Philosophers have tried to find out what was her conception of abstract ideas before she learned language.
Hadrian was fond of the society of learned men - poets, scholars, rhetoricians and philosophers - whom he alternately humoured and ridiculed.
One of the last of the philosophers--Connecticut gave him to the world--he peddled first her wares, afterwards, as he declares, his brains.
What youthful philosophers and experimentalists we are!
He stood between Scotland and France and Germany and France; and, though his expositions are vitiated by loose reading of the philosophers he interpreted, he did serviceable, even memorable work.
Megasthenes also describes the Jews as the philosophers of Syria and couples them with the Brahmins of India.
Caird, Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers, 1904).
These natural philosophers suggested that equal volumes of all gaseous substances must contain, at the same temperature and pressure, the same number of molecules.
He made a special study of the philosophers.
Nicolas's doctrines were of influence upon Giordano Bruno and other physical philosophers of the 15th and 16th centuries.
It turns out we all have a desire to be artists or philosophers or singers or photographers or commentators or reviewers.
Children come a-berrying, railroad men taking a Sunday morning walk in clean shirts, fishermen and hunters, poets and philosophers; in short, all honest pilgrims, who came out to the woods for freedom's sake, and really left the village behind, I was ready to greet with--"Welcome, Englishmen! welcome, Englishmen!" for I had had communication with that race.
This Volkerpsychologie (folkor comparative psychology) is one of the chief developments of the Herbartian theory of philosophy; it is a protest not only against the so-called scientific standpoint of natural philosophers, but also against the individualism of the positivists.
He carefully establishes the necessity of revelation as a source of knowledge, not merely because it aids us in comprehending in a somewhat better way the truths already furnished by reason, as some of the Arabian philosophers and Maimonides had acknowledged, but because it is the absolute source of our knowledge of the mysteries of the Christian faith; and then he lays down the relations to be observed between reason and revelation, between philosophy and theology.
Iulis was the birthplace of the lyric poets Simonides and Bacchylides, the philosophers Prodicus and Ariston, and the physician Erasistratus; the excellence of its laws was so generally recognized that the title of Cean Laws passed into a proverb.
His latest work was Secreta Secretorum or Secrets of Old Philosophers, rhymed extracts from a pseudo-Aristotelian treatise.
His people are descendants of the Indian philosophers.
It is reported that philosophers are called Calani among the Indians and Jews among the Syrians.
Small coteries of Jewish minor poets and philosophers were formed, and men like Kalonymos and Immanuel - Dante's friend - shared the versatility and culture of Italy.
It has been understood as if Reid had merely appealed from the reasoned conclusions of philosophers to the unreasoned beliefs of common life.
In the substance of their answer to Hume, the two philosophers have therefore much in common.
The ideal truth within us, constituting the inner life that is studied by philosophers, becomes transmuted by the facts of history into assured reality.
Even rood years after this period, the dog was highly esteemed in Egypt for its sagacity and other excellent qualities; for when Pythagoras, after his return from Egypt, founded a new sect in Greece, and at Croton in southern Italy, he taught, with the Egyptian philosophers, that at the death of the body the soul entered into that of various animals.
METRODORUS, the name of five philosophers.
There were also attached to a great household physicians, artists, secretaries, librarians, copyists, preparers of parchment, as well as pedagogues and preceptors of different kinds - readers, grammarians, men of letters and even philosophers - all of servile condition, besides accountants, managers and agents for the transaction of business.
This problem of "the one and the many" has been discussed continuously by the philosophers.
His book on Materialism and Empiric Criticism (1909) heaps abuse on idealistic philosophers and religious teachers of all schools and creeds.
He at the same time shows the Greeks that their own greatest philosophers and poets recognized the unity of the divine Being, and had caught glimpses of the true nature of God, but that fuller light had been thrown on this subject by the Hebrew prophets.
And in all cases it is plain that he not merely read but thought deeply on the questions which the civilization of the Greeks and the various writings of poets, philosophers and heretics raised.
The ancient philosophers sought through their philosophy to attain to a nobler and holier life, and this also was the aim of Christianity.
The difference between the two, in Clement's judgment, was that the Greek philosophers had only glimpses of the truth, that they attained only to fragments of the truth, while Christianity revealed in Christ the absolute and perfect truth.
Sometimes he thinks that they came direct from God, like all good things, but he is also fond of maintaining that many of Plato's best thoughts were borrowed from the Hebrew prophets; and he makes the same statement in regard to the wisdom of the other philosophers.
It was through possessing somewhat of this Reason that the philosophers attained to any truth and goodness; but in Christians he dwells more fully and guides them through all the perplexities of life.
The Father in Clement's mind becomes the Absolute of the philosophers, that is to say, not the Father at all, but the Monad, a mere point devoid of all attributes.
He belongs therefore to no school of philosophers.
The great Stoic philosophers took the austerest line, and held that duty should always and everywhere be our only law.
Quite in the great doctor's spirit is Cicero's counsel to his son, to hear what the philosophers had to say, but to decide for himself as a man of the world.
Such advice could not be grateful to the philosophers themselves - then a definite professional class, not unlike the "spiritual directors" of a later Rome, who earned their bread by smoothing away the doubts of the scrupulous on all matters intellectual and moral.
The great object of 17th-century moralists had been to find some general principle from which the whole of ethics could be deduced; common-sense, by turning its back on abstract principles of every kind, forced the philosophers to come down to the solid earth, and start by inquiring how the world does make up its mind in fact.
The longing to arrive at the one explanation of all things, which had inspired the older philosophers, became less earnest; the belief, indeed, that any such explanation was attainable began to fail.
Of Italian philosophers the eclectics form a large proportion.
In the 19th century the term "eclectic" came to be applied specially to a number of French philosophers who differed considerably from one another.
The main objections to this are that it does not explain the infinite variety of phenomena, and that it disregards the distinction which most philosophers admit between higher and lower pleasures.
(2) A Biographical Dictionary ('OvogaroX6yos or Illva) of Learned Men, arranged according to classes (poets, philosophers), the chief sources of which were the Mou6u07 ivTopia of Aelius Dionysius and the works of Herennius Philo.
After the centuries of intellectual darkness which followed upon the closing of the philosophical schools in Athens (529),(529), and the death of Boetius, the last of the ancient philosophers, the first symptoms of renewed intellectual activity appear contemporaneously with the consolidation of the empire of the West in the hands of Charlemagne.
But, though he implies an ample previous treatment of the questions by philosophers, Porphyry gives no references to the different systems of which such distinctions are the outcome, nor does he give any hint of his own opinion on the subject, definite enough though that was.
succession of philosophers, first in the East and afterwards in theWest.
While this sceptical thesis was embraced by philosophers who had lost their interest in religion, the spiritually minded sought their satisfaction more and more in a mysticism which frequently cast itself loose from ecclesiastical trammels.
Besides the numerous works quoted in articles on the individual philosophers, see Haureau, Histoire de la philosophic scolastique (2 vols., 1850; revised and expanded in 1870 as Histoire de la phil.
The Arabians more closely resembled the Hindus than the Greeks in the choice of studies; their philosophers blended speculative dissertations with the more progressive study of medicine; their mathematicians neglected the subtleties of the conic sections and Diophantine analysis, and applied themselves more particularly to perfect the system of numerals, arithmetic and astronomy.
34), Cicero states that he was contemptuous of other philosophers and even called Socrates "the Attic Buffoon."
- General conceptions with regard to the relations of living things (especially animals) to the universe, to man, and to the Creator, their origin and significance: exemplified in the writings of the philosophers of classical antiquity, and of Linnaeus, Goethe, Lamarck, Cuvier, Lyell, H.
That doctrine took some few years to produce its effect, but it became evident at once to those who accepted Darwinism that the natural classification of animals, after which collectors and anatomists, morphologists, philosophers and embryologists had been so long striving, was nothing more nor less than a genealogical tree, with breaks and gaps of various extent in its record.
The emperor, to whom Gerbert was well known, appointed a time for the two philosophers to argue before him; and Richer has left a long account of this dialectical tournament at Ravenna, which lasted out a whole day and was only terminated at the imperial bidding.
Gelo's brother and successor, Hiero(478-467), kept up the power of the city; he won himself a name by his encouragement of poets, especially Aeschylus and Simonides, and philosophers; and his Pythian and Olympian victories made him the special subject of the songs of Pindar and Bacchylides; among the recently discovered works of the latter are three Odes (iii.
We must therefore hasten onward to the age of Pericles, in which Hippocrates, already called "the Great," was in medicine as complete a representative of the highest efforts of the Greek intellect as were his contemporaries the great philosophers, orators and tragedians.
The rise of speculative philosophy in Greece was coincident with the beginning of prose composition, and many of the earliest philosophers wrote in the prose of the Ionic dialect; others, however, and especially the writers of the Greek colonies in Italy and Sicily, expounded their systems in continuous poems composed in the epic hexameter.
The philosophers from whom Croce learned most are Vico, the author of the Scienza nuova, and Hegel, but the thought of all other thinkers flows in his writings, in conformity with its historical character, and for this reason may, for instance, be found in it traces of some of Hegel's most active opponents, such as Herbart.
Many of the Arabian philosophers were also physicians and wrote on medicine.
was much used by the philosophers of the middle of the 19th century, and has since fallen largely into disuse.
His reading ranges from Arabian philosophers and naturalists to Aristotle, Eusebius, Cicero, Seneca, Julius Caesar (whom he calls Julius Celsus), and even the Jew, Peter Alphonso.
The wheel being her symbol she was the patron saint of wheelwrights and mechanics; as the confounder of heathen sophistry she was invoked by theologians, apologists, preachers and philosophers, and was chosen as the patron saint of the university of Paris; as the most holy and illustrious of Christian virgins she became the tutelary saint of nuns and virgins generally.
Fairbanks, First Philosophers of Greece (1898); Mullach, Fragmenta Phil.
When young, Arrian was the pupil and friend of Epictetus, who had probably withdrawn to Nicopolis, when Domitian expelled all philosophers from Rome.
SaintSimon is described as the most estimable and lovable of men, and the most delightful in his relations; he is the worthiest of philosophers.
None the less it is easy to find it in embryo in the speculations of the essentially European philosophers of Greece.
To the technical philosophers, who strictly confine themselves to the logical collation and criticism of scientific methods, he has, contrariwise, not seemed philosophic enough.
KOo-pos, world and yiyvEaOac, to be born), a theory, however incomplete, of the origin of heaven and earth, such as is produced by primitive races in the myth-making age, and is afterwards expanded and systematized by priests, poets or philosophers.
9 The " philosophers " of Peru declared that he desired no temples or sacrifices, no worship but that of the heart.
The definiteness and persistence of this creed, which of course is the strength also of Mahommedanism, presents a contrast to the fluid character of the statements in the Vedas, and to the chaos of conflicting opinions of philosophers among the Greeks and Romans.
The etiquette of the imperial circle, scenes from the law-courts and the recitationroom, the reunions of dilettanti and philosophers, the busy life of the capital or of the municipal town, the recreations of the seaside and of the country - all these he brings vividly before our eyes.
to formal logic. An attempt has been made by some philosophers to substitute "Gnosiology" (Gr.
M.)/n==Authorities== - In Dr Thomas Fowler's monograph on Shaftesbury and Hutcheson in the series of "English philosophers" (1882) he was able largely to supplement the printed materials for the Life by extracts from the Shaftesbury papers in the Record Office.
son of the goldsmith, the name being corrupted by the Latins into Avempace, Avenpace or Aben ], the earliest and one of the most distinguished of the Arab philosophers of Spain.
Like Bacon and Telesio he preferred the older Greek philosophers, who had looked at nature for themselves, and whose speculations had more of reality in them.
From the hypothesis of an external world a series of contradictions are deduced, such as that the world is both finite and infinite, is movable and immovable, &c.; and finally, Aristotle and various other philosophers are quoted, to show that the external matter they dealt with, as mere potentiality, is just nothing at all.
They equally affirm that the so-called representative image is the sole reality, and discard as unthinkable the unperceiving material cause of the philosophers.
Hamilton (Discussions, p. 197) allows greater sagacity to Collier than to Berkeley, on the ground that he did not vainly attempt to enlist men's natural belief against the hypothetical realism of the philosophers.
The contents are of a varied character: the natural history of man, the influence of the stars and genii, music, religious rites, astronomy, the doctrines of the Greek philosophers.
The most ancient philosophers whose speculations are known to us seem to have discussed the ideas of number and of continuous magnitude, of space and time, of matter and motion, with a native power of thought which has probably never been surpassed.
During his life at Paris he had opportunities of mixing in the circles of the philosophers and of others who frequented the salon of Madame de Geniis, and he there formed those ideas in favour of political and social reform which he retained through life.
But Leibnitz also anticipated Kant in seeking to correct the empirical point of view of the English philosophers.
All doctrines are " dogmas " to the Greek Fathers, not simply the central teachings of their system, as with the philosophers.
If even now philosophers and theologians cannot resist the temptation to allegorize, how inevitable was it that this course should be pursued by early Jewish theologians!
In the Book of Wisdom, again, the composition of an Egyptian Hellenist, who from internal evidence is judged to have lived somewhat earlier than Philo, Solomon is introduced uttering words of admonition, imbued with the spirit of Greek philosophers, to heathen sovereigns.
The book shows a wonderful knowledge of English, French, German, Italian and Spanish philosophers, and directly attacks Helvetius, who had in his De l'esprit declared a knowledge of science unnecessary for a philosopher.
It has been maintained since the times of the early Greek philosophers, and possibly even more remote ages, that matter is constituted of independent indestructible units, which cannot ever become divided by means of any mutual actions they can exert.
Nestorian philosophers and medical practitioners became the teachers of the great Arabian natural philosophers of the middle ages, and the latter obtained their knowledge of Greek learning from Syriac translations of the works of Greek thinkers.
The anathema of the Roman Church had fallen upon all the fundamental doctrines for which the Reformers had contended and died; the right of free discussion within the limits of the creeds, which had given room for the speculations of the medieval philosophers, was henceforth curtailed and confined; and the definitions of the schoolmen were for ever exalted by the authority of Rome into dogmas of the Church.
It is often untrustworthy: Stobaeus betrays a tendency to confound the dogmas of the early Ionic philosophers, and he occasionally mixes up Platonism with Pythagoreanism.
In all, Stobaeus quotes more than five hundred writers, generally beginning with the poets, and then proceeding to the historians, orators, philosophers and physicians.
In these two examples we see how the weapons forged by the dogmatic philosophers to assist in the establishment of their own theses are sceptically turned against philosophy in general.
The opposition, being taken as absolute, implies the impeachment of the veracity of the senses in the interest of the rational truth proclaimed by the philosophers in question.
This tone, which fairly represents the attitude of ancient sceptics, is rare among the moderns, at least among those who are professed philosophers.
Ghazali (q.v.) in his Tahafot al-Filasifa (" The Collapse of the Philosophers ") is the advocate of complete philosophical scepticism in the interests of orthodox Mahommedanism - an orthodoxy which passed, however, in his own case into a species of mysticism.
Caird, Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); Norman MacColl, Greek Sceptics from Pyrrho to Sextus (1869); Haas, De philosophorum scepticorum successionibus (1875).
Soon afterwards a classified catalogue of dramatists, epic and lyric poets, legislators, philosophers, historians, orators and rhetoricians, and miscellaneous writers, with a brief biography of each, was produced by the scholar and poet Callimachus (fl.
Philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle, were possibly classed in a separate " canon.
It also presents us with a critical survey of the Greek and Latin classics arranged under the heads of poets, historians, orators and philosophers (book x.
So highly was he esteemed in Rome that Vespasian made an exception in his case when all other philosophers were expelled from the city.
The philosophers themselves, no doubt, still lived on the knowledge they repudiated; but the masses were trained to a superstition with which the Christian church, as the executor of Neoplatonism, had to reckon and contend.
In the interpretation of myths Neoplatonism followed the allegorical method, as practised especially by the Stoa; but the importance it attached to the spiritualized myths was unknown to the Stoic philosophers.
The idealism of the new philosophy was too heavenly to be naturalized in the Byzantine empire, which stood more in need of police officials than of philosophers.
Important and instructive, therefore, as are the attempts made from time to time by the state and by individual philosophers to unite Neoplatonism and the universal monarchy, their failure was a foregone conclusion.
As forerunners of Neoplatonism we may regard, on the one hand, those Stoics who accepted the Platonic distinction between the sensible world and the intelligible, and, on the other hand, the so-called Neopythagoreans and religious philosophers like Plutarch of Chaeronea and especially Numenius of Apamea.
The earliest Christian philosophers, particularly Justin and Athenagoras, likewise prepared the way for the speculations of the Neoplatonists - partly by their attempts to connect Christianity with Stoicism and Platonism, partly by their ambition to exhibit Christianity as " hyperplatonic."
We have to come down to Iamblichus and his school before we find complete correspondence with the Christian Gnosticism of the and century; that is to say, it is only in the 4th century that Greek philosophy in its proper development reaches the stage at which certain Greek philosophers who had embraced Christianity had arrived in the and century.
To this period also belongs a set of " philosophers," with regard to whom it is impossible to say whether they are dupes or impostors - the " decepti deceptores " of whom Augustine speaks.
Some of them (Themistius in particular) are known as commentators on the older philosophers, and others as the missionaries of mysticism.
The work De mysteriis Aegyptiorum is the best sample of the views and aims of these philosophers.
During the struggle for supremacy, the philosophers had been driven to make common cause with everything that was hostile to Christianity.
While maintaining intact its religious attitude and its theory of knowledge, it returned with new zest to scientific studies, especially the study of the old philosophers.
But indeed this last of the Roman philosophers stood quite alone in his century, and the philosophy for which he lived was neither original, nor well-grounded, nor methodically developed.
This verdict of Porphyry's is at all events more just and apt than that of the theologians on the Greek philosophers, when they accused them of having borrowed all their really valuable doctrines from the ancient Christian books.
That the inductive spirit exercised no influence on Scottish philosophers is certainly not true; Montesquieu, whose method is essentially inductive, was in Smith's time closely studied by Smith's fellow-countrymen.
The critical philosophers of the 18th century were often destitute of the historical spirit, which was no part of the endowment needed for their principal social office.
They exist not merely as logical consequence or development of the absolute, but have a stubbornness of being in them, an antagonistic feature which in all times philosophers have been driven to recognize, and which they have described in varied fashion.
Between the hedonism of the ancients and that of modern philosophers there lies a great gulf.
Later on Zarvan was elevated to the position of supreme principle, creator of Ormazd and Ahriman, and, long 1 Analogous to this is the veneration in which the Catholic monks and the Neoplatonic "` philosophers" were held; but the prestige of the Manichaean electi was greater than that of the monks and the philosophers.
He studied with earnest zeal the Greek philosophers; Plato in particular, and the writings of the Stoics, he had fully at command, and his treatise De Anima shows that he himself was able to investigate and discuss philosophical problems. From the philosophers he had been led to the medical writers, whose treatises plainly had a place in his working library.
Bekker, Berlin, 1831, the pages of which we use for our quotations), we find, instead of the general dialogues of Plato, special didactic treatises, and a fundamental difference of philosophy, so great as to have divided philosophers into opposite camps, and made Coleridge say that everybody is born either a Platonist or an Aristotelian.
This strange, exotic, ascetic view was adopted by some philosophers, and especially by the Pythagoreans, and so transmitted to Plato.
Indeed, throughout his writings he shows a constant wish to avail himself of what is true in the opinions of others, whether they are philosophers, or poets or ordinary people expressing their thoughts in sayings and proverbs.
It is probable that when, after Plato's death and the accession of Speusippus in 347, Aristotle with Xenocrates left Athens to visit his former pupil Hermias, the three discussed this moderate system of Ethics in which the two philosophers nearly agreed.
He was among the earliest of the JewishAlexandrian philosophers whose aim was to reconcile and identify Greek philosophical conceptions with the Jewish religion.
He endeavoured to prove that early Greek philosophers had borrowed largely from certain parts of Scripture, and quoted from Linus, Orpheus, Musaeus and others, passages which strongly resemble the Mosaic writings.
The chief works of Damiron, of which the best are his accounts of French philosophers, are the following: - An edition of the Nouveaux melanges philosophiques de Jouffroy (1842), with a notice of the author, in which Damiron softened and omitted several expressions used by Jouffroy, which were opposed to the system of education adopted by the Sorbonne, an article which gave rise to a bitter controversy, and to a book by Pierre Leroux, De la mutilation des manuscrits de M.
besides the biographies of the empirical philosophers.
A more serious defect was his practice of violently assailing philosophers, economists and men of science, of whom he knew almost nothing, and whom he perversely misunderstood: men such as Adam Smith, Comte, Mill, Spencer, Darwin and all who followed them.
One of the so-called "Philosophers of Identity," Krause endeavoured to reconcile the ideas of a God known by Faith or Conscience and the world as known to sense.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about German philosophers.
This does not mean that we shut our eyes to the ideals of Greek philosophers, with whom morality was constantly outgrowing religion.
Without ceasing to be the congregation of Jehovah, it would claim for itself all the hopes of an ideal state over which Greek philosophers had sighed in vain.
Idealism; Pragmatism; Relativity Of Knowledge, while separate discussions of ancient and medieval philosophers will be found in biographical articles and articles on the chief philosophical schools, e.g.
- Besides these direct instances of materialism, there are philosophers to whom the scientific tendencies of the age have given a materialistic tendency.
Instead of the old belief that God made the world for man, philosophers began to fall into the pleasing dream, I am everything, and everything is I - and even I am God.
Both philosophers appeal to the English love of experience, and Kant had these advantages over Hume: that within the narrow circle of sensible phenomena his theory of understanding gave to experience a fuller content, and that beyond phenomena, however inconsistently, his theory of reason postulated the reality of God, freedom and immortality.
Nothing can be more curious than the way in which a school of English philosophers, which originally started from Hume, the most sceptical of phenomenalists, thus gradually passed over to Leibnitz and Fechner, the originators of panpsychistic noumenalism.
And, though I have been taught by philosophers that what I immediately touch is an idea, and not matter, yet I have never been able to discover this by the most accurate attention to my own perceptions."
For authorities see the works quoted above, and the references in the articles on philosophers and philosophical subjects.
He quotes a passage on the polarity of the lodestone from a treatise translated by Albertus Magnus, attributed by the latter to Aristotle, but apparently only an Arabic compilation from the works of various philosophers.
He was quite unconscious that his own monotheism was hardly to be distinguished from that of the pagan philosophers, and that his Christ was a demi-god.
Steffens was one of the so-called Philosophers of Nature, a friend and adherent of Schelling and Schleiermacher.
PHILOPOEMEN (253-184 B.C.), Greek general, was born at Megalopolis, and educated by the academic philosophers Ecdemus and Demophanes or Megalophanes, who had distinguished themselves as champions of freedom.
He was succeeded by poets and philosophers who gave Germany for a time the first place in the intellectual life of the world, and it was Lessing, as they themselves acknowledged, who prepared the way for their achievements.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about philosophers.
The quarrel which all the acquaintances of the two philosophers had predicted soon came, and no language had expressions strong enough for Rousseau's anger.
Modern philosophers seem inclined to think that personal identity arises from consciousness, and consciousness is nothing but a reflected thought or perception.
The work of the critical philosophy is the introduction of this new mode of regarding experience, a mode which, in the technical language of philosophers, has received the title of transcendental as opposed to the psychological method followed by Locke and Hume.
We still possess the Deipnosophistae, which may mean dinner-table philosophers or authorities on banquets, in fifteen books.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about French philosophers.
From that time (the winter of 1636-1637) he too, as he tells us, was numbered among philosophers.
Though Hobbes came back, after his eleven years' absence, without having as yet publicly proved his title to rank with the natural philosophers of the age, he was sufficiently conscious of what he had been able to achieve in Leviathan; and it was 1 The Human Nature corresponds with cc. i.-xiii.
Rickaby, Free Will and Four English Philosophers (1906), pp. 1 -72; J.
The immediate disciples of Epicurus have been already mentioned, with the exception of Colotes of Lampsacus, a great favourite of Epicurus, who wrote a work arguing " that it was impossible even to live according to the doctrines of the other philosophers."
The definitions show so much acuteness of thought and command of language, and the passages quoted from poets, divines and philosophers are so skilfully selected, that a leisure hour may always be very agreeably spent in turning over the pages.
Johnson, not content with turning filthy savages, ignorant of their letters, and gorged with raw steaks cut from living cows, into philosophers as eloquent and enlightened as himself or his friend Burke, and into ladies as highly accomplished as Mrs Lennox or Mrs Sheridan, transferred the whole domestic system of England to Egypt.
But the spirit, though adjured with all solemnity, remained obstinately silent; and it soon appeared that a naughty girl of eleven had been amusing herself by making fools of so many philosophers.
He studied theology in the universities of Heidelberg and Berlin (1817-20) under Karl Daub (1765-1836), Schleiermacher and Neander, the philosophers and historians Georg Hegel, Friedrich Creuzer (1771-1858) and F.
At Stowmarket the teachings of the French philosophers were brought before him by a friend, Joseph Fawcet, who held strong republican opinions.
The visit of the three great philosophers, Diogenes the " Babylonian," Critolaus and Carneades in 155, was an epoch-making event in the history of Hellenism at Rome.
Opposition there could not fail to be, and in 161 a senatus consultum ordered all Greek philosophers and rhetoricians to leave the city.
Whatever may have been the origin of Hera, to the historic Greeks (except a few poets or philosophers) she was a purely anthropomorphic goddess, and had no close relation to any province of nature.
ATHENODORUS, the name of two Stoic philosophers of the 1st century B.C., who have frequently been confounded.
Interesting as Damascius is in himself, he is still moreinteresting as the last in the long succession of Greek philosophers.
The second treatise, which was issued by Voltaire in Hague in 1740, contains a generous exposition of some of the favourite ideas of the 18th-century philosophers respecting the duties of sovereigns, which may be summed up in the famous sentence: "the prince is not the absolute master, but only the first servant of his people."
Of Christianity he always spoke in the mocking tone of the "enlightened" philosophers, regarding it as the invention of priests; but it is noteworthy that after the Seven Years' War, the trials of which steadied his character, he sought to strengthen the church for the sake of its elevating moral influence.
Before two years had elapsed they returned to Greece, Chosroes, in his treaty of peace concluded with Justinian in 533, expressly stipulating that the seven philosophers should be allowed "to return to their own homes, and to live henceforward in the enjoyment of liberty of conscience" (Agathias ii.
To the student of Greek philosophy his commentaries are invaluable, as they contain many fragments of the older philosophers as well as of his immediate predecessors.
At first Luther's cardinal doctrine of grace appeared to Melanchthon inconsistent with any view of free will; and, following Luther, he renounced Aristotle and philosophy in general, since "philosophers attribute everything to human power, while the sacred writings represent all moral power as lost by the fall."
The cry was the same as that of Krug (q.v.), asking the philosophers who expounded the absolute to construe his pen.
aocbcari l s, literally, man of wisdom), the name given by the Greeks about the middle of the 5th century B.C. to certain teachers of a superior grade who, distinguishing themselves from philosophers on the one hand and from artists and craftsmen on the other, claimed to prepare their pupils, not for any particular study or profession, but for civic life.
Further, since Socrates and the Socratics were educators, they too might be, and in general were, regarded as sophists; but, as they conceived truth - so far as it was attainable - rather than success in life, in the law court, in the assembly, or in debate, to be the right end of intellectual effort, they were at variance with their rivals, and are commonly ranked by historians, not with the sophists, who confessedly despaired of knowledge, but with the philosophers, who, however unavailingly, continued to seek it.
With the establishment of the great philosophical schools - first, of the Academy, next of the Lyceum - the philosophers took the place of the sophists as the educators of Greece.
Lastly, the philosophers of the second physical succession - Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Leucippus - not directly attacking the great mystery of the One and the Many, but in virtue of a scientific instinct approaching it through the investigation of phenomena, were brought by their study of sensation to perceive and to proclaim the inadequacy of the organs of sense.
Thus, whereas the representatives of the three successions had continued to regard themselves as philosophers or seekers after truth, Protagoras and Gorgias, plainly acknowledging their defeat, withdrew from the ungrateful struggle.
Emphasizing the function of the teacher, which with the philosophers had been subordinate, and proclaiming the right end of intellectual endeavour to be, not " truth " (a 178eta) or " wisdom " (vo(Pia), which was unattainable, but " virtue " or " excellence " (dper17), he sought to communicate, not a theory of the universe, but an aptitude for civic life.
He had already reached the height of his fame when Plato opened a rival school at the Academy, and pointedly attacked him in the Gorgias, the Plaaedrus and the Republic. Thenceforward, there was a perpetual controversy between the rhetorician and the philosopher, and the struggle of educational systems continued until, in the next generation, the philosophers were left in possession of the field.
Again, as the Socratics - Plato himself, when he established himself at the Academy, being no exception - were, like their master, educators rather than philosophers, and in their teaching laid especial stress upon discussion, they, too, were doubtless regarded as sophists, not by Isocrates only, but by their contemporaries in general; and it may be conjectured that the disputatious tendencies of the Megarian school made it all the more difficult for Plato and others to secure a proper appreciation of the difference between dialectic, or discussion with a view to the discovery of truth, and eristic, or discussion with a view to victory.
This being so, it was found convenient to revise the terminology of the past, and to include in the philosophical succession those who, though not philosophers, had cherished the sacred spark.
As for Socrates, he ranked himself neither with the philosophers, who professed to know, nor with the sophists, who professed to teach; and, if he sometimes described himself as a cbtX6a040s he was careful to indicate that he pretended to no other knowledge than that of his own limitations.
Benn, The Greek Philosophers i.
He describes the classification of the people, dividing them, however, into seven castes instead of four, namely, philosophers, husbandmen, shepherds, artisans, soldiers, inspectors and the counsellors of the king.
The philosophers were the Brahmans, and the prescribed stages of their life are indicated.
He demonstrated the rotation of the satellites of Jupiter round the planet, and gave rough predictions of their configurations, proved the rotation of the sun on its axis, established the general truth of the Copernican system as compared with that of Ptolemy, and fairly routed the fanciful dogmas of the philosophers.
In, 90 he was expelled with the other philosophers by Domitian, who was irritated by the support and encouragement which the opposition to his tyranny found amongst the adherents of Stoicism.
Among the many volumes unrolled only a few are of historical importance - that edited by Biicheler, which treats of the philosophers of the academy (Acad.
But at the same time the philosophers Immanuel Fichte and Friedrich Schelling were creating a wide and deep impression.
He received the highest recognition, not only from philosophers and learned societies all over the world, but also from the emperor and the German people.
One of the characteristics of Greek philosophers is their growing tendency, in investigating any subject, to turn round and ask themselves what should be the method of investigation.
Metaphysically, all realities are parts of one ultimate reality; but logically, even philosophers think more often only of finite realities, existing men, dogs, horses, &c.; and children know that their parents exist long before they apprehend ultimate reality.
The transformation of logic lay with the man of science, hindered though he might be by the enthusiasm of some of the philosophers of nature.
pp. 122 sqq.; invaluable for the logical methods of modern philosophers.
Men thought they were witnessing the dawn of a new era in the East; Mehemet Ali was hailed as the most beneficent and enlightened of princes; and political philosophers like Jeremy Bentham, who sent him elaborate letters of good advice, thought to find in him the means for developing their theories in virgin soil.
While these monotheistic, pantheistic doctrines were taught in the schools, the people were left to a debased polytheism and to new superstitions imported from the Orient; the philosophers themselves were by no means unaffected by the popular beliefs.
Mingled with all these were the ancient legends of gods and heroes, accepted as inspired scripture by the people, and by philosophers in part explained away by an allegorical exegesis and in part felt increasingly as a burden to the intelligence.
Monotheism henceforth was to be the belief not of philosophers only but even of the ignorant, and in Jesus Christ the union of the divine and the human was effected.
It marks the naturalization of Christianity in the Greek world for the common people who believed in Christ, and for the philosophers who justified the faith to reason.
Its control of the sciences embroiled it with its own philosophers and scholars, while saints and pure-minded ecclesiastics attempted, without success, its reform from within.
This revolution in the worldview is no longer the possession of philosophers and scholars, but the multitude accepts it in part.
Under this name are included a number of philosophers of the 6th and 5th centuries B.C. Mainly Ionians by birth, they are united by a local tie and represent all that was best in the early Ionian intellect.
But not only geographically do these philosophers form a school; they are one in method and aim.
The first name in the list of the Ionian philosophers - and, indeed, in the history of European thought - is that of Thales.
Thus far the Ionian philosophers had held the field of thought.
Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy (1892); Fairbanks, The First Philosophers of Greece (1898); Grote, History of Greece, ch.
viii.; Windelband, History of Ancient Philosophy (1899) Benn, The Greek Philosophers (1883) and The Philosophy of Greece (1898); Th.
The higher life of man is merely a fiction introduced by philosophers and rulers to simplify government and the relations of society.
The natural condition of society, natural law, natural religion, the poetry of nature, gained a singular hold, first on the English philosophers from Hume onwards, and then (through Rousseau chiefly) on the general drift of thought and action in Europe.
Whilst the Saiva philosophers do not approve of the notion of incarnations, as being derogatory to the dignity of the deity, the Brahmans have nevertheless thought fit to adopt it as apparently a convenient expedient for bringing certain tendencies of popular worship within the pale of their system, and probably also for counteracting the Buddhist doctrines; and for this purpose Vishnu would obviously offer himself as the most attractive figure in the Brahmanical trinity.
Fairbanks, The First Philosophers of Greece (1898).
Benn, Greek Philosophers (1882); J.
But at this period no lecture-rooms were so crowded as those in which professors of antique literature and language read passages from the poets and orators, taught Greek, and commented upon the systems of philosophers.
To say that it displaced the centre of gravity in politics and commerce, substituting the ocean for the Mediterranean, dethroning Italy from her seat of central importance in traffic, depressing the eastern and elevating the western powers of Europe, opening a path for Anglo-Saxon expansiveness, forcing philosophers and statesmen to regard the Occidental nations as a single group in counterpoise to other groups of nations, the European community as one unit correlated to other units of humanity upon this planet, is truth enough to vindicate the vast significance of these discoveries.
Nevertheless he does not escape from the dualism of Form and Matter, vas and The scholastic philosophers naturally held dualistic views resulting from their extreme devotion to formalism.
Erlangen was for many years the residence of the poet Friedrich Ruckert, and of the philosophers Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm von Schnelling.
After a short time spent in attendance on the philosophers at Athens, he was summoned by Aulus Gabinius, governor of Syria, to take part in the campaigns against Aristobulus in Palestine, and in support of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt.
For a very full list of the papers and works of these early electrical philosophers, the reader is referred to the bibliography on Electricity in Dr Thomas Young's Natural Philosophy, vol.
- Noticing an analogy between the polarity of the voltaic pile and that of the magnet, philosophers had long been anxious to discover a relation between the two, but twenty years elapsed after the invention of the pile before Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851), professor of natural philosophy in the university of Copenhagen, made in 1819 the discovery which has immortalized his name.
It is, in its purely physical application, a theory that he fully accepts; he holds that it was taught by Pythagoras, Empedocles, and in fact, nearly all the ancient philosophers, and was only perverted to atheism by Democritus.
The tract is unusually interesting, for in it he discusses at some length the limits of science, the origin of things and the nature of primitive matter, giving at the same time full notices of Democritus among the ancient philosophers and of Telesio among the modern.
The first were the speculative or logical philosophers, who construe the universe ex analogia hominis, and not ex analogia mundi, who fashion nature according to preconceived ideas, and who employ in their investigations syllogism and abstract reasoning.
The Christian apologists of the 2nd century, however, found plenty of testimony to their doctrine of the unity of God in the writings of Greek poets and philosophers; it was a commonplace in the revival under the Empire; and among the group of religions embraced under the name Buddhism more than one form must be ranked as monotheistic. The idealist philosophy of the Prajiia Paramita in the system of the " Great Vehicle " declared that " every phenomenon is the manifestation of mind " (Beal, Catena, p. 303).
ANAXIMANDER, the second of the physical philosophers of Ionia, was a citizen of Miletus and a companion or pupil of Thales.
Benn, Greek Philosophers (Lond.
Fairbanks, First Philosophers of Greece (Lond.
Lessing, Goethe, Herder, Novalis and Schleiermacher, not to mention philosophers like Schelling and Hegel, united in recognizing the unique strength and sincerity of Spinoza's thought, and in setting him in his rightful place among the speculative leaders of mankind.
It was only natural, considering the evils produced by usury in ancient Greece and Rome, that philosophers should have tried to give an a priori explanation of these abuses.
The Persian mind was peculiarly adapted to receive the form of religion prepared for it by the philosophers of Ardebil.
Shortly after the beginning of the 19th century the labours of these three philosophers were shaping the modern doctrine of the undulatory theory of light.
The poets and the philosophers paid him enthusiastic homage, and all the distinguished women of the day testified to his superlative merits.
But neither in his actions nor in his writings is there the least trace of that belief in liberty of conscience ascribed to him by 18th-century philosophers.
They were drawn from all classes of society, - patricians, knights, freedmen, slaves, philosophers, literary men, and, above all, lawyers.
Its history will serve as a sketch of the cosmogony of the Stoics, for they too, like earlier philosophers,, g y have their fairy tales of science."
Yet, while they accepted slavery as a permanent institution, philosophers as wide apart as Chrysippus and Seneca sought to mitigate its evils in practice, and urged upon masters humanity in the treatment of their slaves.
According to him, `EXXnvucb, rauSeia is quite indispensable within the Church; many Greek philosophers were not far from the knowledge of God, as is proved by their triumphant arguments against atheists and gainsayers of divine providence.
Varro was not surpassed in the compass of his writings by any ancient, not even by any one of the later Greek philosophers, to some of whom tradition ascribes a fabulous number of separate works.
In many satires the philosophers were pounded, as in the " Burial of Menippus " and " Concerning the Sects " (IIEpi aipeahwv).
The principles he applies are those which he had learned from the philosophers of the Stoic school - Chrysippus, Antipater and others.
by Hammer-Purgstall in Arabic and German (Vienna, 1838); the Destruction of Philosophers (Tahafut ul-Falasifa) (Cairo, 1885, and Bombay, 1887).
In fact the later Greek religion did not advance much above the high-water mark of the Homeric, although the poets and philosophers deepened certain of its nobler traits.
Cybele was usually worshipped in connexion with Attis, as Aphrodite with Adonis, the two being a duality interpreted by the philosophers as symbolic of Mother Earth and her vegetation.
He gathered round him distinguished literary men - philosophers, poets, and historians.
He was a liberal patron of Greek philosophers and men of letters, and he collected a valuable library, to which such men had free access.
In 1807 he was appointed director of the GÃ¶ttingen observatory, an office which he retained to his death: it is said that he never slept away from under the roof of his observatory, except on one occasion, when he accepted an invitation from Baron von Humboldt to attend a meeting of natural philosophers at Berlin.
Sotion, Hermippus and Satyrus were historians rather than philosophers.
The followers of Simon Magus, of Menander and of Marcion, he says, were all called Christians, but so also Epicureans and Stoics were alike called philosophers.
But in its technical sense the word is used to describe what the Greek philosophers invented, and what the noblest of them lifted to the extreme refinement of an art.
His literary taste was conventional, including the standard British writers, with a preference for Shakespeare among the poets, Berkeley among the philosophers, and Montaigne (in Cotton's translation) among the essayists.
No Chinese writer has ever seriously undertaken to compare him with the philosophers and sages of other nations.
In 1477 Caxton brought out this book, as Dictes and Sayengis of the Philosophers, and it is illustrious as the first production of an English printing-press.
In time, however, the meaning of the term underwent a change, probably due to the philosophers and moralists, by whom a radical distinction was drawn between Aphrodite Urania and Pandemos.
Certainly the most able metaphysician and the most influential religious thinker of America, he must rank in theology, dialectics, mysticism and philosophy with Calvin and Fenelon, Augustine and Aquinas, Spinoza and Novalis; with Berkeley and Hume as the great English philosophers of the 18th century; and with Hamilton and Franklin as the three American thinkers of the same century of more than provincial importance.
The philosophers, he says, "are those who are able to grasp the eternal and immutable"; they are "those who set their affections on that which in each case really exists" (Rep. 480).
But these topics have also been treated by philosophers and religious thinkers, without dependence on any historical data or special divine revelation, under the title of Natural Theology.
When the ephebia instead of a military college became a university, the military instructors were replaced by philosophers, rhetoricians, grammarians and artists.
At the height of his success as a teacher he was recalled to court, where he became state secretary and vestarch, with the honorary title of "Tlraros TWV ctXoooCIXwv (prince of philosophers).
Their chief authorities were Plato and the Neo-platonists (between whom they made no adequate distinction), and among modern philosophers, Descartes, Malebranche and Boehme.
See Tulloch, Rational Theology in England in the 17th Century; Hallam, Literature of Europe (chap. on Philosophy from 1650 to 1700; Hunt, Religious Thought in England; von Stein, Sieben Bucher zur Geschichte des Platonismus (1862), and works on individual philosophers appended to biographies.
Failing to attain his object by learning the wisdom of others, and living the simple life of a student, he had devoted himself to that intense meditation and penance which all philosophers then said would raise men above the gods.
In the solitudes of Uruvela there were at this time three brothers, fire-worshippers and hermit philosophers, who had gathered round them a number of scholars, and enjoyed a considerable reputation as teachers.
The principle of " Varying Action " is the great feature of these papers; and it is strange, indeed, that the one particular result of this theory which, perhaps more than anything else that Hamilton has done, has rendered his name known beyond the little world of true philosophers, should have been easily within the reach of Augustin Fresnel and others for many years before, and in no way required Hamilton's new conceptions or methods, although it was by them that he was led to its discovery.
Sir, I must now again beg you, not to let your resentments run so high, as to deprive us of your third book, wherein the application of your mathematical doctrine to the theory of comets and several curious experiments, which, as I guess by what you write, ought to compose it, will undoubtedly render it acceptable to those, who will call themselves Philosophers without Mathematics, which are much the greater number.
But he left very interesting psychological analyses, and several new, just, and true expositions of philosophical systems, especially that of Locke and the philosophers of Scotland.
Catherine of Russia, the friend of Voltaire and the benefactress of Diderot, sent her congratulations to the man who denounced French philosophers as miscreants and wretches.
Philo the Jew is also quoted as using OeoXoyos of poets, of Moses par excellence, and of Greek philosophers.
Fairbairn; and through the mediation of British philosophers Hegelianism has widely affected British theology.
'CEBES, the name of two Greek philosophers.
The same problem, variously expressed, has engaged the attention of philosophers throughout the ages_ In Christian theology God is conceived as infinite in power, knowledge and goodness, uncreated and immortal: in some Oriental systems the end of man is absorption into the infinite, his perfection the breaking down of his human limitations.
These difficulties arise quite naturally from the obligation, which metaphysicians, theologians, moral philosophers, men of science, and psychologists alike recognize, to give an account, consistent with their theories, of the relation of man's power of deliberate and purposive activity to the rest of the universe.
There is no trace of the emergence of the problem of freedom in any intelligible MIL distinct form in the minds of early Greek physicists or philosophers.
Neoplatonic philosophy had been in the main content either to formulate the contradiction or to deny the reality of one of the opposing terms. And traces of Neoplatonic influence, more especially as regards their doctrine of the unreality of the material and sensible world, are to be found everywhere in the Christian philosophers of Alexandria, preventing or impeding their formulation of the problem of freedom in its full scope and urgency.
Reference should be made either to the individual philosophers themselves or to articles on metaphysics or on ethics.
Locke's treatment of the problem is in some respects more interesting than the theories of other English philosophers of his school.
It has already been pointed out that the problem as it presented itself to utilitarian philosophers could lead only to a false solution, depending as it did upon a wholly fictitious theory as to the nature of desire.
have been advanced by moral philosophers, and by thinkers not always inclined to regard psychology with complete sympathy.
It is the precise mode of this relation which idealist philosophers leave obscure.
In the case of Pythagoras, conspicuous among pre-Socratic philosophers as the founder not merely of a school, but of a sect or order bound by a common rule of life, there is a closer connexion between moral and metaphysical speculation.
In explaining how Plato was led to answer this question, it will be well to notice that, while faithfully maintaining the Socratic doctrine that the highest virtue was inseparable from knowledge of the good, he had come to recognize an inferior kind of virtue, possessed by men who were not philosophers.
Hence the paramount importance of education and discipline for civic virtue; and even for future philosophers such moral culture, in which physical and aesthetic training must co-operate, is indispensable; no merely intellectual preparation will suffice.
When a student passes from Plato to Aristotle, he is so forcibly impressed by the contrast between the habits of mind of the two authors, and the literary manners of the two philosophers, that it is easy to under stand how their systems have come to be popularly conceived as diametrically opposed to each other; and the uncompromising polemic which Aristotle, both in his ethical and in his metaphysical treatises, directs against Plato and the platonists, has tended strongly to confirm this view.
The same result appears when Aristotle's we compare the methods of the three philosophers.
They faintly suggested that one or two moral heroes of old time might have realized the ideal, but they admitted that all other philosophers (even) were merely in a state of progress towards it.
The peculiarity of the Stoics lay in their refusing to use the terms " good and evil " in connexion with " things indifferent," and in pointing out that philosophers, though independent of these things, must yet deal with them in practical life.
By the pagan philosophers it was always conceived under the form of Knowledge or Wisdom, it being inconceivable to all the schools sprung from Socrates that a man could truly know his own good and yet deliberately choose anything else.
and the theologians usually got over it (as some philosophers.
Even at the beginning of the 19th century, when the main interest of writers who belonged to the Utilitarian school was mainly political, the influence of political theories upon contemporary moral philosophy was upon the whole an influence of which the moral philosophers themselves were unconscious; and from the nature of things moral and political philosophy have a tendency to become one and the same inquiry.
But the attempt not only to treat ethics scientifically, but actually to subordinate the principles of conduct to the principles of existing biological science or group of sciences biological in character, was reserved for postDarwinian moral philosophers.
That attempt has not, in the opinion of the majority of critics, been successful, and perhaps what is most permanent in the contribution of modern times to ethical theory will ultimately be attributed to philosophers antagonistic to evolutionary ethics.
But certainly few modern moral philosophers would be found in the present day ready to defend the crudities of hedonistic psychology as they appear in Bentham and Mill.
A similar criticism might fairly be passed upon the majority of philosophers who approach ethics from the standpoint of evolution.
The fact is that with few exceptions evolutionary moral philosophers evade the choice between alternatives which is always presented to them.
But it is precisely this, the only logical inference, which most evolutionary philosophers are unwilling to draw.
Only, therefore, to those philosophers who believe in the existence of a criterion of morality, i.e.
And the need which most philosophers have felt for some philosophical foundation for morality arises, not from any desire to subordinate moral insight to speculative theory, but because the moral facts themselves are inexplicable except in the light of first principles which metaphysics alone can criticize.
Taylor's polemic against metaphysical systems of ethics is based throughout upon an alleged discrepancy and separation between the facts of moral " experience," the judgments of the moral consciousness, and theories as to the nature of these which the philosophers whom he attacks would by no means accept.
And Martineau is curiously unsympathetic to the universal and social aspect of morality with which evolutionary and idealist moral philosophers are so largely occupied.
Nevertheless there have been few moral philosophers who have, apart from the idiosyncrasies of their special prepossessions, set forth with clearer insight or with greater nobility of language the essential nature of the moral consciousness.
Benn, The Greek Philosophers (1882); F.
Not far from the city was the temple of Men Karou, with; a great medical school; while Laodicea itself produced some famous Sceptic philosophers, and gave origin to the royal family of Polemon and Zenon, whose curious history has been illustrated in recent times (W.
A system was introduced by Riccioli in his Almagestum novum of designating the more conspicuous smaller features by the names of eminent astronomers and philosophers, while the great dark regions were designated as oceans, with quite fanciful names: Mare imbrium, Oceanus Procellarum, &c. More than a century elapsed from the time of Hevelius and Riccioli when J.
The first trope emphasizes the disagreement of philosophers on all fundamental points; knowledge comes either from the senses or from reason.
Legend makes Cricklade the abode of a school of Greek philosophers before the Roman conquest, and the name is given as "Greeklade" in Drayton's Polyolbion.
While yet a student he began to apply ideas gathered from the Greek philosophers in a reconstruction of Kant's system.
In contrast to Kant and Fichte and modern moral philosophers Schleiermacher reintroduced and assigned pre-eminent importance to the doctrine of the summum bonum, or highest good.
Rothe, amongst other moral philosophers, bases his system substantially, with important departures, on Schleiermacher's.
This reasoning, in which Anselm partially anticipated the Cartesian philosophers, has rarely seemed satisfactory.
Having invented four arguments all immeasurably subtle and profound, the grossness of subsequent philosophers pronounced him to be a mere ingenious juggler, and his arguments to be one and all sophisms. After two thousand years of continual refutation, these sophisms were reinstated, and made the foundation of a mathematical renaissance, by a German professor, who probably never dreamed of any connexion between himself and Zeno.
When Christianity became powerful the heathen philosophers evaded its satire by making more and more use of the allegorical and non-natural system of explanation.
Some later philosophers, especially of the 17th century, misled by the resemblance between Biblical narratives and ancient myths, came to the conclusion that the Bible contains a pure, the myths a distorted, form of an original revelation.
He became anthropomorphic, and his myth was handled by local priests, by family bards, by national poets, by early philosophers.
His conception of the Logos is not that of the philosophers and apologists; he looks upon the Logos not as the "reason" of God, but as the "voice" with which the Father speaks in the revelation to mankind, as did the writer of the Fourth Gospel.
From 1749 to 1757 the party of religious devotees grouped round the queen and the kings daughters, with the dauphin as cluef and the comte D,Argenson and Machault dArnouville, keeper of the seals, as lieutenants, had worked against Madame de Pompadour (who leant for supporl upon the parlements, the jansenists and the philosophers)
The philosophers only helped to precipitate a movement which they had not created; without pointing to absolute power as the cause of the trouble, and without pretending to upset the traditional system, they attempted to instil into princes the feeling of new and more preciseobligations towards their subjects.
Neither the witty and lucid form in which the philosophers clothed their ideas in their satires, romances, stage-plays and treatises, nor the salons of Madame du Deffand, Madame Geoffrin and Mademoiselle de Lespinasse, could possibly have been sufficiently far-reaching or active centres of political propaganda.
In this sense the term may be applied to empirical philosophers in general.
Of the socalled Arabian philosophers of the East, al-Farabi, Ibn-Sina and al-Ghazali were natives of Khorasan, Bokhara and the outlying provinces of north-eastern Persia; whilst al-Kindi, the earliest of them, sprang from Basra, on the Persian Gulf, on the debatable ground between the Semite and the Aryan.
Of God the philosophers said we could not tell what He is, but only what He is not.
The philosophers in their way, like the mystics of Persia (the Sufites) in another, tended towards a theory of the communion of man with the spiritual world, which may be considered a protest against the practical and almost prosaic definiteness of the creed of Mahomet.
From first to last Arabian philosophers made no claim to originality; their aim was merely to propagate the truth of Peripa teticism as it had been delivered to them.
The place of Avicenna amongst Moslem philosophers is seen in the fact that Shahrastani takes him as the type of all, and that Ghazali's attack against philosophy is in reality almost entirely directed against Avicenna.
He turned to the philosophers, and examined the accepted Aristotelianism in a treatise which has come down to us - The Destruction of the Philosophers.
Having, as he believed, refuted the opinions of the philosophers, he next investigated the pretensions of the Allegorists, who derived their doctrines from an imam.
The work called The Tendencies of the Philosophers, translated in 1506, with the title Logica et Philosophia Algazelis Arabis, contains neither the logic nor the philosophy of Ghazali.
But about 1195 the old distrust of philosophy revived; the philosophers were banished in disgrace; works on philosophical topics were ordered to be confiscated and burned; and the son of Almansur condemned a certain IbnHabib to death for the crime of philosophizing.
In his science he followed the Greeks, and to the Schoolmen he and his compatriots rightly seemed philosophers of the ancient world.
But theology, or the mixture of the two, he regarded as a source of evil to both - fostering the vain belief in a hostility of philosophers to religion, and meanwhile corrupting religion by a pseudo-science.
Prantl, Geschichte der Logik (Leipzig, 1861); and the Histories of Philosophy; also the literature under the biographies of philosophers mentioned.
Among the post-Kantian philosophers Herbart doubtless ranks next to Hegel in importance, and this without taking into account his very great contributions to the science of education.
In pure metaphysics the term "immanence-philosophy" is given to a doctrine held largely by German philosophers (Rehmke, Leclair, Schuppe and others) according to which all reality is reduced to elements immanent in consciousness.
Poets, philosophers, historians and naturalists (among whom may be mentioned Virgil, Aristotle, Cicero and Pliny) have eulogized the bee as unique among insects, endowed by nature with wondrous gifts beneficial to mankind in a greater degree than any other creature of the insect world.
They crown these images, and set them up along with the images of the philosophers of the world; that is to say, with the images of Pythagoras and Plato and Aristotle and the rest.
For an estimate of his work and his place among the philosophers of the 18th century see Victor Cousin's Philosophic sensualiste (1863); P. L.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about ancient philosophers.
Reid and Malebranche first attracted him among the philosophers, and after these he turned to Hegel, Kant and Herder.
According to the philosophers, Eros was not only the god of sexual love, but also of the loyal and devoted friendship of men; hence the Theban "Sacred Band" was devoted to him, and the Cretans and Spartans offered sacrifice to him before going into battle (Athenaeus xiii.
absurd proposition, it is still debated by philosophers.
It contracts no entangling alliances with any sect of theorists, dreamers or philosophers.
analytic philosophers have been largely silent on the topic.
Indeed, an appendix reveals these philosophers to be the " hereditary aristocracy " of the subject.
atomism developed by mechanical philosophers in the seventeenth century shared that characteristic.
It is also discourteous toward those philosophers whose thinking one can, without refined knowledge of linguistic nuances, only pretend to study.
dissimilarityustrated how the Plea cites poets and philosophers more liberally, and he found four doctrinal dissimilarities.
He rejected all the Greek philosophers, and in doing so also rejected a spherical earth.
eavesdrop on the dialog of fictional young philosophers putting the case for either side of the argument.
entering into a dialog with moral and political philosophers.
Alvin Plantinga has become famous among philosophers of religion for his defense of what he calls " reformed epistemology.
Hence, many philosophers began to develop evolutionary epistemology.
Even the earliest Greek philosophers have routinely been seen as struggling precursors of the enlightenment ideal.
Such entities would seem to be causally inert, some philosophers will say.
I would also suggest to philosophers: acquire the knack of relating philosophical thinking to management issues in management terms.
Metaphysics as Metaphor Many philosophers think that physicalism is a naturalistic metaphysics as Metaphor Many philosophers think that physicalism is a naturalistic metaphysics.
Both ideas may come from the 16th century mystic Jacob Boehme, who was an influence on many philosophers in London in the 1740s.
For example, I was not born a philosopher, but made myself one by studying the writings of the philosophers.
Look at verses 18-21: A group of Epicurean and Stoic philosophers began to dispute with him.
First, he was alone among the Islamic Hellenistic philosophers to argue for the temporal creation of the world.
Certainly, the pre-Socratic philosophers conceived Being as (being) made of matter.
FOR LIFE, LIBERTY AND PROPERTY INTRODUCTION 1 Karl Popper was without question one of the most eminent philosophers of the 20th Century.
The book fails to engage directly with the major postmodernist philosophers.
To my surprise, the latter category is dominated by Enlightenment rationalist philosophers.
Reason was of primary importance to the enlightenment philosophers, a company to which Wollstonecraft belongs.
philosophers of the enlightenment.
philosophers of mathematics should be thinking about!
philosophers of the 20th century.
With contributions from leading international psychoanalysts, philosophers and sociologists.
By the standards of such philosophers as Husserl, Natorp, and Frege, Wundt appears committed to a logical psychologism.
In 1992, John Cornwell at Cambridge UK, convened a group of well-known scientists and philosophers to discuss reductionism.
regrettable to see teaching becoming makeshift and spread by colleagues trying to improvise as philosophers or science historians.
reliance on the intuition in establishing valid proofs became common among mathematics education philosophers.
During the next ten months Smith had much intercourse with philosophers in Parisian salons.
A series of 18th-century busts below the tapestries represent distinguished early scientists and philosophers.
For these philosophers simply deny that self-knowledge is truly special.
survivalist philosophers (thinkers) and not the priests (believers ).
As philosophers and physiologists have established, even physical reality can be considered as symbolic.
An enemy's weakness philosophers are now bon temps fouler.
On the ' grand mercury of Philosophers ' and analogies between alchemical transmutations and the original Creation.
unintentional bias toward male speakers, with only two female philosophers accepting invitations.
vexed philosophers down the ages.
virtuous pagans, the great philosophers and authors, unbaptised children, and others unfit to enter the kingdom of heaven.
writings of the philosophers.
Even philosophers of the eminence of I.
This conception of the grained structure of matter is very ancient; traces of it are to be found in Indian philosophy, perhaps twelve centuries before the Christian era, and the Greek philosophers Democritus and Epicurus, in the 3rd and 4th centuries B.C., taught it very definitely.
To suppose that all mythical stories are fables invented by the philosophers is to write history backwards avid confound the instinctive, impersonal, poetic wisdom of the earliest times with the civilized, rational and abstract occult wisdom of our own day.
The former had written in lucid German an attack on the national neglect of native philosophers (principally Leibnitz), and lent the manuscript to Lessing.
- Two sets of writers have been considered: - first, the greater philosophers, who have incidentally furthered theism (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, Descartes, Locke, Kant, Hegel, Mill, Lotze), or opposed it (Epicurus, Spinoza, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Mill, Spencer); and, secondly, the deliberate champions of theism - Cicero (especially in the De Natura Deorum), Philo, Raymond of Sabunde (in a sense), Wolff, Butler (in a sense), Paley, and a host of English and German 18th-century authors, who chiefly handle the Design argument; then recent writers like R.
Passing by Buddhism, which, though teaching the periodic destruction of our world by fire, &c., does not seek to determine the ultimate origin of the cosmos, we come to those early Greek physical philosophers who distinctly set themselves to eliminate the idea of divine interference with the world by representing its origin and changes as a natural process.
Elaborate doctrines of emanation, largely based on Neoplatonic ideas, are also propounded by some of the Arabic philosophers, as by Farabi and Avicenna.
The division of the sphere into parallel zones and some of the consequences of this generalization seem to have presented themselves to Parmenides (c. 450 B.C.); but these ideas did not influence the Ionian school of philosophers, who in their treatment of geography preferred to deal with facts demonstrable by flecataeus .
CYNICS, a small but influential school of ancient philosophers.
Four years later she endeavoured to embody in a legislative form the principles of enlightenment which she had imbibed from the study of the French philosophers.
Among the Greeks the philosophers had come to use both argument and ridicule against the idea that the offering of material things could be needed by or acceptable to the Maker of them all.
But he is best known as the author of the //Mot, three books of sarcastic hexameter verses, written against the Greek philosophers.
The six books pass in review (1) the doctrine of the soul, in which Gersonides defends the theory of impersonal reason as mediating between God and man, and explains the formation of the higher reason (or acquired intellect, as it was called) in humanity, - his view being thoroughly realist and resembling that of Avicebron; (2) prophecy; (3) and (4) God's knowledge of facts and providence, in which is advanced the curious theory that God does not know individual facts, and that, while there is general providence for all, special providence only extends to those whose reason has been enlightened; (5) celestial substances, treating of the strange spiritual hierarchy which the Jewish philosophers of the middle ages accepted from the Neoplatonists and the pseudo-Dionysius, and also giving, along with astronomical details, much of astrological theory; (6) creation and miracles, in respect to which Gerson deviates widely from the position of Maimonides.
To take but one example, "the distinction between sensible qualities and the substance to which they belong, and between thought and the mind that thinks, is not the invention of philosophers; it is found in the structure of all languages, and therefore must be common to all men who speak with understanding" (Hamilton's Reid, pp. 229 and The principles which Reid insists upon as everywhere present in experience evidently correspond pretty closely to the Kantian categories and the unity of apperception.
See also McCosh, Scottish Philosophers (1875); Rait, Universities of Aberdeen, pp. 199-203, 223; A.
The former substituted for the salt, sulphur and mercury of Basil Valentine and Paracelsus three earths - the mercurial, the vitreous and the combustible - and he explained combustion as depending on the escape of this last combustible element; while Stahl's conception of phlogiston - not fire itself, but the principle of fire - by virtue of which combustible bodies burned, was a near relative of the mercury of the philosophers, the soul or essence of ordinary mercury.
The main doctrines of the Eleatics were evolved in opposition, on the one hand, to the physical theories of the early physical philosophers who explained all existence in terms of primary matter (see Ionian School), and, on the other hand, to the theory of Heraclitus that all existence may be summed up as perpetual change.
Greek natural science was enriched with a mass of new material from the observations of the philosophers who went with Alexander through the strange lands (H.
Treatises " Concerning Kingship " were produced as a regular thing by philosophers, and kings who claimed the fine flower of Hellenism, could not but peruse them.
Some of the philosophers who talked idly of the good old times of the republic, and thus indirectly encouraged conspiracy, provoked him into reviving the obsolete penal laws against this class, but only one, Helvidius Priscus, was put to death, and he had affronted the emperor by studied insults.
Most philosophers refer in their works to mathematics more or less cursorily, either in the treatment of the ideas of number and magnitude, or in their consideration of the alleged a priori and necessary truths.
Eberhard, Ernst Platner, and to some extent Schelling, whom, however, it would be incorrect to describe as merely an eclectic. In the first place, his speculations were largely original; and in the second place, it is not so much that his views of any time were borrowed from a number of philosophers, as that his thinking was influenced first by one philosopher, then by another.
The Arabians more closely resembled the Hindus than the Greeks in the choice of studies; their philosophers blended speculative dissertations with the more progressive study of medicine; their mathematicians neglected the subtleties of the conic sections and Diophantine analysis, and applied themselves more particularly to perfect the system of numerals (see Numeral), arithmetic and astronomy.
It is rather in the manner of Aristotle, and freely attributes to Plato any ideas of other philosophers which appeared to contribute to the system.
The town was mainly celebrated for the philosophers who bore its name (see Eleatic School).
- Bolingbroke'scollected works, including his chief political writings already mentioned and his philosophical essays Concerning the Nature, Extent and Reality of Human Knowledge, On the Folly and Presumption of Philosophers, On the Rise and Progress of Monotheism, and On Authority in Matters of Religion, were first published in Mallet's faulty edition in 1754, - according to Johnson's wellknown denunciation, "the blunderbuss charged against religion and morality," - and subsequently in 1778, 1809 and 184r.
The pursuit of salvation does not dominate by any means the whole life and ambition of even ardent believers; statesmen, philosophers, men of letters, scientific investigators and inventors have commonly gone their way regardless of the particular form of Christianity which prevailed in the land in which they lived.
Henceforth ordinary dogmatic dualism was excluded from philosophy; any attempt to revive it, whether with Dr Johnson by an appeal to common prejudice, or in the more reflective Johnsonianism of the 18th-century Scottish philosophers, must be an anachronism.
646-648) were designed to instruct Alexander on monarchy and on colonization; and in them Aristotle agreed with Plato in assigning a moral object to the state, but departed from him by saying that a king need not be a philosopher, as Plato had said in the Republic, but does need to listen to philosophers.
During the middle ages the empiric spirit was in abeyance, but it revived from the time of Francis Bacon and was systematized especially in the English philosophers, Locke, Hume, the two Mills,.
for that which is concerned with the supernatural, not only by the schoolmen but even as late as 17th-century English writers, and within narrower limits the term has been dangerously ambiguous even in the hands of modern philosophers (see below).
conviction, and often in flagrant opposition to the truths of natural science, and when, in consequence, a wave of materialism threatened to submerge mind altogether by reducing it to a function of matter, many philosophers began to despair of the ambitious attempts which had been made to prove that there is a whole world of mind beyond phenomena, as the noumenalists had supposed.
The philosophers and encyclopaedists who, by the mouth of Diderot, complimented Catherine on being superior to such female affectations as modesty and chastity, flattered her to some extent even here.
It is, however, clear that from his earliest years he began to speculate upon the nature of knowledge in the abstract, and its concrete applications, as in theology, and that with this object he studied largely the writings of Cicero and Seneca and recent English philosophers (especially Locke, Berkeley and Butler).
But the confection of the stone of the philosophers was too remote a possibility to gratify the fiery spirit of a youth like Paracelsus, eager to make what he knew, or could learn, at once available for practical medicine.
At Athens, the philosophers who taught in the schools hallowed by memories of Plato still openly professed what passed for Paganism, though it was really a body of moral doctrine, strongly tinged with mysticism, in which there was far more of Christianity and of the speculative metaphysics of the East than of the old Olympian religion.
It is in the form of a dialogue between Sulpicia and the muse Calliope, and is chiefly a protest against the banishment of the philosophers by the edict of Domitian (A.D.
Towards the middle of the 5th century, however, Protagoras of Abdera, taking account of the teaching of the first, and possibly of the second, of the physical successions, and Gorgias of Leontini, starting from the teaching of the metaphysical succession of Elea, drew that sceptical inference from which the philosophers had shrunk.
Round this distinction a rather barren controversy has raged, and almost all modern philosophers have labelled themselves either "Intuitionalist" (a priori) or "Empiricist" (a posteriori) according to the view they take of knowledge.
The passage shows, not merely that Homer was well known at Colophon in the time of Xenophanes, but also that the great advance in moral and religious ideas which forced Plato to banish Homer from his republic had made itself felt in the days of the early Ionic philosophers.
STOICS, a school of philosophers founded at the close of the 4th century B.C. by Zeno of Citium, and so called from the Stoa or painted corridor (6roci 7roucLXf) on the north side of the market-place at Athens, which, after its restoration by Cimon, the celebrated painter Polygnotus had adorned with frescoes representing scenes from the Trojan War.
DEMOCRITUS, probably the greatest of the Greek physical philosophers, was a native of Abdera in Thrace, or as some say - probably wrongly - of Miletus (Diog.
In 1807 he was appointed director of the GÃƒ¶ttingen observatory, an office which he retained to his death: it is said that he never slept away from under the roof of his observatory, except on one occasion, when he accepted an invitation from Baron von Humboldt to attend a meeting of natural philosophers at Berlin.
Caird, Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904), vol.