Phylloxera Sentence Examples
The closing of the French market to Sicilian produce, the devastation wrought by the phylloxera and the decrease of the sulphur trade had combined to produce in Sicily a discontent of which Socialist agitators took advantage to organize the workmen of the towns and the peasants of the country into groups known as fasci.
They may occur on all parts, buds, leaves, stems or roots, as shown by the numerous species of Cynips on oak, Phylloxera on vines, &c. The local damage is small, - but the general injury to assimilation, absorption and other functions, may be important if the numbers increase.
White or grey spots may be due to Peronospora, Erysiphe, Cystopus, Entyloma and other Fungi, the mycelium of which will be detected in the discoloured area; or they may be scale insects, or the results of punctures by Red-spider, &c. Yellow spots, and especially bright orange spots, commonly indicate Rust Fungi or other Uredineae; but Phyllosticta, Exoascus, Clasterosporium, Synchytrium, &c., also induce similar symptoms. Certain Aphides, Red-spider, Phylloxera and other insects also betray their presence by such spots.
The estimated loss by the vine Phylloxera in the Gironde alone was £32,000,000; for all the French wine districts £IOO,000,000 would not cover the damage.
Their food consists mainly of the sap obtained from the leaves and blossom of plants, but some also live on the roots of plants (Phylloxera vastatrix and Schizoneura lanigera).Advertisement
The vineyards of Hungary, which have suffered greatly by the phylloxera since 1881, show since 1900 a tendency to recover ground, and their area is again slowly increasing.
The root of the French vine is attacked by the Phylloxera, but that of the American vine, whose epidermis is thicker, is protected from it.
Some of the American varieties have been introduced into France and other countries infested with Phylloxera, to serve as stocks on which to graft the better kinds of European vines, because their roots, though perhaps equally subject to the attacks of the insects, do not suffer so much injury from them as the European species.
Like the Phylloxera (q.v.; also Wine), the mildew is in its origin probably American.
The diseased roots have been confounded with those attacked by Phylloxera.Advertisement
The following full description of the only species which attacks the vine, the Phylloxera vastatrix, or grape-louse, is reprinted from the article Vine in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia.
Under- (Radicola) of Phylloxera, with proneath, between the legs, lies the boscis inserted into tissue of root rostrum, which reaches back to of vine.
The particular species of phylloxera which attacks the vine is a native of the United States, probably originating among the wild vines of the Colorado district.
From 1858 to 1863 there were many importations of American vines for grafting purposes to Bordeaux, Roquemaure and other parts of France, England, Ireland, Germany, Portugal, &c. It is practically certain that the deadly phylloxera was imported on these plants.
In 1868 Planchon proved that the disease was due to a new species of phylloxera, which was invariably found on the roots of the affected vines, and to which he accordingly gave the prophetic name of Phylloxera vastatrix.Advertisement
During the next ten years a series of students, of whom only Riley and Balbiani need be mentioned here, worked out the natural history of Phylloxera vastatrix, and proved its identity with the American grape-louse.
At the Cape, in spite of a long endeavour to prohibit the import of the phylloxera, it appeared about 1884.
Yet no imported vine has ever lived there more than five years, and in 1890 the phylloxera crossed the Rocky Mountains, and seriously damaged the vineyards of California, where it had previously been unknown.
Insecticides, of which the bisulphide of carbon (CS 2) and the sulpho-carbonate of potassium (KS CS2) remain in use, were injected into the earth to kill the phylloxera on the roots of the vine.
Some good judges attribute the peculiar and not unpleasing flavour of certain clarets of 1888 to means thus adopted to kill the phylloxera.Advertisement
Wine is said to have been grown here in the iith century; the Saxon vineyards, chiefly on the banks of the Elbe near Meissen and Dresden, have of late years, owing to the ravages of the phylloxera, become almost extinct.
The culture of the vine was early undertaken by the colonists, but it was not until vineyards in France were attacked by phylloxera that the export of wine from Algeria became considerable.
Peasants from the south of France, whose vines had been destroyed by the phylloxera, crossed the Mediterranean and established in Algeria an important vineyard.
Had not the phylloxera devastated the vineyards during the last decade of the 19th century, the production would be considerably higher; 7,700,000 gallons of olive oil and 2500 million oranges and lemons are also produced, besides the other minor products above referred to.
The vineyards have been almost completely destroyed by the phylloxera.Advertisement
On the other hand, the replanting of some of the French vineyards (after the ravages due to the phylloxera) with American vines, or, as was more generally the case, the grafting of the old French stock on the hardy American roots, resulted, after a time, in many cases, in the production of wines practically indistinguishable from those formerly made.
The most destructive of all these diseases is that of the phylloxera.
The Phylloxera vastatrix is an insect belonging to the green fly tribe, which destroys the roots and leaves of the growing plant by forming galls and nodosities.
Oidium or mildew is only second in importance to the phylloxera.
This is considerably more than the average produced previous to the phylloxera period (1882-1887).
Owing, however, to the fact that viticulture has made much progress in South America, in California, in Australia and particularly in Algeria, and also to the fact that the quality of these Midi wines has fallen off considerably since the phylloxera period, the outlet for them has become much reduced.
The Alto Douro has from time to time been sadly ravaged by the oidium and phylloxera.
The phylloxera, which appeared in Alto Douro in about 1868, also did enormous damage, and at one time reduced the yield to about one-half of the normal.
This falling away in the taste for Madeira is partly ascribable to fashion and partly to the temporary devastation of the vineyards by the phylloxera in the middle of last century.
Since the recovery of the Hungarian vineyards from the phylloxera considerable efforts have been made to develop an export trade, but so far the wines of Hungary are not generally known in the United Kingdom.
The phylloxera has done much damage.
The bush vines of this region are more exposed to the attacks of Oidium Tuckeri, which invaded the country in 1851, and of Phylloxera vastatrix, which followed in 1863, than the more deeply-rooted vines trained on trellises or trees.
Among the wine-producing countries of Europe, Rumania stood fifth in 1900, despite the ravages of phylloxera, old-fashioned culture, lack of storage and other drawbacks.
The best white wines came from Cotnar in the Jassy department, but here phylloxera ruined the vineyards.
To combat the phylloxera, the government ordered the destruction of all infected vines, distributed immune American stocks and established schools of viticulture.
Owing to greater care on the part of growers, and the introduction of FrenchAmerican resistant stocks to replace vines attacked by the phylloxera, the wines in the early years of the 10th century again acquired a limited sale in England.
Before the appearance of Phylloxera in 1882 wine was exported to France and Switzerland, but in1882-1895thousands of acres of vines were destroyed.
Phylloxera was checked by the importation of American vines and the establishment of schools of viticulture.
The extensive vineyards were much injured by phylloxera towards the close of the 19th century.
The Spanish vines have suffered, like those of France, from mildew and phylloxera.
Closely related to the typical aphides is Phylloxera vastatrix, the insect which causes enormous loss by attacking the leaves and roots of vines.
Lalande, president of the chamber of commerce at Bordeaux, in 1888 calculated the direct loss to the country by the phylloxera at 10 milliards (£400,000,000), or double the indemnity which had been paid to Germany in 1871 1 The phylloxera has made its appearance in almost every vinegrowing country in the world.
One is to kill the phylloxera itself; another, to destroy it along with the infected vines, and plant fresh and healthy plants; the third, to adapt the secular therapeutics of nature, and to introduce American vines which a long acquaintance with the phylloxera has made immune of its ravages.
During the phylloxera period Italy in some years had the greater output (e.g.1886-1888and 1890-1892).
The vine has been attacked by the Oidium Tuckeri, the Phylloxera vastatrix and the Peronospora viticola, which in rapid succession wrought great havoc in Italian vineyards.