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philosophie

philosophie Sentence Examples

  • His other works were Traite de droit penal (1829); Cours de droit constitutionnel (1866-67), and Mélanges d'economie politique, d'histoire et de philosophie (2 vols., 1857).

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  • von Kirchmann under the title Philosophische Werke (with biography, &c., Berlin, 1868; 2nd ed, 1882-1891), by Kuno Fischer, Die Hauptschriften zur Grundlegung seiner Philosophie (1863), with introduction by Ludwig Fischer (1892).

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  • Renouvier, Manuel de philosophie moderne (Paris, 1842); V.

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  • de la philosophie cartesienne (Paris, 1854), 2 vols., and Hist.

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  • Littre et le positivisme (1883), George Sand (1887), Melanges et portraits (1888), La Philosophie de Goethe (2nd ed., 1880).

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  • - An edition of Mendelssohn's works was published in 1843-1845, with a biography by his son Joseph; another edition of his Schriften zur Philosophie, Aesthetik and eA pologetik, appeared (ed.

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  • He also delivered lectures, which were republished in his Philosophic des Lebens (1828) and in his Philosophie der Geschichte (1829).

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  • Land (1891-1893, for which a recently discovered MS. was consulted); see also the same editor's Arnold Geulincx and seine Philosophie (1895), and article (translated) in Mind, xvi.

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  • In 1837 he had founded the Zeitschrift fiir Philosophie as an organ of his views, more especially on the subject of the philosophy of religion, where he was in alliance with C. H.

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  • F.," in Zeitschrift fiir Philosophie, cx.

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  • Emile Montegut translated Essais de philosophie americaine (1850) from Emerson; Revolution de 1688 (2 vols.

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  • Secretan (Philosophie de la Liberte) may be named: in Germany, H.

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  • Lassalle, Die Philosophie Herakleitos, p. 126.

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  • 1 Mélanges de philosophie juive et arabe, p. 225.

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  • Philosophie zoologique, premiere partie, chap. iii.

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  • Ferri, Essai sur l'histoire de la philosophie en Italie au XIX e siecle, i.

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  • Undeterred by the offence which these works gave to his ecclesiastical superiors, he published in 1858 the Einleitung in die Philosophie and Grundriss der Metaphysik, in which he assailed the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas, that philosophy was the handmaid of theology.

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  • Methode der Hegelschen Philosophie, a severe criticism of the Hegelian system.

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  • This was continued in the Grundprincip der Philosophie (1845-1846), which also gives his speculative position.

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  • From 1847 onward Ulrici edited, jointly with the younger Fichte, the Zeitschrift fiir Philosophie u.

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  • Morin, Dictionnaire de philosophie et de theologie scolastiques [=J.

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  • Pluzanski, Essai sur la philosophie de Duns Scot (1887); A.

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  • Lassalle, Die Philosophie Herakleitos' des Dunklen (Berlin, 1858; 2nd ed., 1892), which, however, is too strongly dominated by modern Hegelianism; Paul Schuster, Heraklit von Ephesus (Leipzig, 1873); Bernays, Die heraklitischen Briefe (Berlin, 1869); T.

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  • Pfleiderer, Die Philosophie des Heraklitus von Ephesus im Lichte der Mysterienidee (Berlin, 1886); G.

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  • Schafer, Die Philosophie des Heraklit von Ephesus and die moderne Heraklitforschung (Leipzig, 1902); Wolfgang Schultz, Studien zur antiken Kultur, i.; Pythagoras and Heraklit (Leipzig, 1905); O.

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  • Eine Studie fiber den energetischen Grundgedanken seiner Philosophie (Halle, 1904); A.

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  • Among his works may be mentioned Studii sulla coscienza; Il Fenomeno nelle sue relazioni con la sensazione; Della idea del vero; Della filosofia del diritto presso Aristotile (1885); Il Genio di Aristotile; La Psicologia di Pietro Pomponazzi (1877), and, most important, Essai sur l'histoire de la philosophie en Italie au XIX' siecle (Paris, 1869), and La Psychologie de l'association depuis Hobbes jusqu'd nos jours.

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  • Among his numerous works may be mentioned Introduction a la philosophie d'Hegel (1855; 2nd ed., 1865); Probleme de la certitude (1845); Le Hegelianisme et la philosophie 0860; Mélanges philosophiques (1862); Essais de philosophie Hegelienne (1864); Strauss, l'ancienne et la nouvelle foi (1873), an attack upon Strauss's last "confession," written from the standpoint of an orthodox Hegelian; and a comprehensive work in Italian, Il Problema dell' Assoluto (Naples, 1872-82).

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  • He published also translations into French with commentaries of Hegel's works: Logique de Hegel (Paris, 1859; 2nd ed., 1874); Philosophie de la nature de Hegel (1863-65); Philosophic de l'esprit de Hegel (1867-69); Philosophie de la religion de Hegel (1876-78, incomplete).

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  • Late in life he prepared a remarkable Essai sur la philosophie des sciences.

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  • It is, moreover, highly probable that he was the author of a radical pamphlet entitled La Philosophie au people frangais, published in 1788, the text of which is not known.

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  • Schultze, Geschichte der Philosophie der Renaissance, i.

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  • In two works of this period, Pierre Bayle (1838) and Philosophie and Christentum (1839), which deal largely with theology, he held that he had proved "that Christianity has in fact long vanished not only from the reason but from the life of mankind, that it is nothing more than a fixed idea" in flagrant contradiction to the distinctive features of contemporary civilization.

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  • Levy, La Philosophie de Feuerbach (1904); M.

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  • Haureau, De la philosophie scolastique, pp. 294-318; R.

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  • 120-129 (a severe criticism of Bacon's logical doctrines); Held, Roger Bacon's praktische Philosophie (Jena, 1881); Karl Pohl, Das Verheiltniss d.

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  • Geschichte der deutschen Philosophie seit Leibnitz (1873).

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  • Strongly in agreement with the Hegelian tradition, he defended and amplified it in Die gegenweirtige Aufgabe der Philosophie (1852) and Verstehen and Beurteilen (1877).

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  • Systematical, including Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie; Kategorienlehre; Das sittliche Bewusstsein; Die Philosophie des Schonen; Die Religion des Geistes; Die Philosophie des Unbewussten (3 vols., which now include his, originally anonymous, self-criticism, Das Unbewusste vom Standpunkte der Physiologie and Descendenztheorie, and its refutation, Eng.

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  • C. Coupland, 1884); System der Philosophie im Grundriss, Grundriss der Erkenntnislehre.

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  • von Hartmanns Philosophie and der Materialismus in der modernen Kultur (1890) and E.

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  • Philosophie (1885) and Die Qoh.-Lit.

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  • Philosophie des 19.

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  • His principal works are - Die Philosophie in ihrem Ubergange zur Nichtphilosophie (1803); Versuch die scheinbare Magie des thierischen Magnetismus aus physiol.

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  • Philosophie (1840); and Betrachtungen fiber den physischen Weltbau (1852).

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  • Philosophie des Mittelalters, ii.

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  • Philosophie d.

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  • Lassalle's Die Philosophie Herakleitos des Dunklen von Ephesos (Berlin, 1858), and the System der erworbenen Rechte (Leipzig, 1861) are both marked by great learning and intellectual power.

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  • Lichtenberger, La Philosophie de Nietzsche (1895; German trans., 1899); E.

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  • Ravaisson's chief philosophical works are: "Les Fragments philosophiques de Hamilton" (in the Revue des Deux Mondes, November, 1840); Rapport sur le stoicisme (1851); La Philosophie en France au dix-neuvieme siecle (1868; 3rd ed., 1889); Morale et metaphysique (1893).

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  • and Jacques Chevalier in the Annales de philosophie chretienne (Paris, Jan.

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  • Italy: "Lettres Romaines" in Annales de philosophie chretienne (Paris, January-March 1904), an Italian theologian's fearless defence of Loisy's main New Testament positions; Rev. P. Louis Billot S.J., De sacra traditione (Freiburg i.

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  • His attack upon Voltaire's Philosophie de l'historie (published under the name of l'Abbe Bazin) created considerable interest at the time.

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  • Haureau, Histoire de la philosophie scolastique, i.

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  • A critical survey of recent literature on Scholasticism is given by Baeumker in the Archiv far Geschichte der Philosophie, vols.

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  • See Ritter, Geschichte der Philosophie, iv.

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  • In the German Mercury he published, in the years 1786-87, his Briefe fiber die Kantische Philosophie, which were most important in making Kant known to a wider circle of readers.

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  • Erdmann, Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie (Berlin, 1866); histories of philosophy by R.

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  • de Boer, Geschichte der Philosophie im Islam (Stuttgart, 1901), pp. 160 sqq.

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  • See Zeller, Philosophie der Griechen, iii.

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  • 342-378 (Leipzig, 1877); Thiaucourt, Essai sur les traites philosophiques de Ciceron (Paris, 1885); Schmekel, Die Philosophie der mittlern Stoa (1892); Arnold, Untersuchungen fiber Theophanes von Mytilene and Posidonius von Apamea (1882).

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  • At Leipzig he was one of the founders of the Akademisch-philosophische Verein, and was the first editor of the Vierteljahrsschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Philosophie.

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  • - WOrkS, Editions and Translations: Cours de philosophie positive (6 vols., Paris, 1830-1842; 2nd ed.

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  • Levy-Bruhl, La Philosophie d'Aug.

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  • While much that Herder produced after settling in Weimar has little value, he wrote also some of his best works, among others his collection of popular poetry on which he had been engaged for many years, Stimmen der Volker in Liedern (1778-1779); his translation of the Spanish romances of the Cid (1805); his celebrated work on Hebrew poetry, Vom Geist der hebrdischen Poesie (1782-1783); and his opus magnum, the Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit (1784-1791).

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  • - Revue philosophique (1876), monthly; Annales des sciences psychiques (1891); L'Annee philosophique (1890), critical and analytical review of all philosophical works appearing during the year; L'Annee psychologique (1894); Journal de psychologie normale et pathologie (1904); Bulletin de l'institut general de psychologie (1903); Revue de l'hypnotisme et de la psychologie physiologique (1900); Revue de metaphysique et de morale (1893); Revue de philosophie (1900); Revue de psychiatrie (1897).

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  • Theologie et philosophie (1868-1872), an account of foreign literature on those subjects, was continued as Revue de theologie et de philosophie (1873) at Lausanne.

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  • His chief works were Uber die von der neuesten Philosophie geforderte Trennung der Moral von der Religion (1804); Einleitung in das Evangelium Johannis (1806); and Institutiones theologicae dogmaticae (1815), to which W Steiger's Kritik des Rationalismus in Wegscheider' s Dogmatik (1830) was a reply.

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  • In his work on philosophical dogmatics (Philosophische Dogmatik oder Philosophie des Christentums, 3 vols.

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  • Terminologie (1879); Prolegomena zu Forschungen fiber die Einheit des Geisteslebens (1885); Beitrdge zur Geschichte der neueren Philosophie (1886, 1905); Die Einheit des Geisteslebens (1888); Die Lebensanschauungen der grossen Denker (1890; 7th ed., 1907; Eng.

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  • and Lebensanschauung (1903); Philosophie der Geschichte (1907); Der Kampf um einen geistigen Lebensinhalt (1896, 1907); Grundlinien einer neuen Lebensanschauung (1907); Einfiihrung in die Philosophie der Geisteslebens (1908; Eng.

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  • Ordinary scryers of fancy pictures are common enough, but scryers capable of apparently supra-normal successes 1 "Philosophie der Geistes," Hegel's Werke, vii.

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  • Philosophical: Kritik der Schleiermacherschen Glaubenslehre (1836); Psychologie oder Wissenschaft vorn subjektiven Geist (1837; 3rd ed., 1863); Kritische Erlduterungen des Hegelschen Systems (1840); Vorlesungen 'fiber Schelling (1842); System der Wissenschaft (1850); Meine Reform der Hegelschen Philosophie (1852); Wissenschaft der logischen Idee (1858-59), with a supplement (Epilegomena, 1862); Hegels Naturphilosophie and die Bearbeitung derselben durch Vera (1868); Erlduterungen - zu Hegels Encyklopddie der philosophischen Wissenschaften (1871).

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  • The most remarkable of the works from this period are - (I) the Bestimmung des Menschen (Vocation of Man, 1800), a book which, for beauty of style, richness of content, and elevation of thought, may be ranked with the Meditations of Descartes; (2) Der geschlossene Handelsstaat, 1800 (The Exclusive or Isolated Commercial State), a very remarkable treatise, intensely socialist in tone, and inculcating organized protection; (3) Sonnenklarer Bericht an das grossere Publicum iiber die neueste Philosophie, 1801.

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  • Lowe, Die Philosophie Fichtes (Stuttgart, 1862); Kuno Fischer, Geschichte d.

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  • neueren Philosophie (1869, 1884, 1890); Ludwig Noack, Fichte nach seinem Leben, Lehren and Wirken (Leipzig, 1862); R.

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  • Kabitz, Studien zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Fichte- 'schen Wissenschaftslehre aus der Kantischen Philosophie (1902); E.

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  • North's Morall Philosophie of Doni, the earliest English version of the fables (London, 1888); J.

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  • Also Zeller, Socrates and the Socratic Schools; Dyeck, De Megaricorum doctrines (Bonn, 1827); Mallet, Histoire de l'ecole de Megare (Paris, 1845); Ritter, Ober die Philosophie der r meg.

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  • Ferri, Essai sur l'histoire de la philosophie en Italie au XIX e siècle (1869); Ueberweg's Hist.

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  • The most remarkable men in this group of disciples were the elder Mirabeau (author of L'Ami des hommes, 1756-60, and Philosophie rurale, 1763), Nicolas Baudeau (Introduction a la philosophie economique, 1771), G.

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  • See Victor Cousin, introduction to his Ouvrages ine'dits d'Abelard (1836), and Fragments pour servir a l'histoire de la philosophie (1865); G.

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  • Haureau, De la philosophie scolastique (Paris, 1850); Opuscula in J.

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  • Metaphysik (4 vols., 18 471848), his excellent Geschichte der Philosophie im Umriss (1848, 14th ed.

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  • Philosophie (1859).

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  • Ancient scepticism is fully treated in the relative parts of Zeller's Philosophie der Griechen.

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  • C'est par elle que notre philosophie, nos lettres et nos arts ont brine d'un si vif eclat; c'est par elle que notre influence morale s'est exercee en souveraine dans le monde.

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  • Among his other works may be named Paroles d'un revolte (1884); La Conquete du pain (1888); L' Anarchic: sa philosophie, son ideal (1896); The State, its Part in History (1898); Fields, Factories and Workshops (1899); Memoirs of a Revolutionist (1900); Mutual Aid, a Factor of Evolution (1902); Modern Science and Anarchism (Philadelphia, 1903); The Desiccation of Asia (1904); The Orography of Asia (1904); and Russian Literature (1905).

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  • 1786); Allgemeine Geschichte der Philosophie, &c. (Halle, 1788), 2nd ed.

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  • the most important are the Handbuch der Geschichte der Philosophie (8 vols., 1796-1804), and Geschichte der neueren Philosophie (6 vols., 1800-r805).

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  • On the relation of Neoplatonism to Christianity, and the historical importance of Neoplatonism generally, see the leading church histories, and the Histories of Dogma by Baur, Nitzsch, Harnack, &c. Compare also Loffler, Der Platonismus der Kirchenvater (1782); Huber, Die Philosophie der Kirchenvdter (1859); Tzchirner, Fall des Heidenthums (1829), pp. 574618; Burckhardt, Die Zeit Constantin's des Grossen (1853); Chastel, Hist.

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  • With characteristic zeal and impetuosity Schelling had no sooner grasped the leading ideas of Fichte's amended form of the critical philosophy than he put together his impressions of it in his Ãœber die Möglichkeit einer Form der Philosophie überhaupt (1794).

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  • His studies of physical science bore rapid fruit in the Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur (1797), and the treatise Von der Weltseele (1798).

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  • The individual works appeared as follows: - Ober die Moglichkeit einer Form der Philosophie iiberhaupt (Tubingen, 1 794); Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur (Leipzig, 1797, ed.

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  • der neueren Philosophie, vol.

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  • Noack, Schelling and die Philosophie der Romantik (2 vols., 18 59); G.

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  • C. Frantz, Schelling's Positive Philosophie (3 vols., 1879-1880); Watson, Schelling's Transcendental Idealism (1882); Groos, Die reine Vernunftwissenschaft.

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  • Philosophie (1889); E.

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  • Among his works, all of the type indicated, were Justine (1791), Juliette (1792), Philosophie dans le boudoir (1793) and Les Crimes de l'amour (1800).

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  • With Aristotle's works before one, with the Index Aristotelicus, and the edition and translation of the Metaphysics by Bonitz on one side, and Zeller's Die Philosophie der Griechen, ii.

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  • His chief works are: De la connaissance de Dieu, opposing Positivism (1855); La Logique (1856); Les Sources, conseils pour .la conduite de l'esprit (1861-1862); La Philosophie du credo (1861); Commentaire sur l'evangile de Saint Matthieu (1863); Jesus-Christ, lettres a M.

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  • We must look for ethics to supply the corner-stone of metaphysics, and psychology is a necessary propaedeutic. The System der Philosophie (1899; 3rd ed., 1907) contained the results of Wundt's work up to that date, both in the domain of science and in the more strictly philosophic field.

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  • The most complete study of John of Salisbury is the monograph by C. Schaarschmidt, Johannes Sarisberiensis nach Leben and Studien, Schriften and Philosophie, 1862, which is a model of accurate and complete workmanship. See also the article in the Dict.

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  • Jouffroy (1843); Essai sur l'histoire de la philosophie en France au X I X e siecle (1828, 3rd ed.

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  • 1834); Essai sur l'histoire de la philosophie en France au XVII.

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  • siècle (1846); Memoires a servir pour l'histoire de la philosophie en France au XVIII.

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  • siècle (1858-1864); Cours de la philosophie; De la Providence (1849, 1850) .

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  • 591); Petite philosophie, c. 1225 (Rom.

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  • His principal works are (beside those quoted above): Entwurf des Systems der Philosophie (1804); System der Sittenlehre (18 r o); Das Urbild der Menschheit (1811); and Vorlesungen fiber das System der Philosophic (1828).

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  • Gerard, Maine de Biran, essai sur sa philosophie (1876); Mayonade, Pensees et pages inedites de Maine de Biran (Perigueux, 1896); G.

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  • Lang, Maine de Biran and die neuere Philosophie (Cologne, 1901); monographs by A.

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  • P. Damiron, Essai sur la philosophie en France au XIX e siecle.

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  • von Hartmann, who (Die Philosophie des Unbewussten, 1869, 1st ed.), advanced the view that the world as noumenal is both unconscious intelligence and unconscious will, thus founding a panpneumatism which forms a sort of reconciliation of the panlogism of Hegel and the panthelism of Schopenhauer.

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  • In his tract entitled Schelling's positive Philosophie als Einheit von Hegel and Schopenhauer (1869) he further showed that, in his later philosophy, Schelling had already combined reason and will in the Absolute.

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  • Paulsen q.v.), who spread panpsychism far and wide in his Einleitung in die Philosophie.

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  • Naturally then the reaction to Kant was followed by a second reaction to Hume, partly under the name of " Positivism," which has attracted a number of adherents, such as C. Goring (1841-1879), author of an incomplete System der Kritischen Philosophie (1874-1875) and E.

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  • In his first philosophical treatise, Philosophie als Denken der Welt gemdss dem Princip des kleinsten Kraftmaasses, Prolegomena zu einer Kritik der reinen Erfahrung (1876), he based his views on the principle of least action, contending that, as in Nature the force which produces a change is the least that can be, so in mind belief tends in the easiest direction.

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  • If judgment is an analysis of an aggregate idea into subject and predicate, it follows, as he says, that " as judgment is an immediate, so is inference a mediate, reference of the members of any aggregate of ideas to one another " (System der Philosophie, 66, first ed.).

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  • His pupil, Oswald Kiilpe (1862), who bases his Grundriss der Psychologie on the hypothesis of unitary experience, says in his Einleitung in die Philosophie (1895; 4th ed.

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  • Wundt, starting from a psychology of unitary experience, deduces a consistent metaphysics of no inference of things transcending experience throughout - or rather until he came to the very last sentence of his System der Philosophie (1889), where he suddenly passes from a necessity of " ideals " (Ideen), to a necessity of " faith " (Glauben), without " knowledge " (Wissen).

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  • It is to be monistic ideal realism, like that of Fichte and Hegel; not, however, like theirs idealistic in method, a Phantastisches Begrifsgebaude, but realistic in method, a Wissenschaftliche Philosophie.

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  • von Kirchmann (1802-1884), author, among other works, of Die Philosophie des Wissens (1864) and Ueber die Principien des Realismus (1875); Goswin Uphues (b.

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  • Schmekel, Die Philosophie der mittleren Stoa (1892); F.

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  • In 1 793 he visited Switzerland, and in 1796 France, and published the impressions gathered during his travels in a series of articles which he afterwards collected under the title of Melanges de liteerature et de philosophie (1801).

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  • During this time he found plentiful leisure to write a series of works on political philosophy, such as the Nouveaux essais de politique et de philosophie (Paris, 1824).

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  • Novaro, Die Philosophie des Nicolaus Malebranche (1893).

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  • See Boeckh, Philolaus des Pythagoreers Lehren nebst den Bruchstiicken seines Werkes (Berlin, 1819); Schaarschmidt, Die angebliche Schriftstellerei des Philolaus (1864); also Fabricius, Bibliotheca graeca; Zeller, History of Greek Philosophy; Chaignet, Pythagore et la philosophie pythagoricienne, contenant les fragments de Philolaus et d'Architas (1873); Th.

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  • Jodl, Leben and Philosophie D.

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  • Humes Philosophie (1874); G.

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  • Compayre, La Philosophie de D.

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  • Munk, Mélanges (quoted above); Guttmann, Die Philosophie des Sal.-ibn Gabirol (Gottingen, 1889); D.

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  • Zart, Einfluss der englischen Philosophie seit Bacon auf die deutsche Philosophie des 18ten Jahrh.

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  • Brandt, Thomas Hobbes: Grundlinien seiner Philosophie (1895); G.

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  • See Pythagoras, Neoplatonism, Essenes; and Zeller's Philosophie d.

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  • Philosophie, 1895).

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  • See Ursinus, De Zoroastre, Hermete, &c. (Nuremberg, 1661); Nicolas Lenglet-Dufresnoy, L'Histoire de la philosophie hermetique (Paris, 1742); Baumgarten-Crusius, De librorum hermeticorum origine atque indole (Jena, 1827); B.

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  • He collaborated in the translation of Comte's system of Positive Polity (4 vols., 1875 - 1879), translated his Discourse on the Positive Spirit (1903),, and wrote a biography of Comte for a translation of the first two chapters of his Cours de philosophie positive, entitled Fundamental Principles of Positive Philosophy (1905).

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  • His philosophical works include annotations to Garve's translation of the Politics of Aristotle (1799-1800), and a large share in the Beitrage zur Geschichte der Philosophie (published in twelve parts between 1791 and 1799), in which he collaborated with Forberg, Reinhold and Niethammer.

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  • Guhrauer, Sime, and Zimmern; Kuno Fischer, Geschichte der neuern Philosophie (vol.

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  • 1867); Zeller, Geschichte der deutschen Philosophie (2nd ed., 18 75, pp. 243-46).

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  • His philosophical position with regard to his contemporaries he had already made clear in the critical work Reinhold, Fichte and Schelling (1803; reprinted in 1824 as Polemische Schriften), and in the more systematic treatises System der Philosophie als evidente Wissenschaft (1804), Wissen, Glaube and Ahnung (1805, new ed.

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  • The most important of the many works written during his Jena professorate are the Handbuch der praktischen Philosophie (1817-1832), the Handbuch der psychischen Anthropologie (1820-1821, 2nd ed.

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  • 1837-1839), Die mathematische Naturphilosophie (1822), System der Metaphysik (1824), Die Geschichte der Philosophie (1837-1840).

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  • Glossner, Nikolaus von Cusa and Marius Nizolius als Vorldufer der neueren Philosophie (Munster, 1891); F.

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  • Ubinger, Philosophie des Nikolaus Cusanus (Wurzburg, 1881); art.

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  • In 1821 Hegel published the Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts (2nd ed., 1840; ed.

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  • Marrast, La Philosophie du droit de Hegel (1869); L.

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  • Bolland, Philosophie des Rechts (1902), and Hegels Philosophie der Religion (1901); E.

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  • Pagans (1907); C. Werner, Die Italienische Philosophie des 19.

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  • His chief works are a monograph on Aenesidemus the Sceptic (1840); Le Scepticisme: IEnesideme, Pascal, Kant (1845); a translation of Spinoza (1843); Precurseurs et disciples de Descartes (1862); Discours de la philosophie de Leibnitz (1857) - a work which had great influence on the progress of thought in France; Essai de philosophie religieuse (1859); Critique et histoire de la philosophie (1865).

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  • His principal works are: Briefe iiher den neuesten Idealismus (1801); Versuch fiber die Principien der philosophischen Erkenntniss (1801); Fundamentalphilosophie (1803); System der theoretischen Philosophic (1806-1810), System der praktischen Philosophie (1817-1819); Handbuch der Philosophic (1820; 3rd ed., 1828); Logik oder Denklehre (1827); Geschichte der Philos.

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    0
  • Zeller, Philosophie d.

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    0
  • Schranka, Der Stoiker Epiktet and seine Philosophie (Frankfort, 1885); T.

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  • His great work is his Philosophie der Griechen (184452)..

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  • The Philosophie der Griechen has been translated into English by S.

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  • The Philosophie appeared in an abbreviated form as Grundriss d.

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  • Naturerklarung (1876); Vortrcige and A bhandlungen (1865-84); Religion and Philosophie bei den Romern (1866, ed.

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    0
  • Monographs on Erigena's life and works are numerous; see St Rene Taillandier, Scot Erigene et la philosophie scholastique (1843); T.

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  • Hence the fallacy of those who, like Bosanquet, or like Paulsen in his Einleitung in die Philosophie, represent the realistic theory of inference as if it meant that knowledge starts from ideas and then infers that ideas are copies of things, and who then object, rightly enough, that we could not in that case compare the copy with the original, but only be able to infer from idea to idea.

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  • Zeller, Die Philosophie der Griechen, ii.

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  • 465 sqq.), and specially Lehrbuch der Einleitung in die Philosophie (1813), and subsequently §§ 34 sqq.

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  • Harms' posthumously published Geschichte der Logik (1881) (Die Philosophie in ihrer Geschichte, ii.) was completed by the author only so far as Leibnitz.

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  • Systematische Philosophie (1907), is excellent, and touches on quite modern developments.

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  • Renouvier, Manuel de philosophie ancienne (Paris, 1 844); T.

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  • It was, however, Voltaire and the encyclopaedists who raised Bacon to the pinnacle of his fame in France, and hailed him as " le pere de la philosophie experimentale " (Lettres sur les Anglois).

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  • ii.; Damiron, Philosophie de XIX e siecle; Eugene Blum, "Essai sur Ballanche" (in Critique Philos., Both June 1887); Gaston Frainnet, Essai sur la philos.

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  • His chief works are: Essais de critique generale (1854-64), Science de la morale (1869), Uchronie (1876), Esquisse d'une classification syste'matique des doctrines philosophiques (1885-86), Philosophie analytique de l'histoire (1896-97), Histoire et solution des problemes me'taphysiques (1901); Victor Hugo: Le Poete (1893), Le Philosophe (1900); Les Dilemmes de la metaphysique pure (1901); Le Personnalisme (1903); Critique de la doctrine de Kant (1906, published by L.

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  • Seailles, La Philosophie de C. R.

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  • Arnal, La Philosophie religieuse de C. R.

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  • sur la philosophie d'Anaximandre," in the Memoires de l'acad.

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    0
  • See Jourdain, Recherches sur les traductions d'Aristote (2nd ed., 1843); Haureau, Philosophie scolastique (2nd ed., 1872), and works appended to art.

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    0
  • They include Deux chanceliers d'Angleterre, Bacon de Verulam et Saint Thomas de Cantorbery (Paris, 1836); Dante et la philosophie catholique au XIIIeme siècle (Paris, 1839; 2nd ed., enlarged 1845); Etudes germaniques (2 vols., Paris, 1847-1849), translated by A.

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    0
  • Schmekel, Die Philosophie der mittleren Stoa (Berlin.

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  • (Paris, 1889); Protois, Pierre Lombard, son époque, sa vie, ses ecrits, son influence (Paris, 1881); Kogel, Petrus Lombard in seiner Stellung zur Philosophie des Mittelalters (Leipzig, 1897); A.

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    0
  • ad fin.); P. Lafaist (Lafaye), Dissertation sur la philosophie atomistique (1833); L.

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  • For an account of his logic, see Prantl, Geschichte der Logik (1855-1870); for his philosophy, see Stockl, Geschichte der Philosophie des Mittelalters (1864-1866), vol.

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  • In his Misere de la philosophie (1847) he lays down the principle that social relationships largely depend upon modes of production, and therefore the principles, ideas and categories which are thus evolved are no more eternal than the relations they express, but are historical and transitory products.

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  • (1872); Der Gang der Kirche in Lebensbildern (1881, &c.); and Ober das Vencaltnis der alten Philosophie zum Christentum (1884).

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  • Plato's Republic and Hegel's Philosophie des Rechts are the most typical examples of a fully developed philosophy of the state, but in the earlier modern period the prolonged discussion of natural rights and the social contract must be regarded as a contribution to such a theory.

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  • Ladd, deal largely with this subject, which is also treated by Henry Sidgwick in his Philoso p hy, its Scope and Relations (1902), by Ernest Naville, La Definition de la philosophie (1894) and by Wundt in the introduction to his System der Philosophic (1889).

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    0
  • Brandis, Geschichte der griechisch-rOmischen Philosophie (Berlin, 1853), II.

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    0
  • 1; Zeller, Die Philosophie d.

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    0
  • 1893); Sir William Hamilton: The Philosophy of Perception; a translation of Schwegler's Geschichte der Philosophie (1867; 12th ed., 1893); Jerrold, Tennyson and Macaulay, &c. (1868); On Materialism (1868); As Regards Protoplasm (1869; 2nd ed., 1872); Lectures on the Philosophy of Law (1873); Burns in Drama (1878); Text-Book to Kant (1881); Philosophy in the Poets; Darwinianism; Workmen and Work (1894); What 1s Thought ?

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  • griechisch-romischen Philosophie (Berlin, 1853), ii.

    0
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  • Philosophie (1872); J.

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    0
  • His other works are: Systeme universel (8 vols., 1812); Du Sort de l'homme (3 vols., 1820); Cours de philosophie (8 vols., 1824), reproduced as Explication universelle (3 vols., 1826-1828); Jeunesse, maturite, religion, philosophie (1837), De la phrenologie, du magnetisme, et de la folie (1843).

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  • Another task to which he set himself immediately after his return to St Petersburg was the preparation of his Lettres a une princesse d'Allemagne sur quelques sujets de physique et de philosophie (3 vols., 1768-1772).

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  • 4to); Lettres a sine Princesse d'Allemagne sur quelques sujets de physique et de philosophie (St Petersburg, 1768-1772, in 3 vols.

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    0
  • Heinrich Ritter's Geschichte der Philosophie (1861); La Philosophie individualiste: etude sur Guillaume de Humboldt (1864); and an edition of the works of Madame d'Epinay (1869).

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  • In the Essai d'un traite complet de philosophie au point de vue du Catholicisme et du progres (1839-1840) Buchez endeavoured to co-ordinate in a single system the political, moral, religious and natural phenomena of existence.

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    0
  • Kuhn, Jacobi and die Philosophie seiner Zeit (1834); F.

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    0
  • Philosophie of Uberweg and Heinze (loth ed., Berlin, 1909; Eng.

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    0
  • In 1827 followed the Cours de l'histoire de la philosophie.

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    0
  • His speeches on this occasion were published in a tractate Defense de l'universite et de la philosophie (1844 and 1845).

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  • Metaphysique d'Aristote, suivi d'un essai de traduction des deux premiers livres; in 1836, Cours de philosophie professe a la faculte des lettres pendant l'annee 1818, and Ouvrages inedits d'Abelard.

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    0
  • From 1825 to 1840 appeared Cours de l'histoire de la philosophie, in 1829 Manuel de l'histoire de la philosophic de Tennemann, translated from the German.

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    0
  • In1840-1841we have Cours d'histoire de la philosophie morale au XVIII' siecle (5 vols.).

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    0
  • In 1841 appeared his edition of the Ouvres philosophiques de Maine-de-Biran; in 1842, Lecons de philosophie sur Kant (Eng.

    0
    0
  • Fuchs, Die Philosophie Victor Cousins (Berlin, 1847); J.

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    0
  • - (I) Philosophical: Grundlinien der Philosophie der Logik (Halle, 1826); Genesis des Wissens (Heidelberg, 1835).

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    0
  • 0111on, La Philosophie generale de J.

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    0
  • Krische, Forschungen auf dem Gebiete der alten Philosophie (1840); also works quoted under Stoics.

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    0
  • In 1846 he published his greatest work, the Systeme des contradictions economiques ou philosophie de la misere.

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  • 2 Hegel's ethical doctrine (expounded chiefly in his Philosophie des Rechts, 1821) shows a close affinity, and also a striking contrast, to Kant's.

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    0
  • latins de la Bibliotheque Nationale, passim; De Wulf, Histoire de la philosophie medievale (Louvain, 1900), pp. 220-221; article by H.

    0
    0
  • Cousin, C uvres inedites of Abelard (Paris, 1836); Haureau, Philosophie scolastique, i.

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    0
  • 14-38; StOckl's Geschichte der Philosophie des Mittelalters, ii.

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  • An abridgment of his philosophy was given by his friend, the celebrated traveller, Bernier (Abre'ge de la philosophie de Gassendi, 8 vols., 1678; 2nd ed., 7 vols., 1684).

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    0
  • Brett (Philosophy of Gassendi, London, 1908), Buhle (Geschichte der neuern Philosophie, iii.

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    0
  • I, 87-222), Damiron (Me'moires pour servir a l'histoire de philosophie au X VII e siecle), and P.F.Thomas (La Philosophie de Gassendi, Paris, 1889).

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    0
  • See also Ritter, Geschichte der Philosophie, x.

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    0
  • 266 seq.; Zeller, Die Philosophie d.

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    0
  • Baumgartner, Die Philosophie des Alanus de Insulis (Munster, 1896).

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    0
  • Ferri, L'Histoire de la philosophie en Italie au XIX e siècle (Paris, 1869); C. Werner, Die italienische Philosophic des zg.

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    0
  • Munk, Mélanges de philosophie juive et arabe (Paris, 1859) E.

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    0
  • Haureau, Philosophie scolastique (Paris, 1850), tome i.

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    0
  • The following are the most important: Allgemeine Pddagogik (1806; new ed., 1894); Hauptpunkte der Metaphysik (1808); Allgemeine praktische Philosophie (1808); Lehrbuch zur Einleitung in die Philosophie (1813; new ed.

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  • by Hartenstein, 1887); Psychologie als Wissenschaft (1824-1825); Allgemeine Metaphysik (1828-1829); Encyklopadie der Philosophie (2nd ed., 1841); Umriss padagogischer Vorlesungen (2nd ed., 1841); Psychologische Untersuchungen (1839-1840).

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    0
  • Allihn in Zeitschrift far exacte Philosophie (Leipzig, 1861), the organ of Herbart and his school, which ceased to appear in 1873.

    0
    0
  • Drobisch, Ober die Fortbildung der Philosophie durch Herbart (Leipzig, 1876); K.

    0
    0
  • Herbart: sein Leben and seine Philosophie (1903); A.

    0
    0
  • Zeller, Die Philosophie der Griechen (Eng.

    0
    0
  • Franck, La Philosophie mystique en France a la fin du dix-huitieme .siecle (1866); A.

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    0
  • In 1847 he took his degree as Agrege de Philosophie; that is to say, fellow of the university, and was offered a place as master in the lycee of Vendome.

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    0
  • Monod, Les maitres de l'histoire (1894); Allier, La Philosophie d'E.

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    0
  • Ueber Philosophie iiberhaupt, " On Philosophy generally," and Das Ende aller Dinge.

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    0
  • See also in general the latest edition of Ueberweg's Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie.

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    0
  • Caird, Critical Philosophy of Kant (2 vols., 1889); Chalybaus, Historische Entwickelung der spekulativen Philosophie von Kant bis Hegel (5th ed., 1860); H.

    0
    0
  • Chamberlain, Immanuel Kant (1909); Cousin, Lecons sur la philosophie de Kant (4th ed., 1864); B.

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    0
  • Kabitz, Studien zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Fichteschen Wissenschaftslehre aus der Kantischen Philosophie (1902); M.

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    0
  • sisa philosophie de la nature, essai critique sur ses frontières et son objet.

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  • His lectures ranged over a wide field: he delivered annually lectures on psychology and on logic (the latter including a survey of the entirety of philosophical research under the title Encyclopeidie der Philosophie), then at longer intervals lectures on metaphysics, philosophy of nature, philosophy of art, philosophy of religion, rarely on history of philosophy and ethics.

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  • In these lectures he expounded his peculiar views in a stricter form, and during the last decade of his life he embodied the substance of those courses in his System der Philosophie, of which only two volumes have appeared (vol.

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    0
  • von Hartmann, Lotze's Philosophie (Leipzig, 1888); O.

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    0
  • Lotze in seiner Stellung zu der durch Kant begriindeten neuesten Geschichte der Philosophie (Breslau, 1883; 2nd ed., 1894); R.

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    0
  • (Paris, 1891), and La Philosophie de Biran (Academie des sci.

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  • He was also the author of Science et philosophie (1886), which contains a well-known letter to Renan on "La Science ideale et la science positive," of La Revolution chimique, Lavoisier (1890), of Science et morale (1897), and of numerous articles in La Grande Encyclopedie, which he helped to establish.

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  • His other works were Traite de droit penal (1829); Cours de droit constitutionnel (1866-67), and Mélanges d'economie politique, d'histoire et de philosophie (2 vols., 1857).

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    0
  • P. Damiron, Histoire de la philosophie du X VII e siecle (Paris, 1846); C. B.

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    0
  • (3rd ed., Paris, 1838), Fragments de philosophie cartesienne (Paris, 1845), and in the Journal des savants (1860-1861); F.

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  • His other works are: La Me'taphysique et la science (1858), Essais de philosophie critique (1864), La Religion (1869), La Science et la conscience (1870), Le Nouveau Spiritualisme (1884), La Democratic liberale (1892).

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    0
  • Etude sur sa vie, sa philosophie, et ses ouvrages (Ghent, 1886); E.

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    0
  • 1 Mélanges de philosophie juive et arabe, p. 225.

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    0
  • Notwithstanding the elaborate disguise which fear of the powers that were led Descartes to throw over his real opinions, it is impossible to read the Principes de la philosophie without acquiring the conviction that this great philosopher held that the physical world and all things in it, whether living or not living, have originated by a process of evolution, due to the continuous operation of purely physical causes, out of a primitive relatively formless matter.'

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  • de Maupertuis 4 suggested a curious hypothesis as to the causes of variation, which he thinks may be sufficient to account for the origin of all animals 2 Principes de la philosophie, Troisieme partie, § 45.

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    0
  • The whole subject was properly introduced by Treviranus, 1 who in his large philosophical work devotes considerable space to the " geographical 1 Treviranus, Biologie oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur, vol.

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  • Among his numerous works may be mentioned Introduction a la philosophie d'Hegel (1855; 2nd ed., 1865); Probleme de la certitude (1845); Le Hegelianisme et la philosophie 0860; Mélanges philosophiques (1862); Essais de philosophie Hegelienne (1864); Strauss, l'ancienne et la nouvelle foi (1873), an attack upon Strauss's last "confession," written from the standpoint of an orthodox Hegelian; and a comprehensive work in Italian, Il Problema dell' Assoluto (Naples, 1872-82).

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  • His work was too deliberately unsystematic ("keine Philosophie ist meine Philosophie") ever to make him a power in philosophy.

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  • Subsequently, he published numerous works on various psychological and scientific subjects, of which the more important are: Der gesunde Menschenverstand vor den Problemen der Wissenschaft (1872); Der Kampf urns Dasein am Himmel (1874), republished in 1882 under the title Entwickelungsgeschichte des Weltalls; Die Planetenbewohner and die Nebularhypothese (1880); Die Philosophie der Mystik (1885); Justinus Kerner and die Seherin von Prevorst (1886); Die monistische Seelenlehre (1888); Die Mystik der alten Griechen (1888); Kants mystische Weltanschauung (1889); Studien aus dem Gebiete der Geheimwissenschaften (1890); Der Spiritismus (1893); Die Entdeckung der Seele durch die Geheimwissenschaften (1894-1895).

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    0
  • Harnack's History of Dogma; Haureau's Histoire de la philosophie scolastique, 225-238; Hermann Reuter, Geschichte der religiosen Aufkldrung des Mittelalters, vol.

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    0
  • Feuerbach, Pierre Bayle (1838); Damiron, La Philosophie en France au X VII e siècle (1858-1864); Sainte - Beuve, "Du genie critique et de Bayle" (Revue des deux mondes, 1st Dec. 1835); A.

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    0
  • He wrote a large number of books and articles upon philosophy, politics and ethics, on idealistic lines: La Famille, Histoire de la philosophie dans l'antiquite et dans le temps moderne, Histoire de la science politique, Philosophic de la Revolution Francaise, &c. They are not characterized by much originality of thought.

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  • He became professor of philosophy at Tubingen, and wrote numerous books on the history of philosophy: - fiber den Zusammenhang des Spinozismus mit der Cartesianischen Philosophie (1816); Handbuch zu Vorlesungen fiber die Logik (1818, 3rd ed., 1835); Der Spinozismus (1839); and Geschichte der Philosophic (1844).

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    0
  • His speculations were carefully criticized by Cousin (see his Cours d'histoire de la philosophie morale au dix-huitieme siecle, pt.

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    0
  • His chief works are Philosophie als Denken der Welt gem[iss dem Princip des kleinsten Kraftmasses (1876) and the Kritik der reinen Erfahrung (1888-1890).

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    0
  • Zart, Einfluss der englischen Philosophen seit Bacon auf die deutsche Philosophie des 'Ste p Jahrhunderts (Berlin, 1881).

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    0
  • Among his works are Kapital and Arbeit (1865); Der Wert des Lebens (1865); Natiirliche Dialektik (1865); Kritische Geschichte der Philosophie (1869); Kritische Geschichte der allgemeinen Principien der Mechanik (1872) - one of his most successful works; Kursus der Nationaland Sozialokonomie (1873); Kursus der Philosophie (1875), entitled in a later edition Wirklichkeitsphilosophie; Logik and Wissenschaftstheorie (1878); Der Ersatz der Religion durch Vollkommeneres (1883).

    0
    0
  • Ferri, Essai sur l'histoire de la philosophie en Italie au XIX e siècle (1869); Ueberweg's Hist.

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    0
  • For, though he declares at times " Le pyrrhonisme est le vrai," " Se moquer de la philosophie c'est vraiment philosopher," or, again, " Humiliezvous, raison impuissante, taisez-vous, nature imbecile," other passages might be quoted in which he assumes the validity of reason within its own sphere.

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  • With characteristic zeal and impetuosity Schelling had no sooner grasped the leading ideas of Fichte's amended form of the critical philosophy than he put together his impressions of it in his Ãœber die Möglichkeit einer Form der Philosophie überhaupt (1794).

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  • The more elaborate work, Vom Ich als Princip der Philosophie, oder g über das Unbedingte im menschlichen Wissen (1795), which, still remaining within the limits of the Fichtean idealism, however, exhibits unmistakable traces of a tendency to give the Fichtean method a more objective application, and to amalgamate with it Spinoza's more realistic view of things.

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    0
  • siècle (1846); Memoires a servir pour l'histoire de la philosophie en France au XVIII.

    0
    0
  • siècle (1858-1864); Cours de la philosophie; De la Providence (1849, 1850) .

    0
    0
  • The original sources of our knowledge of the Essenes have been mentioned at the beginning of this paper; the best modern discussions of them are to be found in such works as Zeller's Philosophie der Griechen, vol.

    0
    0
  • An excellent abridgment of the Sagesse is given in Tennemann's Philosophie, vol.

    0
    0
  • Munk, Mélanges (quoted above); Guttmann, Die Philosophie des Sal.-ibn Gabirol (Gottingen, 1889); D.

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    0
  • Beside his works on Plato, he wrote, on aesthetics,, System der Kunstlehre (1805) and Grundriss der Aesthetik (1807);, on the history of philosophy, Grundlinien der Philosophic (1807, republished 1809, but soon forgotten), Grundriss einer Geschichte der Philosophic (1807 and 1825), and Hauptmomente der Geschichte der Philosophie (1829); in philology, Grundlinien der Philologie (1808), and Grundlinien der Grammatik, Hermeneutik and Kritik (1808).

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  • They include Deux chanceliers d'Angleterre, Bacon de Verulam et Saint Thomas de Cantorbery (Paris, 1836); Dante et la philosophie catholique au XIIIeme siècle (Paris, 1839; 2nd ed., enlarged 1845); Etudes germaniques (2 vols., Paris, 1847-1849), translated by A.

    0
    0
  • (Paris, 1889); Protois, Pierre Lombard, son époque, sa vie, ses ecrits, son influence (Paris, 1881); Kogel, Petrus Lombard in seiner Stellung zur Philosophie des Mittelalters (Leipzig, 1897); A.

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    0
  • Even the best of his later books, the Philosophie ecossaise (4th ed., 1863), the Du vrai, du beau, et du bien (12th ed., 1872; Eng.

    0
    0
  • This Cours de philosophie appeared later in 1854 as Du vrai, du beau, et du bien.

    0
    0
  • Ferri, L'Histoire de la philosophie en Italie au XIX e siècle (Paris, 1869); C. Werner, Die italienische Philosophic des zg.

    0
    0
  • Munk, Mélanges de philosophie juive et arabe (Paris, 1859) E.

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    0
  • La philosophie de la nature, essai critique sur ses frontières et son objet.

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