Did you enjoy the philosophy class?
I wasn't sure that bit of philosophy got us anywhere.
Here, too, it was that Hegel's philosophy of history made a deep impression upon him.
This little story calls into life all the questions of language and the philosophy of style.
Human philosophy, theoretical physics, poetry, Italian Masters, romance.
In 1894 he delivered the Gifford Lectures at Edinburgh, the subject being "The Philosophy and Development of Religion."
This conception of matter, as infinitely divisible and continuous, was taught by Anaxagoras more than four centuries before the Christian era, and in the philosophy of Aristotle the same ideas are found.
"I don't have time for philosophy," he said, growing irritated with her word play.
In 1672, having finished his philosophy course, he was given a scholarship at the college of St Michel at Paris by Jean, marquis de Pompadour, lieutenant-general of the Limousin.
He went to the university of Leipzig as a student of philosophy and natural sciences, but entered officially as a student of medicine.
An, matter, 'coii, life), in philosophy, a term applied to any system which explains all life, whether physical or mental, as ultimately derived from matter ("cosmic matter," Weldstoff).
And such had European life, politics, Freemasonry, philosophy, and philanthropy seemed to him.
After distinguishing himself at school in history and philosophy, he turned to the study of science.
Lectures on the History of Ancient Philosophy by William Archer Butler (1814-1848;(1814-1848; lecturer on moral philosophy at Trinity College, Dublin), the value of which was greatly enhanced by Thompson's notes.
These different tasks, which philosophy had to fulfil, mark pretty accurately the aims of Lotze's writings, and the order in which they were published.
To solve the question of how freedom and necessity are combined and what constitutes the essence of these two conceptions, the philosophy of history can and should follow a path contrary to that taken by other sciences.
Still, his pay-as-you-go philosophy implied he didn't take money for granted.
To the men who fought against the rising truths of physical philosophy, it seemed that if they admitted that truth it would destroy faith in God, in the creation of the firmament, and in the miracle of Joshua the son of Nun.
Though he disclaims being a follower of Herbart, his formal definition of philosophy and his conception of the object of metaphysics are similar to those of Herbart, who defines philosophy as an attempt to remodel the notions given by experience.
The connexion in Roman law between the ideas of equity, nature, natural law and the law common to all nations, and the influence of the Stoical philosophy on their development, are fully discussed in the third chapter of the work we have referred to.
It was fit that I should live on rice, mainly, who love so well the philosophy of India.
For while at New College only twenty out of seventy fellows were to study law instead of arts, philosophy and theology, at All Souls College sixteen were to be " jurists " and only twenty-four " artists "; and while at New College there were ten chaplains and three clerks necessarily, at All Souls the number was not defined but left optional; so that there are now only one chaplain and four bible clerks.
To understand Lotze's philosophy, a careful and repeated perusal of these works is absolutely necessary.
When Lotze published these works, medical science was still much under the influence of Schelling's philosophy of nature.
For about a year he studied at Leiden, paying special attention to philosophy and Greek.
See James Mackintosh, Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy (Edinburgh, 1832); and specially Sir Leslie Stephen, English Thought in the 18th Century, iii.
He published works on Leibnitz, empiricism and scepticism in Hume's philosophy, modern pessimism, Kantic criticism, English philosophy, Heraclitus of Ephesus and many other subjects.
To live for myself avoiding those two evils is my whole philosophy now.
There are nowadays professors of philosophy, but not philosophers.
But I was so shrewdly taxed with posing as a strong-minded woman and a philosopher that one fine day I said to myself, ` What, I wonder, is philosophy?'
The actual result of his personal inquiries, the great idea which lies at the foundation of his philosophy, we know.
It is evident how this initial position at once defined to him the tasks which philosophy had to perform.
In men Rostov could not bear to see the expression of a higher spiritual life (that was why he did not like Prince Andrew) and he referred to it contemptuously as philosophy and dreaminess, but in Princess Mary that very sorrow which revealed the depth of a whole spiritual world foreign to him was an irresistible attraction.
It is to her that the Principles of Philosophy were dedicated; and in her alone, according to Descartes, were united those generally separated talents for metaphysics and for mathematics which are so characteristically co-operative in the Cartesian system.
The first public teacher of Cartesian views was Henri Renery, a Belgian, who at Deventer and afterwards at Utrecht had introduced the new philosophy which he had learned Spread of from personal intercourse with Descartes.
afford, he had all the time been lecturing on the various branches of philosophy according to the scheme of academical instruction transmitted from his predecessors.
He was no follower of their ideas, indeed often opposed to them; but he derived from Bacon an increasing stimulus towards the investigation of certain great problems of history and philosophy, while Grotius proved valuable in his study of philosophic jurisprudence.
She read widely though unsystematically, studying philosophy in Aristotle, Leibnitz, Locke and Condillac, and feeding her imagination with Rene and Childe Harold.
His second great work, Meditations on the First Philosophy, which had been begun soon after his settlement in the Netherlands, expounded in more detail the foundations of his system, 1 Ouvres, vi.
In 1721 he entered Merton College, Oxford, as a gentleman commoner, and studied philosophy, mathematics, French, Italian and music. He afterwards studied law at the Inner Temple, but was never called to the bar.
trans., from 2nd German ed., The Philosophy of Religion on the Basis of its History, 4 vols., 1886-1888).
The magisterial views seem to have prevailed in the professoriate, which formally in March 1642 expressed its disapprobation of the new philosophy as well as of its expositors.
In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagvat-Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions.
From a sick-bed, from which he never rose, he conducted this work with surprising energy, and there composed those poems, too few in number, but immortal in the English language, such as the "Song of the Shirt" (which appeared anonymously in the Christmas number of Punch, 1843), the "Bridge of Sighs" and the "Song of the Labourer," which seized the deep human interests of the time, and transported them from the ground of social philosophy into the loftier domain of the imagination.
In literature Megara figures as the reputed home of the comedian Susarion, and in the 4th century gave its name to a school of philosophy founded by Euclid.
He drew simple diagrams, three of which, taken from Dalton's New System of Chemical Philosophy, part ii.
The third and concluding volume, which was to treat in a more condensed form the principal problems of practical philosophy, of philosophy of art and religion, never appeared.
He was afterwards appointed professor ordinarius of philosophy at Kiel (1873), and in 1878 he was elected to the philosophical chair at Tubingen.
Lotze can be said to have brought philosophy out of the lectureroom into the market-place of life.
The restaurant stands by a "green" philosophy, making it a choice destination for eco-friendly travelers.
In 1669, when the chair of philosophy at the College Royal fell vacant, one of the four selected candidates had to sustain a thesis against " the pretended new philosophy of Descartes."
Regis was constrained to hold back for ten years his System of Philosophy; and when it did appear, in 1690, the name of Descartes was absent from the title-page.
A Latin abridgment of philosophy, dated 1784, tells us that the innate ideas of Descartes are founded on no arguments, and are now universally abandoned.
What ever happened to Bird Song's 'mind our own business' philosophy?
When the Deans tried to buy her even a minimal number of new items, she became embarrassed and pensive, no doubt a result of Janet's don't-rock-the-boat philosophy.
Before we left, she talked to me about some dream I didn't have then started to talk about philosophy.
To understand this series of Lotze's writings, it is necessary to begin with his definition of philosophy.
This is the formal definition of philosophy.
Considerations of this latter kind will naturally present themselves in the two great departments of cosmology and psychology, or they may be delegated to an independent research under the name of religious philosophy.
We have still to mention that aesthetics formed a principal and favourite study of Lotze's, and that he has treated this subject also in the light of the leading ideas of his philosophy.
Under the Reign of Terror he was arrested and imprisoned for nearly a year, during which he studied Condillac and Locke, and abandoned the natural sciences for philosophy.
At the university he made rapid progress, especially in jurisprudence, though preferring the study of history, literature, juridical science and philosophy.
The Ibn Tibbon family thus rendered conspicuous services to European culture, and did much to further among Jews who did not understand Arabic the study of science and philosophy.
Descartes laid down the lines on which modern philosophy and science were to build.
The physical theory, in its earlier form in The World, and later in the Principles of Philosophy (which the present account follows), rests upon the metaphysical conclusions of the Meditations.
Besides the last two parts of the Principles of Philosophy, the physical writings of Descartes include the Dioptrics and Meteors, as well as passages in the letters.
The philosophy of Descartes fought its first battles and gained its first triumphs in the country of his adoption.
And the salons of Mme de Sevigne, of her daughter Mme de Grignan, and of the duchesse de Maine for a while gave the questions of philosophy a place among the topics of polite society, and furnished to Moliere the occasion of his Femmes savantes.
On his visit to Toulouse in 1665, with a mission from the Cartesian chiefs, his lectures excited boundless interest; ladies threw themselves with zeal and ability into the study of philosophy; and Regis himself .was made the guest of the civic corporation.
In 1758 he obtained a more congenial congregation at Nantwich, where he opened a school at which the elementary lessons were varied with experiments in natural philosophy.
Ionian School Of Philosophy >>
the annals of philosophy.
medicine, see Sprengel, Histoire de la Medecine; and for his philosophy, see Shahrastani, German trans.
In earlier life he had been a zealous student of Kant and Hegel, and to the end he never ceased to cultivate the philosophic spirit; but he had little confidence in metaphysical systems, and sought rather to translate philosophy into the wisdom of life.
His father, a professor of philosophy, gave him an excellent education at the Stanislas College and the Ecole Normale, where he graduated in 1848.
After being professor of philosophy at several provincial universities, he received the degree of doctor, and came to Paris in 1858 as master of conferences at the Ecole Normale.
In 1861 he became inspector of the Academy of Paris, in 1864 professor of philosophy to the Faculty of Letters, and in 1874 a member of the French Academy.
In his philosophy he was mainly concerned to defend Christianity against modern Positivism.
The philosophy of Cousin influenced him strongly, but his strength lay in exposition and criticism rather than in original thought.
The latter, besides teaching him the Bible and Talmud, introduced to him the philosophy of Maimonides.
He lectured in the schools on natural philosophy, and on Greek in his own rooms. In 1540 Smith went abroad, and, after studying in France and Italy and taking a degree of law at Padua, returned to Cambridge in 1542.
In 5730 he was made master in the faculty of philosophy.
Adam Ferguson (Institutes of Moral Philosophy, p. 119, new ed., 1800) argues that " the desire for immortality is an instinct, and can reasonably be regarded as an indication of that which the author of this desire wills to do."
Windelband (History of Philosophy, p. 633).
It may further be added that materialism can be shown to be an inadequate philosophy in its attempts to account even for the physical universe, for this is inexplicable without the assumption of mind distinct from, and directive of, matter.
Educated at the Lycee Corot, and the Rcole Normale he was successively professor of philosophy at the Lycee d'Angers 1881-3, at the Lycee de Clermont 1883-8, at the College Rollin 1888-9, at the Lycee Henry IV.
For a discussion of his work, see Philosophy.
Peacock's original contributions to mathematical science were concerned chiefly with the philosophy of its first principles.
materia, matter), in philosophy, the theory which regards all the facts of the universe as explainable in terms of matter and motion, and in particular explains all psychical processes by physical and chemical changes in the nervous system.
He studied philosophy and medicine at the university of Louvain, where he remained as a lecturer for several years.
Grattan's political philosophy was allied to that of Edmund Burke; Tone was a disciple of Danton and Thomas Paine.
The importance of Siger in philosophy lies in his acceptance of Averroism in its entirety, which drew upon him the opposition of Albertus Magnus and Aquinas.
The superiority of the Christian faith both philosophically and ethically is set forth, the chief stress being laid on monachism, with which heathen philosophy has nothing to compare.
He there came under the influence of Victor Cousin, and in 1817 he was appointed assistant professor of philosophy at the normal and Bourbon schools.
He thus threw in his lot with the Scottish philosophy, and his first dissertations are, in their leading position, adaptations from Reid's Inquiry.
In 1833 he was appointed professor of Greek and Roman philosophy at the college of France and a member of the Academy of Sciences; he then published the Mélanges philosophiques (4th ed.
Ripley, Boston, 1835 and 1838), a collection of fugitive papers in criticism and philosophy and history.
On his return he became librarian to the university, and took the chair of recent philosophy at the faculty of letters.
Having held educational posts at Saarbriicken and Dusseldorf, in 1836 he became extraordinary professor of philosophy at Bonn, and in 1840 full professor.
In 1837 he had founded the Zeitschrift fiir Philosophie as an organ of his views, more especially on the subject of the philosophy of religion, where he was in alliance with C. H.
Fichte's general views on philosophy seem to have changed considerably as he advanced in years, and his influence has been impaired by certain inconsistencies and an appearance of eclecticism, which is strengthened by his predominantly historical treatment of problems, his desire to include divergent systems within his own, and his conciliatory tone.
His philosophy is an attempt to reconcile monism (Hegel) and individualism (Herbart) by means of theism (Leibnitz).
The same reason that made him depreciate Hegel made him praise Krause (panentheism) and Schleiermacher, and speak respectfully of English philosophy.
Morell under the title of Contributions to Mental Philosophy (1860).
He held several minor philosophical lectureships, and from 1864 was professor of philosophy at the lycees of Douai, Montpellier and Bordeaux successively.
In 1872 he was elected master of conferences at the Ecole Normale, and was made doctor of philosophy in recognition of his two treatises, Platonis Hippias Minor sive Socratica contra liberum arbitrium argumenta and La Liberte et le determinisme.
The strain of the next three years' continuous work undermined his health and his eyesight, and he was compelled to retire from his professorship. During these years he had published works on Plato and Socrates and a history of philosophy (1875); but after his retirement he further developed his philosophical position, a speculative eclecticism through which he endeavoured to reconcile metaphysical idealism with the naturalistic and mechanical standpoint of science.
Philosophy and letters - - -, 419 1,703
modern Roman Catholic learning, which owes a great debt to Aristotle through the schoolmen, includes Natural Theology in philosophy, not in theology properly so called.
" Philosophy of religion " is the modern term.
But " philosophy of religion " can be construed in many different ways.
He observes with truth that Natural Theology, if you remove from it the idea of subordination to Christianity as (claiming to be) a special revelation, tends to pass into a philosophy of religion.
It may help us if we rapidly review at this point the leading types of philosophy in their application to the theistic problem.
The simplest basis for philosophy 2 is empiricism.
Such a philosophy makes little serious attempt at constructive work in antiquity; but, upon the first great victories of physical science in modern times, a desire arose to extend the new and wonderfully fruitful method to the ultimate problems of speculation.
Lecky, 4 whether such a philosophy affords a basis for natural theology at all; but the attempt is made.
2 An outline of the history of theism is reserved for Section IV.; but it has not proved possible to sketch the types of philosophy without introducing references to the history of philosophy and sometimes even to the history of theism as well.
3 Of course the Design Argument is well known in antiquity, but not the type of philosophy which stands or falls by that line of " proof."
The second type of philosophy, for our purpose, is intuitionalism.
The Scottish philosophy of Thomas Reid and his successors believed that David Hume's scepticism was no more than the genuine outcome of Locke's sensationalist appeal to experience when ripened or forced on by the immaterialism of Bishop Berkeley - God and the soul alone; not God, world and soul.
So far, this philosophy has little bearing upon theism.
Two regions become prominent in the working out of intuitionalism, if still more prominent in the widely differing philosophy of Kant - the regions of mathematics and of morals.
It reasserts them, with resolute loyalty; but if philosophy ought to vindicate, to explain, perhaps incidentally to modify, even, it may be, to purify our primary beliefs, intuitionalism is hardly a philosophy at all.
Other schools of philosophy pay flying visits to theism; intuitionalism is at home there.
It is generally stated that this argument was for the first time definitely formulated in Aristotle's philosophy.
The design argument is available for the slightly bolder philosophy of intuitionalism as well as for empiricist theism.
Can we not attain to some farther-reaching philosophy?
This third possibility in philosophy does not enter at all into Lecky's grouping referred to above; in fact, it is very generally strange to older British thinking,3 t;csm.
The fixed given points of intuitionalism furnish Hamilton with one of his arguments in his unexpected development towards a sceptical or " faith philosophy."
" Hamilton's line of thought may, however, impress on us the conviction that it is extremely natural for philosophy to pass beyond the limitations of a purely intuitionalist programme.
If there arises a system of philosophy in which all truths are grasped in unity, and it is seen that the principles of things must be what they are, such a philosophy will give us in perfection the idealistic conception of reality and the idealistic guarantees of truth which Kant gave brokenly.
The whole coherent necessary world of his philosophy became " our world," as we necessarily think it, but not by any means of necessity the world as it is.
His Philosophy of Nature - one of the least admired parts of his system - is the answer from his point of view to Kant's assertion that a " perceptive understanding " is for us impossible.
Hegel wrote extensively upon religion, especially in his Philosophy of Religion.
We may religion regard his ambitious programme as the last logical development of idealism and indeed of philosophy itself.
Certainly history shows that theism has generally been associated with some reduced or limited form of philosophy, usually with the intuitionalist scheme.
But no more is theism the first runnings of the stream of philosophy.
It is philosophy harnessed to a practical and religious interest.
It is philosophy called into court to answer selected questions.
This last and boldest argument is a system of idealistic philosophy in a nutshell.
If philosophy is able to fill up that programme, it justifies itself; it raises all belief to necessary truth;.
There is another conception of necessity which has established itself in the history of science and philosophy.
Rational system is the first and last word in this philosophy.
Philosophy will show you that everything has to be so and so.
The effect of this point of view in regard to moral perceptions is that they represent an important relative truth, but that philosophy " passes " beyond them " into a higher region, where imputation of guilt is " absolutely " meaningless " 2 - enseits des Guten and Bosen.
Hegel's system is, in its own way, a great evolutionary philosophy of an ideal type.
Greek philosophy for our purpose begins with Socrates, who formulated the Design Argument.
Formally, Cicero adhered to the Academic 3 philosophy during its " middle " or almost sceptical period.
He blends the tradition of the Old Testa ment with Greek philosophy, and, within the latter, exhibits that union of Platonism with Stoicism, especially in the doctrine of the Logos, which became dominant in the Christian apologists and the great theologians of the ancient church.
In other words; whenever philosophy g teaches a doctrine of the Absolute, and regards such doctrine as valid and certain, we have the essence of an ontological or a priori argument.
At least, idealist philosophy will hold that the substance if not the form of the argument is sound 4 though the question of its interpretation remains.
Rene Descartes, a faithful though not an unsuspected Roman Catholic, founded modern philosophy by his startingpoint of universal doubt and by his arguments in reply.
A difficult question arose for Descartes's philosophy, when it had to explain the union in man of the absolutely opposite substances, 4 Cf.
Leibnitz's philosophy has no answer for us.
John Locke, the real father of English philosophy, took the field against what he regarded as Descartes's impossible programme of " Innate Ideas."
Bishop George Berkeley, afraid of materialistic developments from a philosophy he was not prepared fully to recast, took refuge in immaterialism.
Scepticism, with which P. Bayle had played as a historian - he amused himself, too, with praising the Manichaean solution of the riddle of the universe - became a serious power in the history of philosophy with the advent of David Hume.
It is no more than characteristic of Kant's whole speculative philosophy that he should' think the Ontological argument the one which comes nearest to st,-cess (yet the Ontological argument is held to prove - or rather to point out - not that God must exist, but that we think of him as necessary if we think of him as existing at all).
The main line in pure philosophy runs on from Kant's wavering and sceptical idealism to the all-including gnosis of Hegel.'
This is the last word of religious truth, though pure philosophy stands still higher.
his Outline [Lecture headings] on Philosophy of Religion).
Popular scepticism - perhaps even Charles Darwin's; Huxley himself was a student of Hume - understands by agnosticism that science is certain while philosophy and theology are baseless.
Hamilton's Philosophy, chap. v.
James, opens up new suggestions in philosophy; the bearing of these upon theistic (or other) beliefs is hard to define.
His first works, Theorie des lois criminelles (1781) and Bibliotheque philosophique du legislateur (1782), were on the philosophy of law, and showed how thoroughly Brissot was imbued with the ethical precepts of Rousseau.
Passing from mythology to speculation properly so called, we find in the early systems of philosophy of India theories of emanation which approach in some respects the idea of evolution.
The speculations of the fathers respecting the origin and course of the world seek to combine Christian ideas of the Deity with doctrines of Greek philosophy.
In the system of Giordano Bruno, who sought to construct a philosophy of nature on the basis of new scientific ideas, more particularly the doctrine of Copernicus, we find the outlines of a theory of cosmic evolution conceived as an essentially vital process.
In the philosophy of Descartes we meet with a dualism of mind and matter which does not easily lend itself to the conception of evolution.
4 Philosophy of History (1893), p. 103, where an interesting sketch of the growth of the idea of progress is to be found.
In the earlier writings of Schelling, containing the philosophy of identity, existence is represented as a becoming, or process of evolution.
At the age of sixty, having become widely known by his writings on philosophy, he was called to the chair of logic and metaphysics in the university of Naples, which he held till his death in November 1846.
of Philosophy, ii.
Barzellotti, "Philosophy in Italy," in Mind, iii.
The works on religion and philosophy especially will be of as much service for the history of ideas in these later periods as the publication of the canonical books has already been for the earlier period to which they refer.
He gave large sums of money for the endowment of chairs in philosophy and rhetoric, with a view to making the schools the resort of students from all parts of the empire.
During his reign the atmosphere of Roman society was heavily charged with the popular Greek philosophy to which, ethics apart, Christianity was diametrically opposed.
The book which contains the philosophy of Aurelius is known by the title of his Reflections, or Meditations, although that is not the name which he gave to it himself avrov).
Aurelius throughout his life adhered to the Stoical philosophy.
His thoughts represent a transitional movement, and it is difficult to discover in them anything like a systematic philosophy.
Aurelius Antoninus (1884) contains a general account - life, character, philosophy, relations with Christianity - as well as a bibliography; see also art.
As for the word "philosophy" (ii.
His attitude is prophylactic, rather than polemic, for the "philosophy" has not as yet taken deep root.
He studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and obtained a fellowship in 1814; for some years he was deputy professor of natural philosophy, until in 1821 he obtained the college living of Enniskillen.
Finally, he admits that rhetoric is not the highest accomplishment, and that philosophy is far more deserving of attention.
In consequence of the freedom with which in this work he attacked the abuse of authority in philosophy, he lost his professorial chair.
His Histoire des causes premieres was among the first attempts at a history of philosophy, and in his work on Epicurus, following on Gassendi, he defended Epicureanism against the general attacks made against it.
This was the central theme of Ritter's philosophy; his religion and his geography were one, and the consequent fervour with which he pursued his mission goes far to account for the immense influence he acquired in Germany.
Dilemmist is also a term used to translate Vaibhashikas, the name of a Buddhist school of philosophy.
Destined by his parents for the Roman Catholic priesthood, he studied theology at Munich, but felt an ever-growing attraction to philosophy.
But he felt that his real vocation was philosophy, and after holding for a short time an extraordinary professorship of theology, he became professor of philosophy in 1855.
Undeterred by the offence which these works gave to his ecclesiastical superiors, he published in 1858 the Einleitung in die Philosophie and Grundriss der Metaphysik, in which he assailed the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas, that philosophy was the handmaid of theology.
In the same year he published Ober die Freiheit der Wissenschaft, in which he maintained the independence of science, whose goal was truth, against authority, and reproached the excessive respect for the latter in the Roman Church with the insignificant part played by the German Catholics in literature and philosophy.
Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy (1892); H.
The ante-Nicene age yields priceless records of the early struggles of Christianity; from it we have received specimens of the early apologetic and the early polemic of the Church, the first essays of Christian philosophy, Christian correspondence, Christian biblical interpretation: we owe to it.
This interval was diligently devoted to the pursuit of classical and historical studies, to preparing himself for ordination, and to searching investigations, under the stimulus of continual discussion with a band of talented and congenial associates, of the profoundest questions in theology, ecclesiastical polity and social philosophy.
Other writers are Aaron (the elder) ben Joseph, 13th century, who wrote the commentary Sepher ha-mibhhar; Aaron (the younger) of Nicomedia (14th century), author of `E Ilayyim, on philosophy, Gan `Eden, on law, and the commentary Kether Torah; in the 15th century Elijah Bashyazi, on law (Addereth Eliyahu), and Caleb Efendipoulo, poet and theologian; in the 16th century Moses Bashyazi, theologian.
Yet he contrived to write his great commentary on the Pentateuch and other books of the Bible, treatises on philosophy (as the Yesodh mora), astronomy, mathematics, grammar (translation of Ilayyu j), besides a Diwan.
In Arabic he wrote his philosophical work, called in the Hebrew translation Sepher ha-Kuzari, a defence of revelation as against non-Jewish philosophy and Qaraite doctrine.
about 1180), in philosophy an Aristotelian (through Avicenna) and the precursor of Maimonides, is chiefly known for his Sepher haqabbalah, written as a polemic against Karaism, but valuable for the history of tradition.
In the first half of the 13th century, Abraham ibn Ilasdai, a vigorous supporter of Maimonides, translated (or adapted) a large number of philosophical works from Arabic, among them being the Sepher ha-tappuah, based on Aristotle's de Anima, and the Mozene Zedeq of Ghazzali on moral philosophy, of both of which the originals are lost.
1344), called Ralbag, the great commentator on the Bible and Talmud, in philosophy a follower of Aristotle and Averroes, known to Christians as Leo Hebraeus, wrote also many works on halakhah, mathematics and astronomy.
1340), wrote a large number of treatises on grammar and philosophy (mystical), besides commentaries and piyyutim.
In philosophy he was an Aristotelian.
1865), a distinguished scholar and opponent of the philosophy of Maimonides, wrote much in Italian; M.
He graduated, at West Point in 1853, served for two years in the artillery, was assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy at West Point in 1855-1860, and while on leave (1860-1861) was professor of physics at Washington university, St Louis.
Begriff), in philosophy, a term applied to a general idea derived from and considered apart from the particulars observed by the senses.
According to him, history is philosophy teaching by examples, and this idea he has carried out from the point of view of the Greek rhetorician.
During his term of office he appeared in a case before the United States Supreme Court, where his knowledge of civil law so strongly impressed Edward Livingston, the secretary of state, who was himself an admirer of Roman Law, that he urged Legare to devote himself to the study of this subject with the hope that he might influence American law toward the spirit and philosophy and even the forms and processes of Roman jurisprudence.
Lanfranc brought law and discipline; Anselm brought theology and philosophy.
He was educated for the law, but gave up his profession on the death of his father, and devoted four years to the study of literature, philosophy and science.
His later works on the relation of philosophy to science and to the thought of his time were more popular in character.
He married in 1895 Helen Dendy, herself the author of books on social problems. During 1903-8 he was professor of moral philosophy at St.
A Hegelian in philosophy and a disciple of T.
He formed the resolution to translate all the works of Aristotle and all the dialogues of Plato, and to reconcile the philosophy of Plato with that of Aristotle.
As he is thus lamenting, a woman appears to him of dignified mien, whom he recognizes as his guardian, Philosophy.
In the third book Philosophy promises to lead him to true happiness, which is to be found in God alone, for since God is the highest good, and the highest good is true happiness, God is true happiness.
Philosophy proceeds to show that in fact vice is never unpunished nor virtue unrewarded.
From this Philosophy passes into a discussion in regard to the nature of providence and fate, and shows that every fortune is good.
The first contains prolegomena on the life and writings of Boetius, on his religion and philosophy, and on the manuscripts and editions, a critical apparatus, and notes.
The importance of these principles lies not only in their intrinsic value as an ethical system, but also in the fact that they form the link between Socrates and the Stoics, between the essentially Greek philosophy of the 4th century B.C. and a system of thought which has exercised a profound and far-reaching influence on medieval and modern ethics.
Finally it is necessary to point out two flaws in the Cynic philosophy.
v.; histories of ancient philosophy, and specially Ed.
In estimating Buchner's philosophy it must be remembered that he was primarily a physiologist, not a metaphysician.
But, further still, philosophy offered a vehicle which could be applied to the contents of Christianity.
Allied with this more empiricist stand-point is the assertion that Greek philosophy borrowed from Moses; but in studying the Fathers we constantly find that groundless assertion uttered in the same breath with the dominant Idealist view, according to which Greek philosophy was due to incomplete revelation from the divine Logos.
According to Ghazali, in his Destruction of Philosophers, the various schools of philosophy cancel each other; reason is bankrupt; faith is everything.
Moslems and Jews were applying Aristotelian philosophy to rigorously monotheistic faiths; Christianity had been encouraged by Platonism in teaching a trinity of divine persons, and Platonism of a certain order long dominated the middle ages as part of the Augustinian tradition.
From the point of view of philosophy, this was a compromise.
The tendency of the later middle ages is to add to the number of the doctrines with which philosophy cannot deal.
A statement may be true in philosophy and false in theology, or vice versa.
According to earlier views - repeatedly revived in Protestantism - revelation is just philosophy over again.
Before modern philosophy began its career, there was a great revival of ancient philosophy at the Renaissance; sometimes anti-Christian, sometimes pro-Christian.
Condillac's sensationalism - Locke's philosophy purged of its more ideal if less logical elements - leading on to materialism in J.
While he thus created a new and more ethical " rationalism," Kant's many-sided influence, alike in philosophy and in theology, worked to further issues.
Of course the difficulty revives again: If a philosophy, why supernaturally revealed?
The movement of German philosophy which led from Kant to Hegel has indeed found powerful British champions (T.
- Superficially regarded, philosophy ebbs and flows, whatever progress the debate may reveal to speculative insight.
Old positions re-emerge from forgetfulness, and there is always a philosophy to back every " case."
Apologetics and Philosophy.
(a) Freewill is generally assumed on the Christian side (R.C. Church; Scottish philosophy; H.
Fairbairn [Congregationalist], in Place of Christ in Modern Theology (1893), Philosophy of the Christian Religion (1902).
In 1853 he was appointed Sedleian professor of natural philosophy, resigning it in June 1898.
When his master, William Varron, removed to Paris in 1301, Duns Scotus was appointed to succeed him as professor of philosophy, and his lectures attracted an immense number of students.
On his philosophy: E.
From the lonely life he led, and still more from the extreme profundity of his philosophy and his contempt for mankind in general, he was called the "Dark Philosopher" (6 o-Komewos), or the "Weeping Philosopher," in contrast to Democritus, the "Laughing Philosopher."
To appreciate the significance of the doctrines of Heraclitus, it must be borne in mind that to Greek philosophy the sharp distinction between subject and object which pervades modern thought was foreign, a consideration which suggests the conclusion that, while it is a great mistake to reckon Heraclitus with the materialistic cosmologists of the Ionic schools, it is, on the other hand, going too far to treat his theory, with Hegel and Lassalle, as one of pure Panlogism.
A good deal of the information in regard to his doctrines has been gathered from the later Greek philosophy, which was deeply influenced by it.
For criticism see, in addition to the histories of philosophy, F.
Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy (1892); A.
For his place in the development of early philosophy see also articles IONIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY and LOGOS.
Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took a first-class both in the mathematical tripos and in the 2nd part of the moral sciences tripos, he remained at Cambridge as a lecturer, and became well known as a student of mathematical philosophy and a leading exponent of the views of the newer school of Realists.
In 1524 he went to the university of Paris, where he entered the .College of St Barbara, then the headquarters of the Spanish and Portuguese students, and in 1528 was appointed lecturer in Aristotelian philosophy at the College de Beauvais.
In the same year he went to Paris, where he was appointed to the chair of philosophy in the Gervais College in 1631, and two years later to the chair of mathematics in the Royal College of France.
The intellectual influence of Greece, manifested in Alexandrian philosophy, tended to remove God still further from the human world of phenomena into that of an inaccessible transcendental abstraction.
ANTISTHENES (c. 444-365 B.C.), the founder of the Cynic school of philosophy, was born at Athens of a Thracian mother, a fact which may account for the extreme boldness of his attack on conventional thought.
For his philosophy see Cynics, and for his pupils, Diogenes and Crates, see articles under these headings.
Alexander disliked business of state, preferring literature and philosophy; a collection of his Latin poems appeared at Paris in 1656 under the title Philomathi Labores Juveniles.
In philosophy he began with a strong predilection for the physical side of psychology, and at an early age he came to the conclusion that all existence is sensation, and, after a lapse into noiimenalism under the influence of Fechner's Psychophysics, finally adopted a universal physical phenomenalism.
The schools include the lyceum for philosophy and Catholic theology (a survival of the university suppressed in 1803), a seminary, two gymnasia, a Realschule, and several technical schools, including one for porcelainpainting.
His Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion (1880) is an attempt to show the essential rationality of religion.
That admiration for an empire of more than two hundred millions of men, where not one had the right to call himself free; that effeminate philosophy which has more praise for luxury and pleasures than for all the virtues; that style always elegant and never energetic, reveal at the most the elector of Hanover's slave."
Three years later he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the Istituto di Perfezionamento at Florence, and, in 1871, was made professor of philosophy in the university of Rome.
He wrote both on psychology and on metaphysics, but is known especially as a historian of philosophy.
He was educated in Rome and Paris, and, after teaching classics for some years in Geneva, held chairs of philosophy in various colleges in France, and subsequently was professor in Strassburg and in Paris.
In 1860 Vera returned to Italy, where he was made professor of philosophy in the royal academy of Milan.
In the following year he was transferred to Naples as professor of philosophy in the university there.
His Prolusioni alla Storia della Filosofia and Lezioni sulla Filosofia della Storia were connected with his professorial work, which was specially devoted to the history of philosophy and the philosophy of history.
His English works are an Inquiry into Speculative and Experimental Science (London, 1856); Introduction to Speculative Logic and Philosophy (St Louis, 1875), and a translation of Bretschneider's History of Religion and of the Christian Church.
He graduated at Harvard in 1863, continuing to study languages and philosophy with zeal; spent two years in the Harvard law school, and opened an office in Boston; but soon devoted the greater portion of his time to writing for periodicals.
In 1869 he gave a course of lectures at Harvard on the Positive Philosophy; next year he was history tutor; in 1871 he delivered thirty-five lectures on the Doctrine of Evolution, afterwards revised and expanded as Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy (1874); and between 1872 and 1879 he was assistant-librarian.
His Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy, while setting forth the Spencerian system, made psychological and sociological additions of original matter, in some respects anticipating Spencer's later conclusions.
He then moved to London, married a lady of wealth, and devoted himself to learning and philosophy.
After his reception into the Church of Rome, Ward gave himself up to ethics, metaphysics and moral philosophy.
He wrote articles on free will, the philosophy of theism, on science, prayer and miracles for the Dublin Review.
In 1851 he was made professor of moral philosophy at St Edmund's College, Ware, and was advanced to the chair of dogmatic theology in 1852.
He held the chair of Natural Philosophy in Marischal College, Aberdeen, from 1856 till the fusion of the two colleges there in 1860.
His most important treatise, that by which he has a place in the history of philosophy, is entitled Milhamoth 'Adonai (The Wars of God), and occupied twelve years in composition (1317-1329).
The Milhamoth is throughout modelled after the plan of the great work of Jewish philosophy, the Moreh Nebuhim of Moses Maimonides, and may be regarded as an elaborate criticism from the more philosophical point of view (mainly Averroistic) of the syncretism of Aristotelianism and Jewish orthodoxy as presented in that work.
Influenced by the Jesuit John Ramirez he entered the Society of Jesus in 1564, and after teaching philosophy at Segovia, taught theology at Valladolid, at Alcala, at Salamanca, and at Rome successively.
External oppression and internal rivalries rent the Israelites, and in the religious philosophy of a later (Deuteronomic) age the period is represented as one of alternate apostasy from and of penitent return to the Yahweh of the " exodus."
Flint, History of the Philosophy of History, i.
The problem cannot be approached from modern preconceptions because there was much associated with the worship of Yahweh which only gradually came to be recognized as repugnant, and there was much in earlier ages and in other lands which reflects an elevated and even complex religious philosophy.
It caught the contagion of poetry, philosophy and science.'
The schismatic Qaraites initiated or rather necessitated a new Hebrew philology, which later on produced Qimhi, the gaon Saadiah founded a Jewish philosophy, the statesman Hasdai introduced a new Jewish culture - and all this under Mahommedan rule.
In him culminates the Jewish expression of the Spanish-Moorish culture; his writings had an influence on European scholasticism and contributed significant elements to the philosophy of Spinoza.
At the moment when Spinoza was publishing a system which is still a dominating note of modern philosophy, this other son of Israel was capturing the very heart of Jewry.
After studying law and philosophy at the high schools of his native town and Miskolcz, he travelled abroad.
In philosophy he was a nominalist.
In 1492 he again travelled in Italy, studying in Florence, Rome and Venice, making himself familiar with the writings of Aristotle, though greatly influenced by the Platonic philosophy.
At Berlin (1844-1846) and Halle (1846-1847) he studied theology, philosophy and oriental languages.
Accordingly, the last age of Greek philosophy is theosophical in character, and its ultimate end is a practical satisfaction.
He develops the Platonic philosophy into an elaborate system by means of the doctrine of emanation.
ancient philosophy was dying out in the schools of Athens, that the speculative mysticism of Neoplatonism made a.
These are the permanent outlines of what may be called the philosophy of mysticism in Christian times, and it is remarkable with how little variation they are repeated from age to age.
Pierre Poiret (1646-1719) exhibits a violent reaction against the mechanical philosophy of Descartes, and especially against its consequences in Spinoza.
Philosophy since the end of the 18th century has frequently shown a tendency to diverge into mysticism.
by symbolic means," the definition, as developed by him, is one which would apply to the philosophy of Kant.
On the other hand, where philosophy despairs of itself, exults in its own overthrow, and yet revels in the " mysteries " of a speculative Christianity, as in J.
Examples of this are men like Novalis, Carlyle and Emerson, in whom philosophy may be said to be impatient of its own task.
The later philosophy of Schelling and the philosophy of Franz von Baader, both largely founded upon Boehme, belong rather to theosophy (q.v.) than to mysticism proper.
- Besides the sections on mysticism in the general histories of philosophy by Erdmann, Ueberweg and Windelband, and in works on church history and the history of dogma, reference may be made for the medieval period to Heinrich Schmid, Der Mysticismus in seiner Entstehungsperiode (1824); Charles Schmidt, Essai sur les mystiques du 14me siecle (1836) Ad.
His political views were determined by the ultra-democratic influence of Andrew Jackson and the state-sovereignty philosophy of John C. Calhoun.
It is true that Greek philosophy advanced far beyond this stage, but it produced nothing sufficiently popular to be called a religion.
On the other hand it is noticeable that the Japanese have little which is original in the way of religion, literature or philosophy.
The resemblances between primitive Christianity and Buddhism appear to be coincidences, and though both early Greek philosophy and later Alexandrine ideas suggest Indian affinities, there is no clear connexion such as there is between certain aspects of Chinese thought and India.
It is only of recent years that the writings of Schopenhauer and the researches of many distinguished orientalists have awakened some interest in Asiatic philosophy.
4 But what is lost as regards historical material is a distinct gain to the study of the development of Hebrew thought and philosophy of history.
The publication of Hume's treatise turned his attention to philosophy, and in particular to the theory of external perception.
In 1752 the professors of King's College, Aberdeen, elected him to the chair of philosophy, which he held for twelve years.
In this year, Reid succeeded Adam Smith as professor of moral philosophy in the university of Glasgow.
The key to Reid's philosophy is to be found in his revulsion from the sceptical conclusions of Hume.
From its origin in Descartes and onwards through Locke and Berkeley, modern philosophy carried with it, Reid contends, the germ of scepticism.
In view of the results of this analysis, Reid's theory (and the theory of Scottish philosophy generally) has been dubbed natural realism or natural dualism, in contrast to theories like subjective idealism and materialism or to the cosmothetic idealism or hypothetical dualism of the majority of philosophers.
But this unduly narrows the scope of Scottish philosophy, which does not exhaust itself, as is sometimes supposed, in uncritically reasserting the independent existence of matter and its immediate presence to mind.
This theory admitted, nothing is left for philosophy save to explain the illusion of necessary connexion.
The last designation, which became the current one, was un doubtedly unfortunate, and has conveyed to many a false impression of Scottish philosophy.
The relativism or phenomenalism which Hamilton afterwards adopted from Kant and sought to engraft upon Scottish philosophy is wholly absent from the original Scottish doctrine.
In later life he was accustomed to say that he knew as much about mathematics when he was eighteen as ever he knew; but his reading embraced nearly the whole round of knowledge - history, travels, poetry, philosophy and the natural sciences.
See James Sully, Pessimism: A History and a Criticism (1877); Caro, Le Pessimisme au xix e siecle (1878); Saltus, The Anatomy of Negation (1886); Tulloch, Modern Theories on Philosophy and Religion (1884); William James, The Will to Believe; Duhring, Der Werth des Lebens (1865); Meyer, Weltelend and Weltschmerz (1872); E.
ANTONIO GENOVESI (1712-1769), Italian writer on philosophy and political economy, was born at Castiglione, near Salerno, on the 1st of November 1712.
During this period of his life he began the study of philosophy, being especially attracted by Locke.
Finding law as distasteful as theology, he devoted himself entirely to philosophy, of which he was appointed extraordinary professor in the university of Naples.
The pursuit of such happiness is taught by the "utilitarian" philosophy, an expression used by Bentham himself in 1802, and therefore not invented by J.
Voltaire described him as "the only Jesuit who has given a reasonable system of philosophy."
After obtaining the degree of doctor he returned to Ghent, and is said to have been the first to lecture there publicly on philosophy and theology.
Forbes, as professor of natural philosophy at Edinburgh, and this chair he occupied till within a few months of his death, which occurred on the 4th of July 1901, at Edinburgh.
With Lord Kelvin he collaborated in writing the well-known Treatise on Natural Philosophy.
Tait collaborated with Balfour Stewart in the Unseen Universe, which was followed by Paradoxical Philosophy.
He ceased to attend the society in 1829, but he carried away from it the strengthening memory of failure overcome by persevering effort, and the important doctrinal conviction that a true system of political philosophy was "something much more complex and many-sided than he had previously had any idea of, and that its office was to supply, not a set of model institutions but principles from which the institutions suitable to any given circumstances might be deduced."
The first sketch of Mill's political philosophy appeared in a series of contributions to the Examiner in the autumn of 1830 entitled "Prospects in France."
The same thought appears in a review of Herschel's Natural Philosophy, written about the same time.
Mill remarks that the uncertainty hanging over the very elements of moral and social philosophy proves that the means of arriving at the truth in those sciences are not yet properly understood.
His next treatise, The Subjection of Women, was not published till 1869.1 His Examination of Hamilton's Philosophy, published in 1865, had engaged a large share of his time for three years before.
He may, in fact, be regarded as the final exponent of that empirical school of philosophy which owed its impulse to John Locke, and is generally spoken of as being typically English.
The title of his work, Principles of Political Economy, with some of their Applications to Social Philosophy, though open to criticism, indicated a less narrow and formal conception of the field of the science than had been common amongst his predecessors.
And in the same spirit Mill desired, whilst incorporating all the results arrived at in the special science by Smith's successors, to exhibit purely economic phenomena in relation to the most advanced conceptions of his own time in the general philosophy of society, as Smith had done in reference to the philosophy of his century.
Sometimes he speaks of political economy as a department "carved out of the general body of the science of society;" whilst on the other hand the title of his systematic work implies a doubt whether political economy is a part of "social philosophy" at all, and not rather a study preparatory and auxiliary to it.
Hamilton's Philosophy (1865) Aug.
Mill, a Study of his Philosophy (1895); J.
Graham, English Political Philosophy from Hobbes to Maine (1899).
See also histories of modern philosophy.
His assumptions are based upon ordinary observation and experience, and are usually accurate in proportion to his practical shrewdness and sagacity, so that he is not interested in the speculative flights of philosophy, except in so far as they influence or have influenced conduct.
The historical relations between philosophy and economics are of great importance in tracing the development of the latter, and have done much to determine its present form.
But the modern conception of society or the state owes more to biology than philosophy, and actual research has destroyed more frequently than it has justified the assumptions of the older philosophical school.
It is only by reference to the prevailing ideas in philosophy and politics that we can discover what was in the minds of their authors.
Though he has had a vast influence in this special department, the disciples of his general philosophy are few.
Alexandria had been, since the days of the Ptolemies, a centre for the interchange of ideas between East and West - between Egypt, Syria, Greece and Italy; and, as it had furnished Judaism with an Hellenic philosophy, so it also brought about the alliance of Christianity with Greek philosophy.
Asia Minor and the West developed the strict ecclesiastical forms by means of which the church closed her lines against heathenism, and especially against heresy; in Alexandria Christian ideas were handled in a free and speculative fashion and worked out with the help of Greek philosophy.
But the spirit of investigation impelled him to devote himself to the highest studies, philosophy and the exegesis of the sacred Scriptures.
where a Roman official wanted to hear his lectures, and in Antioch, in response to a most flattering invitation from Julia Mammaea (mother of Alexander Severus, afterwards emperor), who wished to become acquainted with his philosophy.
i.); compare with these the works on the history of philosophy by Ritter, Erdmann, Ueberweg and Zeller.
Swift says that "with a singularity scarce to be justified he carried away more Greek, Latin and philosophy than properly became a person of his rank."
He taught Latin in the first two years, and natural philosophy in the third.
An enthusiastic disciple of Descartes, he wrote several works in philosophy and theology, which by their freedom of thought aroused considerable hostility.
Through the influence of Prof. Daub he was led to an interest in the then predominant philosophy of Hegel and, in spite of his father's opposition, went to Berlin to study under the master himself.
His life, henceforth, was devoted to teaching (mainly philosophical) in the university - first as college tutor, afterwards, from 1878 until his death (at Oxford on the 26th of March 1882) as Whyte's Professor of Moral Philosophy.
1906), fellow of Queen's College, in which the doctrine of the "English" or "empirical" philosophy was exhaustively examined.
Carrying on the same analytical method into the special department of moral philosophy, Green held that ethics applies to the peculiar conditions of social life that investigation into man's nature which metaphysics began.
It is at the solution of these two questions that philosophy in the immediate future may be expected to work.
Fairbrother, Philosophy of T.
Sidgwick, Lectures on the Philosophy of Kant (London, 1905); J.
The plague of 1544 drove him to Bologna and thence to Padua as student of philosophy and medicine.
A disciple of Neander and friend of Richard Rothe, Muller bitterly opposed the philosophy of Hegel and the criticism of F.
His education was undertaken by his uncle, John de Willoughby, and after leaving the grammar school of his native place he was sent to Oxford, where he is said to have distinguished himself in philosophy and theology.
Fleming, Fleming already the author of a harmless and extremely orthodox Philosophy of Zoology, pointed out in 1829 in the Quarterly Review (xli.
Wagner foresaw the use that would be made of this discovery by the adherents of the new philosophy, and, in the usual language of its opponents at the time, strove to ward off the " misinterpretations " that they would put upon it.
On the and of February 1825 the presbytery of Brechin licensed him as a preacher in connexion with the Church of Scotland, and in 1826 he was in Paris studying natural philosophy, chemistry, and comparative anatomy.
Though this narrative is a mixture of truth and fiction, it may be said with certainty that a thorough study of the philosophy of Peripatetics and Pythagoreans, Stoics and Platonists, brought home to Justin the conviction that true knowledge was not to be found in them.
8), the distinctive badge of the wandering professional teacher of philosophy, and went about from place to place discussing the truths of Christianity in the hope of bringing educated Pagans, as he himself had been brought, through philosophy to Christ.
By his conscious recognition of the Greek philosophy as a preparation for the truths of the Christian religion, he appears as the first and most distinguished in the long list of those who have endeavoured to reconcile Christian with non-Christian culture.
See EVOLUTION; in Philosophy.
He secured an excellent set of scientific apparatus and improved the instruction in the natural sciences; he introduced courses in Hebrew and French about 1772; and he did a large part of the actual teaching, having courses in languages, divinity, moral philosophy and eloquence.
Erdmann conjectures Thomas Aquinas, which is extremely improbable, as Thomas was unquestionably not the first of his order to study philosophy.
(pp. 23-43) treats of the relation between philosophy and theology.
All true wisdom is contained in the Scriptures, at least implicitly; and the true end of philosophy is to rise from the imperfect knowledge of created things to a knowledge of the Creator.
This view of nature Bacon considered fundamental, and it lies, indeed, at the root of his whole philosophy.
Charles, however, has given good grounds for supposing that it is merely a preface, and that the work went on to discuss grammar, logic (which Bacon thought of little service, as reasoning was innate), mathematics, general physics, metaphysics and moral philosophy.
After travelling in France and England, he studied the Cartesian philosophy under John Racy at Leiden.
He became (1649) professor of philosophy and theology at Herborn, but subsequently (1651), in consequence of the jealousy of his colleagues, accepted an invitation to a similar post at Duisburg,, where he died on the 31st of January 1665.
In 1843 he became doctor of philosophy at Munich Observatory, where he was made professor in 1859.
nomen, name), the name of one of the two main tendencies of medieval philosophy, the other being Realism.
Though a strong realist tendency is evident in the system of Erigena (9th century), the controversy was not definitely started till the 11th century: it lasted till the middle of the 12th, when the first period of scholastic philosophy ends.
Though nominalism is properly a medieval theory, the tendency has passed over into modern philosophy: the term "nominalist" is often applied to thinkers of the empirical, sensationalist school, of whom J.
After some hesitation between music and philosophy, he decided to make the latter the serious work of his life, and in 1867 the university of Rostock conferred on him the degree of doctor of philosophy.
His reputation as a philosopher was established by his first book, The Philosophy of the Unconscious (1869; 10th ed.
Von Hartmann thus combines "pantheism" with "panlogism" in a manner adumbrated by Schelling in his "positive philosophy."
On his philosophy see R.
Baldwin, Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology (1901-1905).
From the age of sixteen to nearly twenty his health was so unsatisfactory that he attended neither school nor college, bilt worked at Chaldee and Syriac, began to read Arabic, and mastered 'S Gravesande's Natural Philosophy, together with various textbooks of logic and metaphysics.
His learned wanderings ended (1486) at Rome, where he set forth for public disputation a list of nine hundred questions and conclusions in all branches of philosophy and theology.
occasio, an event), in philosophy, a term applied to that theory of the relation between matter and mind which postulates the intervention of God to bring about in the one a change which corresponds to a similar change in the other.
Equally distinguishedin natural science,philosophy and the administration of civic affairs, he takes a high place among the versatile savants of the ancient Greek world.
It is important to notice that Archytas must have been famous as a philosopher, inasmuch as Aristotle wrote a special treatise (not extant) On the Philosophy of Archytas.
Flint's History of the Philosophy of History (Edinburgh, 18 93), pp. 157-170.
29, p. 806) tells us how he saw at Heliopolis large buildings belonging to the priests, which had once been tenanted by men skilled in philosophy and astronomy, who had been consulted by Plato and Eudoxus, but that the o-uanjµa and iaicgats (the very words used by Philo in speaking of the Therapeutae) had then fallen into decay.
The earliest Hellenic culture in the East was Syrian, and the Arabs made their first acquaintance with Greek chemistry, as with Greek philosophy, mathematics, medicine, &c., by the intermediary of Syriac translations.
The famous seat of the Platonic philosophy was a gymnasium enlarged as a public park by Cimon; it lay about a mile to the north-west of the Dipylon Gate, with which it was connected by a street bordered with tombs.
Athenian art and literature in the 4th century declined but slightly from their former standard; philosophy and oratory reached a standard which was never again equalled in antiquity and may still serve as a model.
If Athens lost her supremacy in the fields of science and scholarship to Alexandria, she became more than ever the home of philosophy, while Menander and the other poets of the New Comedy made Athenian life and manners known throughout the civilized world.
The freedom of teaching was first curtailed by Theodosius I.; the edict of Justinian (529), forbidding the study of philosophy, dealt the death-blow to ancient Athens.
Here, in his thirty-third year, he began to learn Latin, and after two years his master urged him to go to Alcala to begin philosophy.
He won over the Savoyard Pierre Lefevre (Faber), whose room he shared, and the Navarrese Francis Xavier, who taught philosophy in the college of St Barbara.
Bartole, the official biographer of Ignatius, says that he would not permit any innovation in the studies; and that, were he to live five hundred years, he would always repeat "no novelties" in theology, in philosophy or in logic - not even in grammar.
In 1866 he became professor of moral philosophy in the university of Glasgow, and in 1893 succeeded Benjamin Jowett as master of Balliol.
With Thomas Hill Green he founded in England a school of orthodox neo-Hegelianism, and through his pupils he exerted a farreaching influence on English philosophy and theology.
His publications include Philosophy of Kant (1878); Critical Philosophy of Kant (1889); Religion and Social Philosophy of Comte (1885); Essays on Literature and Philosophy (1892); Evolution of Religion (Gifford Lectures, 1891-1892); Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); and he is represented in this encyclopaedia by the article on Cartesianism.
In 1858, under the stimulus of Henry C. Brockmeyer, Harris became interested in modern German philosophy in general, and in particular in Hegel, whose works a small group, gathering about Harris and Brockmeyer, began to study in 1859.
From 1867 to 1893 Harris edited The Journal of Speculative Philosophy (22 vols.), which was the quarterly organ of the Philosophical Society founded in 1866.
In 1899 the university of Jena gave him the honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy for his work on Hegel.
Besides being a contributor to the magazines and encyclopedias on educational and philosophical subjects, he wrote An Introduction to the Study of Philosophy (1889); The Spiritual Sense of Dante's Divina Commedia (1889); Hegel's Logic (1890); and Psychologic Foundations of Education (1898); and edited Appleton's International Education Series and 'Webster's International Dictionary.
At Megara he formed a life-long friendship with Asclepiades, with whom he toiled in the night that he might study philosophy by day.
ELEATIC SCHOOL, a Greek school of philosophy which came into existence towards the end of the 6th century B.C., and ended with Melissus of Samos (fl.
See further the articles on Xenophanes; Parmenides; Zeno (of Elea); Melissus, with the works there quoted; also the histories of philosophy by Zeller, Gomperz, Windelband, &c.
He was twice married, and had several sons, of whom Eusebius held a chair of philosophy at Wittenberg, and married Melanchthon's grand-daughter, Anna Sabinus.
His work, The Light of the Lord (`Or Adonai), deeply affected Spinoza, and thus his philosophy became of wide importance.
He refused to base Judaism on speculative philosophy alone; there was a deep emotional side to his thought.
This controversy was unfinished when Dalton published the first part of his New System of Chemical Philosophy in 1808, although the per saltum theory was the most popular.
The faults make analysis exceptionally difficult, for they are no longer commonplace; indeed, the gravest dangers of modern Wagnerism arise from the fact that there is hardly any non-musical aspect in which Wagner's later work is not important enough to produce a school of essentially non-musical critics who have no notion how far Wagner's mature music transcends the rest of his thought, nor how often it rises where his philosophy falls.
The vast myth of the Ring is related in full several times in each of the three main dramas, with ruthless disregard for the otherwise magnificent dramatic effect of the whole; hosts of original dramatic and ethical ideas, with which Wagner's brain was even more fertile than his voluminous prose works would indicate, assert themselves at all points, only to be thwarted by repeated attempts to allegorize the philosophy of Schopenhauer; all efforts to read a consistent scheme, ethical or philosophical, into the result are doomed to failure; but all this matters little, so long as we have Wagner's unfailing later resources in those higher dramatic verities which present to us emotions and actions, human and divine, as things essentially complex and conflicting, inevitable as natural laws, incalculable as natural phenomena.
Bernard Shaw, though concerned mainly with the social philosophy of the Ring, gives a luminous account of Wagner's mastery of musical movement.
From his works it is evident that he was deeply learned in all the philosophy of the time.
One of the most distinguished among them was Thales of Miletus (6 4 o -543 B.C.), the founder of the Ionian school of philosophy, whose pupil, Anaximander (611-546 B.C.) is credited by Eratosthenes with having designed the first map of the world.
Another son, James (1786-1869), was a physician, and author of various books, such as Philosophy of the Human Voice (1827) and Analysis of the Human Intellect (1865).
His writings, said to have numbered four hundred and fifty-three, were in the style of Aristotle, and dealt with philosophy, ethics and music. The empirical tendency of his thought is shown in his theory that the soul is related to the body as harmony to the parts of a musical.
Educated at several schools in London, he went to Edinburgh University in 1792, where he attended Dugald Stewart's moral philosophy class.
In 1806 he became a medical practitioner in partnership with James Gregory, but, though successful in his profession, preferred literature and philosophy.
His friend and biographer, David Welsh (1793-1845), superintended the publication of his text-book, the Physiology of the Human Mind, and his Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind was published by his successors, John Stewart and the Rev. E.
Brown's philosophy occupies an intermediate place between the earlier Scottish school and the later analytical or associational psychology.
Brown wrote a criticism of Darwin's Zoonomia (1798), and was one of the first contributors to the Edinburgh Review, in the second number of which he published a criticism of the Kantian philosophy, based entirely on Villers's French account of it.
For a severe criticism of Brown's philosophy, see Sir W.
Welsh's Account of the Life and Writings, &c. (1825); M'Cosh's Scottish Philosophy, pp. 317-337.
On account of these works he was made Docteur-es-lettres of the Sorbonne and professor of philosophy at Rochefort (1840).
His views, however, provoked antagonism, and in 1842 he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at Strassburg.
In spite of this opposition, he held chairs of philosophy at Turin, Milan and Rome in succession, and during several administrations represented the college of Gavirate in the chamber.
A sceptic in philosophy and a revolutionist in politics, rejoicing in controversy of all kinds, he was admired as a man, as an orator, and as a writer.
3 (Vienna, 1885); Uberweg, History of Philosophy (Eng.
written in the defence of the philosophy of St Thomas Aquinas.
Felix Dahn studied law and philosophy in Munich and Berlin from 1849 to 1853.
He practised for some time as a physician at Sulz, and then at Kirchheim, and in 1811 he was chosen extraordinary professor of philosophy and medicine at Tubingen.
In 1818 he became ordinary professor of practical philosophy, but in 1836 he resigned and took up his residence at Kirchheim, where he devoted his whole attention to philosophical studies.
His studies both in English and foreign speculation led him to cherish the design also of making some worthy contribution to philosophy.
This was the Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy, prefixed to the seventh edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
The value of that work cannot be denied; the impulse which it gave to Platonic studies in Italy, and through them to the formation of the new philosophy in Europe, is indisputable.
The cardinal point of his doctrine was the identity of religion and philosophy.
He held that philosophy consists in the study of truth and wisdom, and that God alone is truth and wisdom, - so that philosophy is but religion, and true religion is genuine philosophy.
Schoppe, as the long list -of his writings shows, knew also something of grammar and philosophy, and had an excellent acquaintance with Latin.
From 1853 until his death, on the second of August 1859, he was president of the newly established Antioch College at Yellow Springs, Ohio, where he taught political economy, intellectual and moral philosophy, and natural theology.
If a brief definition of instinct, from the purely biological point of view be required, that given in the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology may be accepted: "An inherited reaction of the sensori-motor type, relatively complex 3'p 3' p and markedly adaptive in character, and common to a group of individuals."
of Philosophy and Psychology.
602 seq.), but a later treatise, a combination of medieval natural philosophy and mysticism.
Waite, Doctrine and Literature of the Kabbalah (London, 1902); Fliigel, Philosophy, Kabbala, eec. (Baltimore, 1902); D.
Old Semitic philosophy was a science not of ontology in the modern sense of the term, but of practical life.
For some the influence of this association was of a general nature, merely modifying their conception of the moral life; others adopted to a greater or less extent some of the peculiar ideas of the current systems of philosophy.
It was in cities that the study of life and philosophy was best carried on,.
Their monotheism remains Semitic - even in their conception of the cosmogonic and illuminating function of Wisdom they regard God as standing outside the world of physical nature and man, and do not grasp or accept the idea of the identity of the human and the divine; there is thus a sharp distinction between their general theistic position and that of Greek philosophy.
In 1813 he became repetent at GÃ¶ttingen, and in 1814 he received the degree of doctor in philosophy from Halle; in 1816 he removed to Berlin, where he became licentiate in theology, and qualified as privatdocent.
His favourite studies were philology and philosophy; he became an ardent Hegelian.
The full expression of the idea and its development into a philosophy of mathematics is due to Russell, loc. cit.
Sometimes Clement discusses chronology, sometimes philosophy, sometimes poetry, entering into the most minute critical and chronological details; but one object runs through all, and this is to show what the true Christian Gnostic is, and what is his relation to philosophy.
He also was well acquainted with Greek philosophy, and took a genial view of it; but he was not nearly so widely read as Clement.
In fact Clement regarded Christianity as a philosophy.
The ancient philosophers sought through their philosophy to attain to a nobler and holier life, and this also was the aim of Christianity.
Greek philosophy in particular was the preparation of the Greeks for Christ.
But Clement always regards the articles of the Christian creed as the axioms of a new philosophy.
Either of these will supply the names of works upon Clement's biblical text, his use of Stoic writers, his quotations from heathen writers, and his relation to heathen philosophy.
See life in Biographia Britannica; McCosh's Scottish Philosophy, PP. 42-49.
Parisian families, but in 1675 he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the Protestant university of Sedan.
In 1681 the university at Sedan was suppressed, but almost immediately afterwards Bayle was appointed professor of philosophy and history at Rotterdam.
Very few authors of so high a class have been so consistent, or have made their conduct so close a reflection of their philosophy.
He was professor of moral philosophy at Bourges (1845-1848) and Strassburg (1848-- 1857), and of logic at the lycee Louis-le-Grand, Paris (1857-1864).
In 1864 he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the Sorbonne, and elected a member of the academy of the moral and political sciences.
In philosophy he was a follower of Victor Cousin, and through him of Hegel.
When twenty-one years of age he composed a treatise on the figure of the earth, and the reputation which he soon acquired led to his appointment by the king of Sardinia to the professorship of philosophy in the college of Casale.
In 1753 he was elected a corresponding member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, and shortly afterwards he became professor of philosophy in the Barnabite College of St Alexander at Milan.
His philosophy, consequently, is neither systematic in itself nor expounded in systematic form.
Nevertheless his reaction does not in this case really carry him beyond the ground of Schopenhauerian philosophy, and his own may perhaps be most truly regarded as the paradoxical development of an inverted Schopenhauerism.
His reputation was helped by several clever if somewhat wrong-headed publications, including a satirical pamphlet entitled The Theology and Philosophy of Cicero's Somnium Scipionis (1751), a defence of the Hutchinsonians in A Fair, Candid and Impartial State of the Case between Sir Isaac Newton and Mr Hutchinson (1753), and critiques upon William Law (1758) and Benjamin Kennicott (1760).
The philosophy of history, by which Hebrew prophets could read a deep moral significance into national disaster and turn the flank of resistless attack, became one of the most important elements in the nation's faith.
After a successful course of study at the College Rollin, he proceeded to Munich, where he attended the lectures of Schelling, and took his degree in philosophy in 1836.
In 1838 he received the degree of doctor, and became professor of philosophy at Rennes.
In philosophy, he was one of the school of Cousin, with whom, however, he was at issue in many important points.
This theory had considerable influence on speculative philosophy in France during, the later years of the 19th century.
FRIEDRICH PAULSEN (1846-1908), German philosopher and educationalist, was born at Langenhorn (Schleswig) and educated at Erlangen, Bonn and Berlin, where he became extraordinary professor of philosophy and pedagogy in 1878.
In 1896 he succeeded Eduard Zeller as professor of moral philosophy at Berlin.
This concrete side of moral philosophy came specially into evidence when Stoicism was transplanted to Rome.
The Anglican casuists are discussed in Whewell, Lectures on Moral Philosophy (London, 1862).
Glanvill's first work (a passage in which suggested the theme of Matthew Arnold's Scholar Gipsy), The Vanity of Dogmatizing, or Confidence in Opinions, manifested in a Discourse of the shortness and uncertainty of our Knowledge, and its Causes, with Reflexions on Peripateticism, and an Apology for Philosophy (1661), is interesting as showing one special direction in which the new method of the Cartesian philosophy might be developed.
The word has been used technically in philosophy with various shades of meaning.
In the last stage of Greek philosophy the eclectic spirit produced remarkable results outside the philosophies of those properly called eclectics.
Among the early Christians, Clement of Alexandria, Origen and Synesius were eclectics in philosophy.
The eclectics of modern philosophy are too numerous to name.
"Each system," he asserted, "is not false, but incomplete, and in reuniting all imcomplete systems, we should have a complete philosophy, adequate to the totality of consciousness."
This assumes that every philosophical truth is already contained somewhere in the existing systems. If, however, as it would surely be rash to deny, there still remains philosophical truth undiscovered, but discoverable by human intelligence, it is evident that eclecticism is not the only philosophy.
Eclecticism gained great popularity, and, partly owing to Cousin's position as minister of public instruction, became the authorized system in the chief seats of learning in France, where it has given a most remarkable impulse to the study of the history of philosophy.
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