Physical sentence example
The process causes physical difficulty and effort.
I sense physical weakness.
We've got a few thousand kids in real danger of immediate, physical harm.
She had her purse, and it wasn't as though he had done any physical harm.
Robots are free from the physical limits our human bodies have.Advertisement
No one can tell the physical difference until the injections wear off.
All her emotional and physical efforts were directed toward helping him recover and taking care of things at home.
She moved to face him, distracted by the fact he shifted his body to keep from breaking their physical contact.
What if physical conditions have built up high walls about us?
As generally happens, Pierre did not feel the full effects of the physical privation and strain he had suffered as prisoner until after they were over.Advertisement
Deidre felt the pain again, the one without a physical source but which she felt as if a knife was piercing her soul.
Her misery increased at the physical reminder that she hadn.t figured out what to do about him yet.
The physical ramifications of not feeding for over thirty hours commanded attention.
Since she had begun looking after him, he had always experienced this physical consciousness of her nearness.
The struggle between the old views and the new was long and stubbornly fought out in physical philosophy.Advertisement
To the men who fought against the rising truths of physical philosophy, it seemed that if they admitted that truth it would destroy faith in God, in the creation of the firmament, and in the miracle of Joshua the son of Nun.
At her inquiry, the doctor said the air tube had not caused any physical damage to Alex's vocal cords.
Despite his apparently delicate build Prince Andrew could endure physical fatigue far better than many very muscular men, and on the night of the battle, having arrived at Krems excited but not weary, with dispatches from Dokhturov to Kutuzov, he was sent immediately with a special dispatch to Brunn.
Gabriel leaned his hip against the counter and crossed his arms in physical disagreement.
I decided that there was no reason, except my deplorable ignorance of the great facts that underlie our physical existence.Advertisement
His physical strength and agility during the first days of his imprisonment were such that he seemed not to know what fatigue and sickness meant.
The battle got so bad that the only way to prevent the annihilation of every being in the universe was to divide the physical and divine worlds.
So we've determined you have no physical coordination or skills.
Hence, as far as any physical characters can be formulated for the various tribes (and their validity is very doubtful) the Yue-Chi type is Turkish rather than Mongol or Ugro-Finnic. In such points of temperament as military ability and power of assimilating Indian and Persian civilization, the YueChi also resemble the Turks, and some authorities think that the name Turushka or Turukha sometimes applied to them by Indian writers is another evidence of the connexion.
It should be observed, however, that in his judgment the repeal of the union would not weaken the real bond between Great Britain and Ireland; and he had nothing in common with the revolutionists who, at a later period, openly declared for the separation of the two countries by physical force.Advertisement
My physical limitations are forgotten--my world lies upward, the length and the breadth and the sweep of the heavens are mine!
On his final return to Basel in 1682, he devoted himself to physical and mathematical investigations, and opened a public seminary for experimental physics.
The first, for a memoir on the construction of a clepsydra for measuring time exactly at sea, he gained at the age of twenty-four; the second, for one on the physical cause of the inclination of the planetary orbits, he divided with his father; and the third, for a communication on the tides, he shared with Euler, Colin Maclaurin and another competitor.
The National Physical Laboratory, for making scientific investigations of industrial importance, and for mechanical testing, was opened in Bushey House in 1902.
He felt that the increase of knowledge must come in the domains of physical science.Advertisement
Louis was singularly well fitted by his physical and intellectual gifts for the role of Grand Monarque and he played it to perfection.
After this he practised medicine for a short time at Avignon, and for a longer period at Charlieu (where he contemplated marriage, but was deterred by a physical impediment).
Against these the church is not to attempt to use physical force; its only weapon is to be passive endurance and loyalty to God.
This article is restricted to general oceanography in its physical aspects, the closely-related meteorological,, biological and economic aspects being dealt with elsewhere.
This epoch-making great discoverers of the modern period were only familiar with expedition lasted from Christmas 1872 to the end of May 1876, the hand-lead, and the lines in use did not exceed 200 fathoms and gave the first wide and general view of the physical and in length.Advertisement
A minute fraction is always separating out of the water, and as a prodigious length of time may be accepted for the accomplishment of all the chemical and physical processes in the deep sea, we must take account of the gradual accumulation of even this infinitesimal precipitation.
Further Physical Properties of Sea-water.---The laws of physical chemistry relating to complex dilute solutions apply to seawater, and hence there is a definite relation between the osmotic pressure, freezing-point, vapour tension and boiling-point by which when one of these constants is given the others can be calculated.
The northern half is more broken and irregular; elevations, usually rounded, mingle with depressions some of which are occupied by small shallow lakes or ponds, the characteristic physical features of this region being due to glaciation.
The smallest unit of matter with which physical phenomena are concerned is the molecule.
Apart from speculation, the first definite evidence for the molecular structure of matter occurs when it is found that certain physical phenomena change their whole nature as soon as we deal with matter of which the linear dimensions are less than a certain amount.Advertisement
A large collection of such curious information is contained in the Bibliotheca of Apollodorus, a pupil of Aristarchus who flourished in the and century B.C. Eratosthenes was the first to write on mathematical and physical geography; he also first attempted to draw up a chronological table of the Egyptian kings and of the historical events of Greece.
It uses physical force to compel men to obey the laws.
This classification, though it is of high value in the clearing up of our conceptions of the essential contrasted with the accidental, the relation of genus, differentia and definition and so forth, is of more significance in connexion with abstract sciences, especially mathematics, than for the physical sciences.
They bear a definite relation to the structure of our physical and psychical nature, and correspond to definite needs of the subject that manifests itself therein.
It carries the war into the camp of the enemy by seeking to demonstrate that the completely determined action which is set over against freedom as the basis of explanation in the material world is merely a hypothesis which, while it serves sufficiently well the limited purpose for which it is devised, is incapable of verification in the ultimate constituents of physical nature.Advertisement
Connected with the university are a valuable library, occupying the palace built for Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland, in 1807 and containing upwards of 200,000 volumes and MSS.; a museum of natural history; an ophthalmic institute; physical and chemical laboratories; a veterinary school; a botanic garden; and an observatory.
For further treatment of the physical geography of the American continents, see North America, South America.
This personeity lifts the majority of earthly phenomena out of the merely physical world and places them in the spirit world.
By sceptics the word " dogma " is generally used contemptuously, for an opinion grounded not upon evidence but upon assertion; and this attitude is so far justified from the purely empirical standpoint that theological dogmas deal with subjects which, by their very nature, are not susceptible of demonstration by the methods of physical science.
It is to matter that we must look for the explanation both of conscious and of physical states.Advertisement
But matter is not, in his system, to be understood with the common meaning, but with a deeper sense as the substratum of all conscious and physical existence; and thus the laws of being are identified with the laws of thought.
Diihring's clear, incisive writing is disfigured by arrogance and ill-temper, failings which may be extenuated on the ground of his physical affliction.
Among the passages quoted from Pacuvius are several which indicate a taste both for physical and ethical speculation, and others which expose the pretensions of religious imposture.
Ctesibius of Alexandria, Hero and others, founded the science of pneumatics on observations on the physical properties of air.
Napoleon himself was no longer the Napoleon of Marengo or Austerlitz, and though he was not broken down, his physical strength was certainly impaired.
Nearly every one of the modern instruments used for the observations of physical astronomy is a part of the perfected astrolabe.
In physical and mechanical applications, where concrete measurements are involved, there is, as pointed out in the preceding section, the additional inaccuracy due to want of exactness in the figure itself.
B ut more important and less speculative is the hero's aspect as a national type or an amalgamation of tribal types of physical force, of dauntless effort and endurance, of militant civilization, and of Hellenic enterprise, " stronger than everything except his own passions," and " at once above and below the noblest type of man " (Jebb).
Not intending originally to devote himself to physical science, he first took up the study of law and philology at GÃ¶ttingen, and the general culture he thus gained stood him in good stead when he turned to chemistry, the study of which he began under Liebig.
The compulsory education law as amended in 1907 and 1909 requires the full attendance at a public school, or at a school which is an approximate equivalent, of all children who are between seven and fourteen years of age, are in the proper physical and mental condition, and reside in a city or school district having a population of 5000 or more and employing a superintendent of schools; in such a city or district children between fourteen and sixteen years must attend school unless they obtain an employment certificate and are regularly engaged in some useful employment or service; and outside of such a city or district all children between the ages of eight and fourteen years and those between fourteen and sixteen years who are not regularly employed must attend school on all school days from October to June.
Its central physical feature is the unbroken mountain chains running N.E.
The physical geography of New Zealand is closely connected with its geological structure, and is dominated by two intersecting lines of mountains and earth movements.
The old physical attacks on the Jews continued in Russia, but there was added the reluctance of several national groups in Europe to admit the Jews to social equality.
In general physical characteristics the province resembles East Prussia, but the climate is less harsh and the fertility of the soil greater.
In the first case, the man's physical and spiritual lethargy are closely interconnected and strongly contrasted with the everactive God and His Logos.
The most prominent physical feature of the state is the Cascade mountain range, which with a N.N.E.
All children between eight and fifteen years of age, and all between fifteen and sixteen years of age who are not regularly employed in some useful or remunerative occupation, must attend the public school all the time it is in session or a private school for the same time unless excused by the city or the county superintendent because of mental or physical disability or because of proficiency in the branches taught in the first eight grades.
We are then led to conclude that beats are the physical foundation for dissonance.
The combination tones thus produced in the source should have a physical existence in the air, and the amplitudes of those represented in (35) should be of the same order.
In respect of its physical features, Alsace-Lorraine falls into three parts - mountain land, plain and plateau.
Personally of great physical and mental vigour, his work was done at high pressure and he had the faculty of inspiring his colleagues or his subordinates with his own enthusiasm for doing things.
Regular physical exercise in the open air contributed much to his abounding vitality.
The Harbour Department was, as stated above, a branch of the marine department until 1866, so far as it is connected with the physical adjuncts of navigation, but various other matters have since been added, e.g.
It describes its material development, " its physical constitution and warlike prowess," of which they make a special boast, and after that its intellectual progress.
Other institutions are Concordia College (1881, Lutheran), a state normal school (1880), the Wisconsin College of physicians and surgeons (1893), the national German-American teachers' seminary (normal), Milwaukee academy (1864), Milwaukee University school, Milwaukee school of engineering (1904), Milwaukee Turnverein school of physical culture, one of the largest schools of the sort in the United States, St John's Catholic institute, Our Lady of Mercy academy (Roman Catholic), Wisconsin academy of music, the Wisconsin school of art (art students' league), a Catholic normal school, St Rose's manual training school, the industrial chemical institute (the only technical school for brewers in the United States) and several business and commercial schools.
In fact, she died in the following July, and it was then discovered that the physical appearances which first provoked suspicion.
Altogether the queen was in her carriage for more than four hours, in itself an extraordinary physical feat for a woman of seventy-eight.
In the west above Westerham these hills exceed 800 ft.; to the east the height is much less, but even in Kent (for in Surrey they are higher) the North Downs form a more striking physical feature than their height would indicate.
In 1835 he published his principal work, Sur l'homme et le developpement de ses facultes, ou essai de physique sociale (2nd ed., 1869), containing a resume of his statistical researches on the development of the physical and intellectual qualities of man, and on the "average man" both physically and intellectually considered.
For one thing women do not possess the physical strength which is often required.
The elder brother was set aside as imbecile and epileptic. Charles had inherited a great frame and immense physical strength from the Saxon line of his mother.
An important fact in the physical geography of the archipelago is that Java, Bali, Sumatra and Borneo, and the lesser islands between them 1 For more detailed information respecting the several islands and groups of the archipelago, see the separate articles Borneo; Java; Philippine Islands; Sumatra, &C.
The physical division between the Asiatic and Australian regions is clearly reflected in the botany and zoology.
So far as Nestorius himself is concerned, however, it is certain that he never formulated any such doctrine;2 nor does any recorded utterance of his, however casual, come so near the heresy called by his name as Cyril's deliberately framed third anathema (that regarding the "physical union" of the two hypostases or natures) approaches Eutychianism.
Immediately south of the Kalta-alaghan comes a relatively deep depression, the Kum-kol valley, forming a very well-marked feature in the physical conformation of this region.
Mayer entirely ignored the grand fundamental principle laid down by Sadi Carnot - that nothing can be concluded as to the relation between heat and work from an experiment in which the working substance is left at the end of an operation in a different physical state from that in which it was at the commencement.
The university of Modena, originally founded in 1683 by Francis II., is mainly a medical and legal school, but has also a faculty of physical and mathematical science.
A society of arts and sciences (which possesses an excellent museum) was established in 1778, a royal physical society in 1850, and a society for the promotion of industry and agriculture in 1853.
This description, quoted from James Clerk Maxwell's article in the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, represents the historical position of the subject up till about 1860, when Maxwell began those constructive speculations in electrical theory, based on the influence of the physical views of Faraday and Lord Kelvin, which have in their subsequent development largely transformed theoretical physics into the science of the aether.
The wider view, according to which the hypothesis of direct transmission of physical influences expresses only part of the facts, is that all space is filled with physical activity, and that while an influence is passing across from a body, A, to another body, B, there is some dynamical process in action in the intervening region, though it appears to the senses to be mere empty space.
The problem is whether we can represent the facts more simply by supposing the intervening space to be occupied by a medium which transmits physical actions, after the manner that a continuous material medium, solid or liquid, transmits mechanical disturbance.
It must be a medium which can be effective for transmitting all the types of physical action known to us; it would be worse than no solution to have one medium to transmit gravitation, another to transmit electric effects, another to transmit light, and so on.
Thus the attempt to find out a constitution for the aether will involve a synthesis of intimate correlation of the various types of physical agencies, which appear so different to us mainly because we perceive them through different senses.
This single principle of energy has transformed physical science by making possible the construction of a network of ramifying connexions between its various departments; it thus stimulates the belief that these constitute a single whole, and encourages the search for the complete scheme of interconnexion of which the principle of energy and the links which it suggests form only a single feature.
The greatest obstacle to such a search for the fundamental medium is the illimitable complexity of matter, as contrasted with the theoretical simplicity and uniformity of the physical agencies which connect together its different parts.
Since the period, a century ago, when Dalton and his contemporaries constructed from this idea a scientific basis for chemistry, the progress of that subject has been wonderful beyond any conception that could previously have been entertained; and the atomic theory in some form appears to be an indispensable part of the framework of physical science.
We might consider that matter and aether can coexist in the same space; this would involve the co-existence and interaction of a double set of properties, introducing great complication, which would place any coherent scheme of physical action probably beyond the powers of human analysis.
We recognize an atom only through its physical activities, as manifested in its interactions with other atoms at a distance from it; this field of physical activity would be identical with the surrounding field of aethereal motion or strain that is inseparably associated with the nucleus, and is carried on along with it as it moves.
To make room for these we have to remember that the atomic nucleus has remained entirely undefined and beyond our problem; so that what may occur, say when two molecules come into close relations, is outside physical science - not, however, altogether outside, for we know that when the vital nexus in any portion of matter is dissolved, the atoms will remain, in their number, and their atmospheres, and all inorganic relations, as they were before vitality supervened.
It thus appears that the doctrine of atomic material constitution and the doctrine of a universal aether stand to each other in a relation of mutual support; if the scheme of physical laws is to be as precise as observation and measurement appear to make it, both doctrines are required in our efforts towards synthesis.
The laws of thermodynamics, including the fundamental principle that a physical property, called temperature, can be defined, which tends towards uniformity, are thus relations between the properties of types of material bodies that can exist permanently in presence of each other; why they so maintain themselves remains unknown, but the fact gives the point d'appui.
Returning now to the aether, on our present point of view no such complications there arise; it must be regarded as a continuous uniform medium free from any complexities of atomic aggregation, whose function is confined to the transmission of the various types of physical effect between the portions of matter.
This great advance, which is the result of the gradual focussing of a century's work in the minute exploration of the exact laws of optical and electric phenomena, clearly carries with it deeper insight into the physical nature of matter itself and its modes of inanimate interaction.
An important question arises whether, when a material body is moved through the aether, the nucleus of each atom carries some of the surrounding aether along with it; or whether it practically only carries on its strain-form or physical atmosphere, which is transferred from one portion of aether to another after the manner of a shadow, or rather like a loose knot which can slip along a rope without the rope being required to go with it.
The corollary, that the electric resistance of a metal can be determined in absolute units by experiments on the reflexion of heat-rays from its surface, is a striking illustration of the unification of the various branches of physical science, which has come in the train of the development of the theory of the aether.
At that period, and in the 19th century, Geneva was a centre of light, especially in the case of various of the physical sciences.
In natural soothsaying this frenzy is the necessary physical accompaniment of an afflatus which, though it seems supernatural to a rude people, is really akin to poetic inspiration.
But it is soon learned that a similar physical state can be produced artificially, and at the Canaanite sanctuaries this was done on a large scale.
The Sokol societies, in collaboration with the army gymnastic clubs and with the Y.M.C.A., devote themselves systematically to the physical and moral welfare of the troops.
Logic and physical science they held to be useless, for all knowledge is immediate sensation (see Protagoras).
Llangeitho became the Jerusalem of Wales, and Rowland's popularity never waned until his physical powers gave way.
Albert's knowledge of physical science was considerable and for the age accurate.
The islanders are a Spanish race, very closely akin to the Catalans; but the long period of Moorish rule has left its mark on their physical type and customs. In character they are industrious and hospitable, and pique themselves on their loyalty and orthodoxy.
The eldest, Lawrence Parsons, 4th earl of Rosse, and Baron Oxmantown, born on the 17th of November 1840, succeeded to the title on his father's death, and made many investigations on the heavenly bodies, particularly on the radiation of the moon and related physical questions; the youngest, the Hon.
In 1835 he was unseated on petition, an& after standing unsuccessfully for Oldham he took to stumping England in favour of the new Radical doctrines of the day, and the use of physical force for their adoption.
As the word implies, secularism is based solely on considerations of practical morality with a view to the physical, social and moral improvement of society.
It is probable that the milk of ruminants possesses certain physical and physiological distinctions from that of non-ruminant animals, which will account for the virtues attributed to the milk of the ass and mare.
But no formula has yet been invented, derived on theoretical principles from the physical data, which will assign by calculation a definite magnitude to 3.
Chemically, it is thus indentical with the cubic mineral diamond, but between the two there are very wide differences in physical characters.
On the other hand attempts have been made to separate hedonism, as the search for a continuous series of physical pleasures, from eudaemonism, a condition of enduring mental satisfaction.
That they are in some cases produced by physical or sensory stimuli does not constitute them irrational, and it is purely arbitrary to confine the word pleasure to those cases in which such stimuli are the proximate causes.
In 1867 he quitted the army and returned to St Petersburg, where he entered the university, becoming at the same time secretary to the physical geography section of the Russian Geographical Society.
In 1873 he published an important contribution to science, a map and paper in which he proved that the existing maps of Asia entirely misrepresented the physical formation of the country, the main structural lines being in fact from south-west to north-east, not from north to south, or from east to west as had been previously supposed.
It is a solid substance which occurs in several modifications, differing very much in their physical properties.
Amorphous carbon is obtained by the destructive distillation of many carbon compounds, the various kinds differing very greatly as regards physical characters and purity, according to the substance used for their preparation.
Southward from the sea the country falls naturally into three divisions, clearly distinguished by their broad physical characteristics.
The Wisdomliterature of the Hebrews concerned itself with what we should call the philosophy of human nature, and sometimes also of physical nature as well; its writers observed human character, studied action in its consequences, laid down maxims for education and conduct, and reflected on the moral problems which human society presents.
It might well be believed that the change in the so-called Epistles of the Imprisonment from the earlier epistles was due in part to the physical effects of prolonged confinement, as compared with the free, varied and open life and exciting controversies of earlier years.
But linguistic and physical evidence are against this theory.
The view which has received most general acceptance is that they represent a branch of the Caucasic division of mankind who migrated at a remote period possibly in Neolithic times from the Asiatic mainland travelling by way of the Malay Archipelago and gradually colonizing the eastern Pacific. The Polynesians, who, as represented by such groups as the Samoans and Marquesas islanders, are the physical equal of Europeans, are of a light brown colour, tall, well-proportioned, with regular and often beautiful features.
The best maps are that of the Bureau of American Republics (1903), and, for physical features, that of Col.
Among causes for absolute divorce are adultery, desertion for one year, habitual drunkenness for one year, cruelty, ungovernable temper, physical incapacity at time of marriage, and the joining by either party of any religious sect which regards marriage as unlawful.
Fordescriptionsof physical featuresand accounts of natural resources see Reports of the Kentucky Geological Survey, the Biennial Reports of the Bureau of Agriculture, Labor and Statistics, the Reports of the United States Census and various publications of the U.S. Geological Survey, and other publications listed in Bulletin 301 (Bibliography and Index of North American Geology for 1901-1905) and other bibliographies of the Survey.
The popular faith was full of heathenish superstition strangely blended with the higher ideas which were the inheritance left to Israel by men like Moses and Elijah; but the common prophets accepted all alike, and combined heathen arts of divination and practices of mere physical enthusiasm with a not altogether insincere pretension that through their professional oracles the ideal was being maintained of a continuous divine guidance of the people of Yahweh.
Scheele's power as an experimental investigator has seldom if ever been surpassed, and his accuracy is most remarkable when his primitive apparatus, his want of assistance, his place of residence, and the undeveloped state of chemical and physical science in his time, are all taken into account.
A full account of the physical features, and of the modern development of commerce, communications, &c., in this area is given in the articles on the four provinces Barcelona, Gerona, Lerida and Tarragona, into which Catalonia was divided in 1833.
In England a National Physical Laboratory (N.P.L.) has been established, based on the German institute, and has its principal laboratory at Bushey House, near Hampton, Middlesex.
Here is carried out the work of standardizing measuring instruments of various sorts in use by manufacturers, the determination of physical constants and the testing of materials.
This production is not a physical process, but an emission of force; and, since the product has real existence only in virtue of the original existence working in it, Neoplatonism may be described as a species of dynamic pantheism.
The parish was divided into 25 districts embracing from 60 to loo families, over each of which an elder and a deacon were placed, the former taking oversight of their spiritual, the latter of their physical needs.
He was already an ardent student of physical science; he now gave proof of his versatility by learning Chinese in order to catalogue the Chinese MSS.
He, his immediate follower, Gilbert Tennent (1703-1764), other clergymen, such as James Davenport, and many untrained laymen who took up the work, agreed in the emotional and dramatic character of their preaching, in rousing their hearers to a high pitch of excitement, often amounting to frenzy, in the undue stress they put upon "bodily effects" (the physical manifestations of an abnormal psychic state) as proofs of conversion, and in their unrestrained attacks upon the many clergymen who did not join them and whom they called "dead men," unconverted, unregenerate and careless of the spiritual condition of their parishes.
Edwards' famous sermon at Enfield in 1741 so affected his audience that they cried and groaned aloud, and he found it necessary to bid them be still that he might go on; but Davenport and many itinerants provoked and invited shouting and even writhing, and other physical manifestations.
Palaeontology both borrows from and sheds light upon geology and other branches of the physical history of the earth, each of which, such as palaeogeography or palaeometeorology, is the more fascinating because of the large element of the unknown, the need for constructive imagination, the appeal to other branches of biological and physical investigation for supplementary evidence, and the necessity of constant comparison with the present aspects of nature.
In order to illustrate the grateful services which palaeontology through restoration may render to the related earth sciences let us imagine a vast continent of the past wholly unknown in its physical features, elevation, climate, configuration, but richly represented by fossil remains.
From a study of remains of the mollusca, brachiopoda and other marine organisms they will determine the shallow water (littoral) and deep water (abyssal) regions of the surrounding oceans, and the clear or muddy, salt, brackish or fresh character of its inland and marginal seas; and even the physical conditions of the open sea at the time will be ascertained.
The history of this science, like that of all physical sciences, covers two parallel lines of development which have acted and reacted upon each other - namely, progress in exploration, research and discovery, and progress in philosophic interpretation.
We have shown that the direct observation of the origin of new characters in palaeontology brings them within that domain of natural law and order to which the evolution of the physical universe conforms. The nature of this law, which, upon the whole, appears to be purposive or teleological in its operations, is altogether a mystery which may or may not be illumined by future research.
The geological formation is principally of volcanic rocks, with schists and tertiary limestone; and an early physical connexion of the islands with New Zealand is indicated by their geology and biology.
All children between the ages of eight and fourteen and those between the ages of fourteen and sixteen who cannot read and write English are required to attend either a public or an approved private school for the full term unless excused by the school board on account of physical or mental infirmity.
He had already contributed articles and reviews to the Journal of Fichte and Niethammer, and had thrown himself with all his native impetuosity into the study of physical and medical science.
His efforts after a construction of natural reality are bad in themselves, and gave rise to wearisome and useless physical speculation.
But in 1798 he gave up this appointment and travelled in Great Britain, spending a year at Edinburgh studying agriculture and physical science.
To the north and west the country is comparatively level, the central plain of Ireland here reaching to the coast, but to the south the foothills of the Wicklow Mountains practically touch the confines of Greater Dublin, affording comprehensive views of the physical position of the city, and forming a background to some of the finest streets.
The second confusion is the tacit assumption that the pleasure of the hedonist is necessarily or characteristically of a purely physical kind; this assumption is in the case of some hedonistic theories a pure perversion of the facts.
This was nothing less than the foundation of a new astronomy, in which physical cause should replace arbitrary hypothesis.
His demonstration that the planes of all the planetary orbits pass through the centre of the sun, coupled with his clear recognition of the sun as the moving power of the system, entitles him to rank as the founder of physical astronomy.
Among his happy conjectures may be mentioned that of the sun's axial rotation, postulated by him as the physical cause of the revolutions of the planets, and soon after confirmed by the discovery of sun-spots; the suggestion of a periodical variation in the obliquity of the ecliptic; and the explanation as a solar atmospheric effect of the radiance observed to surround the totally eclipsed sun.
Thus certain physical changes in the brain result in a given action; the concomitant mental desire or volition is in no sense causally connected with, or prior to, the physical change.
Huxley (Science and Culture) and Shadworth Hodgson (Metaphysic of Experience and Theory of Practice), must be distinguished from that of the psychophysical parallelism, or the "double aspect theory" according to which both the mental state and the physical phenomena result from a so-called "mind stuff," or single substance, the material or cause of both.
In his speculations as to the physical cause of the celestial motions, his mind, though not wholly emancipated from the tyranny of gratuitous assumptions, was working steadily towards the light.
Least of all is it a sacramental eating of the flesh and drinking of the blood of Jesus, a perpetual renewal of kinship, physical and spiritual, with him.
But these views were not those of the uninstructed pagans who filled the churches and needed a rite which brought them, as their old sacrifices had done, into physical contact and union with their god.
The general sense is clear, that those who consume the holy food without a clear conscience, like those who handle sacred objects with impure hands, will suffer physical harm from its contact, as if they were undergoing the ordeal of touching a holy thing.
Mendeleeff's original work covered a wide range, from questions in applied chemistry to the most general problems of chemical and physical theory.
He is well known also as the author of The History of the Intellectual Development of Europe (1862), applying the methods of physical science to history, a History of the American Civil War (3 vols., 1867-1870), and a History of the Conflict between Religion and Science (1874).
An active trade, fostered by abundant railway communications, is combined with manufactures of iron and steel wares, paper, chemicals, vinegar, physical and optical instruments, besides artistic printing and lithography.
The physical and the ethical are not distinguished, and in this respect the character of the system is thoroughly materialistic; for when Mani co-ordinates good with light, and evil with darkness, this is no mere figure of speech, but light is actually good and darkness evil.
From this it follows that religious knowledge involves the knowledge of nature and her elements, and that redemption consists in a physical process of freeing the element of light from the darkness.
Manichaeism indeed, though it applies the title "redeemer" to Mani, has really no knowledge of a redeemer, but only of a physical and gnostic process of redemption; on the other hand, it possesses in Mani the supreme prophet of God.
The only part of the Manichaean mythology that became popular was the crude, physical dualism.
Under the older-fashioned methods of treating physical geography, the prairies were empirically described as level prairies, rolling prairies, and so on.
Both the earlier and the later parts of the Silurian period seem to have been times when physical conditions were such as to favor the development of provincial faunas, while during the more widespread submergence of the middle Silurian the fauna was more cosmopolitan.
In virtue of these physical characteristics, the air over the land becomes much warmer in summer and much colder in winter than the air over the oceans in corresponding latitudes; hence the seasonal changes of temperature in the central United States are strong; the high temperatures appropriate to the torrid zone advance northward to middle latitudes in summer, and the low temperatures appropriate to the Arctic regions descend almost to middle latitudes in winter.
Walker, superintendent of the censuses of 1870 and 1880, the remarkable fact that such reduction coincided with a cause that was regarded as certain to quicken the increase of population, viz, the introduction of a vast body of fresh peasant blood from Europe, afforded proof that in this matter of population morals are far more potent than physical causes.
For this purpose the exhibition of " physical phenomena " was found necessary.
He therefore endeavours to give a general sketch of the character, physical peculiarities and natural productions of each country, and consequently gives us much valuable information respecting ethnology, trade and metallurgy.
With respect to physical geography, his work is a great advance on all preceding ones.
The physical features of Canada are comparatively simple, and drawn on a large scale, more than half of its surface sloping gently inwards towards the shallow basin of Hudson Bay, with higher margins to the south-east and south-west.
The physical geography of Canada is so closely bound up with its geology that at least an outline of the geological factors involved in its history is necessary to understand the present physiography.
The rivers of Canada, except the St Lawrence, are losing their importance as means of communication from year to year, as railways spread over the interior and cross the mountains to the Pacific; but from the point of view of the physical geographer there are few things more remarkable than the intricate and comprehensive way, in which they drain the country.
The " maritime provinces " of eastern Canada, including Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, may be considered together; and to these provinces as politically bounded may be added, from a physical point of view, the analogous south-eastern part of Quebec - the entire area being designated the Acadian region.
Wheatstone's physical investigations are described in more than thirty-six papers in various scientific journals, the more important being in the Philosophical Transactions, the Proceedings of the Royal Society, the Comptes rendus and the British Association Reports.
Wheatstone's Scientific Papers were collected and published by the Physical Society of London in 1879.
The charm of the Orkneys does not lie in their ordinary physical features, so much as in beautiful atmospheric effects, extraordinary examples of light and shade, and rich coloration of cliff and sea.
Pleasure is a physical state, and is not a generation in the body supplying a defect and establishing a natural condition, but an activity of a natural condition of the soul.
On the other hand, Aristotle entitles the science of all being " Primary Philosophy " (irpcori OeXoaoOla), and the science of physical being " Secondary Philosophy " (SEUTEpa 49eXoa041a), which suggests that his order is from Metaphysics to Physics, the reverse of his editor's order from Physics to Metaphysics.
The traditional order of the Aristotelian writings, still continued in the Berlin edition, beginning with the logical writings on page 1, proceeding to the physical writings on page 184, and postponing the Metaphysics to page 980, is not the real order of Aristotle's philosophy.
Physical Philosophy, about things as changing, and therefore about natural substances or bodies, composed of matter and essence.
Such is the great mind of Aristotle manifested in the large map of learning, by which we have now to determine the order of his extant philosophical writings, with a view to studying them in their real order, which is neither chronological nor traditional, but philosophical and scientific. Turning over the pages of the Berlin edition, but passing over works which are perhaps spurious, we should put first and foremost speculative philosophy, and therein the primary philosophy of his Metaphysics (980 a 211093 b 29); then the secondary philosophy of his Physics, followed by his other physical works, general and biological, including among the latter the Historia Animalium as preparatory to the De Partibus Animalium, and the De Anima and Parva Naturalia, which he called " physical " but we call " psychological" (184 a 10-967 b 27); next, the practical philosophy of the Ethics, including the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia as earlier and the Nicomachean Ethics as later (1094-124 9 b 25), and of the Politics (1252-1342), with the addition of the newly discovered Athenian Constitution as ancillary to it; finally, the productive science, or art, of the Rhetoric, including the earlier Rhetoric to Alexander and the later Rhetorical Art, and of the Poetics, which was unfinished (1354-end).
Such is Aristotle's natural realism, pervading his metaphysical and physical writings.
It is not always a true apprehension of essence, but often, especially in physical matter, such as sound or heat or light, takes superficial effects to be the essence of the thing.
Matter, as an abstract, unperceived substance or cause, is shown to be impossible, an unreal conception; true substance is affirmed to be conscious spirit, true causality the free activity of such a spirit, while physical substantiality and causality are held to be merely arbitrary, though constant, relations among phenomena connected subjectively by suggestion or association, objectively in the Universal Mind.
Physical science is occupied in endeavouring to decipher the divine ideas which find realization in our limited experience, in trying to interpret the divine language of which natural things are the words and letters, and in striving to bring human conceptions into harmony with the divine thoughts.
Bent now visited at considerable risk the almost unknown Hadramut country (1893-1894), and during this and later journeys in southern Arabia he studied the ancient history of the country, its physical features and actual condition.
Towards the end of his life he adopted the view that the elements have been formed by some process of condensation from one primordial substance of extremely small atomic weight, and he expressed the conviction that atomic weights within narrow limits are variable and modified according to the physical conditions in which a compound is formed.
Resorting to stimulants after illness, his marked excess in this respect on the occasion of his inauguration as vice-president undoubtedly did him harm with the public. Faults of personality were his great handicap. Though approachable and not without kindliness of manner, he seemed hard and inflexible; and while president, physical pain and domestic anxieties, added to the struggles of public life, combined to accentuate a naturally somewhat severe temperament.
The march was one unbroken success, thanks to Wellesley's forethought and sagacity in dealing with the physical conditions and his personal and diplomatic ascendancy among the chieftains of the district.
Thus arose a struggle between the youthful, hot-headed partisans of revolutionary physical science and the zealous official guardians of political order - a struggle which has made the strange term Nihilism a familiar word not only in Russia but also in western Europe.
He devoted himself particularly to the improvement of instruments employed in physical experiments.
In the Zwinger are the zoological and mineralogical museums and a collection of instruments used in mathematical and physical science.
The child was brought up under a rigid system of nursing, physical, moral and intellectual; kept without toys, not seldom whipped, watched day and night, but trained from infancy in music, drawing, reading aloud and observation of natural objects.
The Solomon islanders are of Melanesian (Papuan) stock, though in different parts of the group they vary considerably in their physical characteristics, in some islands approaching the pure Papuan, in some showing Polynesian crossings and in others resembling the Malays.
In Germany, moreover, the military service is designed not only to make the recruit a good soldier, but also to give him a healthy physical, moral and mental training.
The physical and intellectual forces of the people, labour and capital, are diverted for the greater part from their natural application and wasted unproductively.
The discussion as to the causes of this widening has turned a good deal on the question whether it is primarily due to changes of density, pressure or temperature, but some confusion has been caused by the want of proper definition of terms. For the cause of this the writer of the present article is jointly with others at any rate partly responsible, and clearness of ideas can only be re-established by investigating the mechanical causes of the effect rather than by applying terms which refer to a different order of physical conceptions.
The physical features of the province are very plainly marked.
The term was first applied to one of the treatises of Aristotle on the basis of the arrangement of the Aristotelian canon made by Andronicus of Rhodes, in which it was placed " after the physical treatises" with the description ra.
The term was used not in the modern sense of above or transcending nature (a sense which µeTa cannot bear), but simply to convey the idea that the treatise so-called comes " after " the physical treatises.'
Passing from Moleschott to Lyell's view of the evolution of the earth's crust and later to Darwin's theory of natural selection and environment, he reached the general inference that, not God but evolution of matter, is the cause of the order of the world; that life is a combination of matter which in favourable circumstances is spontaneously generated; that there is no vital principle, because all forces, non-vital and vital, are movements; that movement and evolution proceed from life to consciousness; that it is foolish for man to believe that the earth was made for him, in the face of the difficulties he encounters in inhabiting it; that there is no God, no final cause, no immortality, no freedom, no substance of the soul; and that mind, like light or heat, electricity or magnetism, or any other physical fact, is a movement of matter.
He divides phenomena into impressions and ideas, vivid and faint, object and subject, non-ego and ego, outer and inner, physical and psychical, matter and spirit; all of which are expressions of the same antithesis among phenomena.
The greater part of the process is a change in the facts of nature before consciousness; and in all that part, at all events, the phenomena evolved must mean physical facts which are not conscious affections, but, as they develop, are causes which gradually produce life and consciousness.
However, with all the author's disclaimers, the general effect left on the reader's mind is that throughout the universe there is an unceasing change of matter and motion, that evolution is always such a change, that it begins with phenomena in the sense of physical facts, gradually issues in life and consciousness, and ends with phenomena in the sense of subjective affections of consciousness.
He interprets the external world to be the common basis of physical and psychical phenomena.
Riehl elaborates this bare suggestion into the metaphysical theory that the single basis of physical and psychical phenomena is neither bodily nor mental, nor yet space and motion.
He agrees with Fechner that physical process of nerve and psychical process of mind are really the same psychophysical process as appearing on the one hand to an observer and on the other hand to one's own consciousness; and that physical phenomena only produce physical phenomena, so that those materialists and realists are wrong who say that physical stimuli produce sensations.
He tells us how from his youth he pursued physical and psychological studies, how at the age of fifteen he read Kant's Prolegomena, and later rejected the thing in itself, and came to the conclusion that the world with his ego is one mass of sensations.
For a time, under the influence of Fechner's Psychophysics, he thought that Nature has two sides, a physical and a psychological, and added that all atoms have feeling.
But in the progress of his physical work, which taught him, as he thought, to distinguish between what we see and what we mentally supply, he soon passed from this noumenalism to a " universal physical phenomenology."
It retains some relics of Fechner's influence; first, the theory of identity, according to which the difference between the physical and psychical is not a dualism, but everything is at once both; and secondly, the substitution of mathematical dependence for physical causality, except that, whereas Fechner only denied causality between physical and psychical, Mach rejects the entire distinction between causality and dependence, on the ground that " the law of causality simply asserts that the phenomena of Nature are dependent on one another."
He considered that the whole hypothesis that an outer physical thing causes a change in one's central nervous system, which again causes another change in one's inner psychical system or soul, is a departure from the natural view of the universe, and is due to what he called " introjection," or the hypothesis which encloses soul and its faculties in the body, and then, having created a false antithesis between outer and inner, gets into the difficulty of explaining how an outer physical stimulus can impart something into an inner psychical soul.
Its rejection of the whole relation of physical and psychical makes it almost too indefinite to classify among philosophical systems. But its main point is the essential co-ordination of ego and environment, as central part and counterpart, in experience.
According to him, we begin with an experience of ideas, in which object and idea are originally identical (V orstellungsobject); we divide this unitary experience into its subjective and objective factors; and especially in natural science we so far abstract the objects as to believe them at last to be independent things; but it is the office of psychology to warn us against this popular dualism, and to teach us that there is only a duality of psychical and physical, which are divisible, not separable, factors of one and the same content of our immediate experience; and experience is our whole knowledge.
Hence his fourth point is his psychological theory of parallelism of physical and psychical reduced to identity in unitary experience.
He accepts psychophysical parallelism in the sense that every psychical process has a physical accompaniment, every physiological function has a psychical meaning, but neither external stimulus nor physiological stimulus is cause of a psychical process, nor vice versa.
Precisely like Fechner, he holds that there is a physical causality and energy and there is a psychical causality and energy, parallels which never meet.
But while thus sharply distinguishing the physical and the psychical in appearance, he follows Fechner in identifying them in reality; except that Fechner's identification is noumenal, Wundt's phenomenal.
Nor was his failure due to lack of activity or energy, but rather to the insuperable obstacles in his path - the physical configuration of Italy, and, above all, the invincible repugnance of the Italian municipalities to submit to the mastery of a religious power.
In the tract defined, physical changes unconnected with civilization have been slight as compared with those in Babylonia; the two great rivers, having cut themselves deep channels, could not shift their courses far.
In this work the laws or uniformities of the physical universe are dealt with in the articles on the various sciences.
Yet Tsaidam is geographically but a northern extension of the great Tibetan plateau, and in most of its essential physical features it is more closely allied to the Chang-t'ang of the south than to the great sandy depressions of Chinese Turkestan or Mongolia on the north.
Whether osmotic pressure be due to physical impact or to chemical affinity it must necessarily have the gas value in a dilute solution, and be related to vapour pressure and freezing point in the way we have traced.
As there is little, if any, difference of racial origin, character and physical type, among the inhabitants of this region, except in Andalusia, and, to a less extent, in Estremadura, the Castilian is justly regarded as the typical Spaniard.
The most remarkable physical property of argon relates to the constant known as the ratio of specific heats.
The physical constants associated with the name will scarcely be changed, since the proportion of the "companions" is so small.
The study of the physical characteristics of criminals is discussed at great length by Lombroso, L` Uomo delinguente (1897); Ferri, L'Omicidio (1895); von Baer, Der Verbrecher (1893); Laurent, Les Habitues des prisons (1890); and Havelock Ellis, The Criminal (1901).
We may assume that increased stature and breadth imply some sort of inherent physical superiority, and if such an assumption is valid we have in man evidence that albinism is correlated not with constitutional defectiveness but with greater perfectness.
At the age of thirteen he entered King's College, Aberdeen, where the first prize in mathematics and physical and moral sciences fell to him.
In physical science, a halo is a luminous circle, surrounding the sun or moon, with various auxiliary phenomena, and formed by the reflection and refraction of light by ice-crystals suspended in the atmosphere.
Luminous arcs (T), tangential to the upper and lower parts of each halo, also occur, and in the case of the inner halo, the arcs may be prolonged to form a quasi-elliptic halo.1 The physical explanation of halos originated with Rene Descartes, who ascribed their formation to the presence of icecrystals in the atmosphere.
Monge contributed (1770-1790) to the Memoirs of the Academy of Turin, the Memoires des savantes strangers of the Academy of Paris, the Memoires of the same Academy, and the Annales de chimie, various mathematical and physical papers.
He read theology at Tubingen and medicine at Basel, where he lectured on physical science.
To the spiritual needs of his people he ministered with pastoral zeal, frequently appointing "stations" and delivering sermons; nor was he less solicitous in providing for their physical necessities.
Of these the silica and alumina are chiefly those which the gangue of the ore and the ash of the fuel introduce, whereas the lime is that added intentionally to form with these others a slag of the needed physical properties.
Besides a great saving of labour, only partly offset by the cost of repairs, these machines have the great merit of making the management independent of a very troublesome set of labourers, the hand pig-breakers, who were not only absolutely indispensable for every cast and every day, because the pig iron must be removed promptly to make way for the next succeeding cast of iron, but very difficult to replace because of the great physical endurance which their work requires.
But it was not separated from the adjacent territories by any natural frontier or physical boundaries, and it is only by the enumeration of the towns in Pliny according to the division of Italy by Augustus that we can determine its limits.
His popularity as a preacher is said to have been chiefly due to his "high susceptibility, joined with physical advantages and perfect sincerity."
At this time the intensity of his intellectual activity in the area opened up to him by Locke and Berkeley reduced him to a state of physical exhaustion.
The rough appearances of physical facts, their outlines, surfaces and so on, are the data of observation, and only by a method of approximation do we gradually come near to such propositions as are laid down in pure geometry.
He saw all the mechanical difficulties that had to be overcome in mining; he learned the nature and succession of rocks, the physical properties of minerals, ores and metals; he got a notion of mineral waters; he was an eyewitness of the accidents which befel the miners, and studied the diseases which attacked them; he had proof that positive knowledge of nature was not to be got in schools and universities, but only by going to nature herself, and to those who were constantly engaged with her.
Besides the qualifications required of a presentee by canon law, such as being of the canonical age, and in priest's orders before admission, sufficient learning and proper orthodoxy or morals, the Benefices Act requires that a year shall have elapsed since a transfer of the right of patronage, unless it can be shown that such transfer was not made in view of a probable vacancy; that the presentee has been a deacon for three years; and that he is not unfit for the discharge of his duties by reason of physical or mental infirmity or incapacity, grave pecuniary embarrassment, grave misconduct or neglect of duty in an ecclesiastical office, evil life, or conduct causing grave scandal concerning his moral character since his ordination, or being party to an illegal agreement with regard to the presentation; that notice of the presentation has been given to the parish of the benefice.
It is different, however, with physical properties, density, &c.; at present we have no fixed rules which enable us to predict quantitatively the differences in physical properties corresponding to a given difference in structure, the only general rule being that those differences are not large.
Other physical properties might be considered; as a general rule they depend upon the distribution of negative and positive elements in the molecule.
On the basis of the relation between physical phenomena and thermodynamical laws, properties of the polymorphous compounds may be predicted.
In 1647 he was staying at the home of Lady Rouse of Rouse-Lench, and there, in much physical weakness, wrote a great part of his famous work, The Saints' Everlasting Rest (1650).
Physical Features.-The river Paraguay, running from north to south, divides the republic into two sections, the eastern section, or Paraguay Oriental, being the most important.
Its physical and chemical properties have been the subject of much study, and have a special interest in view of the extraordinary difference between the physical characters of the diamond and those of graphite (blacklead) or charcoal, with which it is chemically identical, and into which it can be converted by the action of heat or electricity.
Although rivers rising in more favoured regions may traverse deserts on their way to the sea, as in the case of the Nile and the Colorado, the fundamental physical condition of an arid area is that it contributes nothing to the waters of the ocean.
Fourier need not be considered in detail here, as they are in many cases of mathematical rather than physical interest.
It is less easy to determine when he awoke to an interest in the physical doctrine of motion.
His scheme was first to work out, in a separate treatise De corpore, a systematic doctrine of Body, showing how physical phenomena were universally explicable in terms of motion, as motion or mechanical action was then (through Galileo and others) understood - the theory of motion being applied in the light of mathematical science, after quantity, the subject-matter of mathematics, had been duly considered in its place among the fundamental conceptions of philosophy, and a clear indication had been given, at first starting, of the logical ground and method of all philosophical inquiry.
Hobbes was more eager to bring forward his own philosophical and physical ideas than careful to enter into the full meaning of another's thought; and Descartes was too jealous, and too confident in his conclusions to bear with this kind of criticism.
The consequence was that, when not spending himself in vain attempts to solve the impossible problems that have always waylaid the fancy of self-sufficient beginners, he took an interest only in the elements of geometry, and never had any notion of the full scope of mathematical science, undergoing as it then was (and not least at the hands of Wallis) the extraordinary development which made it before the end of the century the potent instrument of physical discovery which it became in the hands of Newton.
Backwards, Hobbes's relations are rather with Galileo and the other inquirers who, from the beginning of the 17th century, occupied themselves with the physical world in the manner that has come later to be distinguished by the name of science in opposition to philosophy.
Whether we look at his pure mathematical or at his physical researches we receive the same impression of Pascal; we see the strongest marks of a great original genius creating new ideas, and seizing upon, mastering, and pursuing farther everything that was fresh and unfamiliar in his time.
It is, however, only as a basis of facts and principles for his theory of life that logical and physical inquiries find a place at all.
The points which require constant attention are - the perfect freedom of all carriers, feeders and drains from every kind of obstruction, however minute; the state and amount of water in the river or stream, whether it be sufficient to irrigate the whole area properly or only a part of it; the length of time the water should be allowed to remain on the meadow at different periods of the season; the regulation of the depth of the water, its quantity and its rate of flow, in accordance with the temperature and the condition of the herbage; the proper times for the commencing and ending of pasturing and of shutting up for hay; the mechanical condition of the surface of the ground; the cutting out of any very large and coarse plants, as docks; and the improvement of the physical and chemical conditions of the soil by additions to it of sand, silt, loam, `` chalk, &c.
The setting of the mortar is due to the drying of the lime (a purely physical phenomenon, no chemical action occurring between the lime and the sand).
Difference in intensity is not a wholly satisfactory ground of distinction; abnormal physical conditions apart, an image may have an intensity far greater than that of a sense-given impression.
As an elementary substance, it is very similar in its physical properties to lead; it resembles lead chemically inasmuch as it forms an almost insoluble chloride and an insoluble iodide.
Meanwhile, Carlyle's various anxieties were beginning to be complicated by physical derangement.
He published, both alone and jointly with others, a large number of papers on physical, and in particular electrical, subjects, and his name was especially associated, together with that of Professor John Perry, with the invention of a long series of electrical measuring instruments.
Though Scotland is pre-eminently land of mountain and of flood," yet its leading physical features are not the lofty ridges carved out of the primeval plateau Valleys.
It will thus be seen that the far north and far south alike decreased in population, the decline being largely due to physical conditions, though it need not be supposed that the limit of population was reached in either area.
This principle is in constant action; it regulates the colour, the figure, the capacities and instincts; those individuals in each species whose colour and covering are best suited to concealment or protection from enemies, or defence from inclemencies or vicissitudes of climate, whose figure is best accommodated to health, strength, defence and support; whose capacities and instincts can best regulate the physical energies to self-advantage according to circumstances - in such immense waste of primary and youthful life those only come to maturity from the strict ordeal by which nature tests their adaptation to her standard of perfection and fitness to continue their kind by reproduction."
In the broadest way variation in organisms is primarily the necessary result of the absence of uniformity in the distribution of physical forces on the globe, in fact is a mere necessary response to the variation of inorganic conditions.
There are a public library, established by subscription in 1858; and a students' union, for helping the sick and poor and promoting the intellectual and physical improvement of boys.
Barisal has given its name to a curious physical phenomenon, known as the "Barisal guns," the cause of which has not been satisfactorily explained.
He was an original member of the Physical Society of London (1874) and a member of the Societe Frangaise Physique.
From that time to the present day the record of the Hungarian capital has been one of uninterrupted advance, not merely in externals, such as the removal of slums, the reconstruction of the town, the development of communications, industry and trade, and the erection of important public buildings, but also in the mental, moral and physical elevation of the inhabitants; besides another important gain from the point of view of the Hungarian statesman, namely, the progressive increase and improvement of status of the Magyar element of the population.
In addition to his purely chemical work, Lavoisier, mostly in conjunction with Laplace, devoted considerable attention to physical problems, especially those connected with heat.
Fatigue from physical exertion is a predisposing cause of heat-stroke, and constipation and alcoholic indulgence should be avoided.
In mathematical and physical science Cusanus was much in advance of his age.
Of the two existing generic representatives of the Camelidae (as the family in which they are both included is named), the Old World camels (Camelus) are characterized by their great bodily size, and the presence of one or two fleshy humps, which diminish or increase in size according to the physical condition of the animals themselves.
His tremendous physical strength, the personal ascendancy he gained by this and by his powers of command made him a peculiarly formidable opponent, and thus enabled him to maintain a discipline which guaranteed the punctual execution of his orders.
When Nicodemus objected that this was to demand a physical impossibility, he was answered that the new birth was " of water and spirit "- words which doubtless contained a reference to the mission of the Baptist and to his prophecy of One who should baptize with the Holy Spirit.
The charges of superficial analogies, so freely urged against the " Natur-philosophie " by critics who forget the impulse it gave to physical research by the identification of forces then believed to be radically distinct, do not particularly affect,Hegel.
For his demonstration in 1851 of the diurnal motion of the earth by the rotation of the plane of oscillation of a freely suspended, long and heavy pendulum exhibited by him at the Pantheon in Paris, and again in the following year by means of his invention the gyroscope, he received the Copley medal of the Royal Society in 1855, and in the same year he was made physical assistant in the imperial observatory at Paris.
He is supposed to have lived for 300 years, to have ridden a horse 150 years old, and to have used his enormous physical strength against oppressors, especially against the Turks.
He was always a man of much physical activity, fond of a horse, of field sports and games, and of yachting.
A good deal of work has been done by individual travellers, but the material for a full description of its physical character is as yet lacking.
In physical science, coronae (or "glories") are the coloured rings frequently seen closely encircling the sun or moon.
There are no materials used in manufacture of which the craftsman is able to vary the composition and physical qualities so extensively as the metals and their alloys.
The fact that the southern extremity of South America is the only land extending into this belt gives it special physical importance in relation to tides and currents, and its position with reference to the Antarctic Ocean and continent makes it convenient to regard it as a separate ocean from which the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans may be said to radiate.
Aihong other similar organizations are an Academy of Medical, Physical and Natural Sciences (1863); a national library, established in 1901, and having in 1908 about 40,000 volumes, including the finest collection in the world of materials for Cuban history; an anthropological society; various medical societies; and a Bar association.
His original papers, down to 1877, were collected and published in that year as Experimental Researches in Pure, Applied and Physical Chemistry.
They vary similarly in shape and size of ears, colour of the grain, which may be white, yellow, purple, striped, &c., and also in physical characters and chemical composition.
There are few branches of mathematics to which he did not contribute something, but it was in the application of mathematics to physical subjects that his greatest services to science were performed.
In spite of a history of foreign conquest - Phoenician, Greek, Roman, Vandal, Arab and French - the Berber physical type and the Berber temperament and nationality have persisted since the stone age.
The people have by no means that immunity from disease which the bright, dry character of the climate and the fine physical aspect of a large proportion of them might lead us to expect.
Every Afghan gentleman can read and speak Persian, but beyond this acquirement education seems to be limited to the physical development of the youth by instruction in horsemanship and feats of skill.
Then again, as the movement, taking its rise in the philosophical agnosticism which grew out of the early physical systems, was itself persistently sceptical, sophistry may be regarded as an interlude in the history of philosophy.
Lastly, the philosophers of the second physical succession - Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Leucippus - not directly attacking the great mystery of the One and the Many, but in virtue of a scientific instinct approaching it through the investigation of phenomena, were brought by their study of sensation to perceive and to proclaim the inadequacy of the organs of sense.
Despairing of philosophy - that is to say, of physical science - the sophists were prepared to go all lengths in scepticism.
They form some of the most striking physical features of the Peninsula, many of the most prominent hill ranges having been carved out of the basaltic flows.
But, as has been remarked by Dr Robert Grant (History of Physical Astronomy, p. 515), we are no more warranted in drawing so important a conclusion from casual remarks, however sagacious, than we should be justified in stating that Seneca was in possession of the discoveries of Newton because he predicted that comets would one day be found to revolve in periodic orbits.
He has never seen more perfect optical definition in any of the many telescopes he has employed, and certainly never measured a celestial object in such favourable conditions of physical comfort.
The trials were conducted with the most scandalous contempt of justice, and moral and physical torture was applied to extort confessions.
It would be impracticable to draw general conclusions as to the physical and biological conditions of the Antarctic regions until the researches of all the expeditions had been published in a comparable form.
The brown race, which came from the south in successive waves of immigration beginning in prehistoric times, is composed of twenty-three distinct tribes varying widely in culture, language and appearance; their languages however belong to one common stock and there is a general resemblance in physical features and in quality of mind.
Here also his policy failed against physical, social and political obstacles.
Considering The Wide Variations In The Physical Condition And Melting Points, The Comparatively Close Agreement Of The Atomic Heats Of The Metals At Ordinary Temperatures, Known As Dulong And Petit'S Law, Is Very Remarkable.
No Doubt There Must Be Approximate Relations Between The Atomic And Molecular Heats Of Similar Elements And Compounds, But Considering The Great Variations Of Specific Heat With Temperature And Physical State, In Alloys, Mixtures Or Solutions, And In Allotropic Or Other Modifications, It Would Be Idle To Expect That The Specific Heat Of A Compound Could Be Accurately Deduced By Any Simple Additive Process From That Of Its Constituents.
Physical symptoms also appear; the face assumes an earthy colour, the body wastes, constipation is usually present to an extreme degree, the secretions become arrested, loss of appetite and indigestion follow and the mouth is parched.
Spectroscopic observation shows that the increased light accompanies an actual physical change or conflagration in the star.
It is therefore perhaps misleading actually to class the sun with them; but it seems highly probable that whatever cause produces the periodic outbursts of spots and faculae on our sun differs only in degree from that which, in stars under a different physical condition of pressure and temperature, results in the gigantic conflagrations which we have been considering.
Stars of the different types are therefore not necessarily of different chemical constitution, but rather are in different physical conditions, and it is generally believed that every star in the course of its existence passes through stages corresponding to all (or most of) the different types.
Until the hypothesis has been thoroughly tested by an examination of the line-of-sight velocities of stars from the same point of view, this physical interpretation must be received with some degree of caution; but there can be no doubt of the reality of the anomalies in the statistical distribution of proper motions of the stars, and of these it offers a simple and adequate explanation.
The physical characteristics of these nomadic armies were very variable, since they continually increased their numbers by slaves, women and soldiers of fortune drawn from all the surrounding races.
About this time Gay-Lussac's work, although he by no means entirely abandoned physical questions, became of a more chemical character; and in three instances it brought him into direct rivalry with Sir Humphry Davy.
In a note published in 18 r.1 he described the physical properties of this acid, but he said nothing about its chemical composition till 1815, when he described cyanogen as a compound radicle, prussic acid as a compound of that radicle with hydrogen alone, and the prussiates (cyanides) as compounds of the radicle with, metals.
In relation to human society, and the rules it imposes on its members, action that ought not to be done is crime; a habit which is injurious to a man's own moral nature, especially if it involves evil physical consequences, is described as vice.
In his Synopsis physicae ad lumen divinum reformatae he gives a physical theory of his own, said to be taken from the book of Genesis.
He held that in relation to the will things possess an objective fitness similar to the mutual consistency of things in the physical universe.
Penal codes depended rather upon shorter and more cruel methods; the scaffold was in constant use, with all manner of physical pain, torture before and after sentence, shameful exposure, hideous mutilation, exile, selling into bondage as slaves.
His physical welfare is watched over by competent medical men; close attention is paid to the sanitary condition of prisons; strict rules govern the size of cells, with their lighting, warming and ventilation.
These three classes begin with cellular confinement, but for varying periods; the first for three months, the second six months and the third for nine months, in all cases subject to a medical report upon mental and physical condition.