On Christmas Island the phosphate has been quarried to depths of 100 ft.
Mitscherlich, in the case of the acid phosphate and acid arsenate of potassium, KH 2 P(As)04, who adopted the term isomorphism, and regarded phosphorus and arsenic as isomorphously related elements.
The phosphate beds contain Eocene fossils derived from the underlying strata and many fragments of Pleistocene vertebrata such as mastodon, elephant, stag, horse, pig, &c. The phosphate occurs as lumps varying greatly in size, scattered through a sand or clay; they often contain phosphatized Eocene fossils (Mollusca, &c.).
The acid renders it available as a manure by converting the calcium phosphate, Ca 3 P 2 O 8, that it contains into the soluble monocalcium salt, CaH 4 P 2 O 8, or "superphosphate."
In Lingula the shell is composed of alternate layers of chitin and of phosphate of lime.
Cattle, phosphate of lime and salt, manufactured from a lake in the interior, are the principal exports, the market for these being the neighbouring island of St Thomas.
Among the rocks then obtained and submitted to Sir John Murray for examination there were detected specimens of nearly pure phosphate of lime, a discovery which eventually led, in June 1888, to the annexation of the island to the British crown.
The source of the carbon of organic tissues is carbonic acid; that of the nitrogen in the proteids is the nitrates, nitrites and salts of ammonia dissolved in sea-water; the material of the shells or other skeletons is the silica, phosphate and calcium of the salts of sea-water (and, in rare cases, the salts of strontium).
From that time the history of Bona is one of industrial development, greatly stimulated since 1883 by the discovery of the phosphate beds at Tebessa.
It has been estimated that 500,000 tons of phosphate were obtained in Aruba, 1,000,000 tons from Curacoa since the deposits were discovered in 1870, and Christmas Island in 1907 yielded 290,000 tons.
The " Challenger " and other oceanographic expeditions have shown that on the bottom of the deep sea concretions of phosphate are now gathering around the dead bodies of fishes lying in the oozes; consequently the formation of the concretions may have been carried on simultaneously with the deposition of the strata in which they occur.
Other kinds not distinctly hard and consisting of less rich phosphatic limestone, are known as " soft phosphate ": those found as smooth pebbles of variable colour are called " land pebble-phosphate," whilst the pebbles of the river-beds and old river-valleys, usually of dark colour, are distinguished as " river pebble-phosphate."
The state contains deposits of iron, gypsum, marl, phosphate, lignite, ochre, glass-sand, tripoli, fuller's earth, limestones and sandstones; and there are small gas flows in the Yazoo Delta.
This salt gives the corresponding chloride and fluoride with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, and the phosphate, Pb(HP04)2, with phosphoric acid.
The normal ortho-phosphate, Pb3(P04)2, is a white precipitate obtained by adding sodium phosphate to lead acetate; the acid phosphate, PbHPO 4, is produced by precipitating a boiling solution of lead nitrate with phosphoric acid; the pyrophosphate and meta-phosphate are similar white precipitates.
On these rounded hills occurs the deposit of phosphate of lime which gives the island its commercial value.
Sfax was formerly the starting-point of a caravan route to Central Africa, but its inland trade now extends only to the phosphate region beyond Gafsa, reached by a railway which, after skirting the coast southwards from Sfax to Mahares, runs inland past Gafsa.
In South Carolina, where there are important deposits of phosphate, formerly more productive than at present, the " land rock " is worked near Charleston, and the " river rock " in the Coosaw River and other streams near Beaufort.
Phosphate mining began in South Carolina in 1868, and for twenty years that state was the principal producer.
Cobalt ammonium phosphate, CoNH4PO 4.12H 2 0, is formed when a soluble cobalt salt is digested for some time with excess of a warm solution of ammonium phosphate.
It may be in the form of an albumen crystal sometimes associated with a more or less spherical bodygloboid-composed of a combination of an organic substance with a double phosphate of magnesium and calcium.
Voelcker yielded 34.92% tricalcium phosphate, a specimen of the shale 52.15% (Report of Brit.
Form an insoluble calcium soap. The interaction between the soaps, the phosphates and the carbonates which are brought by the blood and lymph to the part results in the weaker fatty acids being replaced by phosphoric and carbonic acid, and thus in the formation of highly insoluble calcium phosphate and carbonate deposits in the disorganized tissues.
Orthophosphoric acid, H3P04, a tribasic acid, is obtained by boiling a solution of the pentoxide in water; by oxidizing, red phosphorus with nitric acid, or yellow phosphorus under the surface of water by bromine or iodine; and also by decomposing a mineral phosphate with sulphuric acid.
- Those varieties of native calcium phosphate which are not distinctly crystallized, like apatite, but occur in fibrous, compact or earthy masses, often nodular, and more or less impure, are included under the general term phosphorite.
This mineral, known as Estremadura phosphate, occurs at Logrossan and Caceres, where it forms an important deposit in clay-slate.
It may contain from 55 to 62% of calcium phosphate, with about 7% of magnesium phosphate.
Many of the impure substances thus utilized are not strictly phosphorite, but pass under such names as " rock-phosphate," or, when nodular, as " coprolite " (q.v.), even if not of true coprolitic origin.
The first mode of occurrence is of little significance practically, for the crystalline rocks generally contain too little phosphate to be valuable, though occasionally an igneous rock may contain enough apatite to form an inferior fertilizing agent, e.g.
Nine miles from Tebessa are the extensive phosphate quarries of Jebel Dyr, where is also an interesting megalithic village.
VIVIANITE, a mineral consisting of hydrated iron phosphate Fe 3 (PO 4) 2 +8H 2 0, crystallizing in the monoclinic system.
Monazite, a phosphate of thorium and other rare earths, contains on the average about i cc. per gram.
The phosphate thus produced forms an efficacious turnip manure, and is quite equal in value to that produced from any other source.
Thick, with beds of calcium phosphate, and a shale of half that thickness, were discovered by Hope Jones in the neighbourhood of Cwmgynen, about 16 m.
Tampa is an important shipping point for naval stores and phosphate rock, for vegetables, citrus fruit and pineapples, raised in the vicinity, and for lumber, cattle and fuller's earth.
The principal minerals are rock phosphate and (recently more important) land and river pebble phosphate, found in scattered deposits in a belt on the " west coast " about 30 m.
The centre of the quarries is Dunnellon in Marion county, and pebble phosphate is found in Hillsboro, Polk, De Soto, Osceola, Citrus and Hernando counties.
Although the economic value of the phosphate deposits was first realized about 1889, between 1894 and 1907 Florida produced, each year, more than half of all the phosphate rock produced in the whole United States, the yield of Florida (1,357,365 long tons) in 1907 being valued at $ 6, 577,757; that of the whole country at $10,653,558.
In the manufacture of fertilizers, the raw material for which is derived from the phosphate beds, Florida's aggregate product in 1900 was valued at $500,239, and in 1905 at $1,590,371, an increase of 217.9% in five years.
The leased convicts are employed in the turpentine and lumber industries and in the phosphate works.
Phosphorus is obtained as a soluble phosphate (which can be examined in the usual way) by lixiviating the product obtained when the substance is ignited with potassium nitrate and carbonate.
In the case of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, NaH 2 PO 4 H 2 O, a stable rhombic form is obtained from warm solutions, while a different, unstable, rhombic form is obtained from cold solutions.
Of other lead minerals we may mention the basic sulphate lanarkite, PbO PbSO 4; leadhillite, PbSO 4.3PbCO 3; the basic chlorides matlockite, PbO PbC12j and mendipite, PbC1 2.2PbO; the chloro-phosphate pyromorphite, PbC12.3Pb3(P04)2, the chloro-arsenate mimetesite, PbC12.3Pb3(As04)2; the molybdate wulfenite, PbMoO 4; the chromate crocoite or crocoisite, PbCrO 4; the tungstate stolzite, PbW04.
Semi-opacity and opacity are usually produced by the addition to the glass-mixtures of materials which will remain in suspension in the glass, such as oxide of tin, oxide of arsenic, phosphate of lime, cryolite or a mixture of felspar and fluorspar.
Such a material would not only have an influence on the texture of the land but the lime would reduce the sourness of the land and the phosphate of lime supply one of the most valuable of plant foodconstituents.
It may also be precipitated as zinc ammonium phosphate, NH4ZnP04, which is weighed on a filter tared at 100°.
In 1906 was opened a continuation of the line from Pont du Fahs to Kef and thence southwest to Kalaat-es-Senam, a place midway between Kef and Tebessa, the centre of the Algerian phosphate region.
A branch from the Kef line runs to the phosphate mines of Kalaa-Jerda.
Another railway (completed by 1900) runs from Sfax, along the coast to Mahres, thence inland to Gafsa and the phosphate mines of Metalwi.
Magnesium ammonium Microcosmic phosphate; salt.
An analysis of the marble gave the following result: calcium carbonate, 90 93; magnesium, 75; iron, 1.37; manganese, 4.34; calcium sulphate, 2.30; calcium phosphate, 24 (R.
The principal articles of export are cereals, with some oilcake, phosphate and coal; but the total value is only about £2,000,000 annually.
(K,Na,NH 4)H 5 (PO 4)2, are also known; these may be regarded as composed of a monometallic phosphate with phosphoric acid, thus M'H 2 PO 4 H 3 PO 4.
All soluble orthophosphates give with silver nitrate a characteristic yellow precipitate of silver phosphate, Ag 3 PO 4, soluble in ammonia and in nitric acid.
In many deposits of iron ores found in connexion with igneous or metamorphic rocks small quantities of phosphate occur.
The Swedish, Norwegian, Ontario and Michigan mines yield ores of this kind; and though none of them can be profitably worked as a source of phosphate, yet on reducing the ore it may be retained in the slags, and thus rendered available for agriculture.
The most active operations are carried on in Florida, where the phosphate was first worked in 1887 in the form of pebbles in the gravels of Peace River.
Sometimes the phosphate is found at the surface, but generally it is covered by alluvial sands and clays.
Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.