Philosophic sentence example

philosophic
  • This is the period of individual and philosophic legislators.
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  • But how can we explain the formation of this poetic wisdom, which, albeit the work of ignorant men, has so deep and intrinsic a philosophic value?
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  • De Seze was a middle-aged lawyer with a philosophic turn of mind, and Madame Dudevant for two years kept up with him an intimate correspondence.
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  • Descartes accepted the philosophic mission, and in the spring of 1629 he settled in Holland.
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  • wanted Descartes to draw up a code for a proposed academy of the sciences, and to give her an hour of philosophic instruction every morning at five.
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  • For the philosophy of Aquinas, see Albert Stockl, Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters, ii.; B.
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  • passion for Homer, however he may have been disposed to greyer philosophic theory.
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  • Baumgarten did good service in severing aesthetics from the other philosophic disciplines, and in marking out a definite object for its researches.
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  • After his death, his pupils published a Philosophic Generalis (1770) and a Jus Naturae (1765), which he had left in manuscript.
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  • In earlier life he had been a zealous student of Kant and Hegel, and to the end he never ceased to cultivate the philosophic spirit; but he had little confidence in metaphysical systems, and sought rather to translate philosophy into the wisdom of life.
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  • Naïve materialism is due to a cause which still, perhaps, has no small power, the natural difficulty which persons who have had no philosophic training experience in observing and appreciating the importance of the immaterial facts of consciousness.
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  • He also delivered lectures, which were republished in his Philosophic des Lebens (1828) and in his Philosophie der Geschichte (1829).
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  • Kircher, Philosophic der Romantik (1906).
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  • by ecclesiastical authority, and during his whole life Siger was exposed to persecution both from the Church and from purely philosophic opponents.
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  • With Epiphanes, his son, he was the leader of a philosophic school basing its theories mainly upon Platonism, and striving to amalgamate Plato's Republic with the Christian ideal of human brotherhood.
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  • The narrower term "orchestration" is applied to the instrumentation of orchestral music. Since the most obvious differences of timbre are in those of various instruments, the art which blends and contrasts timbre is most easily discussed as the treatment of instruments; but we must use this term with philosophic breadth and allow it to include voices.
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  • Among the philosophic Jews, the Spanish Avicebron, in his Fons Vitae, expounds a curious doctrine of emanation.
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  • In his Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, Herder adopts Leibnitz's idea of a graduated scale of beings, at the same time conceiving of the lower stages as the conditions, of the higher.
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  • ' As Billion has well said: - " L'idee de ramener l'explication de tons les phenomenes a des principes mecaniques est assurement grande et belle,ce pas est le plus hardi qu'on peut faire en philosophic, et c'est Descartes qui l'a fait."
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  • Now, in 1794, there is evidence that Lamarck held doctrines which present a striking contrast to those which are to be found in the Philosophic zoologique, as the following passages show: " 685.
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  • The Recherches sur l'organisation des corps vivants, which sketches out Lamarck's doctrines, was published in 1802; but the full development of his views in the Philosophic zoologique did not take place until 1809.
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  • The Biologie and the Philosophic zoologique are both very remarkable productions, and are still worthy of attentive study, but they fell upon evil times.
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  • writings of Spencer embody the spirit of Descartes in the knowledge of our own day, and may be regarded as the Principes de la philosophic of the 19th century; while, whatever hesitation may not unfrequently be felt by less daring minds in following Haeckel in many of his speculations, his attempt to systematize the doctrine of evolution and to exhibit its influence as the central thought of modern biology, cannot fail to have a far-reaching influence on the progress of science.
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  • Reich, Weltanschauung and Menschenleben; Betrachtungen fiber die Philosophic J.
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  • We are here concerned only to examine the general principles of the school in its internal and external relations as forming a definite philosophic unit.
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  • During the time he was engaged on the Encyclopaedia he wrote a number of literary and philosophical works which extended his reputation and also exposed him to criticism and controversy, as in the case of his M�nges de Philosophic, d'Histoire, et de Litterature.
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  • One of his most important works was the Elements de Philosophic published in 1759, in which he discussed the principles and methods of the different sciences.
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  • in Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters, Bd.
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  • During the first years of the French Revolution Catherine's sympathy with philosophic liberalism rapidly evaporated, and the European sovereigns to the democratic movement; but she carefully abstained from joining the Coalition, and waited patiently for the moment when the complications in western Europe would give her an opportunity of solving independently the Eastern Question in accordance with Russian interests.
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  • At the same time he cannot be classed as in the highest sense a philosophic historian.
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  • In a similar manner, while he abhorred the French Revolution when it came, he seems to have had no apprehension, like Chesterfield, Burke, or even Horace Walpole, of its approach; nor does he appear to have at all suspected that it had had anything to do with the speculations of the philosophic coteries in which he had taken such delight.
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  • Without any marked originality, his writings are distinguished by lucidity of exposition and genuine philosophic spirit.
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  • He published also translations into French with commentaries of Hegel's works: Logique de Hegel (Paris, 1859; 2nd ed., 1874); Philosophie de la nature de Hegel (1863-65); Philosophic de l'esprit de Hegel (1867-69); Philosophie de la religion de Hegel (1876-78, incomplete).
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  • die Scholastik der letzten Jahrhunderte (Regensburg, 1861), and Stockl's Geschichte der Philosophic des Mittelalters, iii.
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  • The first is the philosophic side of mysticism; the second, its religious side.
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  • In the East, mysticism is not so much a specific phenomenon as a natural deduction from the dominant philosophic systems, and the normal expression of religious feeling in the lands in which it appears.
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  • There is no revulsion, as later, from dogma as such, nor is more stress laid upon one dogma than upon another; all are treated upon the same footing, and the whole dogmatic system is held, as it were, in solution by the philosophic medium in which it is presented.
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  • Embracing the whole philosophic movement under the name of "the Cartesian system," Reid detects its fundamental error in the unproved assumption shared by these thinkers "that all the objects of my knowledge are ideas in my own mind."
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  • 73 8 -75 8; C. Brechillet Jourdain, La Philosophic de St Thomas d'Aquin (1858), ii.
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  • His philosophic theory was identical with that of Pomponazzi, whose De immortalitate animi he defended and amplified in a treatise De mente humana.
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  • This fact, no doubt, should be taken into account in any detailed criticism of the philosophic work; it was taken up not as an end but as ancillary to a social and ethical system.
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  • Comte et Stuart Mill (3rd ed., Paris, 1877); Cauret, Philosophic de Stuart Mill (Paris, 1885); Gomperz, John S.
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  • He could not have been what he was unless two generations before him had laboured at the problem of finding an intellectual expression and a philosophic basis for Christianity (Justin, Tatian, Athenagoras, Pantaenus, Clement).
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  • After some years of struggling, during which he published his Geschichte der neueren Philosophic (2 vols., 1833-1837, 2nd ed.
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  • Hence his efforts, praiseworthy as they were from several points of view, and particularly so in regard to some details, failed to satisfy the philosophic taxonomer when generalizations and deeper principles were concerned, and in his practice in respect of certain technicalities of classification he was, in the eyes of the orthodox, a transgressor.
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  • Archytas may be quoted as an example of Plato's perfect ruler, the philosopher-king, who combines practical sagacity with high character and philosophic insight.
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  • 12), probably works then considered harmful (perhaps philosophic treatises), of which, however, nothing further is known.
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  • The Solomonic authorship has long since been given up: the historical setting of the work and its atmosphere - the silent assumption of monotheism and monogamy, the nonnational tone, the attitude towards kings and people, the picture of a complicated social life, the strain of philosophic reflection - are wholly at variance with what is known of the 10th century B.C. and with the Hebrew literature down to the 5th or 4th century B.C. The introduction of Solomon, the ideal of wisdom, is a literary device of the later time, and probably deceived nobody.
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  • Of the author nothing is known beyond the obvious fact that he was a man of wide observation and philosophic thought, of the Sadducean type in religion, but non-Jewish in his attitude toward life.
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  • Krause (q.v.) to his philosophic theory.
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  • Vindiciae Gallicae was the verdict of a philosophic Liberal on the development of the French Revolution up to the spring of 1791, and though the excesses of the revolutionists compelled him a few years after to express his entire agreement with the opinions of Burke, its defence of the "rights of man" is a valuable statement of the cultured Whig's point of view at the time.
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  • This theory' is in effect a theory of the use of classes and relations, and does not decide the philosophic question as to the sense (if any) in which a class in extension is one entity.
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  • Fechner, to whose doctrine of panpsychism he gave great prominence by his Einleitung in die Philosophic (1892; 7th ed., igloo; Eng.
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  • an offer too tempting to be refused, and between the following year and 1681 his residence in the philosophic seclusion of the Bibliotheque du Roi was only interrupted by two short visits to his native country.
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  • The philosophic endeavour to cognize the whole system of things by referring all events to their causes appears to him to be from the outset doomed to failure.
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  • The ancients generally cared but little for what we call a philosophic distribution of topics, and Tribonian seems to have merely followed the order of the Perpetual Edict which custom had already established, and from which custom would perhaps have refused to permit him to depart.
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  • In the field of philosophic speculation, Auguste Comte has had many disciples in Brazil.
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  • A lack of imagination and of the philosophic spirit prevented him from penetrating or drawing characters, but his analytical gift, joined to persevering toil and honesty of purpose enabled him to present a faithful account of ascertained facts and a satisfactory and lucid explanation of political and economic events.
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  • µovos, alone), the philosophic view of the world which holds that there is but one form of reality, whether that be material or spiritual.
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  • The controversy was between Nominalists and Realists; and, exclusively logical as the point may at first sight seem to be, adherence to one side or the other is an accurate indication of philosophic tendency.
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  • It was simply accepted by him in a broad way as the orthodox philosophic doctrine, and the doctrine which, as a sagacious churchman, he perceived to be most in harmony with Christian theology.
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  • Besides the numerous works quoted in articles on the individual philosophers, see Haureau, Histoire de la philosophic scolastique (2 vols., 1850; revised and expanded in 1870 as Histoire de la phil.
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  • Philosophic; Stock!, Gesch.
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  • At Turin he resumed his philosophic studies and his translation of Plato, but in 1858 refused a professorship of Greek at Pavia, under the Austrian government, only to accept it in 1859 from the Italian government after the liberation of Lombardy.
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  • Nieremberg has not the enraptured vision of St Theresa, nor the philosophic significance of Luis de Leon, and the unvarying sweetness of his style is cloying; but he has exaltation, unction, insight, and his book forms no unworthy close to a great literary tradition.
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  • This doctrine of philosophic quietism was common to his successors, until in the time of the sixth guru, Har Govind, it was found necessary to support the separate existence of Sikhism by force of arms, and this led to the militant and political development of the tenth and most powerful of the gurus, Govind Singh.
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  • It is important to note that in conceiving philosophic studies to be all one with historical studies and attaining to this unity in himself, he cultivated historical studies to an equal extent with purely theoretical and speculative studies, concentrating especially upon the history of thought and poetry.
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  • In the work of this review his chief collaborator was Giovanni Gentile, but Croce contributed most of the literary and much of the philosophic criticisms.
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  • RELATIVITY OF KNOWLEDGE, a philosophic tern which.
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  • Even at the very moment when Comte was congratulating himself on having thrown off the yoke, he honestly admits that Saint-Simon's influence has been of powerful service in his philosophic education.
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  • It is no detriment to Comte's fame that some of the ideas which he recombined and incorporated in a great philosophic structure had their origin in ideas that were produced almost at random in the incessant fermentation of Saint-Simon's brain.
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  • A little money was earned by an occasional article in Le Producteur, in which he began to expound the philosophic ideas that were now maturing in his mind.
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  • Philosophic assailants of Comtism have not always resisted the temptation to recall the circumstance that its founder was once out of his mind.
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  • This wise suggestion, still unfulfilled, was at first welcomed, according to Comte's own account, by Guizot's philosophic instinct, and then repulsed by his " metaphysical rancour."
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  • Mill, who had been greatly impressed by Comte's philosophic ideas; Mill admits that his own System of Logic owes many valuable J.
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  • When compared with such philosophic writing as Hume's, Diderot's, Berkeley's, then Comte's manner is heavy, laboured, monotonous, without relief and without light.
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  • The hope was not fulfilled, but a certain number of philosophic disciples gathered round Comte, and eventually formed themselves, under the guidance of the new ideas of the latter half of his life, into a kind of church, for whose use was drawn up the Positivist Calendar (1849), in which the names of those who had advanced civilization replaced the titles of the saints.
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  • The Comtist replies that the task is philosophic, and is not to be judged by the minute accuracies of science.
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  • And there is no more extraordinary thing in the history of opinion than the perversity with which Comte has succeeded in clothing a philosophic doctrine, so intrinsically conciliatory as his, in a shape that excites so little sympathy and gives so much provocation.
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  • Thirdly, there are a number of writings which, though inferior in interest to the others, may be said to supply the philosophic basis of his leading ideas.
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  • Herder's masterpiece, the Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, has the ambitious aim of explaining the whole of human development in close connexion with the nature of man's physical environment.
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  • Altogether this work is rich in suggestion to the philosophic historian and the anthropologist, though marked by much vagueness of conception and hastiness of generalization.
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  • However crude and hasty this critical investigation, it helped to direct philosophic reflection to the unity of mind, and so to develop the post-Kantian line of speculation.
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  • Kronenberg, Herders Philosophic nach ihrem Entwicklungsgang (1889); E.Kiihnemann, Herders Leben (1895); R.
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  • KARL HILLEBRAND (1829-1884), German author, was born at Giessen on the 17th of September 1829, his father Joseph Hillebrand (1788-1871) being a literary historian and writer on philosophic subjects.
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  • The philosophic principles and religious deductions of Dean Mansel he disliked as much as those of Newman, but he respected his arguments more.
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  • From about this time to 1860 he contributed a large number of articles to the Westminster Review, which contain the first sketches of his philosophic doctrines.
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  • To the technical philosophers, who strictly confine themselves to the logical collation and criticism of scientific methods, he has, contrariwise, not seemed philosophic enough.
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  • And though Spencer's general position - that it is absurd to suppose that organisms after being modified by their life should give birth to offspring showing no traces of such modifications - seems the more philosophic, yet it does not dispose of the facts which go to show that most of the evidence for the direct transmission of adaptations is illusory, and that beings are organised to minimize the effects of life on the reproductive tissues, so that the transmission of the effects of use and disuse, if it occurs, must be both difficult and rare - far more so than is convenient for Spencer's psychology.
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  • Deluge), we meet again with the primeval waters and the world-egg, and with the famous mythological tortoise-theory, 5 also found among the Algonkins (§ 2) - antique beliefs gathered up by the framers of philosophic systems, who felt the importance of maintaining such links with the distant past.
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  • With true philosophic insight he shows that France failed in the struggle not because of any inferiority in the ability and character of the men to whom the work was entrusted, but chiefly by reason of her despotic and protective regime.
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  • His other works are Istoria critica e filosofica del suicidio (1761); Delle conquiste celebri esaminate col naturale diritto delle genti (1763); Storia critica del moderno diritto di natura e delle genti (1789); and a few poems and philosophic comedies.
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  • But as a rule most of those who have adopted this view have done so without the full and patient examination which the matter demands; they have been misled by the difference in tone and style between the earlier and later writings, and have concluded that underlying this was a fundamental difference of philosophic conception.
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  • (a) The Kantian system had for the first time opened up a truly fruitful line of philosophic speculation, the transcendental consideration of knowledge, or the analysis of the conditions under which cognition is possible.
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  • Increasing numbers of Creoles came home for education, and though they rarely went beyond Spain, yet Spain itself was being permeated by the influence of French philosophic and economic writers.
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  • As regards the trend and results of Alcott's philosophic teaching, it must be said that, like Emerson, he was sometimes inconsistent, hazy or abrupt.
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  • Why cannot Christians attach themselves to the great philosophic and political authorities of the world?
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  • He is a man of the world, of philosophic culture, who accepts much of the influential Platonism of the time but has absorbed little of its positive religious sentiment.
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  • The most important of his numerous works are the Wissenschaftslehre, oder Versuch einer neuen Darstellung der Logik, advocating a scientific method in the study of logic (4 vols., Sulzbach, 1837); the Lehrbuch der Religionswissenschaft (4 vols., Sulzbach, 1834), a philosophic representation of all the dogmas of Roman Catholic theology; and Athanasia, oder Gri nde fiir die Unsterblichkeit der Seele (2nd ed., Mainz, 1838).
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  • de Gournay (1712-1759), who was also an earnest inquirer in the economic field; and round these two distinguished men was gradually formed the philosophic sect of the Economistes, or, as for distinction's sake they were afterwards called, the Physiocrates.
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  • The first investigates mathematical facts relating to the earth as a whole, its figure, dimensions, motions, their measurement, &c. The second part considers the earth as affected by the sun and stars, climates, seasons, the difference of apparent time at different places, variations in the length of the day, &c. The third part treats briefly of the actual divisions of_the surface of the earth, their relative positions, globe and map-construction, longitude, navigation, &c. Varenius, with the materials at his command, dealt with the subject in a truly philosophic spirit; and his work long held its position as the best treatise in existence on scientific and comparative geography.
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  • He lived chiefly at Rome, concerning himself with literary and philosophic studies and with the fortunes of his sons.
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  • Faith in the infallibility of the scholastic system was thus shaken, and the system itself was destroyed by the revival of philosophic nominalism, which had been discredited in the 11th century by the realism of the great schoolmen.
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  • Haureau, Histoire de la philosophic scolastique (Paris, 1872); F.
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  • A whole series of philosophic thinkers - Drtina, Foustka, Radl and Benes - followed in Masaryk's footsteps.
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  • On two occasions he stood for Sheffield as a "philosophic radical," but without success.
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  • In 1852 he published Discourses on Various Subjects; and finally summed up his philosophic views in the Letters on the Philosophy of the Human Mind (three series, 1855, 1858, 1863).
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  • To the attack upon the possibility of demonstration, inasmuch as every proof requires itself a fresh proof, it may quite fairly be retorted that the contradiction really lies in the demand 1 Much the same conclusion is reached in what is perhaps the ablest English exposition of pure philosophic scepticism since Hume - A.
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  • Balfour's Defence of Philosophic Doubt (1879).
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  • Balfour, Defence of Philosophic Doubt (1879).
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  • scholastischen Philosophic; J.
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  • 534) to express the general theory that the essential feature in philosophic speculation is continuity.
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  • His Institutio logicae, published in 1687, was very popular, and in his Grammatica linguae Anglicanae we find indications of an acute and philosophic intellect.
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  • This impartiality in his early studies is the key of his philosophic work, the dominant characteristic of which is comprehensiveness rather than originality.
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  • The subject of social wealth had always in some degree, and increasingly in recent times, engaged the attention of philosophic minds.
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  • Salvation is to the Hindu simply deliverance from the power of karma, and each of the philosophic systems has its own method of obtaining it.
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  • The history of this science, like that of all physical sciences, covers two parallel lines of development which have acted and reacted upon each other - namely, progress in exploration, research and discovery, and progress in philosophic interpretation.
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  • In future the philosophic method of palaeontology must continue to advance step by step with exploration; it would be a reproach to later generations if they did not progress as far beyond the philosophic status of Cuvier, Owen and even of Huxley and Cope, as the new materials represent an advance upon the material opportunities which came to them through exploration.
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  • This law of recapitulation, subsequently termed the " biogenetic law " by Ernest Haeckel, was the greatest philosophic contribution of this period, and proved to be not only one of the bulwarks of the evolution theory but one of the most important principles in the method of palaeontology.
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  • Melchior Neumayr, the great Austrian palaeontologist, especially extended the philosophic foundations of modern invertebrate palaeontology, and traced a number of continuous genetic series (formenreihe) in successive horizons.
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  • Alexander condemned in 1690 the doctrines of so-called philosophic sin, taught in the Jesuit schools.
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  • It was full time, for Schelling's undoubtedly overweening self-confidence had involved him in a series of disputes and quarrels at Jena, the details of which are important only as illustrations of the evil qualities in Schelling's nature which deface much of his philosophic work.
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  • (1809), and which carries out, with increasing tendency to mysticism, the thoughts of the previous work, Philosophic and Religion.
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  • Hence it has come about that Schelling remains for the philosophic student but a moment of historical value in the development of thought, and that his wor for the most part ceased now to have more than historic interest.
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  • But Schelling did not merely borrow, he had genuine philosophic spirit and no small measure of philosophic insight, and under all the differences of exposition which seem to constitute so many differing systems, there is one and the same philosophic effort and spirit.
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  • Fichtean idealism therefore at once stood out negatively, as abolishing the dogmatic conception of the two real worlds, subject and object, by whose interaction cognition and practice arise, and as amending the critical idea which retained with dangerous caution too many fragments of dogmatism; positively, as insisting on the unity of philosophical interpretation and as supplying a key to the form or method by which a completed philosophic system might be constructed.
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  • From Fichte he derived the ideal of a completed whole of philosophic conception and also the formal method to which for the most part he continued true.
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  • It is probable that the first of these forms is the primary one and the second in most cases a development from it due to (i.) the influence of other individual cults, (ii.) anthropomorphic tendencies, (iii.) the influence of chieftainship, hereditary and otherwise, (iv.) annual sacrifice of the sacred animal and mystical ideas connected therewith, (v.) syncretism, due either to unity of function or to a philosophic unification, (vi.) the desire to do honour to the species in the person of one of its members, and possibly other less easily traceable causes.
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  • His chief defect was an over-sensitiveness, leading to peevish and unreasonable behaviour in his private and official relations, to hasty and unbalanced judgments of persons and things that had given him annoyance, and to a despondency and discouragement which frustrated the great good he might have effected as a philosophic critic of public affairs.
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  • See Ritter and Preller, 552; Ritter's Geschichte der Philosophic; T.
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  • This extreme or "pure" hedonism regarded as a definite philosophic theory practically died with the Cyrenaics, though the same spirit has frequently found expression in ancient and modern, especially poetical, literature.
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  • Philosophic (1796), containing an interpretation of the Kantian Kritik in the manner of Salomon Maimon.
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  • The farther Manichaeism advanced into the West the more Christian and philosophic did it become.
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  • Philosophic differences are best felt by their practical effects: philosophically, Platonism is a philosophy of universal forms, Aristotelianism a philosophy of individual substances: practically, Plato makes us think first of the supernatural and the kingdom of heaven, Aristotle of the natural and.
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  • The philosophy of Plato is dialogue trying to become science; that of Aristotle science retaining traces of dialectic. Secondly as regards subjectmatter, even in his early writings Aristotle tends to widen the scope of philosophic inquiry, so as not only to embrace metaphysics and politics, but also to encourage rhetoric and poetics, which Plato tended to discourage or limit.
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  • Finally he died without completing some of his works, such as the Politics, and notably that work of his whole philosophic career and foundation of his whole philosophy - the Metaphysics - which, projected in his early criticism of Plato's philosophy of universal forms, gradually developed into his positive philosophy of individual substances, but remained unfinished after all.
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  • We must look for ethics to supply the corner-stone of metaphysics, and psychology is a necessary propaedeutic. The System der Philosophie (1899; 3rd ed., 1907) contained the results of Wundt's work up to that date, both in the domain of science and in the more strictly philosophic field.
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  • His principal works are (beside those quoted above): Entwurf des Systems der Philosophie (1804); System der Sittenlehre (18 r o); Das Urbild der Menschheit (1811); and Vorlesungen fiber das System der Philosophic (1828).
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  • Krauses (1839); P. Hohlfeld, Die Krausesche Philosophic (1879); A.
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  • For the philosophic application see Aristotle and Ethics.
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  • De Gerando's best-known work is his Histoire comparee des systemes de philosophic relativement aux principes des connaissauces humaines (Paris, 1804, 3 vols.).
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  • Meanwhile, philosophic forces to counteract materialism were weak.
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  • So Avenarius (q.v.) was no materialist, but only an empiricist anxious to reclaim man's natural view of the world from philosophic incrustations; yet when his Empiriokriticismus ends in nothing but environment, nervous system, and statements dependent on them, without soul, though within experience, he comes near to materialism, as Wundt has remarked.
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  • Kant and Fichte together became the most potent philosophic influences on European thought in the 19th century, because their emphasis was on man.
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  • Wundt, however, afterwards wrote an Einleitung in die Philosophic (1901; 4th ed., 1906), in which he speaks of realism in the form of ideal realism as the philosophy of the future.
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  • It was at this time also that he became known in the world of letters, the intellectual subtlety and literary capacity of his Defence of Philosophic Doubt (1879) suggesting that he might make a reputation as a speculative thinker.
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  • There are five faculties in the university - a legal, a medical, and a philosophic, and one of Roman Catholic and another Protestant theology.
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  • Between 1840 and 1850 he edited Swedenborg's treatises on The Doctrine of Charity, The Animal Kingdom, Outlines of a Philosophic Argument on the Infinite, and Hieroglyphic Key to Natural and Spiritual Mysteries.
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  • research, but also for original philosophic debate.
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  • Bertrand, Un Critique d'art dans l'antiquite: Philostrate et son ecole (1882); Bergk, "Die Philostrate" in Rini' Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der griechischen Philosophic and Astronomic (1883); Schmid, Atticismus iv.
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  • More generally, philosophic rationalism is opposed to empirical theories of knowledge, inasmuch as it regards all true knowledge as deriving deductively from fundamental elementary concepts.
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  • 011e-Laprune, La Philosophic de Malebranche (1870); M.
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  • Great efforts were made by William Beveridge (1637-1708), bishop of St Asaph, William Wake { 16 5 71 737), archbishop of Canterbury, John Sharp (1645-1 714), archbishop of York, Edmund Gibson (1669-1748), bishop of London, and afterwards by the philosophic Bishop Berkeley, and Bishop Butler, the famous author of the Analogy, to develop the colonial church and provide for the wants of the Indian tribes.
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  • In a philosophic point of view: we see that in these two theorems of Thales the first type of a natural law, i.e.
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  • Philosophic (the more important only can be quoted).- Huxley's Hume (a popular reproduction of Hume's views in " English Men of Letters " series); Sir L.
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  • As time passed, and custom created familiarity, his style, personal and literary, was seen to be the outward symbol of a firm resolve to preserve a philosophic calm, and of an enormous underlying energy which spent itself in labour, "ohne Hast, aber auch ohne Rast."
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  • The nature and extent of his studies, the solidity of his work, and the philosophic spirit which animates both, explain the enthusiasm with which the earlier volumes of Bancroft were received.
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  • In the nature and extent of his studies, in the solidity of his work, and in the philosophic spirit which animated his life he ranks as the foremost historian of the United States, and as an American historian second to none of his European contemporaries in the same line.
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  • Philosophic, Bd.
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  • By these events Hobbes was distracted from the orderly execution of his philosophic plan.
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  • A second protagonist of error, this time of Gentile philosophic criticism directed against fundamental Judaism, is Apion, the notorious anti-Jewish Alexandrine grammarian of Peter's day; while the role of upholder of astrological fatalism (Genesis) is played by Faustus, father of Clement, with whom Peter and Clement debate at Laodicea.
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  • Mill played a great part also in English politics, and was, more than any other man, the founder of what was called "philosophic radicalism."
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  • He was a philosophic radical in the strictest sense of the term.
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  • Hence, while Godwin thoroughly approved of the philosophic schemes of the precursors of the Revolution, he was as far removed as Burke himself from agreeing with the way in which they were carried out.
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  • But it gave cohesion and voice to philosophic radicalism; it was the manifesto of a school without which liberalism of the present day had not been.
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  • He appears to have enjoyed no great reputation as an architect, and, with philosophic contentment, records that he possessed but little fortune.
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  • The "philosophic" declamations perhaps constituted its chief interest for the general public, and its significance as a contribution to democratic propaganda.
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  • Side by side there grew up an Alexandrian church, philosophic, disputative, ambitious, the very centre of Christian learning, and an Egyptian church, ascetic, contemplative, mystical.
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  • The two at length influenced one another; still we can generally trace the philosophic teachers to a Greek origin, the mystics to an Egyptian.
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  • Since Ewald no one had written Danish lyrical verse so exquisitely as Schack von Staffeldt, and the depth and scientific precision of his thought won him a title which he has preserved, of being the first philosophic poet of Denmark.
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  • His mythological or pastoral dramas, his great satiric epos of Adam Homo (1841-1848), his comedies, his lyrics, and above all his noble philosophic tragedy of Kalanus, prove the immense breadth of his compass, and the inexhaustible riches of his imagination.
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  • Although the Makhzan is mainly devoted to philosophic meditations, the propensity of Nizämi's genius to purely epic poetry, which was soon to assert itself in a more independent form, makes itself felt even here, all the twenty chapters being interspersed with short tales illustrative of the maxims set forth in each.
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  • 2 Pragmatism, as a general philosophic doctrine or mental attitude, can only be understood as part of a reaction against the intellectualistic speculation which has characterized most of modern metaphysics.
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  • In its logical aspect pragmatism originates in a criticism of fundamental conceptions like "truth," "error," "fact" 2 The New English Dictionary quotes for nine distinct senses of the word, of which the philosophic is the eighth.
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  • All these logical and philosophic developments were popularly expounded by James in his Pragmatism (1907), followed by A Pluralistic Universe (1908) and The Meaning of Truth (1909).
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  • There is already a large controversial literature in the philosophic journals, and two critical works appeared in 1909: J.
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  • In 1611 he joined the Minim Friars, and devoted himself to philosophic teaching in various convent schools.
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  • Between them these first two collections contain 186 dialogues, in which the Buddha, or in a few cases one of his leading disciples, is represented as engaged in conversation on some one of the religious, or philosophic, or ethical points in that system which we now call Buddhism.
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  • In depth of philosophic insight, in the method of Socratic questioning often adopted, in the earnest and elevated tone of the whole, in the evidence they afford of the most cultured thought of the day, these dialogues constantly remind the reader of the dialogues of Plato.
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  • The limitations of the test were the limitations of the educational and philosophic ideals of the time, in which a dogmatic basis was presupposed to all knowledge and criticism was limited to the superstructure.
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  • At Frankfort, meanwhile, the philosophic ideas of Hegel first assumed the proper philosophic form.
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  • The personal element gives an undue prominence to recent phenomena of the philosophic atmosphere.
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  • They rejected as an illegitimate interpolation the eternal subject of development, and, instead of one continuing God as the subject of all the predicates by which in the logic the absolute is defined, assumed only a series of ideas, products of philosophic activity.
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  • Its three divisions are the " subjective mind " (psychology), the " ob jective mind " (philosophic jurisprudence, moral and ° mi philosophy of artt, h religionand philosophy).
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  • From the philosophic movement, in which Schiller and the Romanticists were so deeply involved, Goethe stood apart.
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  • Caro, La Philosophic de Goethe (1866; 2nd ed., 1870); R.
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  • It was Ibn-Tufail (Abubacer), the philosophic vizier of Yusef, who introduced Averroes to that prince, and Avenzoar (Ibn-Zuhr), the greatest of Moslem physicians, was his friend.
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  • His principal works are: Briefe iiher den neuesten Idealismus (1801); Versuch fiber die Principien der philosophischen Erkenntniss (1801); Fundamentalphilosophie (1803); System der theoretischen Philosophic (1806-1810), System der praktischen Philosophie (1817-1819); Handbuch der Philosophic (1820; 3rd ed., 1828); Logik oder Denklehre (1827); Geschichte der Philos.
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  • There were philosophic and philanthropic elements in his political faith which will always lead some to class him as a visionary and fanatic; but although he certainly indulged at times in dreams at which one may still smile, he was not, properly speaking, a visionary; nor can he with justice be stigmatized as a fanatic. He felt fervently, was not afraid to risk all on the conclusions to which his heart and his mind led him, declared himself with openness and energy; and he spoke and even wrote his conclusions, how ever bold or abstract, without troubling to detail his reasoning or clip his off-hand speculations.
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  • But all these philosophic discussions, belonging for the most part to an author less than secondary among the Epicureans, fall short of the high expectations excited by the first discovery of the library.
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  • In the meanwhile Grote had finally decided his philosophic and political attitude.
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  • After serving in three parliaments, he resigned in 1841, by which time his party ("the philosophic Radicals") had dwindled away.
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  • In politics Grote belonged to the "philosophic Radicals" of the school of J.
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  • The maturity of its philosophic outlook tends to give it a place relatively advanced in the Platonic canon.
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  • Despite the fact that their philosophic interests lay rather in ethics and physics, their activity The in what they classified as the third department of specula Stoics.
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  • There is a Stoic element in the ethic of the Pauline epistles, but the theological affinity that the Johannine gospel, with its background of philosophic ideas, exhibits to Platonic and Neoplatonist teaching caused the effort at absorption to be directed rather in that direction.
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  • The flight of Byzantine scholarship westward in the 15th century revealed, and finally, that the philosophic content of the Scholastic teaching was as alien from Aristotle as from the spirit of the contemporary revolt of science, with its cry for a new medicine, a new nautical astronomy and the like.
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  • The sense in which the presupposition of a further reference is to be interpreted and in which justificatory notions for it can be adduced is only determinable in a philosophic system as a whole, where feeling has a place as well as thought, value equally with validity.
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  • 0E6s, god, and Qoybia, wisdom), a term used to denote those forms of philosophic and religious thought which claim a special insight into the Divine nature and its constitutive moments or processes.
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  • - Theosophy is thus differentiated at once from all philosophic systems which attempt to rise from an analysis of phenomena to a knowledge, more or less adequate, of the existence and nature of God.
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  • The histories of all the great religious and philosophic movements show them as developments of an evolutionary process, arriving at their accepted dogmas through long periods of contention between numerous tendencies.
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  • His first published work, Historische Entwickelung der spekulaliven Philosophic von Kant bis Hegel (1837, 5th ed.
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  • Thus the doctrine of the Trinity satisfied at once the philosophic intelligence of scholars and the religious needs of Christians.
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  • Its doctrinal form is the philosophic statement of beliefs held by the common people, who had little interest in theology, but whose faith centred in Jesus.
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  • In general we may say then that the Trinity takes on four differing aspects in the Christian church: in its more common and easily apprehended form as three Gods, in its ecclesiastical form as a mystery which is above reason to be accepted by faith, in its philosophic form as the highest reason which solves the ultimate problems of the universe, and finally, as a mode by which the spirit through an emotional content enters into communion with God himself.
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  • Officially then the Church identifies Christianity with the position outlined above, and hostile critics agree to this identification, rejecting the faith in the name of philosophic and scientific truth.
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  • It is mere prejudice to deny that Mandeville had considerable philosophic insight; at the same time he was mainly negative or critical, and, as he himself said, he was writing for "the entertainment of people of knowledge and education."
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  • The same critical and philosophic spirit working on the materials of history produced a new science, the honours of which belong to Machiavelli.
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  • The history of utilitarianism (if we may use the term for the earlier history of a philosophic tendency which appeared long before the invention of the term) falls into three divisions, which may be termed theological, political and evolutional respectively.
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  • These principles of Bentham were the inspiration of that most important school of practical English thinkers, the Philosophic Radicals of the early 19th century; these were the principles on which they relied in those attacks upon legal and political abuses.
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  • Volta followed up these observations with rare philosophic insight and experimental skill.
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  • The most interesting, and in many respects the most remarkable, is the philosophic romance, the New Atlantis, a description of an ideal state in which the principles of the new philosophy are carried out by political machinery and under state guidance, and where many of the results contemplated by Bacon are in imagination attained.
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  • The classification in the Organum, however, not only has the author's sanction, but has received the stamp of historical acceptation; and comparison of the earlier notices, though a point of literary interest, has no important philosophic bearing.
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  • He stands between the earlier philosophic deists and the later propagandists of ' Paine's school, and "seems to have been the first freethought lecturer" (J.
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  • Or philosophic theology may penetrate to an abstract conception of deity, like the Babylonian 'iluth, or the Vedic devatva and asuratva; and some seer may have the courage and insight to formulate the principle that " the great asuratva of the devas is one " (R.
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  • In vain did he watch for any sign of recognition of his philosophic genius.
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  • It is often said that a philosophic system cannot be rightly understood without reference to the character and circumstances of the philosopher.
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  • Ribot, La Philosophic de Schopenhauer (9th ed., 1903); H.
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  • Bamberger, Das Tier in der Philosophic Schopenhauers (1897) Kuno Fischer, Schopenhauer (in the Gesch.
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  • Transfused into their writings, his spirit has had a large share in moulding the philosophic thought of the 19th century, and it has also been widely influential beyond the schools.
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  • 1037; 428 A.H.), himself a Persian by birth and author of pretty winesongs, moral maxims, psychological tracts, and a manual of philosophic science, the Diinis/znama-i-Aldi, in his native tongue.
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  • l-Khair of Mahna in Khorgsgn (9681049; 357440 A.H.), the founder of that specific form of the rubai which gives the most concise expression to religious and philosophic aphorisms a form which was further developed by the great freethinker OMAR B.
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  • As Carlyle has told in his Life of Sterling, the poet's distinction, in the eyes of the younger churchmen with philosophic interests, lay in his having recovered and preserved his Christian faith after having passed through periods of rationalism and Unitarianism, and faced the full results of German criticism and philosophy.
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  • Early in life, too, he met with the doctrines of Jacob Behmen, of whom, in the Biographia Literaria, he speaks with affection and gratitude as having given him vital philosophic guidance.
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  • Inasmuch as he finally followed in philosophy the mainly poetical or theosophic movement of Schelling, which satisfied neither the logical needs appealed to by Hegel nor the new demand for naturalistic induction, Coleridge, after arousing a great amount of philosophic interest in his own country in the second quarter of the century, has ceased to "make a school."
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  • In his ethics, as in his theology, Butler had constantly in view a' certain class of adversaries, consisting partly of the philosophic few, partly of the fashionably educated many, who all participated in one common mode of thinking.
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  • On the view taken as to his alleged complicity in the conspiracy of 1599 depends the vexed question as to whether this system was a philosophic dream, or a serious attempt to sketch a constitution for Naples in the event of her becoming a free city.
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  • 1870), and Die logische Frage in Hegels System (1843), important factors in the reaction against Hegel; Historische Beitrdge zur Philosophic (1846-1867), in three volumes, the first of which contains a history of the doctrine of the Categories; Das Naturrecht auf dem Grunde der Ethik (1860); Liscken im Volkerrecht 0.870), a treatise on the defects of international law, occasioned by the war of 1870.
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  • He published Les Grands Types de l'humanite (1875) and Cours de philosophic premiere (1889).
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  • Philosophic (Bonn, 1862-1864); Ed.
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  • In 1847 he gave his first lecture at St Thomas's Hospital, on the "Aims and Philosophic Method of Pathological Research," followed a little later by lectures on general pathology in relation to the principles of diagnosis, and the treatment of disease.
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  • 9), Livy is by no means a philosophic historian.
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  • But in spite of all this we are forced to acknowledge that, as a master of what we may perhaps call "narrative history," he has no superior in antiquity; for, inferior as he is to Thucydides, to Polybius, and even to Tacitus in philosophic power and breadth of view, he is at least their equal in the skill with which he tells his story.
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  • Early in the ist century B.C. all the philosophic schools began to be invaded by a spirit of eclecticism.
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  • His language, expressing thoughts by conventional articulate sounds, is the same in essential principle as the most cultivated philosophic dialect, only less exact and copious.
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  • Lastly, there is usually to be discerned amongst such lower races a belief in unseen powers pervading the universe, this belief shaping itself into an animistic or spiritualistic theology, mostly resulting in some kind of worship. If, again, high savage or low barbaric types be selected, as among the North American Indians, Polynesians, and Kaffirs of South Africa, the same elements of culture appear, but at a more advanced stage, namely, a more full and accurate language, more knowledge of the laws of nature, more serviceable implements, more perfect industrial processes, more definite and fixed social order and frame of government, more systematic and philosophic schemes of religion and a more elaborate and ceremonial worship. At intervals new arts and ideas appear, such as agriculture and pasturage, the manufacture of pottery, the use of metal implements and the device of record and communication by picture writing.
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  • As he died on the 14th of December 1788 he left the reputation of a philanthropic and "philosophic" king.
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  • There, in the great cathedral school of Notre-Dame, he sat for a while under the teaching of William of Champeaux, the disciple of St Anselm and most advanced of Realists, but, presently stepping forward, he overcame the master in discussion, and thus began a long duel that issued in the downfall of the philosophic theory of Realism, till then dominant in the early Middle Age.
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  • Edwards's reputation as a thinker is chiefly associated with his treatise on the Will, which is still sometimes called " the one large contribution that America has made to the deeper philosophic thought of the world."
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  • It is not till we come to Aristotle - the encyclopaedist of the ancient world - that we find a demarcation of the different philosophic disciplines corresponding, in the main, to that still current.
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  • Similarly, logic, so far as it is an art of thought or a doctrine of fallacies, and ethics, so far as it is occupied with a natural history of impulses and moral sentiments, do neither of them belong, except by courtesy, to the philosophic province.
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  • Without prejudice, then, to the claim of epistemology to constitute the central philosophic discipline, we may simply note its liability to be pressed too far.
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  • Ladd, deal largely with this subject, which is also treated by Henry Sidgwick in his Philoso p hy, its Scope and Relations (1902), by Ernest Naville, La Definition de la philosophie (1894) and by Wundt in the introduction to his System der Philosophic (1889).
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  • When they, the immediate successors of Plato, rejected their master's ontology and proposed to themselves as ends mere classificatory sciences which with him had been means, they bartered their hope of philosophic certainty for the tentative and provisional results of scientific experience.
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  • Among these may be mentioned the Lehrbuch der griechischen Antiquitciten (new ed., 1889) dealing with political, religious and domestic antiquities; the Geschichte and System der Platonischen Philosophic (1839), unfinished; an edition of the Platonic Dialogues (6 vols., 1851-1853); and Culturgeschichte der Griechen and Reimer (1857-1858), published after his death by C. G.
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  • The prologue is an organic portion of the Gospel and not a preface written to conciliate a philosophic public. It assumes that the Logos idea is familiar in Christian theology, and vividly summarizes the main features of the Philonic conception - the eternal existence of the Logos, its relation to God (7rpds rem OE 6v, yet distinct), its creative, illuminative and redemptive activity.
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  • Connected with these doctrines was their famous theory of the "rehabilitation of the flesh," deduced from the philosophic theory of the school, which was a species of Pantheism, though they repudiated the name.
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  • He sat at first on the Extreme Left; but his philosophic and critical temperament was not in harmony with the recklessness of French radicalism, and his attitude towards political questions underwent a steady modification, till the close of his life saw him the foremost representative of moderate republicanism.
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  • A Traite de politique (published 1866), which may be considered as the completion of his Traite de philosophic, was the most important of the productions of the last period of his life.
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  • Jacobi kept up his interest in literary and philosophic matters by an extensive correspondence, and his mansion at Pempelfort, near Dusseldorf, was the centre of a distinguished literary circle.
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  • Here too appeared in part the first of his philosophic works, Edward Allwills Briefsammlung (1776), a combination of romance and speculation.
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  • This was followed in 1779 by Woldemar, a philosophic novel, of very imperfect structure, but full of genial ideas, and giving the most complete picture of Jacobi's method of philosophizing.
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  • During the same period the excitement caused by the accusation of atheism brought against Fichte at Jena led to the publication of Jacobi's Letter to Fichte (1799), in which he made more precise the relation of his own philosophic principles to theology.
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  • In i 8 i r appeared his last philosophic work, directed against Schelling specially (Von den gottlichen Dingen and ihrer Offenbarung), the first part of which, a review of the Wandsbecker Bote, had been written in 1798.
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  • The philosophy of Jacobi is essentially unsystematic. A certain fundamental view which underlies all his thinking is brought to bear in succession upon those systematic doctrines which appear to stand most sharply in contradiction to it, and any positive philosophic results are given only occasionally.
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  • It is a mere prejudice of philosophic thinkers, a prejudice which has descended from Aristotle, that mediate or demonstrated cognition is superior in cogency and value to the immediate perception of truths or facts.
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  • trans., 3rd ed., Edinburgh, 1854), and the Philosophic de Locke (4th ed., 1861) were simply matured revisions of his lectures during the period from 1815 to 1820.
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  • From 1825 to 1840 appeared Cours de l'histoire de la philosophie, in 1829 Manuel de l'histoire de la philosophic de Tennemann, translated from the German.
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  • Its memories perhaps encouraged the bias against public schools which afterwards disturbed his philosophic calm in his Thoughts on Education.
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  • Marx, however, always greatly detested Proudhon and his doctrines, and attacked him violently in his Misere de la philosophic. Property and capital are defined and treated by Proudhon as the power of exploiting the labour of other men, of claiming the results of labour without giving an equivalent.
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  • For this, reference must be made to special articles on philosophic schools, writers and terms.
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  • Still, the enunciation of the moral precepts of Pythagoras appears to have been dogmatic, or even prophetic, rather than philosophic, and to have been accepted by his disciples with an unphilosophic reverence as the ipse dixit 1 of the master.
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  • For this purpose was needed the concentration of a philosophic intellect of the first order on the problems of practice.
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  • Plato's philosophy is now concerned with the whole universe of being; yet the ultimate object of his philosophic contemplation is still " the good," now conceived as the ultimate ground of all being and knowledge.
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  • It is in contemplating the abstract reality which concrete things obscurely exhibit, the type or ideal which they imperfectly imitate, that the true life of the mind in man must consist; and as man is most truly man in proportion as he is mind, the desire of one's own good, which Plato, following Socrates, held to be permanent and essential in every living thing, becomes in its highest form the philosophic yearning for knowledge.
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  • This yearning, he held, springs - like more sensual impulses - from a sense of want of something formerly possessed, of which there remains a latent memory in the soul, strong in proportion to its philosophic capacity; hence it is that in learning any abstract truth by scientific demonstration we merely make explicit what we already implicitly know; we bring into clear consciousness hidden memories of a state in which the soul looked upon Reality and Good face to face, before the lapse that imprisoned her in an alien body and mingled her true nature with fleshly feelings and impulses.
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  • Accordingly, in the Republic he has no objection to trying the question of the intrinsic superiority of philosophic or virtuous' life by the standard of pleasure, and argues that the philosophic (or good) man alone enjoys real pleasure, while the sensualist spends his life in oscillating between painful want and the merely neutral state of painlessness, which he mistakes for positive pleasure.
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  • Still more 1 It is highly characteristic of Platonism that the issue in this dialogue, as originally stated, is between virtue and vice, whereas, without any avowed change of ground, the issue ultimately discussed is between the philosophic life and the life of vulgar ambition or sensual enjoyment.
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  • In the Philebus, however, though a more careful psychological analysis leads him to soften down the exaggerations of this attack on sensual pleasure, the antithesis of knowledge and pleasure is again sharpened, and a desire to depreciate even good pleasures is more strongly shown; still even here pleasure is recognized as a constituent of that philosophic life which is the highest human good, while in the Laws, where the subject is more popularly treated, it is admitted that we cannot convince man that the just life is the best unless we can also prove it to be the pleasantest.
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  • These Aristotle attempts neither to exclude from the philosophic conception of well-being nor to include in his formal definition of it.
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  • His virtues are not arranged on any clear philosophic plan; the list shows no serious attempt to consider human life exhaustively, and exhibit the standard of excellence appropriate to its different departments or aspects.
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  • It was clear that if philosophic hedonism was to be established on a broad and firm basis, it must in its notion of good combine what the plain man naturally sought with what philosophy could plausibly offer.
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  • When further he teaches that the attainment of happiness depends almost entirely upon insight and right calculation, fortune having very little to do with it; that the pleasures and pains of the mind are far more important than those of the body, owing to the accumulation of feeling caused by memory and anticipation; and that an indispensable condition of mental happiness lies in relieving the mind of all superstitions, which can be effected only by a thorough knowledge of the physical universe - he introduces an ample area for the exercise of the philosophic intellect.
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  • 1 The genial fellowship of the philosophic community that he collected in his garden remained a striking feature in the traditions of his school; and certainly the ideal which Stoics and Epicureans equally cherished of a brotherhood of sages was most easily realized on the Epicurean plan of withdrawing from political and dialectical conflict to simple living and serene leisure, in imitation of the gods apart from the fortuitous concourse of atoms that we call a world.
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  • It is only the lowest form of virtue - the " civic " virtue of Plato's Republic - that is employed in regulating those animal impulses whose presence in the soul is due to its mixture with the body; higher or philosophic wisdom, temperance, courage and justice are essentially purifications from this contagion; until finally the highest mode of goodness is reached, in which the soul has no community with the body, and is entirely turned towards reason.
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  • that the first attempt was made to offer a systematic exposition of Christian morality; and nine centuries more had passed away before a genuinely philosophic intellect, trained by a full study of Aristotle, undertook to give complete scientific form to the ethical doctrine of the Catholic church.
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  • Before, however, we take a brief survey of the progress of systematic ethics from Ambrose to Thomas Aquinas, it may be well to examine the chief features of the new moral consciousness that had spread through Graeco-Roman civilization, and was awaiting philosophic synthesis.
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  • We may notice, in the first place, that the conception of morality as a code which, if not in itself arbitrary, is yet to be accepted by men with unquestioning submission, tends naturally to bring into prominence the virtue of obedience to authority; just as the philosophic view of goodness as the realization of reason gives a special value to self-determination and independence (as we see more clearly in the post-Aristotelian schools where ethics is distinctly separated from politics).
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  • In Plato's exposition of the different virtues there is no mention whatever of benevolence, although his writings show a keen sense of the importance of friendship as an element of philosophic life, especially of the intense personal affection naturally arising between master and disciple.
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  • circa 810-8 P Y g (Q) (810-877) the chief philosophic element is supplied by the influence of Plato and Plotinus, transmitted through an unknown author of the 5th century, who assumed the name of Dionysius the Areopagite.
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  • Whatever philosophic quality is to be found in the work of Thomas belongs to it in spite of, not in consequence of, its method.
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  • As the properly philosophic interest of scholasticism faded in the 14th and 15th centuries, the quasi-legal treatment of morality came again into prominence, borrowing a good deal of matter from Thomas and other schoolmen.
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  • There is no logical connexion between this theory and the doctrine that appetite of desire has always pleasure (or the absence of pain) for its object; but a materialist, framing a system of psychology, will naturally direct his attention to the impulses arising out of bodily wants, whose obvious end is the preservation of the agent's organism; and this, together with a philosophic wish to simplify, may lead him to the conclusion that all human impulses are similarly self-regarding.
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  • He can hardly be called a " moralist "; and though it is impossible to deny him a considerable share of philosophic penetration, his anti-moral paradoxes have not even apparent coherence.
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  • Mill afterwards made popular in England, the influence of Auguste Comte (Philosophic positive, 182g-1842, and Systeme de politique positive, 1851-1854) appears as the chief modifying element.
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  • The philosophic value, the sincerity, the breadth and depth of his treatment of moral facts and institutions have been fully recognized.
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  • A uniform edition of his works was begun in 1908, see Revue de theologie et philosophic (Lausanne, 1908, 234 sqq.).
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  • While he preached every Sunday, he also gradually took up in his lectures in the university almost every branch of theology and philosophy - New Testament exegesis, introduction to and interpretation of the New Testament, ethics (both philosophic and Christian), dogmatic and practical theology, church history, history of philosophy, psychology, dialectics (logic and metaphysics), politics, pedagogy and aesthetics.
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  • Cramaussel, La Philosophic religieuse de Schleiermacher (1909).
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  • Hamberger, Cardinalpunkte der Baaderschen Philosophic (1855); Fundamentalbegriffe von F.
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  • In short, the ordinary belief in plurality and motion seemed to him to involve fatal inconsistencies, whence he inferred that Parmenides was justified in distinguishing the mutable movable Many from the 1 See Zeller, Die Philosophic d.
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  • Ferri, L'Histoire de la philosophie en Italie au XIX e siècle (Paris, 1869); C. Werner, Die italienische Philosophic des zg.
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  • Mariano, La Philosophic contemporaine en Italie (1866); R.
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  • He might exile their persons; but their doctrines, supported by the scientific and philosophic work of Newton and Leibnitz, were to triumph over Church and religion in the 18th century.
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  • Two distinct of the currents of disaffection, one economic, the other R0h1 philosophic, had for long been pervading the nation.
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  • But the other, the philosophic current, had been set going in the 18th century; and the policy of despotism tempered by privilege had been criticized in the name of liberty as no longer justifying itself by its services to the state.
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  • Though the details of Comte's philosophic structure, e.g.
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  • that embody our judgments of approval and disapproval; the philosophic treatment of these conceptions falls to Aesthetic.
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  • For an estimate of his work and his place among the philosophers of the 18th century see Victor Cousin's Philosophic sensualiste (1863); P. L.
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  • Ueber den Gebrauch teleologischer Prinzipien in der Philosophic, " On the Employment of Teleological Principles in Philosophy."
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  • Historians are accustomed to divide the general current of speculation into epochs or periods marked by the dominance of some single philosophic conception with its systematic evolution.
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  • The great work of Kant absolutely closed the lines of speculation along which the philosophical literature of the 18th century had proceeded, and substituted for them a new and more comprehensive method of regarding the essential problems of thought, a method which has prescribed the course of philosophic speculation in the present age.
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  • It opens up a new series of questions upon which subsequent philosophic reflection has been directed, and gives to them the form, under which it is possible that they should be fruitfully regarded.
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  • With the Cartesian movement as a whole he shows little acquaintance and no sympathy, and his own philosophic conception is never brought into relation with the systematic treatment of metaphysical problems characteristic of the Cartesian method.
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  • The fundamental question for philosophic reflection presented itself to him in the form which it had assumed in the hands of Locke and his successors in England, of Leibnitz and the Leibnitzian school in Germany.
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  • Nevertheless the full bearings of the philosophic question were somewhat obscured by the comparatively limited fashion in which it was then regarded.
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  • However widely the two systems differ in details, they are at one in a certain fundamental conception which dominates the whole course of their philosophic construction.
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  • in the attempt to carry it out systematically, and thus to note with precision the special problems presented to Kant at the outset of his philosophic reflections.
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  • In his early essays he had rightly drawn the distinction between mathematical demonstration and philosophic proof, referring the certainty of the first to the fact that the constructions were synthetic in character and entirely determined by the action of constructive imagination.
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  • The position assigned to logic by Kant is not, in all probability, one which can be defended; indeed, it is hard to see how Kant himself, in consistency with the critical doctrine of knowledge, could have retained many of the older logical theorems, but the precision with which the position was stated, and the sharpness with which logic was marked off from cognate philosophic disciplines, prepared the way for the more thoughtful treatment of the whole question.
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  • Seth Pringle-Pattison, The Development from Kant to Hegel (1882); and, on Kant's philosophy of religion, in The Philosophic Radicals (1907); F.
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  • Valentiner, Kant and die platonische Philosophic (1904); C. Vorlander, Kant, Schiller, Goethe (1907); G.
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  • In this connection, the agenda of the Congress raised that scores must be settled with the old philosophic conscience.
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  • philosophic conscience.
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  • philosophic reflection to story-telling.
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  • philosophic thought is for Hegel: firstly, concept; secondly, universal; thirdly, concrete.
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  • philosophic concept is a concrete universal, and therefore a thinking of reality as at once united and divided.
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  • philosophic mind of men who sought to do better than their enemies.
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  • philosophic issues.
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  • Its visible and religious forms then give way to abstract formulae, which in their turn are slowly replaced by the rational manifestation of the philosophic principles of law that gains the victory in the final stage of development, designated by Vico as that of civil and human law.
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  • The human and civil philosophic law of the third period is assuredly very different in form from the primitive law; but in substance it is merely the abstract, scientific and philosophic manifestation of the same sentiment of justice and the same principles which were vaguely felt in primitive times.
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  • Having once derived this conception from Roman history, he was easily and indeed necessarily carried on to the next - that the positive law of all nations, throughout history, is a continual advance, keeping pace with the progress of civilization, towards the philosophic and natural law founded on 'the principles of human nature and human reason.
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  • Descartes establishes a philosophic monotheism, - by which the medieval polytheism of substantial forms, essences and eternal truths fades away before God, who is the ruler of the intellectual world no less than of the kingdom of nature and of grace.
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  • Haureau, De la philosophic scolastique, vol.
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  • Naïve materialism is due to a cause which still, perhaps, has no small power, the natural difficulty which persons who have had no philosophic training experience in observing and appreciating the importance of the immaterial facts of consciousness.
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  • Accordingly, in tracing the antecedents of the modern philosophic doctrine we shall have to glance at most of the principal systems of cosmology, ancient and modern.
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  • It might suffice to single out the influence of Auguste Comte, as the last great thinker who wrote before Darwinism began to permeate philosophic speculation.
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  • This school is first observable under the rule of Peisistratus at Athens in the 6th century B.C. Its doctrines are founded on two elements: the Thraco-Phrygian religion of Dionysus with its enthusiastic orgies, its mysteries and its purifications, and the tendency to philosophic speculation on the nature and mutual relations of the numerous gods, developed at this time by intercourse with Egypt and the East, and by the quickened intercourse between different tribes and different religions in Greece itself.
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  • In addition to other treatises on theological subjects, Frohschammer was also the author of Monaden and Weltphantasie and Ober die Bedeutung der Einbildungskraft in der Philosophic Kants and Spinozas (1879); Uber die Principien der Aristotelischen Philosophic and die Bedeutung der Phantasie in derselben (1881); Die Philosophic als Idealwissenschaft and System (1884); Die Philosophic des Thomas von Aquino kritisch gewiirdigt (1889); Ober das Mysterium Magnum des Daseins (1891); System der Philosophic im Umriss, pt.
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  • During the time he was engaged on the Encyclopaedia he wrote a number of literary and philosophical works which extended his reputation and also exposed him to criticism and controversy, as in the case of his M�nges de Philosophic, d'Histoire, et de Litterature.
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  • It had delivered him for ever from the " port and prejudice " of the university, and led him into the bright paths of philosophic freedom.
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  • A careful analysis of the Milhamoth is given in Rabbi Isidore Weil's Philosophic religieuse de Levi-Ben-Gerson (Paris, 1868).
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  • mystical as regards the faculty by which it claims to apprehend philosophic truth.
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  • In Leibnitz we find a philosophic or religious optimism, which saw in the universe the perfect work of a God who from all possibilities selected the .best.
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  • 1 In the Philosophic anatomique (i.
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  • He wrote a large number of books and articles upon philosophy, politics and ethics, on idealistic lines: La Famille, Histoire de la philosophie dans l'antiquite et dans le temps moderne, Histoire de la science politique, Philosophic de la Revolution Francaise, &c. They are not characterized by much originality of thought.
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  • At the same time, the essence of eclecticism is the refusal to follow blindly one set of formulae and conventions, coupled with a determination to recognize and select from all sources those elements which are good or true in the abstract, or in practical affairs most useful ad hoc. Theoretically, therefore, eclecticism is a perfectly sound method, and the contemptuous significance which the word has acquired is due partly to the fact that many eclectics have been intellectual trimmers, sceptics or dilettanti, and partly to mere partisanship. On the other hand, eclecticism in the sphere of abstract thought is open to this main objection that, in so far as every philosophic system is, at least in theory, an integral whole, the combination of principles from hostile theories must result in an incoherent patchwork.
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  • He became professor of philosophy at Tubingen, and wrote numerous books on the history of philosophy: - fiber den Zusammenhang des Spinozismus mit der Cartesianischen Philosophie (1816); Handbuch zu Vorlesungen fiber die Logik (1818, 3rd ed., 1835); Der Spinozismus (1839); and Geschichte der Philosophic (1844).
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  • Those who maintain that all these forms of synthesis are hasty and superficial stand by the conviction that the right philosophic attitude is to accept provisionally the main distinctions of common sense, above all the distinction of personal and impersonal; but to press forward to the underlying unity so far as experience and reflection justify.
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  • 1843); Rousselot's Etudes sur la philosophic dans le moyen dge (1840-1842), Cousin's Introduction to his Ouvrages inedits d'Abelard (1836), and Prantl's Geschichte der Logik im Abendlande (4 vols., 1855-1870) are invaluable aids in studying the history of medieval thought.
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  • Not only as a philosophic and didactic writer, but also as a lyric and dramatic poet he surpassed all his contemporaries.
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  • Croce has elaborated the various philosophic sciences in treating of the various theories to which they give rise, and he has completed the doctrines with their history, either, as in the case of the Aesthetic, with a masterly historical survey of previous speculation on the subject, or in a more modest form in appendices.
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  • It is only possible to allude briefly here to the different conclusions that he has attained in treating the various problems, as for example in Aesthetic, the unity of art and language, of intuition and expression, the negation of particular arts, the refutation of literary and artistic classes, the criticism of rhetoric, of grammar and so forth; and in the Philosophy of the Practical or of Practice, the conciliation of the antitheses of utilitarianism and moralism, the critique of precepts, of laws and of casuistry, the new conception of judgments of value, the constitution of a philosophic economy side by side with the science of Economy, the resolution of the Philosophy of rights in the Philosophy of economic, and so forth.
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  • Each of these two propositions must command assent as soon as uncritical ignorance gives place to philosophic reflection; but each may be exaggerated, indeed has currently been exaggerated, into falsity.
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  • In 1842, as we have said, the last volume of the Positive Philosophy was given to the public. Instead of that contentment which we like to picture as the reward of twelve years of meritorious toil devoted to the erection of high philosophic edifice, Comte found himself in the " positive midst of a very sea of small troubles, of that uncom- Phil°= „ pensated kind that harass without elevating, and sophy.
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  • Authorities are generally agreed in recog nizing three periods: - (1) from the end of the Regal epoch to the second Punic War, when Rome was influenced by other peoples in Italy, with whom she was brought into contact by commerce or war; (2) from the second Punic War to the end of the Republic, when contact with Greek and oriental sources and the growth of literature revolutionized religious notions and led to a philosophic scepticism; (3) the Imperial epoch, opening with a revival of old religious notions and later marked by the official worship of the deified emperors and the wide influence of oriental cults.
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  • Krische, Forschungen auf dem Gebiete der alten Philosophic (1840); J.
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  • But these cannot be considered the actual progenitors of Neoplatonism; their philosophic method is quite elementary as compared with the Neoplatonic, their fundamental principles are uncertain, and unbounded deference is still paid to the authority of Plato.
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  • Cope's philosophic contributions to palaeontology began in 1868 (see essays in The Origin of the Fittest, New York, 1887, and The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution, Chicago, 1896) with the independent discovery and demonstration among vertebrates of the laws of acceleration and retardation.
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  • The Darstellung meines Systems, and the more expanded and more careful treatment contained in the lectures on System der gesammten Philosophic and der Naturphilosophie insbesondere given in Wiirzburg, 1804 (published in the Sdmmtliche Werke, vol.
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  • loi), a word used in English in two main senses - (1) as a rule prescribed by authority for human action, and (2) in scientific and philosophic phraseology, as a uniform order of sequence (e.g.
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  • The scientific and philosophic usage has grown out of an early conception of jurisprudence, and is really metaphorical, derived from the phrase "natural law" or "law of nature," which presumed that commands were laid on matter by God (see T.
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  • aAM6eca, truth), an uncommon expression for the doctrine of truth, used by Sir William Hamilton in his philosophic writings when treating of the rules for the discrimination of truth and error.
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  • Despairing, as it would seem, of discovering the higher wisdom that the more philosophic of the priests supposed that religion to conceal, the simpler-minded sought to work out their own salvation by restoring the worship of the gods to its most primitive forms. Hence came the fanatical revival of animal-worship which led to feud and bloodshed between neighboring townsa feature of Egyptian religion that at once amused and scandalized contemporary Greek and Latin authors (Plut.
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  • Although the Makhzan is mainly devoted to philosophic meditations, the propensity of NizÃmi's genius to purely epic poetry, which was soon to assert itself in a more independent form, makes itself felt even here, all the twenty chapters being interspersed with short tales illustrative of the maxims set forth in each.
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  • For the next four years he devoted himself entirely to philosophic and theological writing, and published Quaestiones celeberrimae in Genesim (1623); L'Impiete des deistes (1624); La Verite des sciences (1624).
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  • Here Schiller applied his aesthetic theories to that branch of art which was most peculiarly his own, the art of poetry; it is an attempt to classify literature in accordance with an a priori philosophic theory of "ancient" and "modern," "classic" and "romantic," "naive" and "sentimental"; and it sprang from the need Schiller himself felt of justifying his own "sentimental" and "modern" genius with the "naive" and "classic" tranquillity of Goethe's.
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  • Its three divisions are the " subjective mind " (psychology), the " ob jective mind " (philosophic jurisprudence, moral and ° mi philosophy of artt, h religionand philosophy).
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  • It dominates the centres of intellectual life in the West because, despite its claim to finality in its principles or premises, and to universality for its method, it represents the only culture of a philosophic kind available to the adolescent peoples of the Western nations just becoming conscious of their ignorance.
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  • There is no doubt much of valuable suggestion to be found in the philosophic system, or rather the conglomerate of systems, which pass to-day under the name of theosophy; and probably much has been done by means of its propaganda to popularize Eastern thought in the West, and in the East to reawaken a truer appreciation of its own philosophic treasures; but however that may be, the serious student would be well advised to seek his information and his inspiration from the fountain-heads of the theosophists' doctrines, which are all easily accessible in translations; and to avoid the confusions and errors of writers who in most cases have but a superficial if any knowledge of the original languages and systems from which their doctrine has been arbitrarily culled.
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  • Not a few other technical terms of Greek philosophic asceticism, used in the first instance by Cynics and Neo-pythagoreans, and then continued among the Greek Jews and Christians, were metaphors taken from athletic contests - but only metaphors, for all asceticism, worthy of the name, has a moral purport, and is based on the eternal contrast of the proposition, "This is right," with the proposition, "That is pleasant."
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  • Beside his works on Plato, he wrote, on aesthetics,, System der Kunstlehre (1805) and Grundriss der Aesthetik (1807);, on the history of philosophy, Grundlinien der Philosophic (1807, republished 1809, but soon forgotten), Grundriss einer Geschichte der Philosophic (1807 and 1825), and Hauptmomente der Geschichte der Philosophie (1829); in philology, Grundlinien der Philologie (1808), and Grundlinien der Grammatik, Hermeneutik and Kritik (1808).
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  • Though he had no time for original research, Oliveira Martins (q.v.) possessed psychological imagination, a rare capacity for general ideas and the gift of picturesque narration; and in his philosophic Historia de Portugal, his sensational Portugal contemporaneo, Os Filhos de D.
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  • The successors of Strato in the headship of the Lyceum were Lyco, Aristo of Ceos, Critolaus, Diodorus of Tyre, and Erymneus, who brings the philosophic succession down to about z oo B.C. Other Peripatetics belonging to this period are Hieronymus of Rhodes, Prytanis and Phormio of Ephesus, the delirus senex who attempted to instruct Hannibal in the art of war (Cic. De orat.
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  • Its doctrinal thesis (which is supported with great philosophic acumen and rhetorical power) is the divinity and consubstantiality of the Word; incidentally the character of Basil, which Eunomius had aspersed, is vindicated, and the heretic himself is held up to scorn and contempt.
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  • Kdstlin (author of Aesthetics, 1869), who published it in 1881 under the title Testament einesDeutschen, Philosophic der Natur and der Menschheit.
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  • The more philosophic part of the circle, forming a group in which Euclid of Megara (see Megarian School) seems at first to have taken the lead, regarded this Good as the object of a still unfulfilled guest, and were led to identify it with the hidden secret of the universe, and thus to pass from ethics to metaphysics.
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  • To the philosophers (with the single exception of Plato), however, convinced as they were that the multitude must necessarily miss true well-being through their folly and ignorance, it could never occur to guard against these evils by any other method than that of providing philosophic instruction for the few; whereas the Christian clergy, whose function it was to offer truth and eternal life to all mankind, naturally regarded theological misbelief as insidious preventible contagion.
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  • Lastly, we must observe that, in proportion as the legal conception of morality as a code of which the violation deserves, supernatural punishment predominated over the philosophic view of ethics as the method for attaining natural felicity, the question of man's freedom of will to obey the law necessarily became prominent.
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  • Ferri, L'Histoire de la philosophie en Italie au XIX e siècle (Paris, 1869); C. Werner, Die italienische Philosophic des zg.
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  • He was a friend of Calpurnius Piso, and was implicated in his profligacy by Cicero (in Pisonem, 29), who, however, praises him warmly for his philosophic views and for the elegans lascivia of his poems (cf.
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  • Not only does a good army commander not need any special qualities, on the contrary he needs the absence of the highest and best human attributes--love, poetry, tenderness, and philosophic inquiring doubt.
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  • But not to speak of the intrinsic quality of histories of this kind (which may possibly even be of use to someone for something) the histories of culture, to which all general histories tend more and more to approximate, are significant from the fact that after seriously and minutely examining various religious, philosophic, and political doctrines as causes of events, as soon as they have to describe an actual historic event such as the campaign of 1812 for instance, they involuntarily describe it as resulting from an exercise of power--and say plainly that that was the result of Napoleon's will.
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  • He was no follower of their ideas, indeed often opposed to them; but he derived from Bacon an increasing stimulus towards the investigation of certain great problems of history and philosophy, while Grotius proved valuable in his study of philosophic jurisprudence.
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