Midas, king of Phrygia, who had been appointed judge, declared in favour of Marsyas, and Apollo punished Midas by changing his ears into ass's ears.
The point of concentration for next year's campaign had been fixed at Gordium, a meeting-place of roads in Northern Phrygia.
He had long hated the Romans, who had taken Phrygia during his minority, and he aimed at driving them from Asia Minor.
He rapidly overran Galatia, Phrygia and Asia, defeated the Roman armies, and ordered a general massacre of the Romans in Asia.
MICHAEL called Psellus, "the stammerer," emperor 820-829, was a native of Amorium in Phrygia, who began life as a private soldier, but rose by his talents to the rank of general.
Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, and Church in the Roman Empire), but also to the Judaism of the Diaspora.
He is first heard of at the beginning of the third Mithradatic war, when he drove out the troops of Mithradates under Eumachus from Phrygia.
by Lycia and a small part of Phrygia.
Friedrich, Archaologische Karte von Kleinasien (1899); Perrot and Chipiez, History of Art in Phrygia, Lydia, Caria and Lycia (Eng.
SYNOD OF LAODICEA, held at Laodicea ad Lycum in Phrygia, some time between 343 and 381 (so Hefele; but Baronius argues for 314, and others for a date as late as 399), adopted sixty canons, chiefly disciplinary, which were declared ecumenical by the council of Chalcedon, 451.
7 6 5 ff., is a mixture of Greek traditions with a few oriental elements; here the first king is Medos (the Median empire); his nameless son is succeeded by Cyrus, a blessed ruler, beloved by the gods, who gave peace to all his friends and conquered Lydia, Phrygia, Ionia.
decided to continue the war against Athens and give strong support to the Spartans, he sent in 408 the young prince into Asia Minor, as satrap of Lydia and Phrygia Major with Cappadocia, and commander of the Persian troops, "which gather into the field of Castolos" (Xen.
Chantre in 1894 picked up lustreless ware, like that of Hissarlik, in central Phrygia and at Pteria, and the English archaeological expeditions, sent subsequently into north-western Anatolia, have never failed to bring back ceramic specimens of Aegean appearance from the valleys of the Rhyndacus, Sangarius and Halys.
He was the traditional king of Sipylus in Lydia (or of Phrygia), and was the intimate friend of Zeus and the other gods, to whose table he was admitted.
See Pelops, Phrygia; Sir W.
The zeal of Ignatius (c. 115), who begs the Roman Church to do nothing to avert from him the martyr's death, was natural enough in a spiritual knight-errant, but with others in later days, especially in Phrygia and North Africa, the passion became artificial.
In 301 the coalition triumphed over Antigonus in the battle of Ipsus (in Phrygia) and he himself was slain.
Thus there was an Illyrian tribe Brygi, a Thracian one Bryges; some of the latter had passed into Asia and settled in the land called from them Phrygia, whence some of them later passed into Armenia; some of the Mysians (regarded by Strabo as Thracians) had also crossed into what was later known as Mysia: closely connected with the Mysians were the Dardanii, of Trojan fame, who had a city Dardania or Dardanus.
Out of pity for her grief, the gods changed Niobe herself into a rock on Mount Sipylus in Phrygia, in which form she continued to weep (Homer, Iliad, xxiv.
He died in 745, and was succeeded by Joseph, who evangelized Phrygia and died near Antioch of Pisidia in 775.
Under the Roman administration the term Pamphylia was extended so as to include Pisidia and the whole tract up to the frontiers of Phrygia and Lycaonia, and in this wider sense it is employed by Ptolemy.
Cilicia Pedias became Roman territory in 103 B.C., and the whole was organized by Pompey, 64 B.C., into a province which, for a short time, extended to and included part of Phrygia.
Through Phrygia and Lydia influences of this same Cappadocian civilization passed towards the west; and indeed, before the Greek colonization of Asia Minor, a loosely knit Hatti empire may have stretched even to the Aegean.
The powers of Phrygia and Lydia rose successively out of its ruins, and continued to offer westward passage to influences of Mesopotamian culture till well into historic times.
The Greeks came too late to Asia to have had any contact with Hatti power obscured from their view by the intermediate and secondary state of Phrygia.
At this time the Hatti empire or confederacy probably included, on the west, both Phrygia and Lydia.
Jerome says that Apollos was so dissatisfied with the division at Corinth, that he retired into Crete with Zenas, a doctor of the law; and that the schism having been healed by Paul's letter to the Corinthians, Apollos returned to the city, and became its bishop. Less probable traditions assign to him the bishopric of Duras, or of Iconium in Phrygia, or of Caesarea.
by Phrygia, on the E.
by Lycia and a part of Phrygia.
It was a rugged and mountainous district, comprising some of the loftiest portions of the great range of Mt Taurus, together with the offshoots of the same chain towards the central table-land of Phrygia.
in length, situated in the north of Pisidia on the frontier of k Phrygia, at an elevation of 3007 ft.
This was situated in the extreme north-east of the district immediately on the frontier of Phrygia, between Lake Egerdir and the range of the Sultan Dagh and was reckoned in the Greek and earlier Roman period, e.g.
by Strabo, as a city of Phrygia.
North of this and immediately on the borders of Phrygia stood Apollonia, called also Mordiaeum.
Large estates in Pisidia and the adjoining parts of Phrygia belonged to the Roman emperors; and their administration has been investigated by Ramsay and others.
(1) A vilayet in Asia Minor which includes the whole, or parts of, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Phrygia, Lycaonia, Cilicia and Cappadocia.
private worship that it had to be suppressed by decree of the Senate in 186 B.C., and later on were established the cults of Ma of Phrygia, introduced by Sulla and identified with Bellona, the Egyptian Isis, and, after Pompey's war with the pirates, even the Persian Mithras.
There, in Phrygia, the cry for a strict Christian life was reinforced by the belief in a new and final outpouring of the Spirit - a coincidence which has been observed elsewhere in Church history - as, for instance, among the early Quakers and in the Irvingite movement.
zealots hailed the appearance of the Paraclete in Phrygia, and surrendered themselves to his guidance.
At a later time, when the validity of the Montanistic prophecy was called in question, the adherents of the new movement appealed explicitly to a sort of prophetic succession, in which their prophets had received the same gift which the daughters of Philip, for example, had exercised in that very country of Phrygia.
For twenty years this agitation appears to have been confined to Phrygia and the neighbouring provinces.
The desire for a sharper exercise of discipline, and a more decided renunciation of the world, combined with a craving for some plain indication of the Divine will in these last critical times, had prepared many minds for an eager acceptance of the tidings from Phrygia.
- (ED.) Meanwhile in Phrygia and its neighbourhood - especially in Galatia, and also in Thrace - a controversy was raging between the adherents and the opponents of the new prophecy.
The confessors of the Gallican Church at Lyons were of opinion that communion ought to be maintained with the zealots of Asia and Phrygia; and they addressed a letter to this effect to the Roman bishop, Eleutherus.
The events in Phrygia could not appear new and unprecedented to the Roman Church.
From these treatises we learn that the adherents of the new prophecy were very numerous in Phrygia, Asia and Galatia (Ancyra), that they had tried to defend themselves in writing from the charges brought against them (by Miltiades), that they possessed a fully developed independent organization, that they boasted of many martyrs, and that they were still formidable to the Church in Asia Minor.
It is true that there was no rivalry between the new organization and the old, as in Asia and Phrygia, for the Western Montanists recognized in its main features the Catholic organization as it had been developed in the contest with Gnosticism; but the demand that the "organs of the Spirit" should direct the whole discipline of the congregation contained implicitly a protest against the actual constitution of the Church.
In Levantine waters connexions grew up with the great marts of Chalcis and Miletus, with the rulers of Lydia, Phrygia, Cyprus and Egypt.
Most of them obeyed; Artabazus of Phrygia, who tried to resist and was supported by his brothersin-law, Mentor and Memnon of Rhodes, was defeated and fled to Philip of Macedon.
These provinces had not yet been conquered by the Macedonians, and Antigonus (governor of Phrygia, Lycia and Pamphylia) refused to undertake the task at the command of Perdiccas.
According to Hehn, roses and lilies entered Greece from the east by way of Phrygia, Thrace and Macedonia (Kulturpflanzen and Hausthiere, 3rd ed., p. 217).
it adjoined Phrygia Epictetus and Galatia.
They were incorporated by Croesus with the Lydian monarchy, with which they fell under the dominion of Persia (546 B.C.), and were included in the satrapy of Phrygia, which comprised all the countries up to the Hellespont and Bosporus.
From Assyria also it passed into Asia Minor, being found on the city standard of Ushak in Phrygia (33), engraved as 21.8, divided into the Assyrian foot of 10.8, and half and quarter, 5.4 and 2.7.
by Phrygia, S.
Galatia Proper, part of Phrygia towards Pisidia (Apollonia, Antioch and Iconium), Pisidia, part of Lycaonia (including Lystra and Derbe) and Isauria.
The Marcionites, the Ebionites, or Judaeo-Christians of Palestine, the Montanists of Phrygia, Africa and Galatia, the confessor Alcibiades of Lyons, c. A.D.
He tells us that he had seen Egypt as far south as Syene and Philae, Comana in Cappadocia, Ephesus, Mylasa, Nysa and Hierapolis in Phrygia, Gyarus and Populonia.
His recognition of the Montanistic prophecy in Phrygia as a work of God took place in 202-203, at the time when a new persecution broke out.
Gainas entered into a close league with the latter; fomented a Gothic rebellion in Phrygia; and forced the emperor to put Eutropius to death.
, ATTIS, or Atys, a deity worshipped in Phrygia, and later throughout the Roman empire, in conjunction with the Great Mother of the Gods.
A city in Phrygia, founded by Antiochus Soter (from whose mother, Apama, it received its name), near, but on lower ground than, Celaenae.
It included Mysia, Lydia, Caria and Phrygia, and therefore, of course, Aeolis, Ionia and the Troad.
From 80 to 50 B.C. the upper Maeander valley and all Phrygia, except the extreme north, were detached and added to Cilicia.
Montanism sought to form a new Christian commonwealth which, separated from the Jerusalem from above, and its establishment in the spot which by the direction of the Spirit had been chosen in Phrygia.
Mo-onros), famous for his Fables, is supposed to have lived from about 620 to 560 B.C. The place of his birth is uncertain - Thrace, Phrygia, Aethiopia, Samos, Athens and Sardis all claiming the honour.
Pharnabazus, weary of bearing the whole cost of the war for the Peloponnesians, agreed to a period of truce so that envoys might visit Susa, but at this stage the whole position was changed by the appointment of Cyrus the Younger as satrap of Lydia, Greater Phrygia and Cappadocia.
Thus Celaenae in Phrygia became Apamea; Haleb (Aleppo) in Syria became Beroea; Nisibis in Mesopotamia, Antioch; Rhagae (Rai) in Media, Europus.
But inland, in Phrygia, Hellenism had as yet made little headway outside the Greek cities.
Among the villages of the north and east of Phrygia, Hellenism " was only beginning to make itself felt in the middle of the 3rd century A.D."
In that part of Phrygia, which by the settlement of the Celtic invaders became Galatia, the larger towns seem to have become Hellenized by the time of the Christian era, whilst the Celtic speech maintained itself in the country villages till the 4th century A.D.
The severities directed against the Montanists of Phrygia led to a furious war, in which most of the sectaries perished, while the doctrine was not extinguished.
PHRYGIA, the name of a large country in Asia Minor, inhabited by a race which the Greeks called Ipirycs, freemen.'
The country named Phrygia in the better known period of history lies inland, separated from the sea by Paph]agonia, Bithynia, Mysia and Lydia.
These monuments, which are found in Lydia, Phrygia, Cappadocia and Lycaonia, as well as in north and central Syria, point to the existence of a homogeneous civilization over those countries; they show a singularly marked style of art, and are frequently inscribed with a peculiar kind of hieroglyphics, engraved boustrophedon; and they originated probably from a great Hittite kingdom, whose kings ruled the countries from Lydia to the borders of Egypt.
It is not merely that certain types are employed both in Phrygia and in Greece, but several favourite types in early Greek art can be traced in Phrygia, employed in similar spirit and for similar purposes.
2 The monuments of Phrygia fall into two groups, which probably mark the sites of two cities about 16 m.
Midea appears to be the city of Midas, and the name is one more link in the chain that binds Mycenae to Phrygia.
In the 8th and probably in the 9th century B.C. communication with Phrygia seems to have been maintained especially by the Greeks of Cyme, Phocaea and Smyrna.
About the end of the 8th century Midas, king of Phrygia, married Damodice, daughter of Agamemnon, the last king of Cyme.
It is then natural that the Homeric poems refer to Phrygia in the terms above described, and make Priam's wife a Phrygian woman.
After the foundation of the Greek colony at Sinope in 751 there can be no doubt that it formed the link of connexion between Greece and Phrygia.
The Greek alphabet was carried to Phrygia and Pteria, either from Sinope or more probably direct east from Cyme, in the latter part of the 8th century.
It affected Ionia in the first place, and the mainland of Greece indirectly; the art of Ionia at this period is almost unknown, but it was probably closely allied to that of Phrygia.
The kingdom of Lydia appears to have become important about the end of the 8th century, and to have completely barred the path between Phrygia and Cyme or Smyrna.
Between 680 and 670 the Cimmerians in their destructive progress over Asia Minor overran Phrygia; the king Midas in despair put an end to his own life; and from henceforth the history of Phrygia is a story of slavery, degradation and decay, which contrasts strangely with the earlier legends.
The Cimmerians, therefore, were ravaging Asia Minor, and presumably held possession of Phrygia, the only country where they achieved 4 See Furtwangler, Goldfund von Vettersfelde, Winckelm.
36 , proves that a trade-route from Phrygia down the Maeander to Miletus was used in the 6th century.
The period from 675 to 585 must therefore be considered as one of great disturbance and probably of complete paralysis in Phrygia.
It would, however, be wrong to suppose that the influence of truly Hellenic art on Phrygia began with the conquest of Alexander.
Under the Persian rule perhaps it was more difficult for Greek manners to spread far east; but we need not think that European influence was absolutely unfelt even in Phrygia.
Very little is to be learned from the ancient writers with regard to the state of Phrygia from 585 to 300.
14) records that a king Midas of Phrygia dedicated his own chair at Delphi; the chair stood in the treasury of Cypselus, and cannot have been deposited there before 680 to 660 B.C. It is not improbable that the event belongs to the time of Alyattes or Croesus, when Greek influence was favoured throughout the Lydian empire; and it is easy to understand how the offering of a king Midas should be considered, in the time of Herodotus, as the earliest made by a foreign prince to a Greek god.
The final castastrophe was the invasion of the Gauls about 270 to 250; and, though the circumstances of this invasion are almost unknown, yet we may safely reckon among them the complete devastation of northern Phrygia.
settled the Gauls permanently in eastern Phrygia, and a large part of the country was henceforth known as Galatia.
Strabo mentions that the great cities of ancient Phrygia were in his time either deserted or marked by mere villages.
Alexander the Great placed Phrygia under the command of Antigonus, who retained it when the empire was broken up. When Antigonus was defeated and slain, at the decisive battle of Ipsus, Phrygia came under the sway of Seleucus.
As the Pergamenian kings grew powerful, and at last confined the Gauls in eastern Phrygia, the western half of the country was 1 A gorgoneum of Roman period, on a tomb engraved in Journ.
Under the Roman empire Phrygia had no political existence under a separate government, but formed part of the vast province of Asia.
When the Roman empire was reorganized by Diocletian at the end of the 3rd century Phrygia was divided into two provinces, distinguished at first as Prima and Secunda, or Great and Little, for which the names Pacatiana and Salutaris soon came into general use.
When the provinces of the Eastern empire were reorganized and divided into themata the two Phrygias were broken up between the Anatolic, Opsician and Thracesian themes, and the name Phrygia finally disappeared.
Almost the whole of Byzantine Phrygia is now included in the vilayet of Brusa, with the exception of a small part of Parorius and the district about Themisonium (Karayuk Bazar) and Ceretapa (Kayadibi), which belong to the vilayet of Konia, and the district of Laodicea and Hierapolis, which belongs to Aidin.
It is impossible to say anything definite about the boundaries of Phrygia before the 5th century.
Under the Persians Great Phrygia extended on the east to the Halys and the Salt Desert;.
The Maeander above its junction with the Lycus formed for a little way the boundary between Phrygia and Lydia.
Mt Dindymus (Murad Dagh) marked the frontier of Mysia, and the entire valley of the Tembrogius or Tembris (Porsuk Su) was certainly included in Phrygia.
Phrygia contains several well-marked geographical districts.
(3) The rest of Phrygia is mountainous (except the great plateau, Banaz Ova), consisting of hill-country intersected by rivers, each of which flows through a fertile valley of varying breadth.
The Hermus drains a small district included in the Byzantine Phrygia, but in earlier times assigned to Lydia and Mysia.
Great part of southern and western Phrygia is drained by the Maeander with its tributaries, Sandykly Tchai (Glaucus), Banaz Tchai, Kopli Su (Hippurius), and Tchuruk Su (Lycus); moreover, some upland plains on the south, especially the Dombai Ova (Aulocra), communicate by underground channels with the IVlaeander.
Phrygia Parorius and all the river-valleys are exceedingly fertile, and agriculture was the chief occupation of the ancient inhabitants; according to the myth, Gordius was called from the plough to the throne.
The high-lying plains and parts of the vast Axylon furnish good pasturage, which formerly nourished countless flocks of sheep. The Romans also obtained fine horses from Phrygia.
Figs cannot be grown in the country, and the ancient references to Phrygian figs are either erroneous or due to a loose use of the term Phrygia.
Phrygia itself, however, was very early converted to Christianity.
Monatsber (1879); Texier, Asie mineure (1862); Steuart, Ancient monuments of Lydia and Phrygia, besides the special chapters in the geographical treatises of Cramer, Vivien St Martin, Forbiger, &c., numerous articles by recent travellers; J.
(1882 sqq.), Bulletin de corresp. hellen (1883 sqq.), Journal of Hellenic Studies (1882, sqq.), American Journal of Archaeology, Revue des etudes anciennes], Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, vols.
Veckenstedt (Ganymedes, Libau, 1881) endeavours to prove that Ganymede is the genius of intoxicating drink (thOv, mead, for which he postulates a form pi bos), whose original home was Phrygia.
60), Greek philosopher, was probably a native of Hierapolis in south-west Phrygia.
The siege of Amorium in Phrygia was broken up, but Pergamum and Sardis were taken.
Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, i.
Farther south there are zones of serpentine, and of crystalline and schistose rocks, some of which are probably Palaeozoic. The direction of the folds of this region is from west to east, but on the borders of Phrygia and Mysia they meet the north-westerly extension of the Taurus folds and bend around the ancient mass of Lydia.
When the great Aryan immigration from Europe commenced is unknown, but it was dying out in the 11th and 10th centuries B.C. In Phrygia the Aryans founded a kingdom, of which traces remain in various rock tombs, forts and towns, and in legends preserved by the Greeks.
Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia (1895), and Impressions of Turkey (1898).
After a successful battle in Phrygia, the rebels had no difficulty in dethroning Michael (1057), who spent the rest of his life in a monastery.
1-6 implies a distinction between such towns as Lystra, Derbe and Iconiuh on the one hand and the Galatian X('pa with Phrygia upon the other.
those of the house of Otanes in Cappadocia, of Hydarnes in Armenia, Pharnabazus in Phrygia, Demaratus in Teuthrania, Themistocles in Magnesia and Lampsacus.
On his arrival at Ephesus a three months' truce was concluded with Tissaphernes, the satrap of Lydia and Caria, but negotiations conducted during that time proved fruitless, and on its termination Agesilaus raided Phrygia, where he easily won immense booty since Tissaphernes had concentrated his troops in Caria.
An armistice was concluded between Tithraustes and Agesilaus, who left the southern satrapy and again invaded Phrygia, which he ravaged until the following spring.
Most of the literature of the sub-apostolic age is epistolary, and we have a particularly interesting form of epistle in the communications between churches (as distinct from individuals) known as the First Epistle of Clement (Rome to Corinth), the Martyrdom of Polycarp (Smyrna to Philomelium), and the Letters of the Churches of Vienne andLyons (to the congregations of Asia Minor and Phrygia) describing the Gallican martyrdoms of A.D.
In 205, alarmed by unfavourable prodigies, the Romans were ordered to fetch the Great Mother of the gods from Pessinus in Phrygia; in the following year the image was brought to Rome, and a lectisternium held.
PAPIAS, of Hierapolis in Phrygia, one of the "Apostolic Fathers" (q.v.).
In his History he betrays great sympathy with that body, has gone with exactness into its history in Constantinople and Phrygia, and is indebted for much of the material of his work to Novatianist tradition and to his intercourse with prominent members of the sect.
He continued true to the Romans during their wars with Antiochus and Perseus, and his kingdom spread over the greater part of western Asia Minor, including Mysia, Lydia, great part of Phrygia, Ionia and Caria.
The latter died in 133, and bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans, who erected part of it (excluding Great Phrygia, which they gave to Mithradates of Pontus) into a province under the name of Asia.
Mithradates was at the battle of Ancyra (c. 241), in which he assisted Antiochus Hierax against his brother Seleucus Callinicus, in spite of the fact that he had married the daughter of the latter with Greater Phrygia as her dowry.
Both Mithradates and Nicomedes of Bithynia demanded Greater Phrygia in return for their services.
For several years the kings of Pontus and Bithynia bid against each other, till in 116 Phrygia was declared independent, although in reality it was treated as part of the province of Asia.
Her cult became centralized in Phrygia, had found its way into Greece, where it never flourished greatly, as early as the latter 6th century B.e., and was introduced at Rome in 204 B.C. Under the Empire it attained to great importance, and was one of the last pagan cults to die.
It was the name of one of the three themes (provinces) into which Phrygia was divided in the military reorganization of the East Roman empire.
He was made governor of Greater Phrygia in 333, and in the division of the provinces after Alexander's death (323) Pamphylia and Lycia were added to his command.
It was important as the nearest seaport to the rich districts of south-west Phrygia.
He cultivated friendly relations with the tyrants of Miletus and Mytilene, and maintained a connexion with the kings of Lydia, of Egypt and, possibly, of Phrygia.
The worship of Dionysus was actively conducted in Asia Minor, particularly in Phrygia and Lydia.
We have " widows having precedence " or presbyteresses, three in number, deaconesses, virgins, and widows who are in receipt of the alms of the Church; and the first-named occupy a place of very great dignity, which is almost unequalled elsewhere (excepting in the earlier form of the apocryphal and Montanistic Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew, where the relation of the IrpeO(3ETC and deaconess corresponds with that of the Testament), and which was formally condemned by the Council of Laodicea in Phrygia.
Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, i.-ii.
15) he has been called a native of Phrygia, but perhaps the historian merely intended to indicate the persistence of Novatianism in Phrygia at the time when he wrote.
GORDIUM, an ancient city of Phrygia situated on the Persian "Royal road" from Pessinus to Ancyra, and not far from the Sangarius.
Koerte, revealed practically no remains later than the middle of the 6th century B.C. (when Phrygia fell under Persian power) .
It was bounded by Lydia and Phrygia on the S., by Bithynia on the N.E., and by the Propontis and Aegean Sea on the N.
The only considerable rivers are the Macestus and its tributary the Rhyndacus in the northern part of the province, both of which rise in Phrygia, and, after diverging widely through Mysia, unite their waters below the lake of Apollonia about r 5 m.
After the Persian conquest the Maeander was regarded as its southern boundary, and in the Roman period it comprised the country between Mysia and Caria on the one side and Phrygia and the Aegean on the other.
By the side of the supreme god Medeus stood the sun-god Attis, as in Phrygia the chief object of the popular cult.
CELAENAE, an ancient city of Phrygia, situated on the great trade route to the East.
Similar legends were current in Attica and Phrygia.
MEMNON OF RHODES, brother of Mentor, with whom he entered the services of the rebellious satrap Artabazus of Phrygia, who married his sister.
Michael Balbus was reared in Phrygia among Montanists.
A much frequented route into Phrygia and the Maeander valley began at.
The earliest Apostolici appeared in Phrygia, Cilicia, Pisidia and Pamphylia towards the end of the 2nd century or the beginning of the 3rd.
Where Greek influence affects the native religion, emphasis tends to be laid on the god, but the character of the religion remains everywhere ultimately the same (see Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, ch.
mother goddess, originated in Phrygia (now Turkey ).
orgiastic rites borrowed from Phrygia.
orgiastic cults that were a license for sex, especially in Phrygia.
Compelled by Bardanes's disloyalty to take the field himself, he sustained a severe defeat at Crasus in Phrygia (805), and the subsequent inroads of the enemy into Asia Minor induced him to make peace on condition of paying a yearly contribution of 30,000 gold pieces.
In the winter, whilst Parmenio advanced upon the central plateau to make the occupation of Phrygia effective, Alexander himself passed along the coast to receive the submission of the Lycians and the adherence of the Greek cities of the Pamphylian sea-board.
In Europe, (I) Thrace; in Asia Minor, (2) Phrygia on the Hellespont, (3) Lydia, (4) Caria, (5) Lycia and Pamphylia, (6) Great Phrygia, (7) Paphlagonia and Cappadocia; between the Empire.
Hence the first intestine war among the Macedonians, in which Antipater, Antigonus, the satrap of Phrygia, and Ptolemy, the satrap of Egypt, were allied against Perdiccas, who was ultimately murdered in 321 on the Egyptian frontier (see [[Perdiccas , Eumenes).
Sir William Ramsay has also shown that martyrdoms in Phrygia were rare during the end of the 2nd and the whole of the 3rd century, a spirit of religious compromise prevailing between the Christian and pagan populations (see a paper by H.
Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, vol.
Roughly speaking, Phrygia comprised the western part of the great central plateau of Anatolia, extending as far east as the river Halys; but its boundaries were vague, 2 and varied so much at different periods that a sketch of its history must precede any account of the geography.
called Phrygian, as also is the seaport Sinope; and a district on the coast between Sestus and the river Cius was regularly named Little Phrygia; names like Mygdones, Doliones and Phryges or Briges, &c., were widely current both in Asia Minor and in Europe.
When the goddess appeared to her favourite Anchises she represented herself as daughter of the king of Phrygia; the Phrygians were said to be the oldest people, ' The meaning is given in Hesych, s.v.
and their language the original speech of mankind; the Phrygian kings were familiar associates of the gods, and the heroes of the land tried their skill against the gods themselves; we hear of the well-walled cities of Phrygia and of the riches of its kings.
The heraldic type of the second class is found also in the art of Assyria, and was undoubtedly adopted by the Phrygians from earlier art; but it is used so frequently in Phrygia as to be specially characteristic of that country.
4 A striking fact in this connexion is the use of a very simple kind of Ionic capital in one early Phrygian monument, suggesting that the "protoIonic" column came to Greece over Phrygia.
complete success, till some time between 6ro and 590 Phrygia then fell under the Lydian power, and by the treaty of 585 the Halys was definitely fixed as the boundary between Lydia and Media (see Lydia and Persia).
15) implies that the southern Metropolis (in the Tchul Ova) belonged to Pisidia; but Strabo (p. 629) includes it in Phrygia.
In these and other cases the Phrygian character was more or less Hellenized; but wave after wave of religious influence from Asia Minor introduced into Greece the unmodified "barbarian" ritual of Phrygia.
Montanus (see Montanism) was born on the borders of Phrygia and Mysia (probably south-east from Philadelphia), and was vehemently opposed by Abercius.
Owing to the scantiness of published material about Phrygia frequent reference has been made in this article to unpublished 4 The influence which was exerted on Greek music and lyric poetry by the Phrygian music was great; see Marsyas; Olympus.
This may have been so to some degree; but Papias (whose name itself denotes that he was of the native Phrygian stock, and who shared the enthusiastic religious temper characteristic of Phrygia, see Montanism) was nearer in spirit to the actual Christianity of the sub-apostolic age, especially in western Asia, than Eusebius realized.
Soon afterwards, Paphlagonia contributed twenty canons passed at the council of Gangra (held, according to the Synodicon orientale, in 343),2 and Phrygia fifty-nine canons of the assembly of Laodicea (345-381?), or rather of the compilation known as the work of this council.'
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