, then resident in Boston, Mass., U.S.A. Bell, like Reis, employed electricity for the reproduction of sounds; but he attacked the problem in a totally different manner.
Physical characteristics differ widely; but as a whole the Italian is somewhat short of stature, with dark or black hair and eyes, often good looking.
Mortality is decreasing, but if we may judge from the physical conditions of the recruits the physique of the nation shows little or no improvement.
The great variety in physical and social conditions throughout the peninsula gives corresponding variety to the methods of agriculture.
This unification meant for the army the absorption of contingents from all parts of Italy and presenting serious differences in physical and moral aptitudes, political opinions and education.
Yet the natural or physical theology of the philosophers - in contrast to mere myths or mere statecraft - seems a straightforward effort to reach faith in God on grounds of scientific reason.
Such a philosophy makes little serious attempt at constructive work in antiquity; but, upon the first great victories of physical science in modern times, a desire arose to extend the new and wonderfully fruitful method to the ultimate problems of speculation.
The term is borrowed from Sight, of all the physical senses the one which most rapidly instructs the mind.
We can by no means regard the physical world as the real world.
But we possess knowledge of the physical world and of it alone.
With all its idealism, Greek thought had difficulty in regarding rational necessity as absolute master of the physical world.
4 The idea of evolution in time (physical evolution) was laughed at by Hegel.
The modern doctrine of evolution or " evolving," as opposed to that of simple creation, has been defined by Prof. James Sully in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia as a " natural history of the cosmos including organic beings, expressed in physical terms as a mechanical process."
The various grades of life on our planet are the natural consequences of certain physical processes involved in the gradual transformations of the earth.
Finally, human development, as exhibited in historical and prehistorical records, is regarded as the highest and most complex result of organic and physical evolution.
It may be supposed that these crude fancies embody a dim recognition of the physical forces and objects personified under the forms of deities, and a rude attempt to account for their genesis as a natural process.
Empedocles took an important step in the direction of modern conceptions of physical evolution by teaching that all things arise, not by transformations of some primitive form of matter, but by various combinations of a number of permanent elements.
The system of Plotinus, Zellar remarks, is not strictly speaking one of emanation, since there is no communication of the divine essence to the created world; yet it resembles emanation inasmuch as the genesis of the world is conceived as a necessary physical effect, and not as the result of volition.
In some of these we see a return to Greek theories, though the influence of physical discoveries, more especially those of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo, is distinctly traceable.
Yet Descartes, in his Principia Philosophiae, laid the foundation of the modern mechanical conception of nature and of physical evolution.
Although Spinoza's theory attributes a mental side to all physical events, he rejects all teleological conceptions and explains the order of things as the result of an inherent necessity.
Thus he suggests that man has not eyes of a microscopic delicacy, because he would receive no great advantage from such acute organs, since though adding indefinitely to his speculative knowledge of the physical world they would 1 Yet he leaves open the question whether the Deity has annexed thought to matter as a faculty, or whether it rests on a distinct spiritual principle.
In this way we see that just as advancing natural science was preparing the way for a doctrine of physical evolution, so advancing historical research was leading to the application of a similar idea to the collective human life.
Here we are first struck by th ° results of advancing physical speculation in their bearing on the conception of the world.
Helvetius, in his work on man, referred all differences between our species and the lower animals to certain peculiarities of organization, and so prepared the way for a conception of human development out of lower forms as a process of physical evolution.
The order of the inorganic world is explained by properly physical causes.
In his Naturgeschichte des Himmels, in which he anticipated the nebular theory afterwards more fully developed by Laplace, Kant sought to explain the genesis of the cosmos as a product of physical forces and laws.
In this particular, as in his view of organic actions, Kant distinctly opposed the idea of evolution as one universal process swaying alike the physical and the moral world.
There are three stadia, or moments, in this process of nature - (i) the mechanical moment, or matter devoid of individuality; (2) the physical moment, or matter which has particularized itself in bodies - the solar system; and (3) the organic moment, or organic beings, beginning with the geological organism - or the mineral kingdom, plants and animals.
He says Lamarck's original animal is something metaphysical, not physical, namely, the will to live.
" Every species (according to Schopenhauer) has of its own will, and according to the circumstances under which it would live, determined its form and organization, - yet not as something physical in time, but as something metaphysical out of time."
The " molecules organiques " are physical equivalents of Leib nitz's " monads."
The notion that all the kinds of animals and plants may have come into existence by the growth and modification of primordial germs is as old as speculative thought; but the modern scientific form of the doctrine can be traced historically to the influence of several converging lines of philosophical speculation and of physical observation, none of which go further back than the 17th century.
The enunciation by Descartes of the conception that the physical universe, whether living or not living, is a mechanism, and that, as such, it is explicable on physical principles.
It has been the habit of biologists to use the terms variation, selection, elimination, correlation and so forth, vaguely; the new school, which has been strongly reinforced from the side of physical science, insists on quantitative measurements of the terms. When the anatomist says that one race is characterized by long heads, another by round heads, the biometricist demands numbers and percentages.
Its physical properties, permeability by water, extensibility and elasticity, receive their interpretation in the needs of the latter.
These vary considerably in completeness with its age; in its younger parts the outer cells wall undergoes the change known as cuticularization, the material being changed both in chemical composition and in physical properties.
IPassing to the recognized external agencies, the physical condition of the soil is a fruitful source of disease.
The factors of the habitat may be grouped as follows: geographical, physical, and biological.
Physical FactorsThese are frequently classified as edaphic or soil factors and climatic factors; but there is no sharp line of demarcation between them.
The water content of the soil, its mineral content, its humus content, its temperature, and its physical characteristics, such as its depth and the size of its component particles are all edaphic factors.
Schimperl made a distinct advance when he distinguished between physical and physiological dryness or wetness of the soil.
Related to the physiological drought, such plants possess some xerophytic characters; and, related to the physical wetness, the plants possess the aeration channels.
With regard to the occurrence of plants, such as Juncus effusus, which possess xerophytic characters and yet live in situations which are not ordinarily of marked physiological dryness, it should be remembered that such habitats are liable to occasional physical drought; and a plant must eventually succumb if it is not adapted to the extreme conditions of its habitat.
In relation to the latter theory, it is pointed out that some markedly calcicole species occur on sand dunes; but this may be due to the lime which is frequently present in dune sand as well as to the physical dryness of the soil.
Schimper (1903: 102) thinks that in the case of aquatic plants, the difference must depend on the amount of lime in the water, for the physical nature of the substratum is the same in each case.
In external habit these exhibit adaptations to every kind of climatic or physical condition:
From this point of view it is not sufficient, in attempting to map out the earths surface into regions of vegetation, to have regard alone to adaptations to physical conditions.
The actual and past distribution of plants must obviously be controlled by the facts of physical geography.
High elevations reproduce the physical conditions of high latitudes.
But other physical agencies come into play which may be briefly noticed.
A detailed examination of mountain floras shows that a large local element is present in each besides the arctic. The one is in tact the result of similar physical conditions to that which has produced the other.
Dana, but, as already stated, has later received support on purely physical grounds.
It is true that the earths physical geography presents certain broad features to which plants are adapted.
New Zealand was poorly stocked with a weak flora; the more robust and aggressive one of the north temperate region was ready at any moment to invade it-, but was held back by physical barriers which human aid has alone enabled it to surpass.
The influence of physical environment becomes clearer and stronger when the distribution of plant and animal life is considered, and if it is less distinct in the case of man, the reason is found in the modifications of environment consciously produced by human effort.
The physical and natural sciences are concerned in geography only so far as they deal with the forms of the earth's surface, or as regards the distribution of phenomena.
He divides geography into The Spherical Part, or that for the study of which mathematics alone is required, and The Topical Part, or the description of the physical relations of parts of the earth's surface, preferring this division to that favoured by the ancient geographers - into general and special.
The physical side of geography continued to be elaborated after Varenius's methods, while the historical side was developed separately.
The next marked advance in the theory of geography may be taken as the nearly simultaneous studies of the physical earth.
Bergman's Physical Description of the Earth was published in Swedish in 1766, and translated into English in 1772 and into German in 5774.
Kant's lectures on physical geography were delivered in the university of Konigsberg from 1765 onwards.'
Physical geography he viewed as a summary of nature, the basis not only of history but also of " all the other possible geographies," of which he enumerates five, viz.
Physical geography itself is divided into two parts: a general, which has to do with the earth and all that belongs to it - water, air and land; and a particular, which deals with special products of the earth - mankind, animals, plants and minerals.
The treatises on physical geography by Mrs Mary Somerville and Sir John Herschel (the lattewritten for the eighth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica) showed the effect produced in Great Britain by the stimulus of Humboldt's work.
During the rapid development of physical geography many branches of the study of nature, which had been included in the cosmography of the early writers, the physiography of Linnaeus and even the Erdkunde of Ritter, had been as so much advanced by the labours of specialists that their connexion was apt to be forgotten.
The absurd attempt was, and sometimes is still, made by geographers to include all natural science in geography; but it is more common for specialists in the various detailed sciences to think, and sometimes to assert, that the ground of physical geography is now fully occupied by these sciences.
Political geography has been too often looked on from both sides as a mere summary of guide-book knowledge, useful in the schoolroom, a poor relation of physical geography that it was rarely necessary to recognize.
The " argument from design " had been a favourite form of reasoning amongst Christian theologians, and, as worked out by Paley in his Natural Theology, it served the useful purpose of emphasizing the fitness which exists between all the inhabitants of the earth and their physical environment.
As a student of nature, however, he did not fail to see, and as professor of geography he always taught, that man was in very large measure conditioned by his physical environment.
The evolutionary theory, more than hinted at in Kant's " Physical Geography," has, since the writings of Charles Darwin, become the unifying principle in geography.
In this way also the position of geography, at the point where physical science meets and mingles with mental science, is explained and justified.
The deviation is of importance in the movement of air, of ocean currents, and to some extent of rivers.3 In popular usage the words " physical geography " have come to mean geography viewed from a particular standpoint rather than any special department of the subject.
The popular Physical meaning is better conveyed by the word physiography, a geography.
In the stricter sense, physical geography is that part of geography which involves the processes of contemporary change in the crust and the circulation of the fluid envelopes.
Although the name of continent was not applied to large portions of land for any physical reasons, it so happens that there is a certain physical similarity or homology between them which is not shared by the smaller islands or peninsulas.
Davis, Physical Geography (Boston, 1899).
The action of rivers on the land is so important that it has been made the basis of a system of physical geography by Professor W.
Penck, " Potamology as a Branch of Physical Geography," Geog.
The territorial divisions and subdivisions often survive the conditions which led to their origin; hence the study of political geography is allied to history as closely as the study of physical geography is allied to geology, and for the same reason.
P. Marsh in Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as modified by Human Action (London, 1864).
From the underlying abstract mathematical considerations all through the superimposed physical, biological, anthropo.
In any case the various Nearctic subdivisions completely merge into each other, just as is to be expected from the physical configuration and other bionomic conditions of the North American continent.
The department takes its name from the river Ain, which traverses its centre in a southerly direction and separates it roughly into two wellmarked physical divisions - a region of mountains to the east, and of plains to the west.
Although of Dorian stock, he wrote in the Ionic dialect, like all the physiologi (physical philosophers).
It may be divided into three divisions, upper, lower and middle, each of which is distinguished by special physical features, and has played a conspicuous part in the world's history, retaining to the present day monumental evidence of the races who have lined its banks.
Some idea of his activity as a writer on mathematical and physical subjects during these early years may be gathered from the fact that previous to this appointment he had contributed no less than three important memoirs to the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, and eight to the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
The transformations of these two forms are discussed in Chemistry: Physical.
There again his proficiency, especially in physical science, was marked, and he was one of the young Russians chosen to complete their education in foreign countries.
The most valuable of the works of Lomonosov are those relating to physical science, and he wrote upon many branches of it.
They thought that it was not sufficient to trust to the ear alone, to determine the principles of music, as did practical musicians like Aristoxenus, but that along with the ear, physical experiments should be employed.
He was, therefore, in the forefront of that intellectual revolution in the course of which speculation ceased to move in the realms of the physical 1 and focused itself upon human reason in its application to the practical conduct of life.
In this work, the product, according to Lange, of a fanatical enthusiasm for humanity, he sought to demonstrate the indestructibility of matter and force, and the finality of physical force.
Nature according to him is purely physical; it has no purpose, no will, no laws imposed by extraneous authority, no supernatural ethical sanction.
More visible dangers arise for the apologist in the region of science, historical or physical.
This different treatment shows the feeling of the poet - the feeling for which he seeks to evoke our inmost sympathy - to oscillate between the belief that an awful crime brings with it its awful punishment (and it is sickening to observe how the argument by which the Friar persuades Annabella to forsake her evil courses mainly appeals to the physical terrors of retribution), and the notion that there is something fatal, something irresistible, and therefore in a sense self-justified, in so dominant a passion.
Starting from the physical standpoint of the Ionian physicists, he accepted their general idea of the unity of nature, but entirely denied their theory of being.
and S., be left out of account, a striking uniformity of physical feature prevails throughout the whole vast extent of the Russian empire.
place, it appears so if the space occupied by Russia be taken into account, only 3300 species of phanerogams and ferns 2 Bibliography of Meteorology: Memoirs of the Central Physical Observatory; Repertorium fiir Meteorologie and Meteorological Sbornik, published by the same body; Veselovsky, Climate of Russia (Russian); H.
In the second place, except in the unlikely event of all the places on the selected route lying at the same elevation, a line that is perfectly level is a physical impossibility; and from engineering considerations, even one with uniform gradients will be impracticable on the score of cost, unless the surface of the country is extraordinarily even.
In a large station the arrangements become much more complicated, the precise design being governed by the nature of the traffic that has to be served and by the physical configuration of the site.
Since the passing of the Light Railways Act of 1896, which did not apply to Ireland, it is possible to give a formal definition by saying that a light railway is one constructed under the provisions of that act; but it must be noted that the commissioners appointed under that act have authorized many lines which in their physical characteristics are indistinguishable from street tramways constructed under the Tramways Act, and to these the term light railways would certainly not be applied in ordinary parlance.
In physical character Cambay is entirely an alluvial plain.
SPIRITUALISM, a term used by philosophical writers to denote the opposite of materialism, and also used in a narrower sense to describe the belief that the spiritual world manifests itself by producing in the physical world effects inexplicable by the known laws of nature.
Daniel Dunglas Home, the next medium of importance who appeared in London, came over from America in 1855; and for many years almost all the chief mediums for physical phenomena known in England came from the United States.
The earliest of these phenomena were the raps already spoken of and other sounds occurring without apparent physical cause, and the similarly mysterious movements of furniture and other objects; and these were shortly followed by the ringing of bells and playing of musical instruments.
and in particular show interconnexions with each other not to be accounted for by knowledge normally possessed by the writers.9 At no period of the spiritualistic movement has the class of physical phenomena been accepted altogether without criticism.
Besides the general arguments for supposing that the physical phenomena of spiritualism may be due to conjuring, there are two special reasons which gain in force as time goes on.
Nevertheless there does exist evidence for the genuineness of the physical phenomena which deserves consideration.
Home, which have left him convinced of the genuineness of the wide range of physical phenomena which occurred through Home's mediumship.'
6 More recently several men of science, including Sir Oliver Lodge in England, Professor Charles Richet in France, and Professors Schiaparelli and Morselli in Italy, have convinced themselves of the supernormal chaeacter (though not of any spiritualistic explanation) of certain physical phenomena that have occurred in the presence of a Neapolitan medium, Eusapia Palladino, though it is known that she frequently practises deception. ?
In philosophy he began with a strong predilection for the physical side of psychology, and at an early age he came to the conclusion that all existence is sensation, and, after a lapse into noiimenalism under the influence of Fechner's Psychophysics, finally adopted a universal physical phenomenalism.
From the sense of having full vigour, living or lively qualities or movements, the word, got its chief current meaning of possessing rapidity or speed of movement, mental or physical.
in height, but lacking the upper storeys, and a Franciscan friary (1490); while a circular tower, and a square keep (occupied as barracks), mark strongholds, the one built by King John and the other by the Ormondes, and testify to the former importance of the town, which was doubtless accentuated by its physical position in a passway between the neighbouring mountain ranges.
In 1823 he was appointed conservator of the physical cabinet at Munich, and in the following year he received from the king of Bavaria the civil order of merit.
In The Idea of God as affected by Modern Knowledge (1885) Fiske discusses the theistic problem, and declares that the mind of man, as developed, becomes an illuminating indication of the mind of God, which as a great immanent cause includes and controls both physical and moral forces.
It is represented by the ratio of a number containing about a hundred and sixty figures to unity, and so we are at once forced to the conclusion that this remarkable feature of the planetary motions must have some physical explanation.
The first paper of Maxwell's in which an attempt at an admissible physical theory of electromagnetism was made was communicated to the Royal Society in 1867.
64) explains it as a contest of the physical powers of nature, and the mythical expression of the terrible effects of swollen waters.
(2) The physical state of the reacting substances must be considered, since comparatively large amounts of heat are absorbed on fusion and on vaporization.
It was " the physical centre of those movements of history from which the world has grown."
Religion was inseparable from ordinary life, and, like that of all peoples who are dependent on the fruits of the earth, was a nature-worship. The tie between deities and worshippers was regarded as physical and entailed mutual obligations.
Towards the end of Herod's life two rabbis attempted to uphold by physical force the cardinal dogma of Judaism, which prohibited the use of images.
A divorce may be granted only to one who has lived for at least one year in the state; among the recognized causes for divorce are desertion for two years, cruelty, insanity or physical incapacity at time of marriage, habitual drunkenness or excessive use of opium or other drugs, and the conviction of either party of felony.
- For physical description, resources, industries, &c., see State Board of Agriculture, North Carolina and its Resources (Raleigh, 1896); North Carolina Geological Survey Reports (Raleigh, 1852, sqq.); the publications of the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey (Raleigh, 1893, sqq.), e.g.
Valentin Weigel (1533-1588), who stands under manifold obligations to Franck, represents also the influence of the semi-mystical physical speculation that marked the transition from scholasticism to modern times.
Nicolas's doctrines were of influence upon Giordano Bruno and other physical philosophers of the 15th and 16th centuries.
All these physical theories are blended with a mystical theosophy, of which the most remarkable example is, perhaps, the chemico-astrological speculations of Paracelsus (1493-1541).
Modern science, however, has indicated a line of physical separation along the channel between Borneo and Celebes, called the Straits of Macassar, which follows approximately 120° E., to the west dl which the flora.
boundaries, from following lines on which the continuity of the land is interrupted, often necessarily indicate important differences in the conditions of adjoining countries, and of their political and physical relations, yet variations of the elevation of the surface above the sea-level frequently produce effects not less marked.
Hence the study of the mountain ranges of a continent is, for a proper apprehension of its physical conditions and characteristics, as essential as the examination of its extent and position in relation to the equator and poles, and the configuration of its coasts.
From such causes the physical conditions of a large part of Asia, and the history of its population, have been very greatly influenced by the occurrence of the mass of mountain above de Iiima- scribed, which includes the Himalaya and the whole tayan elevated area having true physical connexion with that boundary.
On the west the table-land is prolonged beyond the political limits of Tibet, though with much the same physical features, to about 70°east, beyond which it terminates; and the ranges which are covered with perpetual snow as far west as Samarkand, thence rapidly diminish in height, and terminate in low hills north of Bokhara.
In 1879 he followed up the Urangi river to the Altai Mountains, and demonstrated to the world the extraordinary physical changes which have passed over the heart of the Asiatic continent since Jenghiz Khan massed his vast armies in those provinces.
This evidence of a gradual process of upheaval still in action may throw some light on the physical (especially the climatic) changes which must have passed over that part of Asia since Balkh was the " mother of cities," the great trade centre of Asia, and the plains of Balkh were green with cultivation.
forced upon them by the physical conditions of the region they inhabit.
The most recent authorities are of opinion that the Kolarians and Dravidians represent a single physical type; but, whatever the historical explanation may be, they certainly have different languages and show different stages of civilization.
There is no reason why their descendants should not be found to-day in various tribes, but the physical type commonly called Jewish is characteristic not so much of Israel as of western Asia generally.
de Beauchesne of the physical martyrdom of the child are not supported by any other testimony, though he was at this time seen by a great number of people.
Its viscid character, and its non-liability to dry and harden by exposure to air, also fit it for various other uses, such as lubrication, &c., whilst its peculiar physical characters, enabling it to blend with either aqueous or oily matters under certain circumstances, render it a useful ingredient in a large number of products of varied kinds.
- Besides its use as a starting-point in the production of "nitroglycerin" (q.v.) and other chemical products, glycerin is largely employed for a number of purposes in the arts, its application thereto being due to its peculiar physical properties.
Grant, History of Physical Astronomy.
Webster's physical endowments as an orator were extraordinary.
The Mahratta Brahmans possess, in an intense degree, the qualities of that famous caste, physical, intellectual and moral.
It simply consisted iri the application, to the elucidation of these complex problems, of the exact methods of chemical and physical research.
Schweinfurth declares them the best-looking of the Nile nomads, and the men are types of physical beauty, with fine heads, erect athletic bodies and sinewy limbs.
Philip certainly possessed more energy, both mental and physical, than his father.
The physical aspect is much diversified.
Of the former, the first, published in 1896, was on the dynamics of a particle; and afterwards there followed a number of concise treatises on thermodynamics, heat, light, properties of matter and dynamics, together with an admirably lucid volume of popular lectures on Recent Advances in Physical Science.
" Thomson and Tait," as it is familiarly called ("T and T" was the authors' own formula), was planned soon after Lord Kelvin became acquainted with Tait, on the latter's appointment to his professorship in Edinburgh, and it was intended to be an all-comprehensive treatise on physical science, the foundations being laid in kinematics and dynamics, and the structure completed with the properties of matter, heat, light, electricity and magnetism.
"Why is it," he asked, "that the multitude accept implicitly the decisions of the wisest, of the specially skilled, in physical science?"
Because in physical science there is all but complete agreement in opinion.
From this oppressive feeling he found relief in the thought set forth in the opening of the second book of his Political Economy - that, while the conditions of production have the necessity of physical laws, the distribution of what is produced among the various classes of producers is a matter of human arrangement, dependent upon alterable customs and institutions.
No general rules, applicable to all times, can be laid down as to what not only be prepared to take account of the physical features of the world, the general structure and organization of the industry and commerce of different states, the character of their administration and other important causes of economic change.
He also published chemical and physical papers, and translated chemical works by J.
The Spartans were happy, said the writer, because they had plenty of good, suitable clothing and lodging, robust women, and were able to meet their requirements both physical and mental.
He himself lost his nerve, stammered, nearly fainted, and was dragged out by the soldiers in a state of mental and physical collapse.
Were his powers, physical as well as mental, equal to the task ?
The career of Napoleon, which had lured France far away from the principles of 1789, now brought her back to that starting-point; just as, in the physical sphere, his campaigns from1796-1814had at first enormously swollen her bulk and then subjected her to a shrinkage still more portentous.
In his last number, the seventh, which his publisher refused to print, he had dared to attack even Robespierre, but at his trial it was found that he was devoid of physical courage.
(3) Traces of customs, creeds, rituals, &c., in the Aegean area at a later time, discordant with the civilization in which they were practised and indicating survival from earlier systems. There are also possible linguistic and even physical survivals to be considered.
He was remarkable for both his moral and physical courage, and in politics was notable for his independence of party.
personally supervised his son's physical training.
Like the Yue-Chi they have probably contributed to form some of the physical types of the Indian population, and it is noticeable that polyandry is a recognized institution among many Himalayan tribes, and is also said to be practised secretly by the Jats and other races of the plains.
Physical science, if there was anything deserving that name, was cultivated, not by experiment in the Aristotelian way, but by arguments deduced from premises resting on authority or custom.
This fruitful thought he illustrates by showing how geometry is applied to the action of natural bodies, and demonstrating by geometrical figures certain laws of physical forces.
His fundamental physical maxims are matter and force; the latter he calls virtus, species, imago agentis, and by numberless other names.
Physical action is, therefore, impression, or transmission of force in lines, and must accordingly be explained geometrically.
There is no doubt that the primary influence that has guided the evolution of the architecture of the burrowing spiders has been that great necessity for the preservation of life, avoidance of enemies and protection from adverse physical conditions like rain, cold or drought.
A more careful study of the physical as well as the chemical properties of a soil must precede intelligent experimentation in rotation.
" In miracle no new powers, instituted or stimulated by God's creative action, are at work, but merely the general order of nature "; but " the manifold physical and spiritual powers in actual existence so blend together as to produce a startling result " (Dorner's System of Christian Doctrine, ii.
As God is the Saviour, and the chief end of the revelation is redemption, it is fitting that the miracles should be acts of divine deliverance from physical evil.
The existence of physical evil, and still more of moral evil, forbids the assumption without qualification that the real is the rational.
Astrology, geography, physical science and natural theology were their favourite studies.
The physical properties of petroleum vary greatly.
A large number of physical and chemical tests are applied both to crude petroleum and to the products manufactured therefrom.
Left to itself, the native population lost physical and moral vigour.
Physical deformity is extremely rare.
Even at this early period he had conceived the idea of founding a physical and chemical scientific journal, and the realization of this plan was hastened by the sudden death of L.
He was wanting in mathematical ability, and never displayed in any remarkable degree the still more important power of scientific generalization, which, whether accompanied by mathematical skill or not, never fails to mark the highest genius in physical science.
He was, however, an able and conscientious experimenter, and was very fertile and ingenious in devising physical apparatus.
Amperemeters may then be classified according to the physical principle on which they are constructed.
By legislative enactment whites and blacks living in adultery are to be punished by imprisonment or fine; divorces may be secured only after two years' residence in the state and on the ground of physical incapacity, adultery, extreme cruelty, habitual indulgence in violent temper, habitual drunkenness, desertion for one year, previous marriage still existing, or such relationship of the parties as is within the degrees for which marriage is prohibited by law.
Obviously the purpose of the paragraph is to point out the wisdom of enjoying life in the time of youth while the physical powers are fresh and strong, and the impotency of old age has not yet crept in.
Wallace notes the resemblance which he traced between the Malays and the Mongolians, and others have recorded similar observations as to the physical appearance of the two races.
His researches extended to almost every branch of physical science, but his most important work was of an optical character.
The clear, bracing air, according to ancient writers, fostered the intellectual and aesthetic character of the people and endowed them with mental and physical energy.
Later his attention was taken up with questions of physical and inorganic chemistry.
Systematic, 1901, and he edited a series of "Textbooks of Physical Chemistry."
Chemistry and physics, however, meet on common ground in a well-defined branch of science, named physical chemistry, which is primarily concerned with the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition, and, more generally, with the elucidation of natural phenomena on the molecular theory.
This section is restricted to an account of the relations existing between physical properties and chemical composition.
The existence of a fundamental principle, unalterable and indestructible, prevailing alike through physical and chemical changes, was generally accepted.
It is true that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar substances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classification of substances by physical and; superficial properties led to the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without any attention being paid to their chemical composition.
It is well known that singly, doubly and trebly linked carbon atoms affect the physical properties of substances, such as the refractive index, specific volume, and the heat of combustion; and by determining these constants for many substances, fairly definite values can be assigned to these groupings.
Physical Chemistry We have seen how chemistry may be regarded as having for its province the investigation of the composition of matter, and the changes in composition which matter or energy may effect on matter, while physics is concerned with the general properties of matter.
The limiting law expressing the behaviour of gases under varying temperature and pressure assumes the form pv= RT; so stated, this law is independent of chemical composition and may be regarded as a true physical law, just as much as the law of universal gravitation is a true law of physics.
It may be surmised that the quantitative measures of most physical properties will be found to be connected with the chemical nature of substances.
In the investigation of these relations, the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition is one of the most important ramifications of physical chemistry.
Physical Properties and Composition.
Identity in composition, but difference in constitution, is generally known as " isomerism " (q.v.), and compounds satisfying this relation differ in many of their physical properties.
Three sets of physical properties may therefore be looked for: (I) depending on composition, (2) depending on constitution, and (3) depending on configuration.
In any attempts to gain an insight into the relations between the physical properties and chemical composition of substances, the fact must never be ignored that a comparison can only be made when the particular property under consideration is determined under strictly comparable conditions, in other words, when the molecular states of the substances experimented upon are identical.
It is to be noted that although the correlation of melting-point with constitution has not been developed to such an extent as the chemical significance of other physical properties, the melting-point is the most valuable test of the purity of a substance, a circumstance due in considerable measure to the fact that impurities always tend to lower the melting-point.
Although establishing certain general relations between atomic and molecular refractions, the results were somewhat vitiated by the inadequacy of the empirical function which he employed, since it was by no means a constant which depended only on the actual composition of the substance and was independent of its physical condition.
Colour and Constitution.-In this article a summary of the theories which have been promoted in order to connect the colour of organic compounds with their constitution will be given, and the reader is referred to the article Colour for the physical explanation of this property, and to Vision for the physiological and psychological bearings.
A clear distinction must be drawn between colour and the property of dyeing; all coloured substances are not dyes, and it is shown in the article Dyeing that the property of entering into chemical or physical combination with fibres involves properties other than those essential to colour.
Fluorescence and Constitution.-The physical investigation of the phenomenon named fluorescence-the property of transforming incident light into light of different refrangibilityis treated in the article Fluorescence.
A theory of a physical nature, based primarily upon Sir J.
The physical conditions under which polymorphous modifications are prepared control the form which the substance assumes.
In such crystals each component plays its own part in determining the physical properties; in other words, any physical constant of a mixed crystal can be calculated as additively composed of the constants of the two components.
An important distinction separates true mixed crystals and crystallized double salts, for in the latter the properties are not linear functions of the properties of the components; generally there is a contraction in /10.591 volume, while the re fractive indices and other physical properties do not, in general, obey the additive law.
van't Hoff, Lectures on Theoretical and Physical Chemistry; J.
Walker, Introduction to Physical Chemistry (4th ed., 1907); H.
C. Jones, Outlines of Physical Chemistry (1903); D.
Strauss makes a steadily increasing use of avowedly irrational discords, in order to produce an emotionally apt physical sensation.
Debussy has this in common with Strauss, that he too regards harmonies as pure physical sensations; but he differs from Strauss firstly in systematically refusing to regard them as anything else, and secondly in his extreme sensibility to harshness.
These intellectual principles are, of course, not without their own ground in physical sensation; but it is evident that Debussy appeals beyond them to a more primitive instinct; and on it he bases an almost perfectly coherent system of which the laws are, like those of i 2th-century music, precisely the opposite of those of classical harmony.
It is obvious that the area of a group of mountains projected on a horizontal plane, such as is presented by a map, must differ widely from the area of the superficies or physical surface of those mountains exposed to the air.
He is called upon more] especially to give a satisfactory delineation of the ground, he must meet the requirements of various classes of the public, and be prepared to record cartographically all the facts of physical or political geography which are capable of being recorded on his maps.
There are in addition an official map of India (1:1,000,000), the first edition of which was published in 1903, as also maps of the great provinces of India, including Burma, all on a scale of 1: 2,827,520, and a variety of physical and statistical maps.
BECQUEREL, the name of a French family, several members of which have been distinguished in chemical and physical research.
Although there was little or no stress laid on either the joys or the terrors of a future life, the movement was not infrequently accompanied by most of those physical symptoms which usually go with vehement appeals to the conscience and emotions of a rude multitude.
intellectual and physical parts of a man's nature.
The whole region is characterized by a remarkable degree of physical uniformity, and may be broadly described as a vast plateau of an average elevation of 3000 ft., bounded westwards by the Ethiopian and Galla highlands and northwards by an inner and an outer coast range, skirting the south side of the Gulf of Aden in its entire length from the Harrar uplands to Cape Guardafui.
He carried this tendency to mysticism into his physical researches, and was led by it to take a deep interest in the phenomena of animal magnetism.
Not only literature, but the physical sciences, as then taught, had a charm for him; and he is said to have made considerable progress in medicine under the tuition of his father.
As the three triads respectively represent intellectual, moral and physical qualities, the first is called the Intellectual, the second the Moral or Sensuous, and the third the Material World.
The physical characteristics of Bashan are noteworthy.
The existence of sulphuretted hydrogen in great quantities below loo fathoms, the extensive chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate, the stagnant nature of its deep waters, and the absence of deep-sea life are conditions which make it impossible to discuss it along with the physical and biological conditions of the Mediterranean proper.
Andrusov, "Physical Exploration of the Black Sea," in Geographical Journal, vol.
Their monotheism remains Semitic - even in their conception of the cosmogonic and illuminating function of Wisdom they regard God as standing outside the world of physical nature and man, and do not grasp or accept the idea of the identity of the human and the divine; there is thus a sharp distinction between their general theistic position and that of Greek philosophy.
They differ from the older writers in practically ignoring the physical supernatural - that is, though they regard the miracles of the ancient times (referred to particularly in Wisdom xvi.-xix.) as historical facts, they say nothing of a miraculous element in the life of their own time.
Such convicts are classified according to physical ability and a minimum rate is fixed for their hire, for not more than ten hours a day.
These methods have been purely chemical (either gravimetric or volumetric), physical (determinations of the density of nitrogen, nitric oxide, &c.) or physicochemical.
For example, the application of the theory of cardinal numbers to classes of physical entities involves in practice some process of counting.
The application of the theory of real numbers to physical quantities involves analogous considerations.
In the first place, some physical process of addition is presupposed, involving some inductively inferred law of permanence during that process.
Now, owing to the necessary inexactness of measurement, it is impossible to discriminate directly whether any kind of continuous physical quantity possesses the compactness of the series of rationals or the continuity of the series of real numbers.
Thus rational mechanics, based on the Newtonian Laws, viewed as mathematics is independent of its supposed application, and hydrodynamics remains a coherent and respected science though it is extremely improbable that any perfect fluid exists in the physical world.
Under the general heading "Analysis" occur the subheadings "Foundations of Analysis," with the topics theory of functions of real variables, series and other infinite processes, principles and elements of the differential and of the integral calculus, definite integrals, and calculus of variations; "Theory of Functions of Complex Variables," with the topics functions of one variable and of several variables; "Algebraic Functions and their Integrals," with the topics algebraic functions of one and of several variables, elliptic functions and single theta functions, Abelian integrals; "Other Special Functions," with the topics Euler's, Legendre's, Bessel's and automorphic functions; "Differential Equations," with the topics existence theorems, methods of solution, general theory; "Differential Forms and Differential Invariants," with the topics differential forms, including Pfaffians, transformation of differential forms, including tangential (or contact) transformations, differential invariants; "Analytical Methods connected with Physical Subjects," with the topics harmonic analysis, Fourier's series, the differential equations of applied mathematics, Dirichlet's problem; "Difference Equations and Functional Equations," with the topics recurring series, solution of equations of finite differences and functional equations.
In some parts of Herzegovina the dress, manners and physical type of the peasantry are akin to those of Montenegro.
The reputation which he had gained in the physical sciences soon caused him to be raised to the position of rector of the university (for the first term of the year 1313).
Although he greatly enjoyed the outdoor business of the engineer's life it strained his physical endurance too much, and in 1871 was reluctantly exchanged for study at the Edinburgh bar, to which he was called in 1875.
This, however, was a period of great physical prostration, so that 1886 and 1887 were perforce among the least productive years of Stevenson's life.
The Greeks are of an especially fine type, physical and moral, and noted all through Anatolia for energy and stability.
The International Research Council formed just after the war constituted a section for Physical Oceanography, which held its first meeting in Paris in 1921.
All ocean currents vary from year to year in their strength of flow and the main interest of physical oceanography in recent years has been the tracing-out of these variations and the search for the causes.
A high molecular weight characterizes these substances, but so far no definite value has been determined by either physical or chemical means; A.
Mucoids resemble mucins in their composition and reactions, but differ, in general, in their physical properties.
Farther on are the chemical and the physical laboratories and the Hygienic Institute.
Rhyolitic lavas frequently are more or less vitreous, and when the glassy matter greatly predominates and the; crystals are few and inconspicuous the rock becomes an obsidian; the chemical composition is essentially the same as that of granite; the difference in the physical condition of the two rocks is due to the fact that one consolidated at the surface, rapidly and under low pressures, while the other cooled slowly at great depths and under such pressures that the escape of the steam and other gases it contained was greatly impeded.
Other physical properties of these solutions, such as density, colour, optical rotatory power, &c., like the conductivities, are additive, i.e.
Several journals are published specially to deal with physical chemistry, of which electrochemistry forms an important part.
Among them may be mentioned the Zeitschrift fiir physikalische Chemie (Leipzig); and the Journal of Physical Chemistry (Cornell University).
In these periodicals will be found new work on the subject and abstracts of papers which appear in other physical and chemical publications.
The doctrinal standpoint was the same - an admission of a spiritual presence of Christ which the devout soul can receive and enjoy, but a total rejection of any physical or corporeal presence.
Other influences which may be traced in his writings are those of modern naturalism and of a somewhat misinterpreted Darwinism ("strength" is generally interpreted as physical endowment, but it has sometimes to be reluctantly acknowledged that the physically feeble, by their combination and cunning, prove stronger than the "strong").
This has been ascribed by some to the presence in " wild " rubber of certain impurities derived either from the latex or introduced during the preparation of the rubber which are thought to enhance the physical properties of the caoutchouc. It is more probable, however,.
The tests of the physical properties of crude rubber usually applied to determine its value in the market are also very rough and cannot be relied upon.
The development of the rubber industry has now reached a stage at which more exact methods of determining the chemical composition and physical properties (strength and elasticity) of rubber are required.
At present the caoutchouc present in crude rubber is usually estimated indirectly, and it is possible that what generally passes as caoutchouc may be in some instances a mixture of similar chemical substances, which if separated would be found to differ in those physical properties on which the technical value of rubber depends.
The flora of Siberia presents very great local varieties, not only on account of the diversity of physical characteristics, but also in consequence of the intrusion of new species from the neighbouring regions, as widely different as the arctic littoral, the arid steppes of Central Asia, and the wet monsoon regions of the Pacific littoral.
Schrenck, Reisen and Forschungen im Amurgebiet (St Petersburg, 1858-1891); Trudy of the Siberian expedition - mathematical part (also geographical) by Schwarz, and physical part by Schmidt, Glehn and Brylkin (1874, seq.); G.
Climatological Atlas of the Russian Empire, by the Physical Observatory (St Petersburg, 1900), gives data and observations covering the period 1849-1899.
In addition to many other researches besides those here mentioned, he wrote or edited various books on chemistry and chemical technology, including Select Methods of Chemical Analysis, which went through a number of editions; and he also gave a certain amount of time to the investigation of psychic phenomena, endeavouring to effect some measure of correlation between them and ordinary physical laws.
Athena has been variously described as the pure aether, the storm-cloud, the dawn, the twilight; but there is little evidence that she was regarded as representing any of the physical powers of nature, and it is better to endeavour to form an idea of her character and attributes from a consideration of her cultepithets and ritual.
His lucid style and the perfection of his experimental demonstrations drew to his lectures a crowd of enthusiastic scholars, on whom he impressed the importance of applied science by conducting them round the factories and workshops of the city; and he further found time to hold weekly "colloquies" on physical questions at his house with a small circle of young students.
The principal industries are, the metallurgic and textile industries in all their branches, milling, brewing and chemicals; paper, leather and silk; cloth, objets de luxe and millinery; physical and musical instruments; sugar, tobacco factories and foodstuffs.
But his researches in physical optics constitute his chief title-deed to immortality.
Whether Plato understood these forms as actually existent apart from all the particular examples, or as being of the nature of immutable physical laws, is matter of discussion.
Magnetic force has not merely the property of acting upon magnetic poles, it has the additional property of producing a phenomenon known as magnetic induction, or magnetic flux, a physical condition which is of the nature of a flow continuously circulating through the magnet and the space outside it.
Many of the physical properties of a metal are affected by magnetization.
electromagnetic system of units will be generally adopted, and, unless otherwise stated, magnetic substances will be assumed to be isotropic, or to have the same physical properties in all directions.
This operation, besides being very troublesome, was open to the objection that it was almost sure to produce a material but uncertain change in the physical constitution of the metal, so that, in fact, the results of experiments made before and after the treatment were not comparable.
But though a formula of this type has no physical significance, and cannot be accepted as an equation to the actual curve of W and B, it is, nevertheless, the case that by making the index e =1.6, and assigning a suitable value to r t, a formula may be obtained giving an approximation to the truth which is sufficiently close for the ordinary purposes of electrical engineers, especially when the limiting value of B is neither very great nor very small.
These are to be regarded merely as typical specimens, for the details of a curve depend largely upon the physical condition and purity of the material; but they show at a glance how far the several metals differ from and resemble one another as regards their magnetic properties.
The magnetic quality of a sample of iron depends very largely upon the purity and physical condition of the metal.
It is uncertain how far these various results are dependent upon the physical condition of the metals.
The width of the gap may be diminished until it is no greater than the distance between two neighbouring molecules, when it will cease to be distinguishable, but, assuming the molecular theory of magnetism to be true, the above statement will still hold good for the intermolecular gap. The same pressure P will be exerted across any imaginary section of a magnetized rod, the stress being sustained by the intermolecular springs, whatever their physical nature may be, to which the elasticity of the metal is due.
It would hardly be safe to generalize from these observations; the effects may possibly be dependent upon the physical condition of the metals.
Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin) in 1849 that while no physical evidence could be adduced in support of the hypothesis, certain discoveries, especially in electromagnetism, rendered it extremely improbable (Reprint, p. 344).
This kingdom was to be gradually realized on earth, the transformation of physical nature gcing hand in hand with the ethical transformation of man.
But Laplace unquestionably surpassed his rival in practical sagacity and the intuition of physical truth.
3 Grant, History of Physical Astronomy, p. 117.
Grant, History of Physical Astronomy, &c.; Pietro Cossali, Eloge (Padua, 1813); L.
The other physical features of the great day, the darkening of the lights of heaven, are a standing figure of the prophets from Amos v.
The great Brazilian plateau, which is the most important physical division of Brazil, consists of an elevated tableland moo to 3000 ft.
In this article the description of the physical features, &c. refers only to Natal proper.
As might be expected in a country possessing the physical features of Natal, the gradients and curves are exceptionally severe.
Finally, in 1254, we find the university officially prescribing how many hours are to be devoted to the explanation of the Metaphysics and the principal physical treatises of Aristotle.
He also wrote commentaries on logical and physical works of Aristotle.
That effort was followed by great physical prostration, and he determined not to quit his retirement at Midhurst until spring had fairly set in.
In Islam fate is an absolute power, known as Kismet, or Nasib, which is conceived as inexorable and transcending all the physical laws of the universe.
Chiefly owing to the dryness of climate, its physical characteristics are similar to those of Mongolia proper, except that the altitude of the plains is much lower.
Hungary has a continental climate cold in winter, hot in summer - but owing to the physical configuration of the country it varies considerably.
We cannot trace the gradations of this political revolution, but we know that it met with determined opposition from the crown, which resulted in the utter destruction of the Arpads, who, while retaining to the last their splendid physical qualities, now exhibited unmistakeable signs of moral deterioration, partly due perhaps to their too frequent marriages with semi-Oriental Greeks and semi-savage Kumanians.
Since its reorganization in 1869 the academy has, however, paid equal attention to the various departments of history, archaeology, national economy and the physical sciences.
As good text-books, for which the so-called " Ladies' Prize " was awarded by the academy, we may mention the Termeszettan (Physics) and Termeszettani foldrajz (Physical Geography) of Julius Greguss.
The discordance of their results incited Laplace to a searching examination of the whole subject of planetary perturbations, and his maiden effort was rewarded with a discovery which constituted, when developed and completely demonstrated by his own further labours and those of his illustrious rival Lagrange, the most important advance made in physical astronomy since the time of Newton.
By it his extraordinary analytical powers became strictly subordinated to physical investigations.
In every branch of physical astronomy, accordingly, deep traces of his work are visible.
These researches derive additional importance from having introduced two powerful engines of analysis for the treatment of physical problems, Laplace's coefficients and the potential function.
Teleology had, indeed, an important part in the development of physiology - the knowledge of the mechanism, the physical and chemical properties, of the parts of the body of man and the higher animals allied to him.
It abolished the conception of life s an entity above and beyond the common properties of matter, and led to the conviction that the marvellous and exceptional qualities of that which we call " living " matter are nothing more nor less than an exceptionally complicated development of those chemical and physical properties which we recognize in a gradually ascending scale of evolution in the carbon compounds, containing nitrogen as well as oxygen, sulphur and hydrogen as constituent atoms of their enormous molecules.
Thus mysticism was finally banished from the domain of biology, and zoology became one of the physical sciences - the science which seeks to arrange and discuss the phenqmena of animal life and form, as the outcome of the operation of the laws of physics and chemistry.
Here Cuvier was imperfectly formulating, without recognizing the real physical basis of the phenomena, the results of the laws of heredity, which were subsequently investigated and brought to bear on the problems of animal structure by Darwin.
A result of the very greatest importance arising from the application of the generalizations of Darwinism to human development and to the actual phase of existing human population is that education has no direct effect upon the mental or physical features of the race or stock: it can only affect those of the individual.
The principle gives an instantaneous solution of the question of the ultimate optical efficienc y in the method of " mirror-reading," as commonly practised in various physical observations.
Wood's Physical Optics.
The method of resolution just described is the simplest, but it is only one of an indefinite number that might be proposed, and which are all equally legitimate, so long as the question is regarded as a merely mathematical one, without reference to the physical properties of actual screens.
The choice between various methods of resolution, all mathematically admissible, would be guided by physical considerations respecting the mode of action of obstacles.
In like manner our present law (20) would apply to the kind of obstruction that would be caused by an actual physical division of the elastic medium, extending over the whole of the area supposed to be occupied by the intercepting screen, but of course not extending to the parts supposed to be perforated.
The physical features of the Scyths are not described by Herodotus, but Hippocrates (Lc.) draws a picture of them which makes them very similar to the Mongols as they appeared to the Franciscan missionaries in the 13th century.
In physical chemistry he carried out many researches on the nature and process of solution, investigating in particular the thermal effects produced by the dilution of saline solutions, the variation of the specific heat of saline solutions with temperature and concentration, and the phenomena of liquid diffusion.
By unanimous consent his physical appearance was not that of a soldier.
(For map see South Africa.) Physical Features.
Sir Hercules Robinson was unfortunately in feeble health at the time, and having reached Pretoria on the 4th of January, he had to conduct negotiations under great physical disadvantage.
Trevor, " The Physical Features of the Transvaal," Geog.
The geometrical and physical theory is treated in T.
Considered apart from the phenomena of consciousness, the phenomena of life are all dependent upon the working of the same physical and chemical forces as those which are active in the rest of the world.
The solution when subjected to distillation behaves very much like a physical solution of the oxide in hydrochloric acid, while a solution of orthostannic acid in hydrochloric acid behaves like a solution of SnC1 4 in water, i.e.
paeninsula, from paene, almost, and insula, an island), in physical geography, a piece of land nearly surrounded by water.
Many forms of deformation, it may be remarked in passing, emphasize some natural physical characteristic of the people who practise them.
According to their own annals and traditions they once inhabited southern China, a theory which is confirmed by many of their habits and physical characteristics; the race has, however, been modified by crossings with the Chams and other of the previous inhabitants of Indo-China.
Pelouze in 1838, who observed that when paper or cotton was immersed in cold concentrated nitric acid the materials, though not altered in physical appearance, became heavier, and after washing and drying were possessed of self-explosive properties.
He found by patient inquiry that several physical features and the dimensions of certain bones or bony structures in the body remain practically constant during adult life.
The publication of Ehrlich's chemical, or rather physical, theory of immunity has thrown much light upon this very intricate and obscure subject.
If, in these circumstances, the food supply be also insufficient, the combination of influences is sure, in course of time, to bring about a physical deterioration of the race.
However close the relationship is between chronic irritation and the starting of cancer, we are not in a position to say that irritation, physical or chemical, by itself can give rise to new growths.
In the mucinoid conditions, usually termed "mucoid " and " colloid " degenerations, we have closely allied substances which, like the normal mucins of the body, belong to the glucoproteids, and have in common similar physical characters.
Then some remedy had to be introduced which should be antagonistic, not to the disease in a physical sense, but to the spiritual seed of the disease.
Arcana were often shown to be such by their physical properties, not only by such as heat, cold, &c., but by fortuitous resemblances to certain parts of the body; thus arose the famous doctrine of "signatures," or signs indicating the virtues and uses of natural objects, which was afterwards developed into great complexity.
But the development of mathematical and physical science soon introduced a fundamental change in the habits of thought with respect to medical doctrine.
Harvey, as is well known, spoke slightingly of the great chancellor, and it is not till the rapid development of physical science in England and Holland in the latter part of the century, that we find Baconian principles explicitly recognized.
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