The process causes physical difficulty and effort.
I sense physical weakness.
We've got a few thousand kids in real danger of immediate, physical harm.
"You're going to need some serious physical therapy," Wynn said and took a few notes.
She had her purse, and it wasn't as though he had done any physical harm.
As generally happens, Pierre did not feel the full effects of the physical privation and strain he had suffered as prisoner until after they were over.
She moved to face him, distracted by the fact he shifted his body to keep from breaking their physical contact.
At her inquiry, the doctor said the air tube had not caused any physical damage to Alex's vocal cords.
No one can tell the physical difference until the injections wear off.
All her emotional and physical efforts were directed toward helping him recover and taking care of things at home.
Deidre felt the pain again, the one without a physical source but which she felt as if a knife was piercing her soul.
Robots are free from the physical limits our human bodies have.
So we've determined you have no physical coordination or skills.
The physical ramifications of not feeding for over thirty hours commanded attention.
What if physical conditions have built up high walls about us?
Her misery increased at the physical reminder that she hadn.t figured out what to do about him yet.
Gabriel leaned his hip against the counter and crossed his arms in physical disagreement.
He was not long for this world, and she was no Jenn-- a woman there for his physical pleasure.
Since she had begun looking after him, he had always experienced this physical consciousness of her nearness.
To the men who fought against the rising truths of physical philosophy, it seemed that if they admitted that truth it would destroy faith in God, in the creation of the firmament, and in the miracle of Joshua the son of Nun.
He'd granted favors to women as a way of releasing his frustration, but never with any real affection-- just physical need.
Second, as technology advances, it will make things in the physical world fall in price.
She heard the sounds of a physical scuffle and another shot from Dan's direction.
All that was left was the physical act of being gone.
Her chest was clenched so tight, she felt physical pain.
Anyway, being good looking doesn't disqualify him from physical labor.
Despite his apparently delicate build Prince Andrew could endure physical fatigue far better than many very muscular men, and on the night of the battle, having arrived at Krems excited but not weary, with dispatches from Dokhturov to Kutuzov, he was sent immediately with a special dispatch to Brunn.
It had no physical source, but it hurt her physically nonetheless.
The struggle between the old views and the new was long and stubbornly fought out in physical philosophy.
The chance for physical harm was too great.
These physical discomforts rendered rational thought and remembrance near impossible.
First, many things in the physical world that we think of as scarce are not really scarce, just presently beyond our ability to capture.
To create a fake identity, one would need at a minimum, our age, physical description and picture.
It was so much more than their physical joining; she'd felt him from the inside.
Drinking became more and more a physical and also a moral necessity.
The battle got so bad that the only way to prevent the annihilation of every being in the universe was to divide the physical and divine worlds.
Billie and Willie were journeymen criminals, and both had spent time in jail for a number of offenses, mostly physical in nature.
Evidently, vampirism enhances physical appearance.
Is there a logical end to that—a physical or economic law of some kind that says only 10 percent or 20 percent or 30 percent of people can ever be this wealthy?
He was in a state of physical suffering as if from corporal punishment, and could not avoid expressing it by cries of anger and distress.
She was close to completing training to become a physical therapist and would graduate at the end of the summer.
That physical attraction was responsible for the pounding of her heart right now.
Despite her anger, she recognized the physical effort he put into his words.
I decided that there was no reason, except my deplorable ignorance of the great facts that underlie our physical existence.
The doctor said this restlessness did not mean anything and was due to physical causes; but Princess Mary thought he wished to tell her something, and the fact that her presence always increased his restlessness confirmed her opinion.
Her sense of self-consciousness grew as the physical contact made her appreciative of the size and heat of his body.
He was the sexiest man she'd ever seen, and the swirling aura of command only amplified his physical appeal.
Obviously there was a mutual physical attraction between them, but that was all.
Just as I could not stand his terrible physical labor but should die of it in a week, so he could not stand my physical idleness, but would grow fat and die.
His physical strength and agility during the first days of his imprisonment were such that he seemed not to know what fatigue and sickness meant.
It was deeper, beyond the physical joining, the sense of being one.
My physical limitations are forgotten--my world lies upward, the length and the breadth and the sweep of the heavens are mine!
He was accepting his obligation to her while shutting off everything but the physical side of him.
Is the value of the city just the value of the buildings, cars, furniture, and other physical items in the city?
They both suffered the same physical discomforts, yet did not feel ill.
If the source of power lies neither in the physical nor in the moral qualities of him who possesses it, it must evidently be looked for elsewhere--in the relation to the people of the man who wields the power.
Pierre's physical condition, as is always the case, corresponded to his mental state.
The last weeks passed in her mother's bedroom had strained Natasha's physical strength.
It's just physical, because they don't have time to have real relationships.
Physical ills were miserable, but this depression was unbearable.
The millions are awake enough for physical labor; but only one in a million is awake enough for effective intellectual exertion, only one in a hundred millions to a poetic or divine life.
Irresistible drowsiness overpowered him, red rings danced before his eyes, and the impression of those voices and faces and a sense of loneliness merged with the physical pain.
Napoleon's short hair was wet and matted on the forehead, but his face, though puffy and yellow, expressed physical satisfaction.
He remembered only the dull gray weather now rainy and now snowy, internal physical distress, and pains in his feet and side.
Fatigued, overwhelmed, Deidre was unable to summon the physical strength to move or the willpower to order him away.
The physical pain penetrated his mental anguish, and he lowered his weapons.
The barn represented work, and by the look of him and the feel of his smooth hands, he knew how to avoid physical labor.
From all this talk he saw only one thing: that to defend Moscow was a physical impossibility in the full meaning of those words, that is to say, so utterly impossible that if any senseless commander were to give orders to fight, confusion would result but the battle would still not take place.
His illness pursued its normal physical course, but what Natasha referred to when she said: "This suddenly happened," had occurred two days before Princess Mary arrived.
Pain streaked through her, the kind of pain with no physical source. Katie began to cry, unable to see an end to her ordeal that would mean she – or her baby – lived. She hugged her stomach and sobbed for the loss of Rhyn, her own life, their child's.
So the physical mechanisms have been serially transformed, yet the law has never hiccupped.
Being superior to physical suffering, it sometimes chanced that they were superior to any consolation which the missionaries could offer; and the law to do as you would be done by fell with less persuasiveness on the ears of those who, for their part, did not care how they were done by, who loved their enemies after a new fashion, and came very near freely forgiving them all they did.
But as I see it, physical labor is as essential to him, as much a condition of his existence, as mental activity is to you or me.
In the end, the speed at which a human operator can move has a physical limit.
(For map, see Algeria.) Physical Features.
The excess of hydrogen in a coal, above the amount necessary Physical pro= perties.
Intuitive Realism is to be replaced by Physical Realism.
In physical appearance, Hastings "looked like a great man, and not like a bad man."
Such a view of existence has been common throughout the history of thought, and especially among physical scientists.
In another annual called the Gem appeared the poem on the story of "Eugene Aram," which first manifested the full extent of that poetical vigour which seemed to advance just in proportion as his physical health declined.
In 1867 he became privatdozent in Berlin University, and in the following year was chosen professor of physics at the Zurich Polytechnic: then, after a year or two at Wurzburg, he was called in 1872 to Strassburg, where he took a great part in the organization of the new university, and was largely concerned in the erection of the Physical Institute.
He worked hard at his book on refraction, and dissected the heads of animals in order to explain imagination and memory, which he considered physical processes.'
The true physical conception is motion, the ultimate ground of which is to be sought in God's infinite power.
Such a philosophy makes little serious attempt at constructive work in antiquity; but, upon the first great victories of physical science in modern times, a desire arose to extend the new and wonderfully fruitful method to the ultimate problems of speculation.
The term is borrowed from Sight, of all the physical senses the one which most rapidly instructs the mind.
We can by no means regard the physical world as the real world.
bog xerophytes), or that the physical drought of summer is unfavourable to shade-loving plants.
More original, perhaps, is the argument in the immediately preceding work, The Destiny of Man, viewed in the Light of his Origin (1884), which is, in substance, that physical evolution is a demonstrated fact; that intellectual force is a later, higher and more potent thing than bodily strength; and that, finally, in most men and some "lower animals" there is developed a new idea of the advantageous, a moral and non-selfish line of thought and procedure, which in itself so transcends the physical that it cannot be identified with it or be measured by its standards, and may or must be enduring, or at its best immortal.
(2) Physical state.
was conferred upon Brewster by Marischal College, Aberdeen; in 1815 he was made a member of the Royal Society of London, and received the Copley medal; in 1818 he received the Rumford medal of the society; and in 1816 the French Institute awarded him one-half of the prize of three thousand francs for the two most important discoveries in physical science made in Europe during the two preceding years.
In some parts of Herzegovina the dress, manners and physical type of the peasantry are akin to those of Montenegro.
The discovery had, however, yet to be completed by that of auscultation, or listening to sounds produced in the chest by breathing, the movements of the heart, &c. The combination of these methods constitutes what is now known as physical diagnosis.
Besides the last two parts of the Principles of Philosophy, the physical writings of Descartes include the Dioptrics and Meteors, as well as passages in the letters.
Darwin's work shows, however, the tendency to connect medicine with physical science, which was an immediate consequence of the scientific discoveries of the end of the 18th century, when Priestley and Cavendish in England exercised the same influence as Lavoisier in France.
Again, a like spirit dictated the use of the physical or "natural" methods on a larger scale in the field of prevention.
By the modification of physical conditions on a national scale a prodigious advance was made in the art of preventing disease.
Marey, 1863) attention was drawn to the physical features of the circulation, to the signs of degeneration of the arterial tree, and less definitely to the fluctuations of blood pressure; but as we have said under the consideration of diseases of the heart, the kymographs of Ludwig and his pupils brought out these fluctuations far more accurately and completely.
Probably he found in his calmness of temperament, even in his want of imagination, a sense of rest and of exemption from the disturbing influences of life; while in his physical philosophy he found both an answer to the questions which perplexed him and an inexhaustible stimulus to his intellectual curiosity.
Further, it is certain that Hero used physical and mathematical writings by Posidonius, the Stoic, of Apamea, Cicero's teacher, who lived until about the middle of the 1st century B.C. The positive arguments for the more modern view of Hero's date are (1) the use by him of Latinisms from which Diels concluded that the 1st century A.D.
20, 21 a condition of physical want is contemplated, not, as in Matt.
are many varieties of glass differing widely in chemical composition and in physical qualities.
Owing to the physical changes produced in the material exposed prolonged observations of temperature are impossible.
On the other hand, the chemical and physical nature of the fireclays used in the manufacture of such crucibles requires careful attention in order to secure the best results.
Special glasses have therefore been produced by Tonnelot in France and at the Jena glassworks in Germany expressly for the manufacture of thermometers for accurate physical measurements; the analyses of these are shown in Table III.
So also the Sikh's physical strength was increased by the use of meat and avoidance of tobacco.
This definition, however, is highly artificial and objectionable on principle, because when we speak of metals we think, not of their chemical relations, but of a certain sum of mechanical and physical properties which unites them all into one natural family.
The quality of plasticity is developed to very different degrees in different metals, and even in the same species it depends on temperature, and may be modified by mechanical or physical operations.
This varies in metals from 594 (lithium) to 22.48 (osmium), and in one and the same species is a function of temperature and of previous physical and mechanical treatment.
From a collection of the best experiments by previous workers he selected eighty-two (fifty-one on the velocity of water in conduit pipes, and thirty-one on its velocity in open canals); and, discussing these on physical and mechanical principles, he succeeded in drawing up general formulae, which afforded a simple expression for the velocity of running water.
His common sense appears in his rejection of Hutchinson's attempt to prove that the Bible supplies a complete system of physical science, and his shrewdness in his Notes on Scripture Texts (1747).
In 1747 Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, director of the physical classes in the Academy of Sciences, Berlin, discovered the existence of common sugar in beetroot and in numerous other fleshy roots which grow in temperate regions.
From it we pass without a break, merely narrowing the application as the conception of sacredness grew clearer and less associated with magic, into early criminal law with its physical sanctions.
Of the first the physical characteristics are a small, thin-limbed body, hair black, short and woolly, projecting jaws, rounded, narrow, retreating forehead, long and narrow head, enormous eyebrow ridges, flat nose and dark skin.
His philosophy consisted of four main parts, the reasons for scepticism and doubt, the attack on causality and truth, a physical theory and a theory of morality.
The peculiar character which clay possesses is probably due not to its chemical composition but to its physical state.
Too much stress, however, cannot be laid upon these figures, since the fertility of a soil is very greatly influenced by texture and physical constitution, perhaps more so by these factors than by chemical composition.
On the other hand, the same observations go to show that the disease is met with oftener on the more recent formations than the older, and this fact, so far as concerns the physical characters of the soil, is identical with the questions of permeability to air and water.
Given suitable climatic conditions, the type of tobacco produced is determined mainly by the soil, and particularly by its mechanical or physical condition.
The specific effects of different impurities on the physical properties of zinc have only been imperfectly studied.
No laboratories were accessible to ordinary students, who had to content themselves with what the universities could give in the lectureroom and the library, and though both at Bonn and Erlangen Liebig endeavoured to make up for the deficiencies of the official instruction by founding a students' physical and chemical society for the discussion of new discoveries and speculations, he felt that he could never become a chemist in his own country.
In animal physiology he set himself to trace out the operation of determinate chemical and physical laws in the maintenance of life and health.
Gregory, "Contributions to the Palaeontology and Physical Geology of the West Indies," ibid.
the Geological and Physical Development of Barbados; with Notes on Trinidad," ibid.
SECOND ADVENTISTS, members of religious bodies whose distinctive feature is a belief in the imminent physical return of Jesus Christ.
Blunt and C. Huber have done much to elucidate the main physical features of the country.
Besides giving to the world the first accurate description of the holy city and the Haj ceremonies, he was the first to fix the position of Mecca by astronomical observations, and to describe the physical character of its surroundings.
By training and temperament he was better qualified to appreciate and describe the social life of the people than their physical surroundings, and if the results of his great journey are disappointing to the geographer, his account of the society of the oasis towns, and of the remarkable men who were then ruling in Hail and Riad, must always possess an absorbing interest as a portrait of Arab life in its freest development.
Hejaz, if we except the Taif district in the south, which is properly a part of the Yemen plateau, forms a well-marked physical division, Hejaz.
the production of graphite from coke or gas-carbon) the heat is applied solely to the production of molecular or physical changes.
In these processes the electric current is used solely to generate heat, either to induce chemical reactions between admixed substances, or to produce a physical (allotropic) modification of a given substance.
In the number and variety of its leather and other fancy goods Vienna rivals Paris, and is also renowned for its manufacture of jewelry and articles of precious metals, objets d'art, musical instruments, physical chemicals and optical instruments, and artistic products generally.
The principal formation is coralline limestone; the eastern coast is defended by coral reefs, and the neighbouring sea (extending as far as New Guinea, and thus demonstrating a physical connexion with that land) is shallow, and abounds in coral in full growth.
At this time, Isvolsky displayed great physical courage in that he went about St.
- Humboldt's " Iberian theory " depended partly on linguistic comparisons, but partly on his observation of widespread similarity of physical type among the population of south-western Europe.
He was also the author (1852) of the "Dissertation on the Progress of Mathematical and Physical Science," published in the 8th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
gravis, heavy), in physical science, that mutual action between masses of matter by virtue of which every such mass tends toward every other with a force varying directly as the product of the masses and inversely as the square of their distances apart.
He was made president of the American Physical Society in 1901 and of the American Society for the Advancement of Science in 1910.
A treaty was signed with Brazil 1876, by which certain physical features were accepted by both countries as the basis for the boundary.
The theory of distillation finds a place in all treatises on physical chemistry.
The ethnographical museum, the cabinet of coins, and the collections of fossils, minerals, and physical and optical instruments, are also worthy of mention.
i t I l ion), a term specially applied to warriors of extraordinary strength and courage, and generally to all who were distinguished from their fellows by superior moral, physical or intellectual qualities.
Kopp devoted himself especially to physico-chemical inquiries, and in the history of chemical theory his name is associated with several of the most important correlations of the physical properties of substances with their chemical constitution.
In addition he wrote (1863) on theoretical and physical chemistry for the Graham-Otto Lehrbuch der Chemie, and for many years assisted Liebig in editing the Annalen der Chemie and the Jahresbericht.
Duff gave much thought and time to the university of Calcutta, which owes its examination system and the prominence given to physical sciences to his influence.
" Not only must political institutions and social manners, on the one hand, and manners and ideas, on the other, be always mutually connected; but further, this consolidated whole must be always connected by its nature with the corresponding state of the integral development of humanity, considered in all its aspects of intellectual, moral and physical activity."
-FOr general physical description see C. T.
This was a very happy time, and one of great physical development on Alfred's part.
This high physical zest in life seems to have declined after 1831, when his eyes began to trouble him, and he became liable to depression.
In 1891 it was observed that he had wonderfully recovered the high spirits of youth, and even a remarkable portion of physical strength.
The physical appearance of Tennyson was very remarkable.
There he came under the influence of Kant, who was just then passing from physical to metaphysical problems. Without becoming a disciple of Kant, young Herder was deeply stimulated to fresh critical inquiry by that thinker's revolutionary ideas in philosophy.
As a sort of theoretic basis for this adhesion to national type in literature, he conceived the idea that literature and art, together with language and national culture as a whole, are evolved by a natural process, and that the intellectual and emotional life of each people is correlated with peculiarities of physical temperament and of material environment.
The writer does not make that use of the fact of man's superior organic endowments which one might expect from his general conception of the relation of the physical and the mental in human development.
Herder's masterpiece, the Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, has the ambitious aim of explaining the whole of human development in close connexion with the nature of man's physical environment.
It thus stands in sharp contrast to the anthropology of Kant, which opposes human development conceived as the gradual manifestation of a growing faculty of rational free will to the operations of physical nature.
Since his retirement from office Gladstone's physical vigour, up to that time unequalled, had shown signs of impairment.
A word must be said about physical characteristics.
" His physical vigour in old age earned him the popular nickname of the Grand Old Man.
The existence of evil in opposition to the perfect goodness of God, as thus explained, need not be attributed to God's agency, inasmuch as the whole emanation-process is governed by necessary - as it were mechanical - laws, which may be compared to those of the physical universe.
The universal is, as Herbert Spencer remarked, a subjective idea, and the general forms, existing ante res, which play so prominent a part in Greek and medieval philosophy, do not in the least correspond to the homogeneous matter of the physical evolutionists.
The one process is a logical operation, the other a physical.
He has, indeed, described in graphic terms the greatest of the more superficial changes he underwent; how he had " carried into logical and ethical problems the maxims and postulates of physical knowledge," and had moved within the narrow lines drawn by the philosophical instructions of the class-room " interpreting human phenomena by the analogy of external nature "; how he served in willing captivity " the ` empirical ' and ` necessarian ' mode of thought," even though " shocked " by the dogmatism and acrid humours " of certain distinguished representatives "; 1 and how in a period of " second education " at Berlin, " mainly under the admirable guidance of Professor Trendelenburg," he experienced " a new intellectual birth" which " was essentially the gift of fresh conceptions, the unsealing of hidden openings of self-consciousness, with unmeasured corridors and sacred halls behind; and, once gained, was more or less available throughout the history of philosophy, and lifted the darkness from the pages of Kant and even Hegel."
Physical Characteristics.The best authorities are agreed that the Japanese people do not differ physically from their Korean and Chinese neighbors as much as the inhabitants of northern Europe differ from those of southern Europe.
Yet in other physical characteristics the Japanese, the Koreans and the Chinese resemble each other so closely that, under similar conditions as to costume and coiffure, no appreciable difference is apparent.
The typical Japanese of the present day has certain marked physical peculiarities.
In Europe the same physical traitsrelative length of head and shortness of legsdistinguish the central race (Alpine) from the Teutonic, and seem to indicate an affinity between the former and the Mongols.
In order to support himself and pay his academic fees many a Japanese has to fall into the ranks of the physical laborer during a part of each day or night.
Owing to its physical configuration Baden presents great extremes of heat and cold.
And he admits (§ 63) that if we were compelled to choose between translating mental phenomena into physical and its converse, the latter would be preferable, seeing that the ideas of matter and motion, merely symbolic of unknowable realities, are complex states of consciousness built out of units of feeling.
1861, Education: Intellectual, Moral, Physical.
But a profound change was' coming over him, which led him to leave the domain of physical research for that of psychical and spiritual inquiry.
Neither by geometrical, nor physical, nor metaphysical principles had he succeeded in reaching and grasping the infinite and the spiritual, or in elucidating their relation to man and man's organism, though he had caught glimpses of facts and methods which he thought only required confirmation and development.
There is little or no physical difference between them and the typical Abyssinians, except perhaps that their eyes are a little more oblique; and they may certainly be regarded as Hamitic. It is uncertain when they became Jews: one account suggests in Solomon's time; another, at the Babylonian captivity; a third, during the 1st century of the Christian era.
Each of these closed with a physical catastrophe.
To-day their descendants are not more subject to goitre and cretinism than those dwelling around them, and are recognized by tradition and not by features or physical degeneracy.
of Beaver Falls; it has a preparatory and a collegiate department, departments of music, oratory and art, and a physical department, and in 1907-1908 had 13 instructors and 235 students.
These halts in temperature that occur during the cooling of a mixture should be carefully noted, as they give valuable information concerning the physical and chemical changes that are taking place.
Shepherd in the Journal of Physical Chemistry, may also be consulted.
for the physical relations of the lake with the district at large).
Besides their ordinary condition all bodies are capable of being thrown into a physical state in which they are said to be electrified or charged with electricity.
Clerk Maxwell demonstrated, however, that all electric charge or electrification of conductors consists simply in the establishment of a physical state in the surrounding insulator or dielectric, which state is variously called electric strain, electric displacement or electric polarization.
The path described by it when removed from the action of gravity and all other physical forces is called a line of electric force.
It must be noted, however, that potential is a mere mathematical concept, and has no objective existence like difference of level, nor is it capable per se of producing physical changes in bodies, such as those which are brought about by rise of temperature, apart from any question of difference of temperature.
Dielectric constant.-Since all electric charge consists in a state of strain or polarization of the dielectric, it is evident that the physical state and chemical composition of the insulator must be of great importance in determining electrical phenomena.
pp. 98-148 (Breslau, 1905); also see Landolt and Bornstein's Tables of Physical Constants (Berlin, 1894) If we have a number of such condensers we can combine them in " parallel " or in " series."
The 0, 4) diagram is useful in the study of heat waste and condensation, but from other points of view the utility of the conception of entropy as a " factor of heat " is limited by the fact that it does not correspond to any directly measurable physical property, but is merely a mathematical function arising from the form of the definition of absolute temperature.
He ought not, of course, to be told more than that he is to descry the inquirer's thoughts, and there ought never to be physical contact, as in holding hands, between the inquirer and the scryer during the experiment.
The physical properties of native gold are generally similar to that of the melted metal.
It consists of three physical divisions: first, a marshy woodland strip along the coast, from 3 to 30 m.
The influence of the physical environment leads to the adoption of the same mode of life.
There can be little doubt that his physical condition was much improved by his habit of cultivating plants in garden and conservatory.
Illingworth has said very concisely: " The physical speculations of the Ionians and Atomists rendered a God superfluous, and the metaphysical and logical reasoning of the Eleatics declared Him to be unknowable."
Here also are McArt's Fort and other earthworks, and from here the importance of the physical position of Belfast may be appreciated to the full.
It is now generally accepted that this number, experimentally determined by Moseley for a number of elements, defines the physical and chemical properties of the particular element.
The old Hebrew prohibition of graven images was surely based on a like superstition, so far as it was not merely due to the physical impossibility for nomads of heavy statues that do not admit of being carried from camp to camp and from pasture to pasture.
The physical properties of the powder also give it a mild astringent action.
Besides Japanese history, this book contains a description of the political, social and physical state of the country in the 17th century.
Events which greatly affected the physical condition of the human race, or were of a nature to make a deep impression on the minds of the rude inhabitants of the earth, might be vaguely transmitted through several ages by traditional narrative; but intervals of time, expressed by abstract numbers, and these constantly varying besides, would soon escape the memory.
On his final return to Basel in 1682, he devoted himself to physical and mathematical investigations, and opened a public seminary for experimental physics.
The first, for a memoir on the construction of a clepsydra for measuring time exactly at sea, he gained at the age of twenty-four; the second, for one on the physical cause of the inclination of the planetary orbits, he divided with his father; and the third, for a communication on the tides, he shared with Euler, Colin Maclaurin and another competitor.
He also published separately some juridical and physical theses, and a German translation of Memoires du philosophe de Merian.
With the experience thus gained in manipulating the vacuum, the achievement of thoroughly verifying the pressure of radiation on both opaque and transparent bodies, in accordance with Clerk Maxwell's formula, has been effected (Physical Review, 1901, and later papers) by E.
The physical type represented on these coins has a strong prominent nose, large eyes, a moderately abundant beard and somewhat thick or projecting lips.
Hence, as far as any physical characters can be formulated for the various tribes (and their validity is very doubtful) the Yue-Chi type is Turkish rather than Mongol or Ugro-Finnic. In such points of temperament as military ability and power of assimilating Indian and Persian civilization, the YueChi also resemble the Turks, and some authorities think that the name Turushka or Turukha sometimes applied to them by Indian writers is another evidence of the connexion.
The National Physical Laboratory, for making scientific investigations of industrial importance, and for mechanical testing, was opened in Bushey House in 1902.
He felt that the increase of knowledge must come in the domains of physical science.
Louis was singularly well fitted by his physical and intellectual gifts for the role of Grand Monarque and he played it to perfection.
After this he practised medicine for a short time at Avignon, and for a longer period at Charlieu (where he contemplated marriage, but was deterred by a physical impediment).
Against these the church is not to attempt to use physical force; its only weapon is to be passive endurance and loyalty to God.
This article is restricted to general oceanography in its physical aspects, the closely-related meteorological,, biological and economic aspects being dealt with elsewhere.
This epoch-making great discoverers of the modern period were only familiar with expedition lasted from Christmas 1872 to the end of May 1876, the hand-lead, and the lines in use did not exceed 200 fathoms and gave the first wide and general view of the physical and in length.
A minute fraction is always separating out of the water, and as a prodigious length of time may be accepted for the accomplishment of all the chemical and physical processes in the deep sea, we must take account of the gradual accumulation of even this infinitesimal precipitation.
Further Physical Properties of Sea-water.---The laws of physical chemistry relating to complex dilute solutions apply to seawater, and hence there is a definite relation between the osmotic pressure, freezing-point, vapour tension and boiling-point by which when one of these constants is given the others can be calculated.
Physical Properties of Sea-Water.
Maury, The Physical Geography of the Sea and its Meteorology (New York and London, 1860); J.
chemical and physical processes similar to those that have converted ordinary sediments into rock masses.
' It is the general opinion of the District Commissioners that owing to physical considerations it is highly probable that the present rate of increase of the putput of coal can long continue - indeed, they think that some districts have already attained their maximum output, but that on the other hand the developments in the newer coalfields will possibly increase the total output for some years.
Colquitt, 1911B1BLIOGRAPHY.-FOr general physical description see Annual Reports of the Texas Geological Survey (Austin, 1890 sqq.), F.
The northern half is more broken and irregular; elevations, usually rounded, mingle with depressions some of which are occupied by small shallow lakes or ponds, the characteristic physical features of this region being due to glaciation.
The smallest unit of matter with which physical phenomena are concerned is the molecule.
Apart from speculation, the first definite evidence for the molecular structure of matter occurs when it is found that certain physical phenomena change their whole nature as soon as we deal with matter of which the linear dimensions are less than a certain amount.
These properties are found to account for the physical properties of gases.
The complete justification for this supposition will appear later: a partial justification is obtained as soon as it is seen how many physical laws can be explained by it.
In the northern part of the colony the Victoria Nyanza is the dominant physical feature.
Mount Elgon (q.v.) just outside the Eastern province is one of the leading physical features of the Uganda and East Africa protectorates.
A large collection of such curious information is contained in the Bibliotheca of Apollodorus, a pupil of Aristarchus who flourished in the and century B.C. Eratosthenes was the first to write on mathematical and physical geography; he also first attempted to draw up a chronological table of the Egyptian kings and of the historical events of Greece.
It uses physical force to compel men to obey the laws.
This classification, though it is of high value in the clearing up of our conceptions of the essential contrasted with the accidental, the relation of genus, differentia and definition and so forth, is of more significance in connexion with abstract sciences, especially mathematics, than for the physical sciences.
They bear a definite relation to the structure of our physical and psychical nature, and correspond to definite needs of the subject that manifests itself therein.
It carries the war into the camp of the enemy by seeking to demonstrate that the completely determined action which is set over against freedom as the basis of explanation in the material world is merely a hypothesis which, while it serves sufficiently well the limited purpose for which it is devised, is incapable of verification in the ultimate constituents of physical nature.
Davis, Physical Geography of Southern New England (New York, 1895), and for the western counties, R.
Connected with the university are a valuable library, occupying the palace built for Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland, in 1807 and containing upwards of 200,000 volumes and MSS.; a museum of natural history; an ophthalmic institute; physical and chemical laboratories; a veterinary school; a botanic garden; and an observatory.
For further treatment of the physical geography of the American continents, see North America, South America.
This personeity lifts the majority of earthly phenomena out of the merely physical world and places them in the spirit world.
By sceptics the word " dogma " is generally used contemptuously, for an opinion grounded not upon evidence but upon assertion; and this attitude is so far justified from the purely empirical standpoint that theological dogmas deal with subjects which, by their very nature, are not susceptible of demonstration by the methods of physical science.
It is to matter that we must look for the explanation both of conscious and of physical states.
But matter is not, in his system, to be understood with the common meaning, but with a deeper sense as the substratum of all conscious and physical existence; and thus the laws of being are identified with the laws of thought.
Diihring's clear, incisive writing is disfigured by arrogance and ill-temper, failings which may be extenuated on the ground of his physical affliction.
Among the passages quoted from Pacuvius are several which indicate a taste both for physical and ethical speculation, and others which expose the pretensions of religious imposture.
Ctesibius of Alexandria, Hero and others, founded the science of pneumatics on observations on the physical properties of air.
Napoleon himself was no longer the Napoleon of Marengo or Austerlitz, and though he was not broken down, his physical strength was certainly impaired.
1778), a wealthy merchant, for the study of theology, natural science and art, and has lecture-theatres, a large library, and a museum containing a physical and a geological cabinet, as well as a collection of paintings, including many modern pictures, and a valuable collection of drawings and engravings by old masters.
In works of art he is represented, like Ares, as a young man of splendid physical proportions, with bristling hair like a horse's mane and a slender neck.
In early life he devoted himself to astronomy and physical geography, and in consequence he was appointed astronomer to various expeditions, among others that of Sir J.
Nearly every one of the modern instruments used for the observations of physical astronomy is a part of the perfected astrolabe.
In physical and mechanical applications, where concrete measurements are involved, there is, as pointed out in the preceding section, the additional inaccuracy due to want of exactness in the figure itself.
B ut more important and less speculative is the hero's aspect as a national type or an amalgamation of tribal types of physical force, of dauntless effort and endurance, of militant civilization, and of Hellenic enterprise, " stronger than everything except his own passions," and " at once above and below the noblest type of man " (Jebb).
Not intending originally to devote himself to physical science, he first took up the study of law and philology at GÃ¶ttingen, and the general culture he thus gained stood him in good stead when he turned to chemistry, the study of which he began under Liebig.
The compulsory education law as amended in 1907 and 1909 requires the full attendance at a public school, or at a school which is an approximate equivalent, of all children who are between seven and fourteen years of age, are in the proper physical and mental condition, and reside in a city or school district having a population of 5000 or more and employing a superintendent of schools; in such a city or district children between fourteen and sixteen years must attend school unless they obtain an employment certificate and are regularly engaged in some useful employment or service; and outside of such a city or district all children between the ages of eight and fourteen years and those between fourteen and sixteen years who are not regularly employed must attend school on all school days from October to June.
1624-1625 1625-1626.1626-16321632-16331633-16371637-16471647-16641664-16681668-16731673-16741674-16831683-16881688-16891689-1691 16911691-16921692-16981698-17011701-17021702-17081708-17091709-171017101710-17191719-17201720-17281728-17311731-17321732-17361736-17431743-1753 17531753-17551755-17571757-17601760-1761 17611761-17621762-1763 Bibliography.--Physical Features and Climate: - R.
Tarr, Physical Geography of New York State (New York, 1902), with a chapter on climate by E.
Meikle, read before the Physical Society of Glasgow University on the 27th of January 1888, or J.
Its central physical feature is the unbroken mountain chains running N.E.
The physical geography of New Zealand is closely connected with its geological structure, and is dominated by two intersecting lines of mountains and earth movements.
The old physical attacks on the Jews continued in Russia, but there was added the reluctance of several national groups in Europe to admit the Jews to social equality.
In general physical characteristics the province resembles East Prussia, but the climate is less harsh and the fertility of the soil greater.
In the first case, the man's physical and spiritual lethargy are closely interconnected and strongly contrasted with the everactive God and His Logos.
The most prominent physical feature of the state is the Cascade mountain range, which with a N.N.E.
All children between eight and fifteen years of age, and all between fifteen and sixteen years of age who are not regularly employed in some useful or remunerative occupation, must attend the public school all the time it is in session or a private school for the same time unless excused by the city or the county superintendent because of mental or physical disability or because of proficiency in the branches taught in the first eight grades.
- For general and physical description see the Annual Reports (1902 sqq.) of the Washington Geological Survey - in vol.
Probably we should be driven to a purely physical unit, the stream of energy proceeding in any direction, and if the noise were great enough we might measure it possibly by the pressure against a surface.
We are then led to conclude that beats are the physical foundation for dissonance.
The combination tones thus produced in the source should have a physical existence in the air, and the amplitudes of those represented in (35) should be of the same order.
1, physical; pt.
either one or many gods) in or above the physical universe.
Romanes), in which the writer endeavours to establish the weakness of the proofs for the existence of God, and to substitute for theism Spencer's physical explanation of the universe, and yet admits how unsatisfying to himself the new position is.
In respect of its physical features, Alsace-Lorraine falls into three parts - mountain land, plain and plateau.
Green, " A Contribution to the Geology and Physical Geography of the Cape Colony," Quart.
(For map, see Idaho.) Physical Features.
He was taken from the Federal service in Washington to New York City by a reform mayor and put in charge of the police, because he had shown both physical and moral courage in fighting corruption of all sorts; and the New York police force at that time was thoroughly tainted with corruption, not in its rank and file, but among its superior officers, who used the power in their hands to extort money bribes chiefly from saloonkeepers, liquor-dealers, gamblers and prostitutes.
Personally of great physical and mental vigour, his work was done at high pressure and he had the faculty of inspiring his colleagues or his subordinates with his own enthusiasm for doing things.
Regular physical exercise in the open air contributed much to his abounding vitality.
4) the sin of Adam was the cause of physical death; according to another (liv.
6), only of premature physical death, while according to a third (xlviii.
It is true, not only physical death (iii.
The Harbour Department was, as stated above, a branch of the marine department until 1866, so far as it is connected with the physical adjuncts of navigation, but various other matters have since been added, e.g.
His scientific papers were collected and published by the Physical Society of London: the first volume, which appeared in 1884, contained the researches for which he was alone responsible, and the second, dated 1887, those which he carried out in association with other workers.
It describes its material development, " its physical constitution and warlike prowess," of which they make a special boast, and after that its intellectual progress.
-For physical description see the Bulletins of the South Dakota Geological Survey (Vermilion, 1894 sqq.); N.
Other institutions are Concordia College (1881, Lutheran), a state normal school (1880), the Wisconsin College of physicians and surgeons (1893), the national German-American teachers' seminary (normal), Milwaukee academy (1864), Milwaukee University school, Milwaukee school of engineering (1904), Milwaukee Turnverein school of physical culture, one of the largest schools of the sort in the United States, St John's Catholic institute, Our Lady of Mercy academy (Roman Catholic), Wisconsin academy of music, the Wisconsin school of art (art students' league), a Catholic normal school, St Rose's manual training school, the industrial chemical institute (the only technical school for brewers in the United States) and several business and commercial schools.
In fact, she died in the following July, and it was then discovered that the physical appearances which first provoked suspicion.
Altogether the queen was in her carriage for more than four hours, in itself an extraordinary physical feat for a woman of seventy-eight.
In the west above Westerham these hills exceed 800 ft.; to the east the height is much less, but even in Kent (for in Surrey they are higher) the North Downs form a more striking physical feature than their height would indicate.
In 1835 he published his principal work, Sur l'homme et le developpement de ses facultes, ou essai de physique sociale (2nd ed., 1869), containing a resume of his statistical researches on the development of the physical and intellectual qualities of man, and on the "average man" both physically and intellectually considered.
For one thing women do not possess the physical strength which is often required.
The physical features of the district vary considerably.
Annual Report for 1872, containing The Physical Geography and Agricultural Resources of Minnesota, Dakota and Nebraska (Washington, 1873), by Cyrus Thomas; publications by the U.S. Geological Survey (consult the bibliographies in Bulletins, Nos.
The elder brother was set aside as imbecile and epileptic. Charles had inherited a great frame and immense physical strength from the Saxon line of his mother.
Several of its physical properties have been determined by K.
An important fact in the physical geography of the archipelago is that Java, Bali, Sumatra and Borneo, and the lesser islands between them 1 For more detailed information respecting the several islands and groups of the archipelago, see the separate articles Borneo; Java; Philippine Islands; Sumatra, &C.
The physical division between the Asiatic and Australian regions is clearly reflected in the botany and zoology.
So far as Nestorius himself is concerned, however, it is certain that he never formulated any such doctrine;2 nor does any recorded utterance of his, however casual, come so near the heresy called by his name as Cyril's deliberately framed third anathema (that regarding the "physical union" of the two hypostases or natures) approaches Eutychianism.
The district is served by numerous branches of the Great Western, London & North Western, and Midland railways, and is intersected by canals, which carry a heavy traffic, and in some places are made to surmount physical obstacles with remarkable engineering skill, as in the case of the Castle Hill tunnels at Dudley.
Immediately south of the Kalta-alaghan comes a relatively deep depression, the Kum-kol valley, forming a very well-marked feature in the physical conformation of this region.
Mayer entirely ignored the grand fundamental principle laid down by Sadi Carnot - that nothing can be concluded as to the relation between heat and work from an experiment in which the working substance is left at the end of an operation in a different physical state from that in which it was at the commencement.
The university of Modena, originally founded in 1683 by Francis II., is mainly a medical and legal school, but has also a faculty of physical and mathematical science.
A society of arts and sciences (which possesses an excellent museum) was established in 1778, a royal physical society in 1850, and a society for the promotion of industry and agriculture in 1853.
This description, quoted from James Clerk Maxwell's article in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, represents the historical position of the subject up till about 1860, when Maxwell began those constructive speculations in electrical theory, based on the influence of the physical views of Faraday and Lord Kelvin, which have in their subsequent development largely transformed theoretical physics into the science of the aether.
The wider view, according to which the hypothesis of direct transmission of physical influences expresses only part of the facts, is that all space is filled with physical activity, and that while an influence is passing across from a body, A, to another body, B, there is some dynamical process in action in the intervening region, though it appears to the senses to be mere empty space.
The problem is whether we can represent the facts more simply by supposing the intervening space to be occupied by a medium which transmits physical actions, after the manner that a continuous material medium, solid or liquid, transmits mechanical disturbance.
It must be a medium which can be effective for transmitting all the types of physical action known to us; it would be worse than no solution to have one medium to transmit gravitation, another to transmit electric effects, another to transmit light, and so on.
Thus the attempt to find out a constitution for the aether will involve a synthesis of intimate correlation of the various types of physical agencies, which appear so different to us mainly because we perceive them through different senses.
This single principle of energy has transformed physical science by making possible the construction of a network of ramifying connexions between its various departments; it thus stimulates the belief that these constitute a single whole, and encourages the search for the complete scheme of interconnexion of which the principle of energy and the links which it suggests form only a single feature.
The greatest obstacle to such a search for the fundamental medium is the illimitable complexity of matter, as contrasted with the theoretical simplicity and uniformity of the physical agencies which connect together its different parts.
Since the period, a century ago, when Dalton and his contemporaries constructed from this idea a scientific basis for chemistry, the progress of that subject has been wonderful beyond any conception that could previously have been entertained; and the atomic theory in some form appears to be an indispensable part of the framework of physical science.
We might consider that matter and aether can coexist in the same space; this would involve the co-existence and interaction of a double set of properties, introducing great complication, which would place any coherent scheme of physical action probably beyond the powers of human analysis.
We recognize an atom only through its physical activities, as manifested in its interactions with other atoms at a distance from it; this field of physical activity would be identical with the surrounding field of aethereal motion or strain that is inseparably associated with the nucleus, and is carried on along with it as it moves.
To make room for these we have to remember that the atomic nucleus has remained entirely undefined and beyond our problem; so that what may occur, say when two molecules come into close relations, is outside physical science - not, however, altogether outside, for we know that when the vital nexus in any portion of matter is dissolved, the atoms will remain, in their number, and their atmospheres, and all inorganic relations, as they were before vitality supervened.
It thus appears that the doctrine of atomic material constitution and the doctrine of a universal aether stand to each other in a relation of mutual support; if the scheme of physical laws is to be as precise as observation and measurement appear to make it, both doctrines are required in our efforts towards synthesis.
The laws of thermodynamics, including the fundamental principle that a physical property, called temperature, can be defined, which tends towards uniformity, are thus relations between the properties of types of material bodies that can exist permanently in presence of each other; why they so maintain themselves remains unknown, but the fact gives the point d'appui.
Returning now to the aether, on our present point of view no such complications there arise; it must be regarded as a continuous uniform medium free from any complexities of atomic aggregation, whose function is confined to the transmission of the various types of physical effect between the portions of matter.
This great advance, which is the result of the gradual focussing of a century's work in the minute exploration of the exact laws of optical and electric phenomena, clearly carries with it deeper insight into the physical nature of matter itself and its modes of inanimate interaction.
An important question arises whether, when a material body is moved through the aether, the nucleus of each atom carries some of the surrounding aether along with it; or whether it practically only carries on its strain-form or physical atmosphere, which is transferred from one portion of aether to another after the manner of a shadow, or rather like a loose knot which can slip along a rope without the rope being required to go with it.
The corollary, that the electric resistance of a metal can be determined in absolute units by experiments on the reflexion of heat-rays from its surface, is a striking illustration of the unification of the various branches of physical science, which has come in the train of the development of the theory of the aether.
Of recent years most treatises on physical optics, e.g.
At that period, and in the 19th century, Geneva was a centre of light, especially in the case of various of the physical sciences.
In natural soothsaying this frenzy is the necessary physical accompaniment of an afflatus which, though it seems supernatural to a rude people, is really akin to poetic inspiration.
But it is soon learned that a similar physical state can be produced artificially, and at the Canaanite sanctuaries this was done on a large scale.
The Sokol societies, in collaboration with the army gymnastic clubs and with the Y.M.C.A., devote themselves systematically to the physical and moral welfare of the troops.
A high standard of physical training is set by the popular gymnastic organizations, known as " Sokols."
The great Sokol union has a membership of over 300,000 in all, and the programme includes not only physical but also moral and disciplinary training, aiming at the production of citizens of character and patriotism.
of Physical Astr.
the work is divided into three books, of which the first and second are generally called 'EKXoyai 4'vo-iKai Kai 170LKae (Physical and Moral Extracts), and the third 'Av90X6y.ov (Florilegium or Sermones).
Logic and physical science they held to be useless, for all knowledge is immediate sensation (see Protagoras).
Llangeitho became the Jerusalem of Wales, and Rowland's popularity never waned until his physical powers gave way.
Albert's knowledge of physical science was considerable and for the age accurate.
Wood, Physical Optics.) According to A.
The islanders are a Spanish race, very closely akin to the Catalans; but the long period of Moorish rule has left its mark on their physical type and customs. In character they are industrious and hospitable, and pique themselves on their loyalty and orthodoxy.
The eldest, Lawrence Parsons, 4th earl of Rosse, and Baron Oxmantown, born on the 17th of November 1840, succeeded to the title on his father's death, and made many investigations on the heavenly bodies, particularly on the radiation of the moon and related physical questions; the youngest, the Hon.
In 1835 he was unseated on petition, an& after standing unsuccessfully for Oldham he took to stumping England in favour of the new Radical doctrines of the day, and the use of physical force for their adoption.
As the word implies, secularism is based solely on considerations of practical morality with a view to the physical, social and moral improvement of society.
It is probable that the milk of ruminants possesses certain physical and physiological distinctions from that of non-ruminant animals, which will account for the virtues attributed to the milk of the ass and mare.
But no formula has yet been invented, derived on theoretical principles from the physical data, which will assign by calculation a definite magnitude to 3.
Chemically, it is thus indentical with the cubic mineral diamond, but between the two there are very wide differences in physical characters.
On the other hand attempts have been made to separate hedonism, as the search for a continuous series of physical pleasures, from eudaemonism, a condition of enduring mental satisfaction.
That they are in some cases produced by physical or sensory stimuli does not constitute them irrational, and it is purely arbitrary to confine the word pleasure to those cases in which such stimuli are the proximate causes.
In 1867 he quitted the army and returned to St Petersburg, where he entered the university, becoming at the same time secretary to the physical geography section of the Russian Geographical Society.
In 1873 he published an important contribution to science, a map and paper in which he proved that the existing maps of Asia entirely misrepresented the physical formation of the country, the main structural lines being in fact from south-west to north-east, not from north to south, or from east to west as had been previously supposed.
It is a solid substance which occurs in several modifications, differing very much in their physical properties.
Amorphous carbon is obtained by the destructive distillation of many carbon compounds, the various kinds differing very greatly as regards physical characters and purity, according to the substance used for their preparation.
Southward from the sea the country falls naturally into three divisions, clearly distinguished by their broad physical characteristics.
Smith, of the National Physical Laboratory (Phil.
The Wisdomliterature of the Hebrews concerned itself with what we should call the philosophy of human nature, and sometimes also of physical nature as well; its writers observed human character, studied action in its consequences, laid down maxims for education and conduct, and reflected on the moral problems which human society presents.
He was also a writer in whom the physical wear and tear must have been enormous.
It might well be believed that the change in the so-called Epistles of the Imprisonment from the earlier epistles was due in part to the physical effects of prolonged confinement, as compared with the free, varied and open life and exciting controversies of earlier years.
The bed of the Pacific is not naturally divided into physical regions, but for descriptive purposes the parts of the area lying east and west of 150° W.
D.) Islands Of The Pacific Ocean Up to a certain point, the islands of the Pacific fall into an obvious classification, partly physical, partly political.
But linguistic and physical evidence are against this theory.
The view which has received most general acceptance is that they represent a branch of the Caucasic division of mankind who migrated at a remote period possibly in Neolithic times from the Asiatic mainland travelling by way of the Malay Archipelago and gradually colonizing the eastern Pacific. The Polynesians, who, as represented by such groups as the Samoans and Marquesas islanders, are the physical equal of Europeans, are of a light brown colour, tall, well-proportioned, with regular and often beautiful features.
The best maps are that of the Bureau of American Republics (1903), and, for physical features, that of Col.
Among causes for absolute divorce are adultery, desertion for one year, habitual drunkenness for one year, cruelty, ungovernable temper, physical incapacity at time of marriage, and the joining by either party of any religious sect which regards marriage as unlawful.
Fordescriptionsof physical featuresand accounts of natural resources see Reports of the Kentucky Geological Survey, the Biennial Reports of the Bureau of Agriculture, Labor and Statistics, the Reports of the United States Census and various publications of the U.S. Geological Survey, and other publications listed in Bulletin 301 (Bibliography and Index of North American Geology for 1901-1905) and other bibliographies of the Survey.
The popular faith was full of heathenish superstition strangely blended with the higher ideas which were the inheritance left to Israel by men like Moses and Elijah; but the common prophets accepted all alike, and combined heathen arts of divination and practices of mere physical enthusiasm with a not altogether insincere pretension that through their professional oracles the ideal was being maintained of a continuous divine guidance of the people of Yahweh.
Scheele's power as an experimental investigator has seldom if ever been surpassed, and his accuracy is most remarkable when his primitive apparatus, his want of assistance, his place of residence, and the undeveloped state of chemical and physical science in his time, are all taken into account.
A full account of the physical features, and of the modern development of commerce, communications, &c., in this area is given in the articles on the four provinces Barcelona, Gerona, Lerida and Tarragona, into which Catalonia was divided in 1833.
National standards of length are not legally now referred to natural standards or to physical constants, but it has been shown by A.
The length of the metre is independent of the thermometer so far that it has its length at a definite physical point, the temperature of melting ice (0° C.), but there is the practical difficulty that for ordinary purposes measurements cannot be always carried out at 0° C.
In England a National Physical Laboratory (N.P.L.) has been established, based on the German institute, and has its principal laboratory at Bushey House, near Hampton, Middlesex.
Here is carried out the work of standardizing measuring instruments of various sorts in use by manufacturers, the determination of physical constants and the testing of materials.
Commercial, and Treasury Committee on National Physical Laboratory, Parlimentary Paper, 1898.)
This production is not a physical process, but an emission of force; and, since the product has real existence only in virtue of the original existence working in it, Neoplatonism may be described as a species of dynamic pantheism.
The parish was divided into 25 districts embracing from 60 to loo families, over each of which an elder and a deacon were placed, the former taking oversight of their spiritual, the latter of their physical needs.
He was already an ardent student of physical science; he now gave proof of his versatility by learning Chinese in order to catalogue the Chinese MSS.
He, his immediate follower, Gilbert Tennent (1703-1764), other clergymen, such as James Davenport, and many untrained laymen who took up the work, agreed in the emotional and dramatic character of their preaching, in rousing their hearers to a high pitch of excitement, often amounting to frenzy, in the undue stress they put upon "bodily effects" (the physical manifestations of an abnormal psychic state) as proofs of conversion, and in their unrestrained attacks upon the many clergymen who did not join them and whom they called "dead men," unconverted, unregenerate and careless of the spiritual condition of their parishes.
Edwards' famous sermon at Enfield in 1741 so affected his audience that they cried and groaned aloud, and he found it necessary to bid them be still that he might go on; but Davenport and many itinerants provoked and invited shouting and even writhing, and other physical manifestations.
Palaeontology both borrows from and sheds light upon geology and other branches of the physical history of the earth, each of which, such as palaeogeography or palaeometeorology, is the more fascinating because of the large element of the unknown, the need for constructive imagination, the appeal to other branches of biological and physical investigation for supplementary evidence, and the necessity of constant comparison with the present aspects of nature.
In order to illustrate the grateful services which palaeontology through restoration may render to the related earth sciences let us imagine a vast continent of the past wholly unknown in its physical features, elevation, climate, configuration, but richly represented by fossil remains.
From a study of remains of the mollusca, brachiopoda and other marine organisms they will determine the shallow water (littoral) and deep water (abyssal) regions of the surrounding oceans, and the clear or muddy, salt, brackish or fresh character of its inland and marginal seas; and even the physical conditions of the open sea at the time will be ascertained.
The history of this science, like that of all physical sciences, covers two parallel lines of development which have acted and reacted upon each other - namely, progress in exploration, research and discovery, and progress in philosophic interpretation.
IV.-Relations Of Palaeontology To Other Physical Earth Sciences Geology and Palaeophysiography.
We have shown that the direct observation of the origin of new characters in palaeontology brings them within that domain of natural law and order to which the evolution of the physical universe conforms. The nature of this law, which, upon the whole, appears to be purposive or teleological in its operations, is altogether a mystery which may or may not be illumined by future research.
The geological formation is principally of volcanic rocks, with schists and tertiary limestone; and an early physical connexion of the islands with New Zealand is indicated by their geology and biology.
Egloffstein, Contributions to the Geology and Physical Geography of Mexico (New York, 1864); C. Reginald Enock, Mexico, its Ancient and Modern Civilization, &c. (London, 1909); Hans Gadow, Travels in Southern Mexico (London, 1908); Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg, Mexico, Land and Leute (Vienna, 1890); W.
All children between the ages of eight and fourteen and those between the ages of fourteen and sixteen who cannot read and write English are required to attend either a public or an approved private school for the full term unless excused by the school board on account of physical or mental infirmity.
Wood, Physical Optics; and A.
For descriptive accounts, see Wood's Physical Optics, T.
He had already contributed articles and reviews to the Journal of Fichte and Niethammer, and had thrown himself with all his native impetuosity into the study of physical and medical science.
His studies of physical science bore rapid fruit in the Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur (1797), and the treatise Von der Weltseele (1798).
His efforts after a construction of natural reality are bad in themselves, and gave rise to wearisome and useless physical speculation.
But in 1798 he gave up this appointment and travelled in Great Britain, spending a year at Edinburgh studying agriculture and physical science.
To the north and west the country is comparatively level, the central plain of Ireland here reaching to the coast, but to the south the foothills of the Wicklow Mountains practically touch the confines of Greater Dublin, affording comprehensive views of the physical position of the city, and forming a background to some of the finest streets.
The second confusion is the tacit assumption that the pleasure of the hedonist is necessarily or characteristically of a purely physical kind; this assumption is in the case of some hedonistic theories a pure perversion of the facts.
This was nothing less than the foundation of a new astronomy, in which physical cause should replace arbitrary hypothesis.
His demonstration that the planes of all the planetary orbits pass through the centre of the sun, coupled with his clear recognition of the sun as the moving power of the system, entitles him to rank as the founder of physical astronomy.
Among his happy conjectures may be mentioned that of the sun's axial rotation, postulated by him as the physical cause of the revolutions of the planets, and soon after confirmed by the discovery of sun-spots; the suggestion of a periodical variation in the obliquity of the ecliptic; and the explanation as a solar atmospheric effect of the radiance observed to surround the totally eclipsed sun.
Thus certain physical changes in the brain result in a given action; the concomitant mental desire or volition is in no sense causally connected with, or prior to, the physical change.
Huxley (Science and Culture) and Shadworth Hodgson (Metaphysic of Experience and Theory of Practice), must be distinguished from that of the psychophysical parallelism, or the "double aspect theory" according to which both the mental state and the physical phenomena result from a so-called "mind stuff," or single substance, the material or cause of both.
In his speculations as to the physical cause of the celestial motions, his mind, though not wholly emancipated from the tyranny of gratuitous assumptions, was working steadily towards the light.
of Physical Astronomy, pp. 420, 545; J.
Least of all is it a sacramental eating of the flesh and drinking of the blood of Jesus, a perpetual renewal of kinship, physical and spiritual, with him.
But these views were not those of the uninstructed pagans who filled the churches and needed a rite which brought them, as their old sacrifices had done, into physical contact and union with their god.
Robertson Smith (Religion of the Semites, 1894), " was a group of persons whose lives were so bound up together, in what must be called a physical unity, that they could be treated as parts of one common life.
The general sense is clear, that those who consume the holy food without a clear conscience, like those who handle sacred objects with impure hands, will suffer physical harm from its contact, as if they were undergoing the ordeal of touching a holy thing.
Mendeleeff's original work covered a wide range, from questions in applied chemistry to the most general problems of chemical and physical theory.
In another department of physical chemistry he investigated the expansion of liquids with heat, and devised a formula for its expression similar to Gay-Lussac's law of the uniformity of the expansion of gases, while so far back as 1861 he anticipated T.
He is well known also as the author of The History of the Intellectual Development of Europe (1862), applying the methods of physical science to history, a History of the American Civil War (3 vols., 1867-1870), and a History of the Conflict between Religion and Science (1874).
An active trade, fostered by abundant railway communications, is combined with manufactures of iron and steel wares, paper, chemicals, vinegar, physical and optical instruments, besides artistic printing and lithography.
The physical and the ethical are not distinguished, and in this respect the character of the system is thoroughly materialistic; for when Mani co-ordinates good with light, and evil with darkness, this is no mere figure of speech, but light is actually good and darkness evil.
From this it follows that religious knowledge involves the knowledge of nature and her elements, and that redemption consists in a physical process of freeing the element of light from the darkness.
Manichaeism indeed, though it applies the title "redeemer" to Mani, has really no knowledge of a redeemer, but only of a physical and gnostic process of redemption; on the other hand, it possesses in Mani the supreme prophet of God.
The only part of the Manichaean mythology that became popular was the crude, physical dualism.
Under the older-fashioned methods of treating physical geography, the prairies were empirically described as level prairies, rolling prairies, and so on.
Both the earlier and the later parts of the Silurian period seem to have been times when physical conditions were such as to favor the development of provincial faunas, while during the more widespread submergence of the middle Silurian the fauna was more cosmopolitan.
In virtue of these physical characteristics, the air over the land becomes much warmer in summer and much colder in winter than the air over the oceans in corresponding latitudes; hence the seasonal changes of temperature in the central United States are strong; the high temperatures appropriate to the torrid zone advance northward to middle latitudes in summer, and the low temperatures appropriate to the Arctic regions descend almost to middle latitudes in winter.
Walker, superintendent of the censuses of 1870 and 1880, the remarkable fact that such reduction coincided with a cause that was regarded as certain to quicken the increase of population, viz, the introduction of a vast body of fresh peasant blood from Europe, afforded proof that in this matter of population morals are far more potent than physical causes.
For this purpose the exhibition of " physical phenomena " was found necessary.
" Strabo indeed appears to be the first who conceived a complete geographical treatise as comprising the four divisions of mathematical, physical, political and historical geography, and he endeavoured, however imperfectly, to keep all these objects in view."
He therefore endeavours to give a general sketch of the character, physical peculiarities and natural productions of each country, and consequently gives us much valuable information respecting ethnology, trade and metallurgy.
With respect to physical geography, his work is a great advance on all preceding ones.
The physical features of Canada are comparatively simple, and drawn on a large scale, more than half of its surface sloping gently inwards towards the shallow basin of Hudson Bay, with higher margins to the south-east and south-west.
The physical geography of Canada is so closely bound up with its geology that at least an outline of the geological factors involved in its history is necessary to understand the present physiography.
This ruling geological and physical feature of the North American continent has been named by E.
The rivers of Canada, except the St Lawrence, are losing their importance as means of communication from year to year, as railways spread over the interior and cross the mountains to the Pacific; but from the point of view of the physical geographer there are few things more remarkable than the intricate and comprehensive way, in which they drain the country.
The " maritime provinces " of eastern Canada, including Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, may be considered together; and to these provinces as politically bounded may be added, from a physical point of view, the analogous south-eastern part of Quebec - the entire area being designated the Acadian region.
62° it is still narrower and somewhat interrupted, but preserves its main physical features to the Arctic Ocean about the mouth of the Mackenzie.
Wheatstone's physical investigations are described in more than thirty-six papers in various scientific journals, the more important being in the Philosophical Transactions, the Proceedings of the Royal Society, the Comptes rendus and the British Association Reports.
Wheatstone's Scientific Papers were collected and published by the Physical Society of London in 1879.
The charm of the Orkneys does not lie in their ordinary physical features, so much as in beautiful atmospheric effects, extraordinary examples of light and shade, and rich coloration of cliff and sea.
Pleasure is a physical state, and is not a generation in the body supplying a defect and establishing a natural condition, but an activity of a natural condition of the soul.
On the other hand, Aristotle entitles the science of all being " Primary Philosophy " (irpcori OeXoaoOla), and the science of physical being " Secondary Philosophy " (SEUTEpa 49eXoa041a), which suggests that his order is from Metaphysics to Physics, the reverse of his editor's order from Physics to Metaphysics.
The traditional order of the Aristotelian writings, still continued in the Berlin edition, beginning with the logical writings on page 1, proceeding to the physical writings on page 184, and postponing the Metaphysics to page 980, is not the real order of Aristotle's philosophy.
Physical Philosophy, about things as changing, and therefore about natural substances or bodies, composed of matter and essence.
Such is the great mind of Aristotle manifested in the large map of learning, by which we have now to determine the order of his extant philosophical writings, with a view to studying them in their real order, which is neither chronological nor traditional, but philosophical and scientific. Turning over the pages of the Berlin edition, but passing over works which are perhaps spurious, we should put first and foremost speculative philosophy, and therein the primary philosophy of his Metaphysics (980 a 211093 b 29); then the secondary philosophy of his Physics, followed by his other physical works, general and biological, including among the latter the Historia Animalium as preparatory to the De Partibus Animalium, and the De Anima and Parva Naturalia, which he called " physical " but we call " psychological" (184 a 10-967 b 27); next, the practical philosophy of the Ethics, including the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia as earlier and the Nicomachean Ethics as later (1094-124 9 b 25), and of the Politics (1252-1342), with the addition of the newly discovered Athenian Constitution as ancillary to it; finally, the productive science, or art, of the Rhetoric, including the earlier Rhetoric to Alexander and the later Rhetorical Art, and of the Poetics, which was unfinished (1354-end).
We shall begin therefore with that primary philosophy which is the real basis of his philosophy, and proceed in the order of his classification of science to give his chief doctrines on: (1) Speculative philosophy, metaphysical and physical, including his psychology, and with it his logic.
Such is Aristotle's natural realism, pervading his metaphysical and physical writings.
It is not always a true apprehension of essence, but often, especially in physical matter, such as sound or heat or light, takes superficial effects to be the essence of the thing.