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phosphates

phosphates Sentence Examples

  • Salt and phosphates of lime are exported.

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  • The prosperity of the town is largely due to the export trade in phosphates, esparto grass, oil, almonds, pistachio nuts, sponges, wool, &c. There is in the Gulf of Gabes a rise and fall of 5 ft.

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  • The prosperity of the town is largely due to the export trade in phosphates, esparto grass, oil, almonds, pistachio nuts, sponges, wool, &c. There is in the Gulf of Gabes a rise and fall of 5 ft.

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  • In 1900 mining for phosphates was commenced in Arkansas.

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  • The environs of Creil (Oise) and Chteau-Landon (Seine-et-Marne) are noted for their freestone (pierre de taille), which is also abundant at Euville and Lrouville in Meuse; the production of plaster is particularly important in the environs of Paris, of kaolin of fine quality at Yrieix (1-Jaute-Vienne), of hydraulic lime in Ardche (Le Teil), of lime phosphates in the department of Somme, of marble in the departments of HauteGaronne (St Beat), Hautes-Pyrnes (Campan, Sarrancolin), Isre and Pas-de-Calais, and of cement in Pas-de-Calais (vicinity of Boulogne) and Isre (Grenoble).

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  • phosphates and chemical manures; calcitim carbide; explosivi powder; dynamite and other explosives.

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  • The ordinary ammonium molybdate, used as a test reagent for phosphates, is a salt of composition (NH4)10M012041; it has been examined physicochemically by J.

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  • deficiency of nutritive salts, especially nitrates and phosphates; the presence of poisonous salts of iron, copper, &c., or (in the soil about the roots of trees in towns) of coal-gas and so forth.

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  • The salts of all the metals of this group usually crystallize well, the chlorides and nitrates dissolve readily in water, whilst the carbonates, phosphates and sulphates are either very sparingly soluble or are insoluble in water.

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  • The pseudo-coprolites of the Suffolk Crag have been estimated by Herapath to be as rich in phosphates as the true ichthyo-coprolites and saurio-coprolites of other formations, the proportion of P 2 O 5 contained varying between 12.5 and 37.25%, the average proportion, however, being 32 or 33%.

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  • Way, showed the presence of phosphates equivalent to 55'96 of bone-earth (Journ.

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  • manures), manufactured or imported, to state the percentage of the nitrogen, of the soluble and insoluble phosphates, and of the potash in each article sold, and this statement was to have the effect of a warranty.

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  • The leading industries are the crushing of palm-kernels and linseed and the manufacture of india-rubber, phosphates, starch, nitrate and jute.

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  • Brick clay and limestone are abundant, and there are on the south coast a sand marl rich in phosphates and productive salt deposits.

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  • If, however, phosphoric acid is present in the original substance,we may here obtain a precipitate of the phosphates of the remaining metals, together with aluminium, chromium and ferric hydrates.

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  • The phosphates of aluminium, chromium and iron are precipitated, and the solution contains the same metals as if phosphoric acid had been absent.

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  • Kryst., 1894), in his researches on the tetragonal potassium and ammonium dihydrogen phosphates and arsenates, found that the replacement of potassium by ammonium was attended by an increase of about six units in the molecular volume, and of phosphorus by arsenic by about 4.6 units.

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  • 9 illustrates the first case: the ordinates represent specific volumes, and the abscissae denote the composition of isomorphous mixtures of ammonium and potassium dihydrogen phosphates, which mutually take one another up to the extent of 20% to form homogeneous crystals.

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  • - These are the materials which are utilized by the vegetable plankton in the synthesis of living material: they are water, carbonic acid, nitrates and nitrites of calcium, magnesium and other earthy and alkaline metals, phosphates, silica, traces of salts containing iron, sulphur, potassium and a few other elements.

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  • Phosphates, necessary for the formation of skeletons and also for the nucleo-proteid of cells, are about as scarce as nitrogen.

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  • Its principal imports are coffee (of which it is the greatest continental market), tea, sugar, spices, rice, wine (especially from Bordeaux), lard (from Chicago), cereals, sago, dried fruits, herrings, wax (from Morocco and Mozambique), tobacco, hemp, cotton (which of late years shows a large increase), wool, skins, leather, oils, dyewoods, indigo, nitrates, phosphates and coal.

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  • The principal exports are sugar, coal, cereals, wool, forage, cement, chalk, phosphates, iron and steel, tools and metal-goods, thread and vegetables.

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  • form an insoluble calcium soap. The interaction between the soaps, the phosphates and the carbonates which are brought by the blood and lymph to the part results in the weaker fatty acids being replaced by phosphoric and carbonic acid, and thus in the formation of highly insoluble calcium phosphate and carbonate deposits in the disorganized tissues.

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  • The theory most widely accepted at present is that glass is a quickly solidified solution, in which silica, silicates, borates, phosphates and aluminates may be either solvents or solutes, and metallic oxides and metals may be held either in solution or in suspension.

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  • The sulphur exists in the soil chiefly in the form of sulphates of magnesium, calcium and other metals; the phosphorus mainly as phosphates of calcium, magnesium and iron; the potash, soda and other bases as silicates and nitrates; calcium and magnesium carbonates are also common constituents of many soils.

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  • 9,200 „ From the figures given previously of the amount of nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid removed by a wheat or mangel crop it would appear that this soil has enough of these ingredients in it to yield many such crops; yet experience has shown that these crops cannot be grown on such a poor sandy soil unless manures containing phosphates, potash and nitrogen are added.

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  • 025 or 03%, respond freely to applications of phosphates; probably in such cases even the weak acid is capable of dissolving out phosphates from the humus or other compounds which yield little or none to the roots of grasses and clovers.

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  • On the light, poor sands of Saxony Herr Schultz, of Lupitz, made use of serradella, yellow lupins and vetches as green manures for enriching the land in humus and nitrogen, and found the addition of potash salts and phosphates very profitable for the subsequent growth of potatoes and wheat.

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  • Of zinc phosphates we notice the minerals hopeite, Zn.

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  • Valuable deposits of phosphates are present, chiefly in the south-west of Tunisia, in the district of Gafsa.

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  • West of Gafsa are immense beds of phosphates.

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  • The export of phosphates rose from 445,000 tons in 1904 to 1,267,000 tons in 1908.

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  • The principal exports are olive oil, wheat, esparto grass, barley, sponges, dates, fish (especially tunny), hides, horses, wool, phosphates, copper, zinc and lead.

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  • phosphates.

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  • The presence of phosphates accounts for the fertility of a shallow soil.

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  • Columbia is in a fine farming region; is engaged extensively in the mining and shipping of phosphates; has an important trade in live-stock, especially mules; manufactures cotton, lumber, flour, bricks, pumps and woollen goods; and has marble and stone works.

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  • It imports general merchandise and manufactures, and exports phosphates, iron, zinc, barley, sheep, wool, cork, esparto, &c. There are manufactories of native garments, tapestry and leather.

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  • Where the production of acetylene is going on on a small scale this method of purification is undoubtedly the most convenient one, as the acid present absorbs the ammonia, and the copper salt converts the phosphuretted and sulphuretted hydrogen into phosphates and sulphides.

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  • An additional basin, southeast of the main harbour, was opened in 1905 and is used for the exportation of phosphates.

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  • The exports are chiefly phosphates and other minerals, cereals, olive oil, cattle, hides, sponges and wax.

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  • PHOSPHATES, in chemistry, the name given to salts of phosphoric acid.

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  • (C. E.*) Mineral Phosphates.

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  • The ultimate source of these mineral phosphates may be referred in most cases to the apatite widely distributed in crystalline rocks.

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  • Being soluble in water containing carbonic acid or organic acids it may be readily removed in solution, and may thus furnish plants and animals with the phosphates required in their structures.

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  • On the decay of these structures the phosphates are returned to the inorganic world, thus completing the cycle.

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  • There are three sources of phosphates which are of importance geologically.

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  • The phosphatic rocks which occur among the sedimentary strata are the principal sources of phosphates for commerce and agriculture.

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  • The soluble phosphates washed out of the guano may become fixed by entering into combination with the elements of the rock beneath.

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  • Christmas Island has been a great source of phosphates of this type; also Jaluit Island in the Maldive Archipelago, Banaba or Ocean Island, and Nauru or Pleasant Island.

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  • In the older formations the phosphates tend to become more and more mineralized by chemical processes.

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  • Important deposits of mineral phosphates are now worked on a large scale in the United States, the annual yield far surpassing that of any other part of the world.

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  • In 1892 the phosphates of Tennessee, derived from Ordovician limestones, came into the market.

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  • From North Carolina, Alabama and Pennsylvania, also, phosphates have been obtained but only in comparatively small quantities.

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  • Phosphates occur also in Egypt, in the desert east of Keneh and in the Dakla oasis in the Libyan desert.

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  • France is rich in mineral phosphates, the chief deposits being the departments of the Pas-de-Calais, Somme, Aisne, Oise in and Meuse, in the north-east, and another group in the departments of Lot, Tarn-et-Garonne and Aveyron, in the south-west: phosphates occur also in the Pyrenees.

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  • Phosphates occur in Belgium, especially near Mons, and these, like those of north-east France, are principally in the Upper Chalk.

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  • The Lower Greensand phosphates have been worked, under the name of " coprolites," at Potton in Bedfordshire and at Upware and Wicken in Cambridgeshire.

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  • - For American phosphates see The Phosphates of America, by Francis Wyatt (5th ed., New York 0 and London, 1894); the Annual Reports on Mineral Resources of the U.S. (U.S. Geol.

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  • 46 (1888); Florida, South Carolina and Canadian Phosphates, by C. C. Hoyer Miller (London, 1892); and The Nonmetallic Minerals, by G.

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  • Many of the above include descriptions of mineral phosphates in other parts of the world.

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  • For a general discussion of the origin of the phosphates, see " The Natural History of Phosphate Deposits," by, J.

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  • Consult also Etude complete sur les phosphates, by A.

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  • Ammonium phosphates.

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  • The town is the seat of a sub-prefect and has a tribunal of first instance; it has trade in phosphates, of which there are workings in the vicinity, and carries on cotton-spinning and the manufacture of leather, paper and sugar.

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  • The chief exports are sheep and oxen, most of which are raised in Morocco and Tunisia, and horses; animal products, such as wool and skins; wine, cereals (rye, barley, oats), vegetables, fruits (chiefly figs and grapes for the table) and seeds, esparto grass, oils and vegetable extracts (chiefly olive oil), iron ore, zinc, natural phosphates, timber, cork, crin vegetal and tobacco.

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  • It is a business centre for the prosperous farming region by which it is surrounded, and is a shipping point for oysters and fish; among its manufactures are canned fruits and vegetables, flour, hominy, phosphates, underwear and lumber.

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  • The Devonian system yields much oil and gas in western Pennsylvania, south-western New York, West Virginia and Ontario; and some of the Devonian beds in Tennessee yield phosphates of commercial value.

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  • Grindstones, building-stone, talc, gypsum, marble and phosphates are also produced.

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  • In 1840 a paper on the phosphates and arsenates, which was clearly unworthy of him, was refused by the Royal Society, and he was so incensed that he published it himself.

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  • Aluminium phosphates may be prepared by precipitating a soluble aluminium salt with sodium phosphate.

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  • The effects of bones are no doubt mainly due to the phosphates they contain, and they are most effectual on dry soils.

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  • Both are remarkable for the quantity of nitrates and phosphates they contain.

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  • Potash and soda are also valuable inorganic manures in the form of carbonates, sulphates, silicates and phosphates, but the most valuable is the nitrate of potash.

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  • Phosphoric acid, in the form of phosphates, is a most valuable plant food, and is absorbed by most plants in fairly large quantities from the soil.

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  • Soot forms a good top-dressing; it consists principally of charcoal, but contains ammonia and a smaller proportion of phosphates and potash, whence its value as a manure is derived.

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  • In the basic Bessemer process phosphorus is readily removed by oxidation, because the product of its oxidation, phosphoric acid, P 2 O 5, in the presence of an excess of base forms stable phosphates of lime and iron which pass into the slag, making it valuable as an artificial manure.

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  • Since the opening of the new port the traffic has considerably increased, and it exports oil, pig-lead, silver, flour, wine, marble and sandstone for paving purposes, while it imports quantities of coal, iron, cereals, phosphates, timber, pitch, petroleum, and mineral oils.

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  • Under all these three conditions the diamond is associated with fragments of the rocks of the country and the minerals derived from them, 'especially quartz, hornstone, jasper, the polymorphous oxide of titanium (rutile, anatase and brookite), oxides and hydrates of iron (magnetite, ilmenite, haematite, limonite), oxide of tin, iron pyrites, tourmaline, garnet, xenotime, monazite, kyanite, diaspore, sphene, topaz, and several phosphates, and also gold.

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  • Salt, phosphates and cattle are exported.

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  • Should it be thought that the traces of the more valuable sorts of plant food (such as compounds of nitrogen, phosphates, and potash salts) existing in ordinary brook or river water can never bring an appreciable amount of manurial matter to the soil, or exert an appreciable effect upon the vegetation, yet the quantity of water used during the season must be taken into account.

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  • Nitrates and phosphates are also found in various parts of the desert and are used as manures.

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  • There he made analyses of phosphates and phosphites, arsenates and arsenites, confirming the conclusions of J.

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  • Berzelius as to their composition; and his observation that corresponding phosphates and arsenates crystallize in the same form was the germ from which grew the theory of isomorphism which he communicated to the Berlin Academy in December 1819.

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  • Other instances of the isomorphism of thallous with potassium salts are the nitrates, phosphates, hydrazoates, sulphates, chromates, selenates, and the analogously constituted double salts, and also the oxalates, racemates and picrates.

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  • Various thallous phosphates are known.

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  • In this process phosphates must be absent, and the nitric acid liberated during the reaction should be neutralized as soon as possible.

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  • Nitrates of cerium have been described, as have also phosphates, carbonates and a carbide.

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  • Basic copper phosphates are of frequent occurrence in the mineral kingdom.

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  • Copper arsenate is similar to cupric phosphate, and the resemblance is to be observed in the naturally occurring copper arsenates, which are generally isomorphous with the corresponding phosphates.

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  • But in many regions the soil is deficient in phosphates and nitrates, and large irrigation works can be profitable only in districts where the soil is exceptionally fertile.

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  • Water, the carbonates and sulphates, and probably phosphates, and the metals platinum, gold, silver, cadmium, tin and copper have a specific cohesion double that of mercury.

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  • Its imports during the same year amounted to 899,201 tons, including 172,319 tons of grain and other agricultural produce, 156,620 tons of firewood, 145,255 tons of pig-iron and manufactured iron and steel, 47,201 tons of iron ore, 121,168 tons of copper, -silver, lead, tin and nickel with their ores and alloys, 63,009 tons of zinc, its ores and alloys, 41,029 tons of sulphur ore, phosphates and other raw material for the chemical trade.

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  • The principal exports of Cayenne are gold, cocoa, phosphates, hides, woods and spices.

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  • The amount of urea, creatin, creatinin, sulphates and phosphates in the urine is diminished, clearly showing that quinine exerts an inhibitory influence over the metabolic processes of the body.

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  • In the mineral kingdom it is exceptionally abundant, forming large deposits of phosphates.

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  • It is used to render the urine acid in cases where it is alkaline, loaded with phosphates or purulent, and is thus useful in cases of cystitis.

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  • C. Harries (Ann., 1903, 328, p. 88) obtained them tolerably pure by the dry distillation of the phosphates of I.

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  • 4.1 Chemical Reactivity 4.2 Solubility 4.3 Compounds 4.4 Ferrous Oxide 4.5 Magnetite 4.6 Ferric Acid 4.7 Halogen Compounds 4.8 Ferric Chloride 4.9 Ferrous Bromide 4.10 Sulfur(Sulphur)Compounds 4.11 Nitrides and Nitrates 4.12 Phosphides, Phosphates 4.13 Arsenides and Arsenites 4.14 Carbides, Carbonates 4.15 Medical Uses

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  • Ferri phosphas, a slate-blue powder of ferrous and ferric phosphates with some oxide.

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  • Coal, minerals, phosphates, grain and wool are leading imports.

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  • Upper and Middle Cretaceous, containing phosphates, gypsum, naphtha, sulphur and alum, attain thicknesses of 2000 and 5000 ft.

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  • The excrement from this large colony has changed the carbonate of lime in the soil and the coral nodules on the surface into phosphates, to the extent in some cases of 60-70%, thus forming a valuable deposit, beneficial to the vegetation of the island itself and promising commercial value.

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  • The salts of arsenic acid, termed arsenates, are isomorphous with the phosphates, and in general character and reactions resemble the phosphates very closely; thus both series of salts give similar precipitates with "magnesia mixture" and with ammonium molybdate solution, but they can be distinguished by their behaviour with silver nitrate solution, arsenates giving a reddish-brown precipitate,whilst phosphates give a yellow precipitate.

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  • Phosphorus is present in all cells, in considerable quantity in the nervous tissue, and in the bones as phosphates.

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  • In addition to encouraging unwanted algae growth, phosphates slow the skeletal growth of stony corals.

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  • High levels of phosphates and/or nitrates can cause algae blooms (including blue green algae, some of which are toxic ).

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  • DNA consists of a series of similar molecules, called nucleosides, stably linked together by phosphates into a long chain.

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  • Alternatively, the phosphates can complex with organic matter, forming insoluble organic phosphates.

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  • The urease splits urinary urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which results in phosphates and carbon in the urine.

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  • Free from sugar salt starch wheat maize gluten lactose yeast dairy phosphates artificial colors preservatives and dyes.

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  • The environs of Creil (Oise) and Chteau-Landon (Seine-et-Marne) are noted for their freestone (pierre de taille), which is also abundant at Euville and Lrouville in Meuse; the production of plaster is particularly important in the environs of Paris, of kaolin of fine quality at Yrieix (1-Jaute-Vienne), of hydraulic lime in Ardche (Le Teil), of lime phosphates in the department of Somme, of marble in the departments of HauteGaronne (St Beat), Hautes-Pyrnes (Campan, Sarrancolin), Isre and Pas-de-Calais, and of cement in Pas-de-Calais (vicinity of Boulogne) and Isre (Grenoble).

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  • phosphates and chemical manures; calcitim carbide; explosivi powder; dynamite and other explosives.

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  • The ordinary ammonium molybdate, used as a test reagent for phosphates, is a salt of composition (NH4)10M012041; it has been examined physicochemically by J.

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  • deficiency of nutritive salts, especially nitrates and phosphates; the presence of poisonous salts of iron, copper, &c., or (in the soil about the roots of trees in towns) of coal-gas and so forth.

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  • The salts of all the metals of this group usually crystallize well, the chlorides and nitrates dissolve readily in water, whilst the carbonates, phosphates and sulphates are either very sparingly soluble or are insoluble in water.

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  • The pseudo-coprolites of the Suffolk Crag have been estimated by Herapath to be as rich in phosphates as the true ichthyo-coprolites and saurio-coprolites of other formations, the proportion of P 2 O 5 contained varying between 12.5 and 37.25%, the average proportion, however, being 32 or 33%.

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  • Way, showed the presence of phosphates equivalent to 55'96 of bone-earth (Journ.

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  • manures), manufactured or imported, to state the percentage of the nitrogen, of the soluble and insoluble phosphates, and of the potash in each article sold, and this statement was to have the effect of a warranty.

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  • Of mineral constituents, whether used alone or in mixture with nitrogenous manures, phosphates are much more effective than mixtures of salts of potash, soda and magnesia.

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  • But the average produce over forty years of continuous growth of barley was, in all cases where nitrogenous and mineral manures (containing phosphates) were used together, much higher than the average produce of the crop grown in ordinary rotation in the United Kingdom, and very much higher than the average in most other countries when so grown.

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  • The leading industries are the crushing of palm-kernels and linseed and the manufacture of india-rubber, phosphates, starch, nitrate and jute.

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  • Brick clay and limestone are abundant, and there are on the south coast a sand marl rich in phosphates and productive salt deposits.

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  • (() An infusible white residue may be obtained,which may denote barium, strontium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium or zinc. The first three give characteristic flame colorations (see below); the last three, when moistened with cobalt nitrate and re-ignited, give coloured masses; aluminium (or silica) gives a brilliant blue; zinc gives a green; whilst magnesium phosphates or arsenate (and to a less degree the phosphates of the alkaline earths) give a violet mass.

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  • If, however, phosphoric acid is present in the original substance,we may here obtain a precipitate of the phosphates of the remaining metals, together with aluminium, chromium and ferric hydrates.

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  • The phosphates of aluminium, chromium and iron are precipitated, and the solution contains the same metals as if phosphoric acid had been absent.

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  • Kryst., 1894), in his researches on the tetragonal potassium and ammonium dihydrogen phosphates and arsenates, found that the replacement of potassium by ammonium was attended by an increase of about six units in the molecular volume, and of phosphorus by arsenic by about 4.6 units.

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  • 9 illustrates the first case: the ordinates represent specific volumes, and the abscissae denote the composition of isomorphous mixtures of ammonium and potassium dihydrogen phosphates, which mutually take one another up to the extent of 20% to form homogeneous crystals.

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  • Salt and phosphates of lime are exported.

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  • - These are the materials which are utilized by the vegetable plankton in the synthesis of living material: they are water, carbonic acid, nitrates and nitrites of calcium, magnesium and other earthy and alkaline metals, phosphates, silica, traces of salts containing iron, sulphur, potassium and a few other elements.

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  • Phosphates, necessary for the formation of skeletons and also for the nucleo-proteid of cells, are about as scarce as nitrogen.

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  • Its principal imports are coffee (of which it is the greatest continental market), tea, sugar, spices, rice, wine (especially from Bordeaux), lard (from Chicago), cereals, sago, dried fruits, herrings, wax (from Morocco and Mozambique), tobacco, hemp, cotton (which of late years shows a large increase), wool, skins, leather, oils, dyewoods, indigo, nitrates, phosphates and coal.

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  • The principal exports are sugar, coal, cereals, wool, forage, cement, chalk, phosphates, iron and steel, tools and metal-goods, thread and vegetables.

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  • form an insoluble calcium soap. The interaction between the soaps, the phosphates and the carbonates which are brought by the blood and lymph to the part results in the weaker fatty acids being replaced by phosphoric and carbonic acid, and thus in the formation of highly insoluble calcium phosphate and carbonate deposits in the disorganized tissues.

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  • The theory most widely accepted at present is that glass is a quickly solidified solution, in which silica, silicates, borates, phosphates and aluminates may be either solvents or solutes, and metallic oxides and metals may be held either in solution or in suspension.

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  • The sulphur exists in the soil chiefly in the form of sulphates of magnesium, calcium and other metals; the phosphorus mainly as phosphates of calcium, magnesium and iron; the potash, soda and other bases as silicates and nitrates; calcium and magnesium carbonates are also common constituents of many soils.

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  • 9,200 „ From the figures given previously of the amount of nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid removed by a wheat or mangel crop it would appear that this soil has enough of these ingredients in it to yield many such crops; yet experience has shown that these crops cannot be grown on such a poor sandy soil unless manures containing phosphates, potash and nitrogen are added.

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  • 025 or 03%, respond freely to applications of phosphates; probably in such cases even the weak acid is capable of dissolving out phosphates from the humus or other compounds which yield little or none to the roots of grasses and clovers.

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  • On the light, poor sands of Saxony Herr Schultz, of Lupitz, made use of serradella, yellow lupins and vetches as green manures for enriching the land in humus and nitrogen, and found the addition of potash salts and phosphates very profitable for the subsequent growth of potatoes and wheat.

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  • Of zinc phosphates we notice the minerals hopeite, Zn.

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  • Valuable deposits of phosphates are present, chiefly in the south-west of Tunisia, in the district of Gafsa.

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  • West of Gafsa are immense beds of phosphates.

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  • The export of phosphates rose from 445,000 tons in 1904 to 1,267,000 tons in 1908.

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  • The principal exports are olive oil, wheat, esparto grass, barley, sponges, dates, fish (especially tunny), hides, horses, wool, phosphates, copper, zinc and lead.

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  • The presence of phosphates accounts for the fertility of a shallow soil.

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  • Columbia is in a fine farming region; is engaged extensively in the mining and shipping of phosphates; has an important trade in live-stock, especially mules; manufactures cotton, lumber, flour, bricks, pumps and woollen goods; and has marble and stone works.

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  • It imports general merchandise and manufactures, and exports phosphates, iron, zinc, barley, sheep, wool, cork, esparto, &c. There are manufactories of native garments, tapestry and leather.

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  • Where the production of acetylene is going on on a small scale this method of purification is undoubtedly the most convenient one, as the acid present absorbs the ammonia, and the copper salt converts the phosphuretted and sulphuretted hydrogen into phosphates and sulphides.

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  • An additional basin, southeast of the main harbour, was opened in 1905 and is used for the exportation of phosphates.

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  • The exports are chiefly phosphates and other minerals, cereals, olive oil, cattle, hides, sponges and wax.

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  • PHOSPHATES, in chemistry, the name given to salts of phosphoric acid.

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  • These acids each give origin to several series of salts, those of ordinary phosphoric acid being the most important, and, in addition, are widely distributed in the mineral kingdom (see below under Mineral Phosphates).

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  • (C. E.*) Mineral Phosphates.

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  • The ultimate source of these mineral phosphates may be referred in most cases to the apatite widely distributed in crystalline rocks.

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  • Being soluble in water containing carbonic acid or organic acids it may be readily removed in solution, and may thus furnish plants and animals with the phosphates required in their structures.

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  • On the decay of these structures the phosphates are returned to the inorganic world, thus completing the cycle.

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  • There are three sources of phosphates which are of importance geologically.

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  • The phosphatic rocks which occur among the sedimentary strata are the principal sources of phosphates for commerce and agriculture.

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  • The soluble phosphates washed out of the guano may become fixed by entering into combination with the elements of the rock beneath.

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  • Christmas Island has been a great source of phosphates of this type; also Jaluit Island in the Maldive Archipelago, Banaba or Ocean Island, and Nauru or Pleasant Island.

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  • In the older formations the phosphates tend to become more and more mineralized by chemical processes.

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  • Important deposits of mineral phosphates are now worked on a large scale in the United States, the annual yield far surpassing that of any other part of the world.

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  • In 1892 the phosphates of Tennessee, derived from Ordovician limestones, came into the market.

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  • From North Carolina, Alabama and Pennsylvania, also, phosphates have been obtained but only in comparatively small quantities.

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  • In 1900 mining for phosphates was commenced in Arkansas.

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  • Phosphates occur also in Egypt, in the desert east of Keneh and in the Dakla oasis in the Libyan desert.

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  • France is rich in mineral phosphates, the chief deposits being the departments of the Pas-de-Calais, Somme, Aisne, Oise in and Meuse, in the north-east, and another group in the departments of Lot, Tarn-et-Garonne and Aveyron, in the south-west: phosphates occur also in the Pyrenees.

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  • Phosphates occur in Belgium, especially near Mons, and these, like those of north-east France, are principally in the Upper Chalk.

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  • The Lower Greensand phosphates have been worked, under the name of " coprolites," at Potton in Bedfordshire and at Upware and Wicken in Cambridgeshire.

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  • - For American phosphates see The Phosphates of America, by Francis Wyatt (5th ed., New York 0 and London, 1894); the Annual Reports on Mineral Resources of the U.S. (U.S. Geol.

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  • 46 (1888); Florida, South Carolina and Canadian Phosphates, by C. C. Hoyer Miller (London, 1892); and The Nonmetallic Minerals, by G.

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  • Many of the above include descriptions of mineral phosphates in other parts of the world.

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  • For a general discussion of the origin of the phosphates, see " The Natural History of Phosphate Deposits," by, J.

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  • Consult also Etude complete sur les phosphates, by A.

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  • Other phosphates are also known.

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  • Ammonium phosphates.

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  • The town is the seat of a sub-prefect and has a tribunal of first instance; it has trade in phosphates, of which there are workings in the vicinity, and carries on cotton-spinning and the manufacture of leather, paper and sugar.

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  • The chief exports are sheep and oxen, most of which are raised in Morocco and Tunisia, and horses; animal products, such as wool and skins; wine, cereals (rye, barley, oats), vegetables, fruits (chiefly figs and grapes for the table) and seeds, esparto grass, oils and vegetable extracts (chiefly olive oil), iron ore, zinc, natural phosphates, timber, cork, crin vegetal and tobacco.

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  • It is a business centre for the prosperous farming region by which it is surrounded, and is a shipping point for oysters and fish; among its manufactures are canned fruits and vegetables, flour, hominy, phosphates, underwear and lumber.

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  • The Devonian system yields much oil and gas in western Pennsylvania, south-western New York, West Virginia and Ontario; and some of the Devonian beds in Tennessee yield phosphates of commercial value.

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  • Grindstones, building-stone, talc, gypsum, marble and phosphates are also produced.

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  • In 1840 a paper on the phosphates and arsenates, which was clearly unworthy of him, was refused by the Royal Society, and he was so incensed that he published it himself.

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  • Aluminium phosphates may be prepared by precipitating a soluble aluminium salt with sodium phosphate.

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  • The effects of bones are no doubt mainly due to the phosphates they contain, and they are most effectual on dry soils.

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  • Both are remarkable for the quantity of nitrates and phosphates they contain.

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  • Potash and soda are also valuable inorganic manures in the form of carbonates, sulphates, silicates and phosphates, but the most valuable is the nitrate of potash.

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  • Phosphoric acid, in the form of phosphates, is a most valuable plant food, and is absorbed by most plants in fairly large quantities from the soil.

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  • Soot forms a good top-dressing; it consists principally of charcoal, but contains ammonia and a smaller proportion of phosphates and potash, whence its value as a manure is derived.

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  • In the basic Bessemer process phosphorus is readily removed by oxidation, because the product of its oxidation, phosphoric acid, P 2 O 5, in the presence of an excess of base forms stable phosphates of lime and iron which pass into the slag, making it valuable as an artificial manure.

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  • Since the opening of the new port the traffic has considerably increased, and it exports oil, pig-lead, silver, flour, wine, marble and sandstone for paving purposes, while it imports quantities of coal, iron, cereals, phosphates, timber, pitch, petroleum, and mineral oils.

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  • Under all these three conditions the diamond is associated with fragments of the rocks of the country and the minerals derived from them, 'especially quartz, hornstone, jasper, the polymorphous oxide of titanium (rutile, anatase and brookite), oxides and hydrates of iron (magnetite, ilmenite, haematite, limonite), oxide of tin, iron pyrites, tourmaline, garnet, xenotime, monazite, kyanite, diaspore, sphene, topaz, and several phosphates, and also gold.

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  • Salt, phosphates and cattle are exported.

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  • Should it be thought that the traces of the more valuable sorts of plant food (such as compounds of nitrogen, phosphates, and potash salts) existing in ordinary brook or river water can never bring an appreciable amount of manurial matter to the soil, or exert an appreciable effect upon the vegetation, yet the quantity of water used during the season must be taken into account.

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  • Nitrates and phosphates are also found in various parts of the desert and are used as manures.

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  • There he made analyses of phosphates and phosphites, arsenates and arsenites, confirming the conclusions of J.

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  • Berzelius as to their composition; and his observation that corresponding phosphates and arsenates crystallize in the same form was the germ from which grew the theory of isomorphism which he communicated to the Berlin Academy in December 1819.

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  • Other instances of the isomorphism of thallous with potassium salts are the nitrates, phosphates, hydrazoates, sulphates, chromates, selenates, and the analogously constituted double salts, and also the oxalates, racemates and picrates.

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  • Various thallous phosphates are known.

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  • In this process phosphates must be absent, and the nitric acid liberated during the reaction should be neutralized as soon as possible.

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  • Nitrates of cerium have been described, as have also phosphates, carbonates and a carbide.

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  • Basic copper phosphates are of frequent occurrence in the mineral kingdom.

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  • Copper arsenate is similar to cupric phosphate, and the resemblance is to be observed in the naturally occurring copper arsenates, which are generally isomorphous with the corresponding phosphates.

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  • But in many regions the soil is deficient in phosphates and nitrates, and large irrigation works can be profitable only in districts where the soil is exceptionally fertile.

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  • Water, the carbonates and sulphates, and probably phosphates, and the metals platinum, gold, silver, cadmium, tin and copper have a specific cohesion double that of mercury.

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  • Its imports during the same year amounted to 899,201 tons, including 172,319 tons of grain and other agricultural produce, 156,620 tons of firewood, 145,255 tons of pig-iron and manufactured iron and steel, 47,201 tons of iron ore, 121,168 tons of copper, -silver, lead, tin and nickel with their ores and alloys, 63,009 tons of zinc, its ores and alloys, 41,029 tons of sulphur ore, phosphates and other raw material for the chemical trade.

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  • The principal exports of Cayenne are gold, cocoa, phosphates, hides, woods and spices.

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  • The amount of urea, creatin, creatinin, sulphates and phosphates in the urine is diminished, clearly showing that quinine exerts an inhibitory influence over the metabolic processes of the body.

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  • In the mineral kingdom it is exceptionally abundant, forming large deposits of phosphates.

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  • Oxyacids.-Phosphorus forms several oxyacids: hypophosphorous acid, H 3 P0 2, and hypophosphoric acid, H 4 P 2 0 6 or H2P03, of which the anhydrides are unknown; phosphorous acid, H 3 P0 3, derived from P 4 0 5; monoperphosphoric acid, H 3 P0 5; perphosphoric acid, H4P208; and meta-, pyro-, and ortho-phosphoric acids, derived from P4010, for which see Phosphates.

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  • It is used to render the urine acid in cases where it is alkaline, loaded with phosphates or purulent, and is thus useful in cases of cystitis.

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  • C. Harries (Ann., 1903, 328, p. 88) obtained them tolerably pure by the dry distillation of the phosphates of I.

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  • 4.1 Chemical Reactivity 4.2 Solubility 4.3 Compounds 4.4 Ferrous Oxide 4.5 Magnetite 4.6 Ferric Acid 4.7 Halogen Compounds 4.8 Ferric Chloride 4.9 Ferrous Bromide 4.10 Sulfur(Sulphur)Compounds 4.11 Nitrides and Nitrates 4.12 Phosphides, Phosphates 4.13 Arsenides and Arsenites 4.14 Carbides, Carbonates 4.15 Medical Uses

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  • Ferri phosphas, a slate-blue powder of ferrous and ferric phosphates with some oxide.

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  • Coal, minerals, phosphates, grain and wool are leading imports.

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  • Upper and Middle Cretaceous, containing phosphates, gypsum, naphtha, sulphur and alum, attain thicknesses of 2000 and 5000 ft.

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  • The excrement from this large colony has changed the carbonate of lime in the soil and the coral nodules on the surface into phosphates, to the extent in some cases of 60-70%, thus forming a valuable deposit, beneficial to the vegetation of the island itself and promising commercial value.

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  • The salts of arsenic acid, termed arsenates, are isomorphous with the phosphates, and in general character and reactions resemble the phosphates very closely; thus both series of salts give similar precipitates with "magnesia mixture" and with ammonium molybdate solution, but they can be distinguished by their behaviour with silver nitrate solution, arsenates giving a reddish-brown precipitate,whilst phosphates give a yellow precipitate.

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  • Phosphorus is present in all cells, in considerable quantity in the nervous tissue, and in the bones as phosphates.

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  • The urease splits urinary urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which results in phosphates and carbon in the urine.

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  • Free from sugar salt starch wheat maize gluten lactose yeast dairy phosphates artificial colors preservatives and dyes.

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  • Choosing soaps that do not have phosphates, bleach, antibacterial agents and phenols are better for the environment.

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  • Phosphates - These are used to remove hard water minerals which do work to get dirt out of clothes; however, when released into the environment, they increase production of marine life.

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  • The addition of chemical phosphates to lawns and gardens is a major source of ground water pollution.

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  • These individuals should take in foods that contain salt, potassium, phosphates, and sugar.

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  • Water from the tap also contains phosphates.

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  • Phosphates are used in aquariums and swimming pools to help balance out high pH levels and occur naturally in water.

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  • Algae feed on these phosphates (considered nutrients in small doses) and before you know it, the algae have completely invaded your vase.

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  • Aside from the phosphates mentioned above, nitrates are also a favorite food source of algae.

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  • Many plant foods contain both nitrates and phosphates.

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  • Doing so allows the chloride and phosphates to evaporate from the water, making it safe to use for your bamboo plant.

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  • Many of them contain alcohols, paraffins, phosphates and other ingredients that could trigger skin reactions.

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  • Of mineral constituents, whether used alone or in mixture with nitrogenous manures, phosphates are much more effective than mixtures of salts of potash, soda and magnesia.

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  • But the average produce over forty years of continuous growth of barley was, in all cases where nitrogenous and mineral manures (containing phosphates) were used together, much higher than the average produce of the crop grown in ordinary rotation in the United Kingdom, and very much higher than the average in most other countries when so grown.

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  • Other phosphates are also known.

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