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philosopher

philosopher

philosopher Sentence Examples

  • Even Pumpkin Green, the trekking philosopher, tossed in his two cents.

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  • To a philosopher all news, as it is called, is gossip, and they who edit and read it are old women over their tea.

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  • It would have suggested many things to a philosopher to have dealings with him.

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  • How can a man be a philosopher and not maintain his vital heat by better methods than other men?

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  • The messenger being gone, the philosopher remarked: What a worthy messenger!

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  • But as you are a philosopher, be a consistent one, look at the other side of the question and you will see that your duty, on the contrary, is to take care of yourself.

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  • "BERNARD BOSANQUET (1848-), English philosopher, was born at Rock, near Alnwick, June 14 1848.

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  • AVICENNA [Abu 'Ali al-Husain ibn 'Abdallah ibn Sinai (980-1037), Arabian philosopher, was born at Afshena in the district of Bokhara.

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  • In accordance with the expressed desire of the philosopher, his tomb was marked by the figure of a sphere inscribed in a cylinder, the discovery of the relation between the volumes of a sphere and its circumscribing cylinder being regarded by him as his most valuable achievement.

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  • 480-524), Roman philosopher and statesman, described by Gibbon as " the last of the Romans whom Cato or Tully could have acknowledged for their countryman."

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  • 480-524), Roman philosopher and statesman, described by Gibbon as " the last of the Romans whom Cato or Tully could have acknowledged for their countryman."

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  • This law is not the individual work of any philosophical legislator, for no man was, or could be, a philosopher at that time.

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  • Cassiodorus, magister ofiiciorum under Theodoric and the intimate acquaintance of the philosopher, employs language equally strong, and Ennodius, the bishop of Pavia, knows no bounds for his admiration.

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  • Had he not at one time longed with all his heart to establish a republic in Russia; then himself to be a Napoleon; then to be a philosopher; and then a strategist and the conqueror of Napoleon?

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  • ELME MARIE CARO (1826-1887), French philosopher, was born on the 4th of March 1826 at Poitiers.

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  • ALEXANDER GOTTLIEB BAUMGARTEN (1714-1762), German philosopher, born at Berlin.

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  • HERMANN ULRICI (1806-1884), German philosopher, was born at Pfurten, Prussia, on the 2 3 rd of March 1806.

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  • For I purposely talked to him as if he were a philosopher, or desired to be one.

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  • THEODORE SIMON JOUFFROY (1796-1842), French philosopher, was born at Pontets, near Mouthe, department of Doubs.

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  • about 1136), was a mathematician, astronomer and philosopher much studied in the middle ages.

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  • about 1136), was a mathematician, astronomer and philosopher much studied in the middle ages.

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  • carried out by the Swedish chemist, Torbern Bergman, acting under the impulse of Linnaeus, and by the German philosopher, Immanuel Kant.

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  • ISAAC ABRABANEL, called also Abravanel, Abarbanel (1437-1508), Jewish statesman, philosopher, theologian and commentator, was born at Lisbon of an ancient family which claimed descent from the royal house of David.

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  • CAMILLO PORZIO (1526-1580?), Italian historian, belonged to a wealthy and noble Neapolitan family, and was the son of the philosopher, Simone Porzio.

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  • The philosopher in Abelard's Dialogus inter Judaeum Philosophum et Christianum expects to be saved ex sola lege naturali; here " law of nature " is fully equivalent to Natural Religion, and the word sola sets it in contrast with Christianity.

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  • "HENRI LOUIS BERGSON (1859-), French philosopher, was born in Paris Oct.

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  • Perhaps the most important of these popular thinkers was Marcus Tullius Cicero - no great philosopher, but a graceful and effective man of letters.

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  • after 1290), philosopher (following Averroes), poet and author of a commentary on the Moreh.

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  • after 1290), philosopher (following Averroes), poet and author of a commentary on the Moreh.

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  • THOMAS AQUINAS [[[Thomas (disambiguation)|THOMAS]] OF Aquin or AquinO], (c 1227-1274), scholastic philosopher, known as Doctor Angelicus, Doctor Universalis, was of noble descent, and nearly allied to several of the royal houses of Europe.

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  • IMMANUEL HERMANN FICHTE (originally [[Hartmann) Von]] (1797-1879), German philosopher, son of J.

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  • The oldest Egyptian or Hindoo philosopher raised a corner of the veil from the statue of the divinity; and still the trembling robe remains raised, and I gaze upon as fresh a glory as he did, since it was I in him that was then so bold, and it is he in me that now reviews the vision.

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  • RENE DESCARTES (1596-1650), French philosopher, was born at La Haye, in Touraine, midway between Tours and Poitiers, on the 31st of March 1596, and died at Stockholm on the 1th of February 1650.

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  • But their importunity made a hermitage in Paris impossible; a graceless friend even surprised the philosopher in bed at eleven in the morning meditating and taking notes.

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  • JAKOB FROHSCHAMMER (1821-1893), German theologian and philosopher, was born at Illkofen, near Regensburg, on the 6th of January 1821.

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  • DIOGENES APOLLONIATES (c. 460 B.C.), Greek natural philosopher, was a native of Apollonia in Crete.

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  • FRIEDRICH KARL CHRISTIAN LUDWIG BUCHNER (1824-1899), German philosopher and physician, was born at Darmstadt.

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  • DIOGENES APOLLONIATES (c. 460 B.C.), Greek natural philosopher, was a native of Apollonia in Crete.

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  • But I was so shrewdly taxed with posing as a strong-minded woman and a philosopher that one fine day I said to myself, ` What, I wonder, is philosophy?'

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  • Unfortunately, Descartes is too lordly a philosopher to explain distinctly what either understanding or will may mean.

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  • The European ferment of ideas which preceded the French Revolution expressed itself in men like Alfieri, the fierce denouncer of tyrants, Beccaria, the philosopher of criminal jurisprudence, Volta, the physicist, and numerous political economists of Tuscany.

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  • In Alciphron or the Minute Philosopher Berkeley gives the fullest statement of this argument, while adding more commonplace attacks on the pettiness of religious scepticism.

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  • The rival philosopher, who believes water to be continuous and without spaces between its particles, has a greater difficulty in accounting for the disappearance of the sugar; he would probably say that the sugar, and the water also, had ceased to exist, and that a new continuous substance had been formed from them, but he could offer no picture of how this change had taken place.

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  • He could defend many institutions better than any philosopher, because, in describing them as they concerned him, he gave the true reason for their prevalence, and speculation had not suggested to him any other.

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  • Even the Chinese philosopher was wise enough to regard the individual as the basis of the empire.

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  • But in the end they became less fanatical than the Murabtis, and Ya`kub el Mansur was a highly accomplished man, who wrote a good Arabic style and who protected the philosopher Averroes.

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  • ARNOLD GEULINCX (1624-1669), Belgian philosopher, was born at Antwerp on the 31st of January 1624.

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  • Fouillee's wife, who by a previous marriage was the mother of the poet and philosopher Jean Marie Guyau (1854-1888), is well known, under the pseudonym of "G.

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  • MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS (121-180), Roman emperor and Stoic philosopher, was born in Rome A.D.

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  • MORITZ LAZARUS (1824-1903), German philosopher, was born on the 15th of September 1824 at Filehne, Posen.

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  • ALFRED JULES EMILE FOUILLIEE (1838-), French philosopher, was born at La Poueze on the r 8th of October 1838.

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  • but at the age of eleven he became acquainted with Diognetus the painter and Stoic philosopher (Hist.

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  • They included the philosopher Callisthenes, put to For Alexander's funeral, see F.

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  • PASQUALE GALLUPPI (1770-1846), Italian philosopher, was born on the 2nd of April 1770 at Tropea, in Calabria.

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  • They included the philosopher Callisthenes, put to For Alexander's funeral, see F.

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  • The dispute on the latter point between Fermat and Descartes was continued, even after the philosopher's death, as late as 1662.

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  • What man but a philosopher would not be ashamed to see his furniture packed in a cart and going up country exposed to the light of heaven and the eyes of men, a beggarly account of empty boxes?

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  • were handed over to the grammarian Tyrannion, who took copies of them, on the basis of which the peripatetic philosopher Andronicus of Rhodes prepared an edition of Aristotle's works.

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  • were handed over to the grammarian Tyrannion, who took copies of them, on the basis of which the peripatetic philosopher Andronicus of Rhodes prepared an edition of Aristotle's works.

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  • MOSES MENDELSSOHN (1729-1786), Jewish philosopher, was born in Dessau in 1729.

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  • "I guess it boils down to a case of doing what's right in spite of the consequences," Fred said, sounding like the old philosopher.

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  • Pythagoras (Philosopher) >>

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  • Strange as it may appear, I would refer to an Australian as the finest model of the human proportions I have ever met; in muscular development combining perfect symmetry, activity and strength, while his head might have compared with the antique bust of a philosopher."

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  • Probably Dante knew of him only from the chronicler as a persecuted philosopher.

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  • Not that a posteriori is denied, or that idealism even in Hegel tries to evolve reality out of the philosopher's inner consciousness.

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  • 3 But Locke is a double-minded or half-hearted philosopher.

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  • Among others he was the patron of Solomon ibn Gabirol (q.v.), the poet and philosopher.

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  • 1895), conservative commentator and philosopher.

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  • JEAN LE ROND D ALEMBERT' (1717-1783), French mathematician and philosopher, was born at Paris in November 1717.

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  • Further, while the genius of Aquinas was constructive, that of Duns Scotus was destructive; Aquinas was a philosopher, Duns a critic. The latter has been said to stand to the former in the relation of Kant to Leibnitz.

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  • From the lonely life he led, and still more from the extreme profundity of his philosophy and his contempt for mankind in general, he was called the "Dark Philosopher" (6 o-Komewos), or the "Weeping Philosopher," in contrast to Democritus, the "Laughing Philosopher."

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  • "BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL (1872-), English mathematician and philosopher, second son of Viscount Amberley and grandson of the 1st Earl Russell, was born at Chepstow May 18 1872.

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  • FAVORINUS (2nd century A.D.), Greek sophist and philosopher, flourished during the reign of Hadrian.

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  • As a philosopher, Favorinus belonged to the sceptical school; his most important work in this connexion appears to have been Hvppwvetot rpoiroc (the Pyrrhonean Tropes) in ten books, in which he endeavours to show that the methods of Pyrrho were useful to those who intended to practise in the law courts.

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  • JOHN CAIRD (1820-1898), Scottish divine and philosopher, was born at Greenock on the 15th of December 1820.

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  • Caird wrote also an excellent study of Spinoza, in which he showed the latent Hegelianism of the great Jewish philosopher.

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  • TIMON (c. 320-230), of Phlius, Greek sceptic philosopher and satirical poet, a pupil of Stilpo the Megarian and Pyrrho of Elis.

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  • In estimating the comparative advantages and disadvantages of this wearisome period of his life, he has summed up with the impartiality of a philosopher and the sagacity of a man of the world.

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  • LUIGI FERRI (1826-1895), Italian philosopher, was born at Bologna on the 15th of June 1826.

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  • AUGUSTO VERA (1813-1885), Italian philosopher, was born at Amelia in the province of Perugia on the 4th of May 1813.

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  • GERSONIDES, or BEN Gerson (Gershon), Levi, known also as Ralbag (1288-1344), Jewish philosopher and commentator, was born at Bagnols in Languedoc, probably in 1288.

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  • FRANCISCO SUAREZ (1548-1617), Spanish theologian and philosopher, was born at Granada on the 5th of January 1548, and educated at Salamanca.

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  • They brought themselves into notoriety by excommunicating the philosopher - an act of weak self-defence on the part of men who had themselves but recently been admitted to the country, and were timorous of the suspicion that they shared Spinoza's then execrated views.

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  • However absolute a philosopher's idealism may be, he is erroneously styled a mystic if he moves towards his conclusions only by the patient labour of the reason.

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  • But in that case it might be difficult to find a systematic philosopher who would escape the charge of mysticism; and it is better to remain by long-established and serviceable distinctions.

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  • THOMAS REID (1710-1796), Scottish philosopher, was born at Strachan in Kincardineshire, on the 26th of April 1710.

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  • and Rom.); (5) Opuscula of Gregory of Nazianzus; (6) the Sententiae of Sixtus, an unknown Greek philosopher; (7) the Sententiae of Evagrius; (8) the Clementine Recognitions (the only form in which that work is now extant); (9) the Canon Paschalis of Anatolius Alexandrinus.

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  • There is a curious reference to Iamblichus, apparently the neo-platonist philosopher, whose name Jordanes, being, as he says himself, agrammatus, inserts by way of a flourish.

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  • This double identification enabled Cassiodorus to bring the favoured race into line with the peoples of classical antiquity, to interweave with their history stories about Hercules and the Amazons, to make them invade Egypt, to claim for them a share in the wisdom of the semi-mythical Scythian philosopher Zamolxis.

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  • SIR DAVID BREWSTER (1781-1868), Scottish natural philosopher, was born on the 11th of December 1781 at Jedburgh, where his father, a teacher of high reputation, was rector of the grammar school.

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  • Even before this, however, he had shown a strong inclination for natural science, and this had been fostered by his intimacy with a "self-taught philosopher, astronomer and mathematician," as Sir Walter Scott called him, of great local fame - James Veitch of Inchbonny, who was particularly skilful in making telescopes.

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  • JEREMY BENTHAM (1748-1832), English philosopher and jurist, was born on the 15th of February 17 4 8 in Red Lion Street, Houndsditch, London, in which neighbourhood his grandfather and father successively carried on business as attorneys.

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  • Mr Bentham received me with the simplicity of a philosopher.

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  • CLAUDE BUFFIER (1661-1737), French philosopher, historian and educationalist, was born in Poland, on the 25th of May 1661, of French parents, who returned to France, and settled at Rouen, soon after his birth.

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  • HENRY OF GHENT [Henricus a Gandavol (c. 1217-1293), scholastic philosopher, known as "Doctor Solennis," was born in the district of Mude, near Ghent, and died at Tournai (or Paris).

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  • SIMONE PORZIO (1497-1554), Italian philosopher, was born and died at Naples.

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  • JOHN STUART MILL (1806-1873), English philosopher and economist, son of James Mill, was born on the 10th of May 1806 in his father's house in Pentonville, London.

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  • Mill's work at the India House, which was henceforth his livelihood, did, not come before the public; hence some have scouted his political writings as the work of an abstract philosopher, entirely unacquainted with affairs.

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  • The atmosphere around him was a dangerous one for a philosopher and theologian to breathe, but he kept his spiritual health unimpaired, and even his sense of truth suffered less injury than was the case with most of his contemporaries.

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  • As a theologian, in fact, Origen is not merely an orthodox traditionalist and believing exegete, but a speculative philosopher of Neo-Platonic tendencies.

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  • But, while in all these doctrines he appears in the character of a Platonic philosopher, traces of rational criticism are not wanting.

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  • Keeping the electoral machinery almost unchanged (save that the lists of notables were to be permanent) Bonaparte entirely altered the upper parts of the constitutional pyramid reared by the philosopher.

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  • GEMISTUS PLETHO [or [[Plethon], Georgius]] (c. 1355-1450), Greek Platonic philosopher and scholar, one of the chief pioneers of the revival of learning in Western Europe, was a Byzantine by birth who settled at Mistra in the Peloponnese, the site of ancient Sparta.

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  • THOMAS HILL GREEN (1836-1882), English philosopher, the most typical English representative of the school of thought called Neo-Kantian, or Neo-Hegelian, was born on the 7th of April 1836 at Birkin, a village in the West Riding of Yorkshire, of which his father was rector.

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  • ROBERT HOOKE (1635-1703), English experimental philosopher, was born on the 18th of July 1635 at Freshwater, in the Isle of Wight, where his father, John Hooke, was minister of the parish.

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  • After his conversion he retained his philosopher's cloak (Euseb., Hist.

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  • Even as a Christian Justin always remained a philosopher.

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  • KARL PREL, FREIHERR VON (1839-1899), German philosopher, was born at Landshut on the 3rd of April 1839.

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  • CHRYSANTHIUS, a Greek philosopher of the 4th century A.D., of the school of Iamblichus.

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  • ROGER BACON (c. 1214 - c. 1294), English philosopher and man of science, was born near Ilchester in Somerset.

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  • JOHANN CLAUBERG (1622-1665), German philosopher, was born at Solingen, in Westphalia, on the 24th of February 1622.

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  • KARL VON PRANTL (1820-1888), German philosopher, was born at Landsberg on the Lech on the 28th of January 1820, and died on the 14th of September 1888 at Oberstdorf.

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  • KARL ROBERT EDUARD VON HARTMANN (1842-1906), German philosopher, was born in Berlin on the 23rd of February 1842.

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  • His reputation as a philosopher was established by his first book, The Philosophy of the Unconscious (1869; 10th ed.

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  • They are said to have had a firm belief in the immortality of the soul and in metempsychosis, a fact which led several ancient writers to conclude that they had been influenced by the teaching of the Greek philosopher Pythagoras.

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  • GIOVANNI PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA, Count (1463-1494), Italian philosopher and writer, the youngest son of Giovanni Francesco Pico, prince of Mirandola, a small territory about 30 Italian miles west of Ferrara, afterwards absorbed in the duchy of Modena, was born on the 24th of February 1463.

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  • SEXTUS EMPIRICUS (2nd and 3rd centuries A.D.), physician and philosopher, lived at Alexandria and at Athens.

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  • ARCHYTAS (c. 428-347 B.C.), of Tarentum, Greek philosopher and scientist of the Pythagorean school, famous as the intimate friend of Plato, was the son of Mnesagoras or Histiaeus.

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  • It is important to notice that Archytas must have been famous as a philosopher, inasmuch as Aristotle wrote a special treatise (not extant) On the Philosophy of Archytas.

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  • Some of the old palaces are, nevertheless, of considerable interest; one especially as the birthplace of the celebrated philosopher, Marc Antonio de Dominis.

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  • The philosopher's egg, as a symbol of creation, is both Egyptian and Babylonian.

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  • This sulphur again was not ordinary sulphur, but some principle derived from it, which constituted the philosopher's stone or elixir - white for silver and yellow or 1 " Some traditionary knowledge might be secreted in the temples and monasteries of Egypt; much useful experience might have been acquired in the practice of arts and manufactures, but the science of chemistry owes its origin and improvement to the industry of the Saracens.

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  • His emissary, the philosopher Aristion, induced the people to declare war against Rome and to place him in chief command.

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  • EDWARD CAIRD (1835-1908), British philosopher and theologian, brother of John Caird, was born at Greenock on the 22nd of March 1835, and educated at Glasgow University and Balliol College, Oxford.

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  • HASDAI BEN ABRAHAM CRESCAS (1340 -, 410), Spanish philosopher.

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  • Some alchemists honestly laboured to effect the transmutation and to discover the " philosopher's stone," and in many cases believed that they had achieved success, if we may rely upon writings assigned to them.

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  • It is really not extraordinary that Isaac Hollandus was able to indicate the method of the preparation of the " philosopher's stone " from " adamic " or " virgin " earth, and its action when medicinally employed; that in the writings assigned to Roger Bacon, Raimon Lull, Basil Valentine and others are to be found the exact quantities of it to be used in transmutation; and that George Ripley, in the 15th century, had grounds for regarding its action as similar to that of a ferment.

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  • Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.

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  • But so long as we treat Wagner like a prose philosopher, a librettist, a poet, a mere musician, or anything short of the complex and many-sided artist he really is, we shall find insuperable obstacles to understanding or enjoying his works.

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  • 1327), German philosopher, the first of the great speculative mystics.

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  • A distinguished philosopher or man of letters would find them bidding f o r his presence, and most of the great names are p ?

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  • after 360), the great philosopher and founder, with Leucippus, of the atomic theory, was also the author of a map of the inhabited world which he supposed to be half as long again from west to east, as it was broad.

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  • Metrodorus of Athens was a philosopher and painter who flourished in the 2nd century B.C. It chanced that Paullus Aemilius, visiting Athens on his return from his victory over Perseus in 168 B.C., asked for a tutor for his children and a painter to glorify his triumph.

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  • ARISTOXENUS, of Tarentum (4th century B.C.), a Greek peripatetic philosopher, and writer on music and rhythm.

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  • THOMAS BROWN (1778-1820), Scottish philosopher, was born at Kirkmabreck, Kirkcudbright, where his father was parish clergyman.

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  • GIUSEPPE FERRARI (1812-1876), Italian philosopher, historian and politician, was born at Milan on the 7th of March 1812, and died in Rome on the 2nd of July 1876.

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  • The story of Abulfaragius runs as follows: John the Grammarian, a famous Peripatetic philosopher, being in Alexandria at the time of its capture, and in high favour with `Amr, begged that he would give him the royal library.

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  • ADAM KARL AUGUST VON ESCHENMAYER (1768-1852), German philosopher and physicist, was born at Neuenburg in Wurttemberg in July 1768.

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  • MARSILIO FICINO (1433-1499), Italian philosopher and writer, was born at Figline, in the upper Arno valley, in the year 1 433.

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  • It is known that at this early period of his life, while he was yet a novice, he wrote voluminous treatises on the great philosopher, which he afterwards, however, gave to the flames.

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  • About the same time Marsilio completed and published his treatise on the Platonic doctrine of immortality (Theologia Platonica de immortalitate animae), the work by which his claims to take rank as a philosopher must be estimated.

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  • As a philosopher, he can advance no claim to originality, his laborious treatise on Platonic theology being little better than a mass of ill-digested erudition.

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  • HECATO OF RHODES, Greek Stoic philosopher and disciple of Panaetius (Cicero, De q, ficiis, iii.

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  • From Emerson he gained more than from any man, alive or dead; and, though the older philosopher both enjoyed and learned from the association with the younger, it cannot be said that the gain was equal.

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  • His weakness as a philosopher is his tendency to base the laws of the universe on the experience-born, thought-produced convictions of one man - himself.

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  • PIERRE BAYLE (1647-1706), French philosopher and man of letters, was born on the 18th of November 1647, at le Carlale-Comte, near Pamiers (Ariege).

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  • While still practising medicine he entered into relations with another master of Paris, the philosopher John of Jandun, who collaborated with him in the composition of the famous Defensor pacis (1324), one of the most extraordinary political and religious works which appeared during the 14th century.

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  • NIETZSCHE, FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1844-1900), German philosopher, was the son of the pastor at Recken, near Leipzig, where he was born on 15th October 1844.

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  • There are monuments to the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn (born here in 1729), to the poet Wilhelm Muller, father of Professor Max Muller, also a native of the place, to the emperor William I., and an obelisk commemorating the war of 1870-71.

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  • RAVAISSON - MOLLIEN, JEAN GASPARD Felix (1813- 1900), French philosopher and archaeologist, was born at Namur on the 23rd of October 1813.

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  • Eminent as a philosopher, Ravaisson was also an archaeologist, and contributed articles on ancient sculpture to the Revue Archeologique and the Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions.

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  • FRIEDRICH PAULSEN (1846-1908), German philosopher and educationalist, was born at Langenhorn (Schleswig) and educated at Erlangen, Bonn and Berlin, where he became extraordinary professor of philosophy and pedagogy in 1878.

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  • Paulsen is almost better known for his educational writings than as a pure philosopher.

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  • ANAXARCHUS (c. 340 B.C.), a Greek philosopher of the school of Democritus, was born at Abdera.

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  • GLANVILL (or [[Glanvil), Joseph]] (1636-1680), English philosopher, was born at Plymouth in 1636, and was educated at Exeter and Lincoln colleges, Oxford, where he graduated as M.A.

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  • ARISTIPPUS (c. 435-356 B.C.), Greek philosopher, the founder of the Cyrenaic school, was the son of Aritadas, a merchant of Cyrene.

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  • Aristo (Philosopher) >>

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  • But he was a preacher rather than a thinker, a reformer rather than a philosopher.

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  • CHRISTOPH WILHELM VON SIGWART (1789-1844), German philosopher, was born at Remmingsheim in Wurttemberg, and died in Stuttgart.

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  • FRANCESCO PATRIZZI (FRANCISCUS PATRITIUS) (1529 1 J97), Italian philosopher and scientist, was born at Clissa, in Dalmatia, and died in Rome.

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  • PIERRE LEROUX (1798-1871), French philosopher and economist, was born at Bercy near Paris on the 7th of April 1798, the son of an artisan.

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  • Their chief works are in the shape of commentaries upon the writings of "the philosopher."' Their problems and solutions alike spring from the master's dicta - from the need of reconciling these with one another and with the conclusions of Christian theology.

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  • And it is significant of this that the ablest and most cultured representative of the second half of the century was rather an of historian of opinion than himself a philosopher or a John Salisbury.

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  • To these must be added the Neoplatonically inspired Fons Vitae of the Jewish philosopher and poet Ibn Gabirol, or Avicebron.

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  • He was more of a theologian than a philosopher; and in his chief work, of Summa universae theologiae, he simply employs his increased philosophical knowledge in the demonstration of theological doctrines.

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  • WILLIAM HYDE WOLLASTON (1766-1828), English chemist and natural philosopher, was born at East Dereham, Norfolk, on the 6th of April 1766, the second of seventeen children.

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  • JEAN BODIN (1530-1596), French political philosopher, was born at Angers in 1530.

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  • Since, however, Geber happened to be the name of a celebrated Moorish philosopher who flourished in about the iith or 12th century, it has been supposed that he was the founder of algebra, which has since perpetuated his name.

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  • So far the development of algebra and geometry had been mutually independent, except for a few isolated applications of geometrical constructions to the solution of algebraical problems. Certain minds had long suspected the advantages which would accrue from the unrestricted application of algebra to geometry, but it was not until the advent of the philosopher Rene Descartes that the co-ordination was effected.

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  • ZENO OF SIDON, Epicurean philosopher of the first century B.C., and contemporary of Cicero.

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  • ALCINOUS, the Platonic philosopher, lived probably in the time of the Caesars.

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  • KARL LEONHARD REINHOLD (1758-1823), German philosopher, was born at Vienna.

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  • It appears to be traceable in its Greek dress in writings of the philosopher Democritus and the dramatist Menander; it was certainly known to the author of Tobit and perhaps to the author of Daniel; some would trace its influence in the New Testament, in the parable of the wicked servant and elsewhere; it was known to Mahomet and is referred to in the Koran; it has been included among the tales in the Arabian Nights; and it survives in a good many versions ancient and modern.

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  • His object was to popularize among his countrymen the astronomical theories of Descartes; and it may well be doubted if that philosopher ever ranked a more ingenious or successful expositor among his disciples.

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  • In the judgment of the present writer, Xenophanes was neither a philosopher nor a sceptic. He was not a philosopher, for he despaired of knowledge.

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  • Like Socrates, he was not a philosopher, and did not pretend to be one; but, as the reasoned scepticism of Socrates cleared the way for the philosophy of Plato, so did Xenophanes's "abnormis sapientia" for the philosophy of Parmenides.

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  • PHERECYDES OF SYROS, Greek philosopher (or rather philosophical theologian), flourished during the 6th century B.C. He was sometimes reckoned one of the Seven Wise Men, and is said to have been the teacher of Pythagoras.

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  • That philosopher and several of his successors were physicians, but we do not know in what relation they stood to later medical schools.

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  • In the next generation he began to be esteemed only as a philosopher; gradually his system was implicitly accepted, and it enjoyed a great though not exclusive predominance till the fall of Roman civilization.

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  • The great sensational philosopher was a thoroughly trained physician, and practised privately.

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  • The last was less important as a philosopher, but greater than the others both as a poet and a physicist.

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  • FRANCOIS MARIE AROUET DE VOLTAIRE (1694-1778), French philosopher, historian, dramatist and man of letters, whose real name was Francois Marie Arouet simply, was born on the 21st of November 1694 at Paris, and was baptized the next day.

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  • To his own age Voltaire was pre-eminently a poet and a philosopher; the unkindness of succeeding ages has sometimes questioned whether he had any title to either name, and especially to the latter.

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  • He was educated at the Malmesbury grammar school under Robert Latimer, who had numbered Thomas Hobbes among his earlier pupils, and at his schoolmaster's house Aubrey first met the philosopher about whom he was to leave so many curious and interesting details.

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  • ADAM FERGUSON (1723-1816), Scottish philosopher and historian, was born on the 20th of June 1723, at Logierait, Perthshire.

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  • The French philosopher, therefore, regarded these obstructions as the effects of friction.

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  • 1185), Moslem philosopher, was born at Guadix near Granada.

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  • GEORGE TRUMBULL LADD (5842-), American philosopher, was born in Painesville, Lake county, Ohio, on the 19th of January 1842.

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  • CHARLES AUGUSTIN COULOMB (1736-1806), French natural philosopher, was born at Angouleme on the 14th of June 1736.

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  • The "official" eulogy he pronounced upon Bishop Jakob P. Mynster (1775-1854) in 1854, brought down upon his head the invectives of the philosopher Soren Kierkegaard.

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  • Unquestionably more of a polymath than a philosopher, he appears uncritical and superficial.

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  • "BENEDETTO CROCE (1866-), Italian philosopher and statesman, was born at Pescasseroli, in the province of Aquila, Italy, Feb.

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  • From the remote township of his birth, however, the branch of the family to which the philosopher belonged transferred itself soon afterwards to Naples, so that, like his predecessor Vico, Benedetto Croce may be correctly described as a Neapolitan.

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  • AENESIDEMUS, Greek philosopher, was born at Cnossus in Crete and taught at Alexandria, probably during the first century B.C. He was the leader of what is sometimes known as the third sceptical school and revived to a great extent the doctrine of Pyrrho and Timon.

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  • If zinc be heated to near its boiling-point, it catches fire and burns with a brilliant light into its powdery white oxide, which forms a reek in the air (lana philosophica, " philosopher's wool").

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  • in 1822, he left Erlangen - where he subsequently complained that the contagion of the "greatest philosopher and metaphysician of the century" (Schelling), in a period "rich in words and ideas, but poor in true knowledge and genuine studies," had cost him two precious years of his life - and by the liberality of Louis I., grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, was enabled to go to Paris.

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  • CARLO FILANGIERI (1784-1867), prince of Satriano, Neapolitan soldier and statesman, was the son of Gaetano Filangieri (1752-1788), a celebrated philosopher and jurist.

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  • GERSHOM CARMICHAEL (c. 1672-1729), Scottish philosopher, was born probably in London, the son of a Presbyterian minister who had been banished by the Scottish privy council for his religious opinions.

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  • DIODORUS CRONUS (4th century B.C.), Greek philosopher of the Megarian school.

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  • PROTAGORAS (c. 481-411 B.C.), Greek philosopher, was born at Abdera.

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  • That St Catherine actually existed there is, indeed, no evidence to disprove; and it is possible that some of the elements in her legend are due to confusion with the story of Hypatia, the neo-platonic philosopher of Alexandria, who was done to death by a Christian mob.

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  • RICHARD HEINRICH LUDWIG AVENARIUS (1843-1896), German philosopher, was born in Paris on the 19th of November 1843.

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  • 870-950), Arabian philosopher, was born of Turkish stock at Fara]) in Turkestan, where also he spent his youth.

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  • DICAEARCHUS, of Messene in Sicily, Peripatetic philosopher and pupil of Aristotle, historian, and geographer, flourished about 320 B.C. He was a friend of Theophrastus, to whom he dedicated the majority of his works.

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  • ARRIAN (FLAVIUS ARRIANUS), of Nicomedia in Bithynia, Greek historian and philosopher, was born about A.D.

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  • AUGUSTE [ISIDORE AUGUSTE MARIE FRANpOIS] COMTE (1798-1857), French Positive philosopher, was born on the 19th of January 1798 at Montpellier, where his father was a receiver-general of taxes for the district.

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  • After six years the differences between the old and the young philosopher grew too marked for friendship. Comte began to fret under Saint-Simon's pretensions to be his director.

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  • The most celebrated among them were: Fujiwara Seikwa (1560-1619), who introduced his countrymen to the philosophy of Chu-Hi; Hayashi Rasan (1583-1657), who wrote 170 treatises on scholastic and moral subjects; Kaibara Ekken (i63o1714), teacher of a finc system of ethics; Arai Hakuseki (1657-1725), historian, philosopher, statesman and financier: and Muro KiusO, the second great exponent of Chu-His philosophy.

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  • HERBERT SPENCER (1820-1903), English philosopher, was born at Derby on the 27th of April 1820.

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  • Herbert Spencer's significance in the history of English thought depends on his position as the philosopher of the great scientific movement of the second half of the 19th century, and on the friendship and admiration with which he was regarded by men like Darwin, G.

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  • To the specialists in sciences which were advancing rapidly and in divergent directions to results which often reacted on and transformed their initial assumptions, Spencer has often appeared too much of a philosopher and defective in specialist knowledge.

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  • SWEDENBORG (or [[Swedberg), Emanuel]] (1688-1772), Swedish scientist, philosopher and mystic, was born at Stockholm on the 29th of January 1688.

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  • GAIUS MARIUS VICTORINUS (4th century A.D.), Roman grammarian, rhetorician and neo-Platonic philosopher, an African by birth (whence his surname Afer), lived during the reign of Constantius II.

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  • Contemporaneously appeared The Dumb Philosopher, or Dickory Cronke, who gains the power of speech at the end of his life and uses it to predict the course of European affairs.

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  • Aeschines (Philosopher) >>

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  • Though not a philosopher he is an admirable interpreter of those branches of philosophy which are fitted for practical application, and he presents us with the results of Greek reflection vivified by his own human sympathies and his large experience of men.

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  • HIPPOCRATES, Greek philosopher and writer, termed the " Father of Medicine," was born, according to Soranus, in Cos, in the first year of the Both Olympiad, i.e.

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  • CHRISTIAN HERMANN WEISSE (1801-1866), German Protestant religious philosopher, was born at Leipzig on the 10th of August 1801.

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  • Alcinous (Philosopher) >>

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  • RUDOLF CHRISTOPH EUCKEN (1846-), German philosopher, was born on the 5th of January 1846 at Aurich in East Friesland.

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  • He was educated at Aurich, where one of his teachers was the philosopher Wilhelm Reuter, whose influence was the dominating factor in the development of his thought.

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  • It was the home of a scientific academy founded by the philosopher Bernardino T'elesio (1509-1588).

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  • A memoir of his life by Johanna Schopenhauer, mother of the philosopher, Arthur Schopenhauer, appeared in 1810, and a complete edition of his works in 1829.

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  • CHARLES CARROLL EVERETT (1829-1900), American divine and philosopher, was born on the 19th of June 1829, at Brunswick, Maine.

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  • ANAXILAUS, of Larissa, a physician and Pythagorean philosopher, who was banished from Rome by Augustus, B.C. 28, on the charge of practising the magic art.

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  • He was neither a philosopher nor a literary genius.

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  • JOHANN KARL FRIEDRICH ROSENKRANZ (1805-1879), German philosopher, was born at Magdeburg on the 23rd of April 1805.

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  • us of the imperial philosopher Marcus Aurelius, whose works.

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  • CRANTOR, a Greek philosopher of the Old Academy, was born, probably about the middle of the 4th century B.C., at Soli in Cilicia.

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  • Hallam is a philosopher to this extent that both in political and in literary history he fixed his attention on results rather than on persons.

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  • CHRISTIAN AUGUST CRUSIUS (1 7 1 51 775), German philosopher and theologian, was born on the 10th of January 1715 at Lenau near Merseburg in Saxony.

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  • ROBERT ADAMSON (1852-1902), Scottish philosopher, was born in Edinburgh on the 19th of January 1852.

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  • ROGER COTES (1682-1716), English mathematician and philosopher, was born on the 10th of July 1682 at Burbage, Leicestershire, of which place his father, the Rev. Robert Cotes, was rector.

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  • But he was a philosopher as well, and apparently a sceptic. He is said to have rejected the Koran, to have denied the return to God, and to have regarded death as the end of existence.

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  • Vittorino dei Rambaldoni da Feltre (1378-1446) was a famous educator and philosopher of his time.

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  • GIORDANO BRUNO (c. 1548-1600), Italian philosopher of the Renaissance, was born near Nola in the village of Cicala.

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  • APPIANO BUONAFEDE (1716-1793), Italian philosopher, was born at Comachio, in Ferrara, and died in Rome.

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  • ARTHUR COLLIER (1680-1732), English philosopher, was born at the rectory of Steeple Langford, Wiltshire, on the 12th of October 1680.

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  • AESCHINES (5th century B.C.), an Athenian philosopher.

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  • JOHANN GOTTLIEB FICHTE (1762-1814), German philosopher, was born at Rammenau in Upper Lusatia on the 19th of May 1762.

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  • His first interview was disappointing; the coldness and formality of the aged philosopher checked the enthusiasm of the young disciple, though it did not diminish his reverence.

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  • Book i., on the other hand, in which the philosopher Carneades, who died in 128, is spoken of as dead, must have been written after the death of Scipio.

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  • Best known of his French amies were Mme Helvetius, widow of the philosopher, and the young Mme Brillon, who corrected her " Papa's " French and tried to bring him safely into the Roman Catholic Church.

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  • The title of philosopher as used in Franklin's lifetime referred neither in England nor in France to him as author of moral maxims, but to him as a scientist - a " natural philosopher."

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  • In the adjacent gardens an open rotunda encloses a marble bust of the philosopher Leibnitz, and near it is a monument to General Count von Alten, the commander of the Hanoverian troops at Waterloo.

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  • The philosopher Leibnitz died there in 1716.

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  • Under the inspiration of his friend Demetrius of Phalerum, the Athenian orator, statesman and philosopher, this Ptolemy laid the foundations of the great Alexandrian library and originated the keen search for all written works, which resulted in the formation of a collection such as the world has seldom seen.

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  • The philosopher Pythagoras, however, quitted Samos in order to escape his tyranny.

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  • LEONE BATTISTA ALBERTI (1404-1472), Italian painter, poet, philosopher, musician and architect, was born in Venice on the 18th of February 1404.

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  • NICOLAUS DAMASCENUS, Greek historian and philosopher of Damascus, flourished in the time of Augustus and Herod the Great, with both of whom he was on terms of friendship. He instructed Herod in rhetoric and philosophy, and had attracted the notice of Augustus when he accompanied his patron on a visit to Rome.

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  • ALEXANDER BAIN (1818-1903), Scottish philosopher and educationalist, was born on the 11th of June 1818 in Aberdeen, where he received his first schooling.

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  • Abraham Geiger's nephew Lazarus Geiger (1829-1870), philosopher and philologist, born at Frankfort-on-Main, was destined to commerce, but soon gave himself up to scholarship and studied at Marburg, Bonn and Heidelberg.

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  • A philosopher," as Gibbon long ago pointed out, _ who asks from what articles of faith above and against reason the early Reformers enfranchised their followers of P will be surprised at their timidity rather than scandal Y ized by their freedom.

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  • ANACHARSIS, a Scythian philosopher, who lived about 600 B.C. He was the son of Gnurus, chief of a nomadic tribe of the Euxine shores, and a Greek woman.

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  • A place must be made for the definition proposed by a philosopher, J.

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  • EUGEN KARL DUHRING (1833-1901), German philosopher and political economist, was born on the 12th of January 1833 at Berlin.

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  • The word 6 uXia from iatXEiv (buou, Eau)), meaning communion, intercourse, and especially interchange of thought and feeling by means of words (conversation), was early employed in classical Greek to denote the instruction which a philosopher gave to his pupils in familiar talk (Xenophon, Memorabilia, I.

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  • This philosopher, a man of striking and attractive personality, succeeded in fusing the Megarian dialectic with Cynic naturalism.

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  • CARNEADES (214-129 B.C.), Greek philosopher, founder of the Third or New Academy, was born at Cyrene.

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  • "JOSIAH ROYCE (1855-1916), American philosopher, was born at Grass Valley, Cal., Nov.

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  • BERNHARD BOLZANO (1781-1848), Austrian priest and philosopher, was born at Prague on the 5th of October 1781.

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  • He was twice married - in 1842 to a daughter of Schelling the philosopher, and in 1858 to a daughter of General von Hartmann.

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  • The numerous manuscripts of his works to be found in the libraries of Italy, England and France, testify to his industry as a philosopher and commentator.

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  • JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU (1712-1778), French philosopher, was born at Geneva on the 28th June 1712.

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  • He was without command of poetic form, and he could only be called a philosopher in an age when the term was used with such meaningless laxity as was customary in the 18th century.

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  • The book shows a wonderful knowledge of English, French, German, Italian and Spanish philosophers, and directly attacks Helvetius, who had in his De l'esprit declared a knowledge of science unnecessary for a philosopher.

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  • It is particularly noteworthy from the phosphorescence which it exhibits when heated, or after exposure to the sun's rays; hence its synonym "Canton's phosphorus," after John Canton (1718-1772), an English natural philosopher.

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  • WILLIAM OF CHAMPEAUX [GULIELMUS CAMPELLENSISI (c. 1070-1121), French philosopher and theologian was born at Champeaux near Melun.

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  • BARTHELEMY SAINT - HILAIRE, Jules (1805-1895), French philosopher and statesman, was born at Paris on the 19th of August 1805.

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  • Charles Bonnet was both a scientific man and a philosopher, while Amiel belonged to the latter class only.

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  • ALBERT SCHWEGLER (1819-1857), German philosopher and theologian, was born at Michelbach in Wurttemberg on the 10th of February 1818, the son of a country pastor.

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  • he depended on the works of Aetius, a peripatetic philosopher, and Didymus.

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  • SAMUEL BAILEY (1791-1870), British philosopher and author, was born at Sheffield in 1791.

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  • KARL FORTLAGE (1806-1881), German philosopher, was born at Osnabruck.

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  • ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691), English natural philosopher, seventh son and fourteenth child of Richard Boyle, the great earl of Cork; was born at Lismore Castle, in the province of Munster, Ireland, on the 25th of January 1627.

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  • Besides being a busy natural philosopher, Boyle devoted much time to theology, showing a very decided leaning to the practical side and an indifference to controversial polemics.

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  • 1206-1280), count of Bollstadt, scholastic philosopher, was born of the noble family of Bollstadt at Lauingen in Suabia.

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  • During the time he held this office he publicly defended the Dominicans against the university of Paris, commented on St John, and answered the errors of the Arabian philosopher, Averroes.

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  • PAUL HEINRICH DIETRICH HOLBACH, BARON D' (1723-1789), French philosopher and man of letters, of German origin, was born at Heildeisheim in the palatinate in 1723.

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  • PHILO OF LARISSA, Greek philosopher of the first half of the ist century B.C. During the Mithradatic wars he left Athens and took up his residence in Rome.

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  • The most remarkable of these was made outside the Church - a significant indication of the adverse effect of the conditions within; the Neo-platonist philosopher Porphyry 2 in the 3rd century A.D., untrammelled by church tradition and methods, anticipated one of the clearest and most important conclusions of modern criticism: he detected the incorrectness of the traditional ascription of Daniel to the Jewish captivity in Babylon and discerned that the real period of its composition was that of Antiochus Epiphanes, four centuries later.

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  • MUSONIUS RUFUS, a Roman philosopher of the 1st century A.D., was born in Etruria about A.D.

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  • It was he who dared to bring an accusation against P. Egnatius Celer (the Stoic philosopher whose evidence had condemned his patron and disciple Soranus) and who endeavoured to preach a doctrine of peace and goodwill among the soldiers of Vespasian when they were advancing upon Rome.

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  • It is identical with philosophy in the true sense of the word, and the truly good man is also the true philosopher.

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  • CHRYSIPPUS (c. 280-206 B.C.), Greek philosopher, the third great leader of the Stoics.

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  • JOHANN AUGUSTUS EBERHARD (1739-1809), German theologian and philosopher, was born at Halberstadt in Lower Saxony, where his father was singing-master at the church of St Martin's, and teacher of the school of the same name.

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  • JOHANN GOTTLIEB BUHLE (1763-1821), German scholar and philosopher, was born at Brunswick, and educated at Gottingen.

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  • It is also true that Neoplatonism sought to come to an understanding 1 Porphyry wrote a book, lrfpi T Aoyi a' CALAof001as, but this was before he became a pupil of Plotinus; as a philosopher he was independent of the Aoyca.

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  • The " philosopher " has become a priest of magic and philosophy a method of incantation.

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  • Smith attended Hume during a part of his last illness, and soon after the death of the philosopher there was published, along with his autobiography a letter from Smith to W.

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  • As a moral philosopher Smith cannot be said to have won much acceptance for his fundamental doctrine.

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  • Progress in these two lines is by no means uniform; while, for example, palaeontology enjoyed a sudden advance early in the 19th century through the discoveries and researches of Cuvier, guided by his genius as a comparative anatomist, it was checked by his failure as a natural philosopher.

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  • FRIEDRICH WILHELM JOSEPH VON SCHELLING (1775-1854), German philosopher, was born on the 27th of January 1775 at Leonberg, a small town of Württemberg.

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  • Whatever judgment one may form of the total worth of Schelling as a philosopher, his place in the history of that important movement called generally German philosophy is unmistakable and assured.

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  • For the life good materials are to be found in the 3 vols., Aus Schelling's Leben in Briefen (3 vols., 1869-1870), in which a biographic sketch of the philosopher's early life is given by his son, and in J.

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  • HELVIDIUS PRISCUS, Stoic philosopher and statesman, lived during the reigns of Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian.

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  • 355), Neoplatonist philosopher, was born of a noble Cappadocian family.

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  • ANTIOCHUS OF ASCALON (1st century B.C.), Greek philosopher.

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  • BION, of Borysthenes (Olbia), in Sarmatia, Greek moralist and philosopher, flourished in the first half of the 3rd century B.C. He was of low origin, his mother being a courtesan and his father a dealer in salt fish, with which he combined the occupation of smuggling.

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  • An idea of his writings can be gathered from the fragments of Teles, a cynic philosopher who lived towards the end of the 3rd century, and who made great use of them.

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  • JAKOB SIGISMUND BECK (1761-1840), German philosopher, was born at Danzig in 1761.

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  • ERNST LAAS (1837-1885), German philosopher, was born on the 16th of June 1837 at Fiirstenwalde.

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  • DAVID GEORGE RITCHIE (1853-1903), Scottish philosopher, was born at Jedburgh, son of the Rev. George Ritchie, D.D.

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  • HIPPASUS OF METAPONTUM, Pythagorean philosopher, was one of the earliest of the disciples of Pythagoras.

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  • The date of his birth cannot be exactly determined, but from various indications in his work it seems to have been about 63 B.C. He studied at Nysa under the grammarian Aristodemus, under Tyrannio the grammarian at Rome, under the philosopher Xenarchus either at Rome or at Alexandria, and he had studied Aristotle along with Boethus (possibly at Rome under Tyrannio, who had access to the Aristotelian writings in Sulla's library).

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  • Plutarch, who calls him, " the Philosopher," quotes Strabo's Memoirs (Luc. 28), and cites him as an historian (Sulla, 26).

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  • ROBERT BALFOUR (known also as Balforeus) (1550?- 1625?), Scottish philosopher, was educated at St Andrews and the university of Paris.

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  • His contemporary, Dempster, called him the "phoenix of his age, a philosopher profoundly skilled in the Greek and Latin languages, and a mathematician worthy of being compared with the ancients."

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  • Be Remembered As The First Canadian Philosopher.

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  • JULIEN OFFRAY DE LAMETTRIE (1709-1751), French physician and philosopher, the earliest of the materialistic writers of the Illumination, was born at St Malo on the 25th of December 1709.

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  • ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.), the great Greek philosopher, was born at Stagira, on the Strymonic Gulf, and hence called " the Stagirite."

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  • He also continued the writings begun in his second period; and the Macedonian kings have the glory of having assisted the Stagirite philosopher with the means of conducting his researches in the History of Animals.

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  • Aristotle also formed his Peripatetic school into a kind of college with common meals under a president (6tpxcov) changing every ten days; while the philosopher himself delivered lectures, in which his practice, as his pupil Aristoxenus tells us (Harmonics, ii.

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  • Every clause breathes the philosopher's humanity.

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  • 7) of the speculative philosopher who, though he is self-sufficing, is better having co-operators (vwvEpyous €xwv).

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  • It remained for Spengel to entitle the work Anaximenis Ars Rhetorica in his edition of 1847, and thus substitute for the name of the philosopher Aristotle that of the sophist Anaximenes on his title-page.

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  • The point of Aristotle was to draw a line between rational and other evidences, to insist on the former, and in fact to found a logic of rhetoric. But if in the Rhetoric to Alexander, not he, but Anaximenes, had already performed this great achievement, Aristotle would have been the meanest of mankind; for the logic of rhetoric would have been really the work of Anaximenes the sophist, but falsely claimed by Aristotle the philosopher.

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  • I' 2-3, K 3), more frequently he extends it to all three speculative philosophies (E 1, 1026 a 18, T peis Eta, cbxXoc04 iac OEcepujru ai, paOu,uaruo i, 4 wotei j, No- Ao-ycK r j), and to all three practical philosophies, as we see from the constant use of the phrase " political philosopher " in the Ethics; and in short applies it to all sciences except productive science or art.

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  • He means that a sophist like Protagoras will teach superficially anything as wisdom for money; and that even a dialectician like Plato will write a dialogue, such as the Republic, nominally about justice, but really about all things from the generality of the form of good, instead of from appropriate moral principles; but that a primary philosopher selects as a definite subject all things as such without interfering with the special sciences of different things each in its kind (Met.

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  • He is at the same time the only Greek philosopher who clearly discriminated discovery and disputation, science and dialectic, the knowledge of a definite subject from its appropriate principles and the discussion of anything whatever from opinions and authority.

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  • Aristotle was primarily a metaphysician, a philosopher of things, who uses the objective method of proceeding from being to thinking.

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  • Aristotle, even in this sketch of his system, shows himself to be the philosopher of facts, who can best of all men bear criticism; and indeed it must be confessed that he retained many errors of Platonism and laid himself open to the following objections.

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  • GEORGE BERKELEY (1685-1753), Irish bishop and philosopher, the eldest son of William Berkeley (an officer of customs who had, it seems, come to Ireland in the suite of Lord Berkeley of Stratton, lord lieutenant, 1670-1672, to whom he was related), was born on the 12th of March 1685, in a cottage near Dysert Castle, Thomastown, Ireland.

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  • Soon after his return he published the fruits of his studies in Alciphron, or the Minute Philosopher (1733), a finely written work in the form of dialogue, critically examining the various forms of free-thinking in the age, and bringing forward in antithesis to them his own theory, which shows all nature to be the language of God.

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  • In putting this question, not less than in answering it, consists Berkeley's originality as a philosopher.

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  • LACYDES OF CYRENE, Greek philosopher, was head of the Academy at Athens in succession to Arcesilaus about 241 B.C. Though some regard him as the founder of the New Academy, the testimony of antiquity is that he adhered in general to the theory of Arcesilaus, and, therefore, that he belonged to the Middle Academy.

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  • ARISTOBULUS, of Paneas (c. 160 B.C.), a Jewish philosopher of the Peripatetic school.

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  • PETRUS AUREOLUS (ORIOL), scholastic philosopher and monk of the Franciscan order, lived in the latter half of the 13th century, and died in Paris in 1321 just after his appointment as archbishop of Aix.

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  • WILHELM MAX WUNDT (1832-), German physiologist and philosopher, was born on the 16th of August 1832 at Neckarau, in Baden.

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  • GUILLAUME AMONTONS (1663-1705), French experimental philosopher, the son of an advocate who had left his native province of Normandy and established himself at Paris, was born in that city on the 31st of August 1663.

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  • He was eventually estranged from Hume, and defended James Beattie's attack on that philosopher.

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  • He professed to have discovered the philosopher's stone, and by his assistance Dee performed various incantations, and maintained a frequent imaginary intercourse with spirits.

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  • JEAN PHILIBERT DAMIRON (1794-1862), French philosopher, was born at Belleville.

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  • KARL CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH KRAUSE (1781-1832), German philosopher, was born at Eisenberg on the 4th of May 1781, and died at Munich on the 27th of September 1832.

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  • Hsiian Tsang informs us that Dinnaga, the celebrated Buddhist philosopher and controversialist, author of well-known books on logic, resided there.

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  • FRANCOIS-PIERRE MAINE DE BIRAN - GONTHIER (1766-1824), French philosopher, was born at Bergerac, on the 29th of November, 1766.

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  • The great scholastic philosopher abandoned the theory that the relics in themselves are vessels and instruments of the divine grace and miraculous power.

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  • MARIE JOSEPH DE GERANDO (1772-1842), French philosopher, was born at Lyons on the 29th of February 1772.

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  • LEUCIPPUS, Greek philosopher, born at Miletus (or Elea), founder of the Atomistic theory, contemporary of Zeno, Empedocles and Anaxagoras.

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  • CRITOLAUS, Greek philosopher, was born at Phaselis in the 2nd century B.C. He lived to the age of eighty-two and died probably before 111 B.C. He studied philosophy under Aristo of Ceos and became one of the leaders of the Peripatetic school by his eminence as an orator, a scholar and a moralist.

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  • PANAETIUS (c. 185-180 to 110 - 108 B.C.), Greek Stoic philosopher, belonged to a Rhodian family, but was probably educated partly in Pergamum under Crates of Mallus and afterwards in Athens, where he attended the lectures of Diogenes the Babylonian, Critolaus and Carneades.

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  • On completing his course, Melville left St Andrews with the reputation of "the best poet, philosopher, and Grecian of any young master in the land."

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  • RICHARD PRICE (1723-1791), English moral and political philosopher, son of a dissenting minister, was born on the 23rd of February 1723, at Tynton, Glamorganshire.

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  • AMMONIUS HERMIAE (5th century A.D.), Greek philosopher, the son of Hermias or Hermeias, a fellow-pupil of Proclus.

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  • OTTO VON GUERICKE (1602-1686), German experimental philosopher, was born at Magdeburg, in Prussian Saxony, on the 10th of November 1602.

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  • JOHN TYNDALL (1820-1893), British natural philosopher, was born in Co.

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  • The philosopher, as he says, investigates truth; the sophist embellishes it, and takes it for granted.

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  • STILPO (STILPON], Greek philosopher of the Megarian school, was a contemporary of Theophrastus and Crates.

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  • Eretria was the birthplace of the tragedian Achaeus and of the "Megarian" philosopher Menedemus.

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  • HENRIK STEFFENS (1773-1845), German philosopher, scientist and poet, of Norwegian extraction, was born on the 2nd of May 177 3 at Stavanger, and died in Berlin on the 13th of February 1845.

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  • PIETRO D'ABANO' (1250-1316), known also as Petrus De Apono or Aponensis, Italian physician and philosopher, was born at the Italian town from which he takes his name in 1250, or, according to others, in 1246.

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  • Perhaps this, as well as his meddling with astrology, caused him to be charged with practising magic, the particular accusations being that he brought back into his purse, by the aid of the devil, all the money he paid away, and that he possessed the philosopher's stone.

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  • BILFINGER (BULFFINGER), GEORG Bernhard (1693-1750), German philosopher, mathematician and statesman, son of a Lutheran minister, was born on the 23rd of January 1693, at Kanstatt in Wurttemberg.

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  • ARCESILAUS (316-241 B.C.), a Greek philosopher and founder of the New, or Middle, Academy (see Academy, Greek).

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  • NICOLAS MALEBRANCHE (1638-1715), French philosopher of the Cartesian school, the youngest child of Nicolas Malebranche, secretary to Louis XIII., and Catherine de Lauzon, sister of a viceroy of Canada, was born at Paris on the 6th of August 1638.

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  • principiis, 125) and received at his hands a Neoplatonic interpretation; this cosmogony was probably the writing which Strabo ascribes to a Sidonian philosopher, Mochus, who lived before the Trojan times (xvi.

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  • It was the birthplace of the philosopher Anaxagoras.

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  • HENRY HOME KAMES, Lord (1696-1782), Scottish lawyer and philosopher, son of George Home of Kames, in Berwickshire, where he was born in 1696.

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  • c. 480), Greek philosopher of the Pythagorean school, was born at Tarentum or at Crotona 1 (so Diog.

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  • Mainly through John Gough (1757-1825), a blind philosopher to whose aid he owed much of his scientific knowledge, he was appointed teacher of mathematics and natural philosophy at the New College in Moseley Street (in 1889 transferred to Manchester College, Oxford), and that position he retained until the removal of the college to York in 1799, when he became a "public and private teacher of mathematics and chemistry."

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  • SIMON FOUCHER (1644-1696), French philosopher, was born at Dijon on the 1st of March 1644.

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  • The philosopher Thomas Harriot (1560-1621), one of his colleagues, laboured for the conversion of the natives, amongst whom the first baptism is recorded to have taken place on the 13th of August 1587.9 Raleigh himself presented as a parting gift to the Virginian Company the sum of loo " for the propagation of the Christian religion " in that settlement.

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  • THALES OF MILETUS (6 40-546 B.C.), Greek physical philosopher, son of Examyus and Cleobuline, is universally recog nized as the founder of Greek geometry, astronomy and philosophy.

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  • - Whilst in virtue of his political sagacity and intellectual eminence Thales held a place in the traditional list of the wise men, on the strength of the disinterested love of knowledge which appeared in his physical speculations he was accounted a " philosopher " (g5tX6v000s).

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  • NICOLAUS TAURELLUS (1547-1606), German philosopher and theologian, was born at Mompelgard.

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  • CHRISTOPH GOTTFRIED BARDILI (1761-1808), German philosopher, was born at Blaubeuren in Wurttemberg, and died 1 Even Ephrem allows that Bardaisan was in principle a monotheist.

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  • Among Lessing's chief friends during his second residence in Berlin were the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786), in association with whom he wrote in 1755 an admirable treatise, Pope ein Metaphysiker 1 tracing sharply the lines which separate the poet from the philosopher.

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  • HENRI FRANCOIS MARION (1846-1896), French philosopher and educationalist, was born at Saint-Parize-en-Viry (Nievre) on the 9th of September 1846.

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  • ASPASIUS, a Greek peripatetic philosopher, and a prolific commentator on Aristotle.

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  • DAVID HUME (1711-1776), English philosopher, historian and political economist, was born at Edinburgh, on the 26th of April (O.S.) 1711.

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  • Whether or not he believed in the philosopher's elixir is of very little consequence.

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  • The inscription on the work describes it as the "Embassy of Athenagoras, the Athenian, a philosopher and a Christian concerning the Christians, to the Emperors Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus, &c."

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  • Aenesidemus, the sceptic philosopher, and Chersiphron, the architect of the temple of Diana at Ephesus, were natives of Cnossus.

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  • PIERRE CHARRON (1541-1603), French philosopher, born in Paris, was one of the twenty-five children of a bookseller.

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  • NAGARJUNA, a celebrated Buddhist philosopher and writer.

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  • A table of contents of other five books, continuing the history to the death of Leo the Philosopher in 911, also exists, but whether the books were ever actually written is doubtful.

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  • 73) has preserved a passage from Musonius, in which that philosopher expressly states that the ancient law-givers inflicted punishments on females who caused themselves to abort.

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  • To the middle classes of the 17th century he seemed a heaven-sent philosopher and guide, and was only less popular than Francis Quarles the poet.

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  • 1707), Bismarck, and the philosopher Karl Christian Friedrich Krause.

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  • GEORGE OF TREBIZOND (1395-1484), Greek philosopher and scholar, one of the pioneers of the revival of letters in the Western world, was born in the island of Crete, and derived his surname Trapezuntios from the fact that his ancestors were from Trebizond.

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  • IBN GABIROL [SOLOMON BEN JUDAH}, Jewish poet and philosopher, was born at Malaga, probably about 1021.

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  • THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679), English philosopher, second son of Thomas Hobbes, was born at Westport (now part of Malmesbury, Wiltshire) on the 5th of April 1588.

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  • But it was not till the third journey that the new interest became an overpowering passion, and the " philosopher " was on his way home before he had advanced so far as to conceive the scheme of a system of thought to the elaboration of which his life should henceforth be devoted.

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  • BLAISE PASCAL (1623-1662), French religious philosopher and mathematician, was born at Clermont Ferrand on the 19th of June 1623.

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  • Descartes, however, gave Pascal the very sensible advice to stay in bed as long as he could (it may be remembered that the philosopher himself never got up till eleven) and to take plenty of beef-tea.

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  • The first exhibits him as a man of letters, the second as a philosopher, a theologian, and simply a man, for in no one is the colour of the theology and the philosophy more distinctly personal.

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  • SA.) Pascal as Natural Philosopher and Mathematician.

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  • - Great as is Pascal's reputation as a philosopher and man of letters, it may be fairly questioned whether his claim to be remembered by posterity as a mathematician and physicist is not even greater.

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  • The mathematical theory of probability and the allied theory of the combinatorial analysis were in effect created by the correspondence between Pascal and Fermat, concerning certain questions as to the division of stakes in games of chance, which had been propounded to the former by the gaming philosopher De Mere.

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  • Pascal's work as a natural philosopher was not less remarkable than his discoveries in pure mathematics.

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  • EPICURUS (342-270 B.C.), Greek philosopher, was born in Samos in the end of 342 or the beginning of 341 B.C., seven years after the death of Plato.

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  • It seems possible that he had listened to the lectures of Nausiphanes,a Democritean philosopher, and Pamphilus the Platonist, but he was probably, like his father, merely an ordinary teacher.

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  • In this aversion to a purely or mainly intellectual training may be traced a recoil from the systematic metaphysics of Plato and Aristotle, whose tendency was to subordinate the practical man to the philosopher.

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  • Lees, A Biographical Sketch of the Mystic Philosopher and Poet Jami (Calcutta, 1859); E.

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  • HENRY LONGUEVILLE MANSEL (1820-1871), English philosopher, was born at Cosgrove, Northamptonshire (where his father, also Henry Longueville Mansel, fourth son of General John Mansel, was rector), on the 6th of October 1820.

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  • Among a large section of the community patriotism became for the first time a consuming passion, and it was stimulated by the counsels of several manly teachers, among whom the first place belongs to the philosopher Fichte.

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  • Passing thus through these two centuries we reach the beginning of the 18th century and the work done for German historical scholarship by the philosopher Leibnitz, who sought to do for his own country what Muratori was doing for Italy.

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  • The two chief collections which were issued by the philosopher are the Accessiones historicae (1698-1700) and the Scriptores reruni Brunsvicensium; the latter of these, containing documents centring round the history of the Weif family, was published in three volumes at Hanover (1707-1711).

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  • "GEORGE SANTAYANA (1863-), American philosopher and writer, was born in Madrid, Spain, Dec. 16 1863.

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  • JAMES MILL (1773-1836), historian and philosopher, was born on the 6th of April 1773, at Northwater Bridge, in the parish of Logie-Pert, Forfarshire, the son of James Mill, a shoemaker.

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  • Empedocles of Acragas is best known from the legends of his miracles and of his death in the fires of Aetna; but he was not the less philosopher, poet and physician, besides his political career.

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  • Cobden had the calmness and confidence of the political philosopher, Bright had the passion and the fervour of the popular orator.

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  • ARISTIDES Until 1878 our knowledge of the early Christian writer Aristides was confined to the statement of Eusebius that he was an Athenian philosopher, who presented an apology "concerning the faith" to the emperor Hadrian.

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  • Diogenes, the Stoic philosopher (head of the school in 156 B.C.), was a " Babylonian," i.e.

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  • The philosopher Clitomachus, who presided over the Academy at Athens in the 2nd century, was a Carthaginian.

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  • In the middle of the 2nd century Roman Hellenism centred in the circle of Scipio Aemilianus, which included men like Polybius and the philosopher Panaetius.

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  • with the aid of the mob, and by the murder of the beautiful philosopher Hypatia marked the lowest depth to which ignorant fanaticism could descend.

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  • ARISTO or ARISTON, of Chios (c. 250 B.C.), a Stoic philosopher and pupil of Zeno.

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  • Aristo is frequently confounded with another philosopher of the same name, Ariston of Iulis, in Ceos, who, about 230 B.C., succeeded Lyco as scholarch of the Peripatetics.

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  • Rousseau, who was jealously sparing of his praises, addressed to him, in his Nouvelle Heloise, a fine panegyric; and when a stranger flatteringly told Voltaire he had come to see a great man, the philosopher asked him if he had seen Abauzit.

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  • The first or semi-historical part shows us Alexander the Great as the conqueror of the world, while the second, of a more ethical tendency, describes him in the character of a prophet and philosopher, and narrates his second tour through the world and his adventures in the west, south, east and north.

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  • MARIN MERSENNE (1588-1648), French philosopher and mathematician, was born of peasant parents near Oize (Sarthe) on the 8th of September 1588, and died in Paris on the 1st of September 1648.

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  • ALEXANDER CAMPBELL FRASER (1819-), Scottish philosopher, was born at Ardchattan, Argyllshire, on the 3rd of September 1819.

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  • MARIA GAETANA AGNESI (1718-1799), Italian mathematician, linguist and philosopher, was born at Milan on the 16th of May 1718, her father being professor of mathematics in the university of Bologna.

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  • There is, however, no doubt that he abrogated in a formal manner the ancient laws, which had fallen into desuetude, and the more probable opinion would seem to be, that he caused a revision to be made of the ancient laws which were to continue in force, and divided them into forty books, and that this code of laws was subsequently enlarged and distributed into sixty books by his son Leo the Philosopher.

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  • RICHARD BURDON HALDANE (1856-), British statesman and philosopher, was the third son of Robert Haldane of Cloanden, Perthshire, a writer to the signet, and nephew of J.

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  • Besides being a chancery lawyer, he was more particularly a philosopher, conspicuous for his knowledge of Hegelian metaphysics.

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  • Annaeus Seneca the philosopher, was born at Corduba (Cordova) about the beginning of the Christian era.

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  • THOMAS CARLYLE (1795-1881), British essayist, historian and philosopher,born on the 4th of December 1795 at Ecclefechan, in Annandale, was the eldest of the nine children of James Carlyle by his second wife, Janet Aitken.

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  • Coleridge seemed to him to be ineffectual as a philosopher, and personally to be a melancholy instance of genius running to waste.

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  • JOHANN CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH VON SCHILLER (1759-1805), German poet, dramatist and philosopher, was born at Marbach on the Neckar, on the 10th of November 1759.

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  • the Philosopher (Migne, Patr.

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  • GEORG GUSTAV FULLEBORN (1769-1803), German philosopher, philologist and miscellaneous writer, was born at Glogau, Silesia, on the 2nd of March 1769, and died at Breslau on the 6th of February 1803.

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  • HERMANN SAMUEL REIMARUS (1694-1768), German philosopher and man of letters, was born at Hamburg, on the 22nd of December 1694.

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  • MELISSUS OF SAMOS, Greek philosopher of the Eleatic School, was born probably not later than 470 B.C. According to Diogenes Laertius, ix.

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  • FRIES,JAKOB FRIEDRICH (1773-1843), German philosopher, was born at Barby, Saxony, on the 23rd of August 1773.

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  • Leo the Philosopher (about A.D.

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  • MODERATUS OF GADES, a Greek philosopher of the NeoPythagorean school, contemporary with Apollonius of Tyana.

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  • GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL (1770-183r), German philosopher, was born at Stuttgart on the 27th of August 1770.

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  • " The philosopher did not pose as a practical statesman.

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  • In such a state of things it was the business of the philosopher to set forth the outlines of the coming epoch, as they were already moulding themselves into shape, amidst what the ordinary eye saw only as the disintegration of the old forms of social life.

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  • The disciplined philosopher, who had devoted himself to the task of comprehending the organism of the state, had no patience with feebler or more mercurial minds who recklessly laid hands on established ordinances, and set them aside where they contravened humanitarian sentiments.

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  • The mind coming through a thousand phases of mistake and disappointment to a sense and realization of its true position in the universe - such is the drama which is consciously Hegel's own history, but is represented objectively as the process of spiritual history which the philosopher reproduces in himself.

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  • The order of the categories is in the main outlines fixed; but in the minor details much depends upon the philosopher, who has to fill in the gaps between ideas, with little guidance from the data of experience, and to assign to the stages of development names which occasionally deal hardly with language.

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  • JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE (1749-1832), German poet, dramatist and philosopher, was born at Frankfort-on-Main on the 28th of August 1749.

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  • Comparatively early in life he had found in Spinoza the philosopher who responded to his needs; Spinoza taught him to see in nature the "living garment of God," and more he did not seek or need to know.

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  • He was a man of great versatility and extensive learning, a philologist and philosopher as well as a theologian, and a very voluminous author.

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  • They dubbed him the "philosopher," the "musician," recalled in after days his fine social disposition, his skill in playing the lute, and his ready power in debate.

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  • ANTONIO ROSMINI-SERBATI (1797-1855), Italian philosopher, was born at Rovereto in Italian Tirol on the 25th of March 1797.

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  • FRANCESCO ALGAROTTI, Count (1712-1764), Italian philosopher and writer on art, was born on the 11 th of December 1712 at Venice, and died at Pisa in 1764.

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  • EMILE EDMOND SAISSET (1814-1863), French philosopher, was born at Montpellier on the 16th of September 1814, and died at Paris on the 17th of December 1863.

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  • BERNARDINO TELESIO (1509-1588), Italian philosopher and natural scientist, was born of noble parentage at Cosenza near Naples in 1509.

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  • The philosopher left several sons, some of whom became jurists like his own grandfather.

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  • EUBULIDES, a native of Miletus, Greek philosopher and successor of Eucleides as head of the Megarian school.

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  • SALOMON MAIMON (1754-1800), German philosopher, was born of Jewish parentage in Polish Lithuania, and died at Nieder-Siegersdorf on the 22nd of November 1800.

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  • During the ensuing ten years he published the works which have made his reputation as a critical philosopher.

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  • WILHELM TRAUGOTT KRUG (1770-1842), German philosopher and author, was born at Radis in Prussia on the 22nd of June 1770, and died at Leipzig on the 12th of January 1842.

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  • ONOSANDER, or Onasander, Greek philosopher, lived during the 1st century A.D.

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  • For, though that celebrated personage would have liked to be called, not " sophist " but " political philosopher," and tried to fasten the name of " sophist " upon his opponents the Socratics, it is clear from his own statement that he was commonly ranked with the sophists, and that he had no claim, except on the score of superior popularity and success, to be dissociated from the other teachers of political rhetoric. It is true that he was not a political sophist of the vulgar type, that as a theorist he was honest and patriotic, and that, in addition to his fame as a teacher, he had a distinct reputation as a man of letters; but he was a professor of political rhetoric, and, as such, in the phraseology of the day, a sophist.

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  • He had already reached the height of his fame when Plato opened a rival school at the Academy, and pointedly attacked him in the Gorgias, the Plaaedrus and the Republic. Thenceforward, there was a perpetual controversy between the rhetorician and the philosopher, and the struggle of educational systems continued until, in the next generation, the philosophers were left in possession of the field.

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  • The subject which is discussed in that dialogue and its successor, the Statesman, being the question " Are sophist, statesman, and philosopher identical or different?

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  • It is clear that the final definition is preferred, not because of any intrinsic superiority, but because it has a direct bearing upon the question " Are sophist, statesman and philosopher identical or different?

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  • Yet among the so-called sophists there were two who had philosophical leanings, as appears in their willingness to be called by the title of philosopher.

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  • Hence, though an agnostic, he was not unwilling to be called a philosopher, in so far as he pursued such truth as was attainable by man.

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  • It will be seen, however, that neither Socrates nor Isocrates was philosopher in any strict sense of the word, the speculative aims of physicists and metaphysicians being foreign to the practical theories both of the one and of the other.

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  • Overlooking the differences which separated the humanists from the eristics, and both of these from the rhetoricians, and taking no account of Socrates, whom they regarded as a philosopher, they forgot the services which Protagoras and Prodicus, Gorgias and Isocrates had rendered to education and to literature, and included the whole profession in an indiscriminate and contemptuous censure.

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  • " The philosopher who errs in his predictions observes silence for the rest of his life."

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  • The whole history of his researches proves how fully he was aware of the conditions necessary for the attainment of achromatism in refracting telescopes, and he may be well excused if he so long placed implicit reliance on the accuracy of experiments made by so illustrious a philosopher as Newton.

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  • In 1598 an insurrection, headed by the philosopher Tommaso Campanella, broke out in Calabria, and was crushed with great severity.

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  • On the 8th of July, King Ferdinand arrived from Palermo, and the state trials, conducted in the most arbitrary fashion, resulted in wholesale butchery; hundreds of persons were executed, including some of the best men in the veng g country, such as the philosopher Mario Pagano, the scientist Cirillo, Manthone, the minister of war under the republic, Massa, the defender of Castel dell' Uovo, and Ettore Caraffa, the defender of Pescara, who had been captured by treachery, while thousands of others were immured in horrible dungeons or exiled.

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  • 60), Greek philosopher, was probably a native of Hierapolis in south-west Phrygia.

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  • The aim of the philosopher therefore is to reach the position of a mind which embraces the whole world in its view, - to grow into the mind of God and to make the will of nature our own.

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  • The numerical preponderance of the works of Philodemus led some people to believe that this had been the library of that philosopher.

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  • DUGALD STEWART (1753-1828), Scottish philosopher, was born in Edinburgh on the 22nd of November 1753.

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  • CARLO CATTANEO (1801-1869), Italian philosopher and patriot.

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  • Cicero as a philosopher belonged to the New Academy.

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  • - An excellent account of Cicero as a philosopher is given in the preface to Reid's edition of the Academica.

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  • EDUARD ZELLER (1814-1908), German philosopher, was born at Kleinbottwar in Wurttemberg on the 22nd of January 1814, and educated at the university of Tubingen and under the influence of Hegel.

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  • His fame as theologian and philosopher rests to a large extent on his demonstration of the existence of God and his theory of the foundation of rectitude.

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  • JOHANNES SCOTUS ERIGENA (c. Boo - c. 877), medieval philosopher and theologian.

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  • The reputation of this school seems to have increased greatly under Erigena's leadership, and the philosopher himself was treated with indulgence by the king.

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  • If this be pressed as suggesting that the philosopher Aristotle was already in full activity at the date of writing, it is of importance to know what Platonic dialogues were later than the debut of his critical pupil.

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  • If genuine, its naive theory that thought copies things and other features of its contents would tend to place it among the earliest works of the philosopher.

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  • 370-415) mathematician and philosopher, born in Alexandria, was the daughter of Theon, also a mathematician and philosopher, author of scholia on Euclid and a commentary on the Almagest, in which it is suggested that he was assisted by Hypatia (on the 3rd book).

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  • HEINRICH MORITZ CHALYBAUS (1796-1862), German philosopher, was born at Pfaffroda in Saxony.

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  • He died unconfessed, a philosopher and a patriot.

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  • ZENO OF TARSUS, Stoic philosopher and pupil of Chrysippus, belonged to the period of the Middle Stoa.

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  • The hero, a young Scythian descended from the famous philosopher Anacharsis, is supposed to repair to Greece for instruction in his early youth, and after making the tour of her republics, colonies and islands, to return to his native country and write this book in his old age, after the Macedonian hero had overturned the Persian empire.

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  • BERNARD DE MANDEVILLE (1670-1733), English philosopher and satirist, was born at Dordrecht, where his father practised as a physician.

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  • ARNOLD RUGE (1802-1880), German philosopher and political writer, was born at Bergen, in the island of Rugen, on the 13th of September 1802.

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  • WILLIAM PALEY (1743-1805), English divine and philosopher, was born at Peterborough.

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  • Chamberlayne under the title of The Religious Philosopher.

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  • On Paley as a theologian and philosopher, see Leslie Stephen, English Thought in the Eighteenth Century, i.

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  • ARCHELAUS OF MILETUS, Greek philosopher of the 5th century B.C., was born probably at Athens, though Diogenes Laertius (ii.

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  • The earliest mention of the name of Homer is found in a fragment of the philosopher Xenophanes (of the 6th century B.e., or possibly earlier), who complains of the false notions implanted through the teaching of Homer.

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  • In the midst of these conflicting tendencies, an attempt was made, about the latter part of the 8th century, by the distinguished Malabar theologian and philosopher Sankara Acharya to restore the Brahmanical creed to ?'

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  • That a wood-louse and a land-crab are alike Malacostracans, and that they have by different paths alike become adapted to terrestrial life, are facts which even a philosopher might condescend to notice.

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  • For half a century trials were many at Venice and elsewhere, but actual executions were only common at Rome; the most illustrious victim was the philosopher Giordano Biuno, burnt in 1600.

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  • Another of his papers dealt with the delusions of the philosopher's stone, but nevertheless he believed that iron could be artificially formed in the combustion of vegetable matter.

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  • EMPEDOCLES (c. 490-430 B.C.), Greek philosopher and statesman, was born at Agrigentum (Acragas, Girgenti) in Sicily of a distinguished family, then at the height of its glory.

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  • It is the business of a philosopher, while he lays bare the fundamental difference of elements, to display the identity that subsists between what seem unconnected parts of the universe.

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  • It has raised his reputation as a political philosopher into the first rank, where he now disputes the place of intellectual supremacy with his friend Machiavelli; but it has coloured our moral judgment of his character and conduct with darker dyes.

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  • For this reason Hume is sometimes classed as a moral-sense philosopher rather than as a utilitarian.

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  • The subject, however, had already engaged the attention of the German philosopher, F.

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  • - With this supremely important discovery of Faraday's we enter upon'the third period of electrical research, in which that philosopher himself was the leading figure.

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  • FRANCIS BACON (BARON VERULAM, VISCOUNT ST ALBANS) (1561-1626), English philosopher, statesman and essayist, was born at York House in the Strand, London, on the 22nd of January 1560/1.

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  • While, therefore, it is a profound mistake to regard Bacon as a great constructive philosopher, or even as a lonely pioneer of modern thought, it is quite unfair to speak of him as a trifler.

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  • AMMONIUS SACCAS (3rd century A.D.), Greek philosopher of Alexandria, often called the founder of the neo-Platonic school.

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  • The details of his life are unknown, insomuch that he has frequently been confused with a Christian philosopher of the same name.

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  • There seems no reason, therefore, to doubt that Eusebius is here referring to the Christian philosopher.

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