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philological

philological Sentence Examples

  • Prefixed to this are two sections dealing respectively with (A) the ethnographical and philological divisions of ancient Italy, and (B) the unification of the country under Augustus, the growth of the road system and so forth.

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  • Abroad its navigators monopolized the commerce of the world, and explored unknown seas; at home the Dutch school of painting reached its acme in Rembrandt (1607-1669); and the philological reputation of the country was sustained by Grotius, Vossius and the elder Heinsius.

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  • The Andaman languages are extremely interesting from the philological standpoint.

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  • The careful and complete collection, by Franke, of the philological evidence at present available, has raised this hypothesis into a practical certainty.

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  • Westergaard, Ober den altesten Zeitraum der indischen Geschichte, p. 87; Rhys Davids, Transactions of the Philological Society (1875), p. 70; Kuhn, Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik, 7-9.

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  • He was one of the principal founders of the Philological Seminary established at Heidelberg in 1807.

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  • (Yuriev or Dorpat, Kazan, Kharkov, Kiev, Moscow, Odessa, St Petersburg, Warsaw and Tomsk), with 19,400 students, 6 medical academies (one for women), 6 theological academies, 6 military academies, 5 philological institutes, 3 Eastern languages institutes,.

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  • The Minoan remains at Orchomenus which are traceable to the latest period go far to substantiate the philological comparison between the name of Minyas, the traditional ancestor of this ancient race, and that of Minos.

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  • The origin of the word almucium is a philological mystery.

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  • In the Malay Peninsula itself there is abundant evidence, ethnological and philological, of at least two distinct immigrations of people of the Malayan stock, the earlier incursions, it is probable, taking place from the eastern archipelago to the south, the later invasion spreading across the Straits of Malacca from Sumatra at a comparatively recent date.

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  • Philological investigations show that it is probable that the progenitors I From the enlistment of Kabyles speaking the Zouave dialect the Zouave regiments of the French army came to be so called.

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  • It has been equated on philological grounds to the Leja.

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  • The Kiteib ul-Hayawan, or "Book of Animals," a philological and literary, not a scientific, work, was published at Cairo (1906).

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  • On the other hand, Alphonse de Candolle, from philological and other considerations, considers the peach to be of Chinese origin.

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  • His philological studies, to which the last fourteen years of his life were devoted, resulted in the compilation of "A Glossary of Provincial and Archaic Words," intended as a supplement to Dr Johnson's Dictionary, but never published except in part, which finally in 1831 passed into the hands of the English compilers of Webster's Dictionary, by whom it was utilized.

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  • In passing through Holland he made the acquaintance of Albert Schultens (1686-1750), whose influence on his philological views became allpowerful a few years later.

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  • His linguistic work indeed was always hampered by the lack of manuscript material, which is felt in his philological writings, e.g.

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  • Reiske (1716-1774); and, though for many years the most famous teacher of Semitic languages in Europe, he had little of the higher philological faculty, and neither his grammatical nor his critical work has left a permanent mark, with the exception perhaps of his text-critical studies on the Peshitta.

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  • In 1786 Horne Tooke conferred perpetual fame upon his benefactor's country house by adopting, as a second title of his elaborate philological treatise of "EirEa the more popular though misleading title of The Diversions of Purley.

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  • Recognized as among the first mathematicians of his day, he was also widely known for the universality and depth of his philological and philosophical knowledge.

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  • The Uralian travels of Anthony Reguly (1843-1845), and the philological labours of Paul Hunfalvy and Joseph Budenz, may be said to have established it, and no doubt has been thrown on it by recent research, though most authorities regard the Magyars as of mixed origin physically and combining Turkish with Finno-Ugric elements.

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  • The Calvinist Albert Molnar, already mentioned, was more remarkable for his philological than for his theological labours.

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  • During the earlier part of its existence the Hungarian academy devoted itself mainly to the scientific development of the language and philological research.

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  • For philological and ethnographical research into the origin and growth of the language none excels Paul Hunfalvy.

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  • Between 1862 and 1866 valuable philological studies bearing on the same subject were published by Joseph Budenz in the Nyelvtudomdnyi kozlemenyek (Philological Transactions).

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  • His two newspapers, the Illyrian National Gazette and the Danica Ilirska (Illyrian Daystar) provided a literary focus for the rising generation; while his reform of Croat orthography, planned on parallel lines with Vuk Karadzic's epochmaking philological work in Serbia, assured to modern SerboCroat literature a definitely unitary development.

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  • - Let us now briefly sketch the progress of Isaiah's prophesying on the basis of philological exegesis, and a comparison of the sound results of the study of the inscriptions.

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  • It will be admitted by philological students that the exegetical data supplied by (at any rate) Isa.

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  • 70 sqq., who from philological and other data infers the late date of the introduction of incense into the Jewish ritual.

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  • His father advised him to revise his philological and philosophical studies, and read over Calvin's Institutions, before finally determining.

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  • In 1849 he was placed in charge of the Philological Seminary at Prague, and two years later was appointed professor of classical philology in Prague University.

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  • His philological theories exercised a widespread influence.

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  • Tha`alibi (q.v.) and Jurjani (q.v.) were almost contemporary, and a little later came Zamakhshari, whose philological works are almost as famous as his commentary on the Koran.

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  • It is true, he wrote no actual commentary on the Bible, but his philological works exercised the greatest influence on Judaic exegesis.

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  • Abulwalid's works mark the culminating point of Hebrew scholarship during the middle ages, and he attained a level which was not surpassed till the modern development of philological science in the 19th century.

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  • The philological analysis of Wolf and his successors had raised doubts as to the very existence of Homer, and at one time the main current of scholarly opinion had set strongly in the direction of the belief that the Iliad and the Odyssey were in reality but latter-day collections of divers recitals that had been handed down by word of mouth from one generation to another of bards through ages of illiteracy.

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  • These philological labours were of great indirect importance, for they led immediately to the study of the natural sciences, and in particular to a more accurate knowledge of geography andhistory.

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  • Another great service to English philology was rendered by his paper, read before the Philological Society, "On some Deficiencies in our English Dictionaries" (1857), which gave the first impulse to the great Oxford New EnglishDictionary.

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  • There is a vast field for philological explorations in the archipelago.

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  • Where Erasmus excelled was in prefaces - not philological introductions to each author, but spirited appeals to the interest of the general reader, showing how an ancient book might be made to minister to modern spiritual demands.

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  • The most memorable name, however, among the scholars of this century is that of Eustathius, whose philological studies at Constantinople preceded his tenure of the archbishopric of Thessalonica (1175-1192).

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  • It was taken up anew by the Cambridge Philological Society in 1886, by the Modern Languages Association in 1901, by the Classical Association in 1904-1905, and the Philological Societies of Oxford and Cambridge in 1906.

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  • 1707), the founder of the first philological Seminar (1697).

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  • But this they could not do; and since the version, owing to the limitations of the translators, departs widely from the sense of the original, Christian scholars were on the whole kept much farther from the original meaning than their Jewish contemporaries, who used the Hebrew text; and later, after Jewish grammatical and philological study had been stimulated by intercourse with the Arabs, the relative disadvantages under which Christian scholarship laboured increased.

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  • The considerations from which he acutely and accurately draws far-reaching and important conclusions might be suggested by a very superficial examination of the literature; they involve, for example, no special philological knowledge.

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  • Before passing to the new epoch it must suffice to make a simple reference to the philological work of Gesenius and Ewald, which assisted a sounder exegesis and so secured for later criticism a more stable basis.

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  • The legends of his escape from a fiery furnace may have a philological basis (Ur interpreted as " fire "), but the allusion to the redemption of Abraham in Isa.

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  • New versions are made, wherever practicable, from the original Hebrew or Greek text, and the results thus obtained have a high philological value and interest.

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  • Gogol, the novelist, was a student), now transformed into a philological institute.

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  • He was not an original thinker, but a diligent student, distinguished by great learning, by a turn for historical and philological criticism, and by an earnest purpose to uproot false teaching - especially Christianity, to ennoble men and train them to goodness.

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  • In 1799 he quitted Malda for Serampore, where he established a church, a school, and a printing-press for the publication of the Scriptures and philological works.

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  • From this time to his death he devoted himself to the preparation of numerous philological works, consisting of grammars and dictionaries in the Mahratta, Sanskrit, Punjabi, Telinga, Bengali and Bhotanta dialects.

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  • Crawfurd, on philological grounds, considers that rice was introduced into Persia from southern India.

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  • Philological rather than theological in character, it marked an epochal change from the old homiletic commentary, and though more recent research, patristic and papyral, has largely changed the method of New Testament exegesis, Alford's work is still a quarry where the student can dig with a good deal of profit.

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  • Neilson, John Barbour, Poet and Translator (1900) (a reprint from the Transactions of the Philological Society); J.

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  • The Pricke of Conscience was edited (1863) by Richard Morris for the Philological Society.

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  • Grotius's philological skill, however, was not sufficient to enable him to work up to this ideal.

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  • The cultivation of it is shown and was no doubt promoted by the many philological works (grammars, lexicons and masorah) which are extant from the 10th century onward.

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  • The philological study of Hebrew among the Jews is described below, under Hebrew Literature, of which it formed an integral part.

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  • The philological lectures of Johann Friedrich Christ (1700-1756) and Johann August Ernesti (1707-1781) proved, however, more attractive than those on theology, and he attended the philosophical disputations presided over by his friend A.

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  • The curriculum is classical and philological, but in the two upper classes there is a bifurcation in favour of scientific subjects for those who wish.

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  • Until further light has been thrown on the nature of Sumerian, this language should be regarded as standing quite alone, a prehistoric philological remnant, and its etymology should be studied only with reference to the Sumerian inscriptions themselves.

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  • Sayce's interesting article in Philological Society (1877-1878), pp. I-20.

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  • Matthews, Berlin, 1887), Joseph Kimhi attacks the philological work of the greatest French Talmud scholar of that day, R.

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  • This work is a mine of varied exegetical and philological details.

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  • On the philological methods of the ancient Babylonian priesthood, see Prince, Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon, Introduction.

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  • A good many fragments of this older theological and philological exegesis have survived from the first two centuries of the Flight, although we have no complete commentary of this period.

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  • Apart from their philological interest, as giving the history of a remarkable language during a period of several thousand years, the grammatical studies of the last quarter of the I9th century and afterwards are beginning to bear fruit in regard to the exact interpretation of historical documents on Egyptian monuments and papyri.

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  • It has also a certain philological interest.

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  • The interesting philological tractate Of the Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue by Alexander Hume (not the verse writer, u.s.) is in its language a medley; and William Lithgow had travelled too widely to retain his native speech in purity, even in his indifferent verse.

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  • He was a teacher at Swanzey, New Hampshire, and at the Leicester Academy, Massachusetts, in 1845-1847, and attempted the philological method of teaching English "like Latin and Greek," later described in his Method of Philological Study of the English Language (1865); at Amherst in 1847-1849; at Fredericksburg, Virginia, in 1852-1855; and in 1855 became a tutor at Lafayette College, where he became adjunct professor of belles-lettres and English literature in 1856, and professor of English language and comparative philology - the first chair of the kind established - in 1857.

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  • At Lafayette he introduced the first carefully scientific study of English in any American college, and in 1870 published A Comparative Grammar of the AngloSaxon Language, in which its Forms are Illustrated by Those of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Old Saxon, Old Friesic, Old Norse and Old High German, and An Anglo-Saxon Reader; he was editor of the "Douglass Series of Christian Greek and Latin Classics," to which he contributed Latin Hymns (1874); he was chairman of the Commission of the State of Pennsylvania on Amended Orthography; and was consulting editor of the Standard Dictionary, and in 1879-1882 was director of the American readers for the Philological Society's (New Oxford) Dictionary.

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  • He was president of the American Philological Association in 1873-1874 and in 1895-1896, of the Spelling Reform Association after 1876, and of the Modern Language Association in 1891-1893.

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  • His article "On Recent Discussions of Grimm's Law" in the Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association for 1873 in large part anticipated Verner's law.

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  • Pellican's autobiography describes the gradual multiplication of accessible books on the subjects, and he not only studied but translated a vast mass of rabbinical and Talmudic texts, his interest in Jewish literature being mainly philological.

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  • But, although not a critical scholar, he was the first to attempt a scientific treatment of Greek mythology, and he gave an undoubted impulse to philological studies.

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  • The name is preserved in the abbreviated form Ebor in the official name of the archbishop of York, but the philological connexion between Eboracum and the modern name York is doubtful and has probably been complicated by Danish influence.

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  • Hamann seems at this time to have thought that any strenuous devotion to "bread-and-butter" studies was lowering, and accordingly gave himself entirely to reading, criticism and philological inquiries.

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  • C and IC, as k was frequently written, would easily be confusedin writing, and Professor Hempl (Transactions of the American Philological Association for 18 99, pp. 24 ff.) shows that the Chalcidian form of y` - = developed into shapes which might have partaken of the confusion.

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  • Philological: Critical editions of Juvenal, Persius and Sulpicia (3rd ed.

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  • of the American Philological Association (1876).

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  • The fundamental idea remains the same in the Zend Asha, its philological counterpart, but it is applied with a difference.

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  • in Bohn's Philological Library (1889).

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  • As a teacher, Laetus, who has been called the first head of a philological school, was extraordinarily successful; in his own words, like Socrates and Christ, he expected to live on in the person of his pupils, amongst whom were many of the most famous scholars of the period.

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  • Tarikh-i- Tabari, the oldest prose work in modern Persian, is not merely remarkable from a philological point of view, it is also the classic model of an easy and simple style (French trans.

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  • 1750, 1760) founded on the Life by Jean Le Clerc; and Tracts Philological Critical and Miscellaneous (1790).

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  • The philological classification of the Brahui dialect has been much disputed, but the latest enquiries, conducted by Dr G.

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  • The part Panaetius took in philological and historical studies is characteristic of the man.

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  • Padre Ferreira de Almeida's translation of the Bible has considerable linguistic importance, and philological studies had an able exponent in Amaro de Roboredo.

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  • Philological studies were pursued with ardour and many valuable publications have to be recorded, among them Bluteau's Vocabulario Portuguez, the Reflexoes sobre a lingoa portugueza and an Arte poetica by Francisco Jose Freire, the Exercicios and Espirito da lingoa e eloquencia of Pereira de Figueiredo, translator of the Vulgate, and Viterbo's Elucidario, a dictionary of old terms and phrases which has not been superseded.

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  • Kolar's other works are mostly philological studies.

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  • Lietzmann's edition, again, is slight and philological (Handbuch zum Neuen Testament, 1907).

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  • Die deutsche Philologie im Grundriss (1836) was at the time of its publication a valuable contribution to philological research, and historians of German literature still attach importance to his Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenliedes bis auf Luther (1832; 3rd ed., 1861), Unsere volkstiimlichen Lieder (3rd ed., 1869) and Die deutschen Gesellschaftslieder des 16.

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  • (2 vols., London, 1908), largely geographical, historical, anthropological and philological studies based on the work of Grenfell.

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  • Alecsandri is less successful in his dramas, most of which are adaptations from French originals; the only merit of his novels is that amidst the phonetic and philological turmoil he kept to the purer language of the people.

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  • They suffered in consequence of the philological confusion brought about by Eliade and his assistants,.

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  • In Moldavia where the knowledge of the old chroniclers had not entirely died out and disturbing philological influences were not so acutely felt, we find the vigorous writings of Mihail Cogalniceanu - one of the leading spirits of the 19th century, the greatest mind and the real founder of Rumania.

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  • Among the special collections of the general library are the classical library of Charles Anthon, the philological library of Franz Bopp, the Goldwin Smith library (1869), the White architectural and historical libraries, the Spinoza collection presented by Andrew D.

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  • He had meanwhile continued his classical and philological studies, and his liberal views brought him into frequent conflict with his superiors.

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  • The rigorously authentic character of these laws, relating to, and dealing with, the actual realities of life, and with institutions and a state of society nowhere else revealed to the same extent, the extreme antiquity both of the provisions and of the language, and the meagreness of continental material illustrative of the same things, endow them with exceptional archaic, archaeological and philological interest.

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  • Here he developed special aptitude for linguistic and philological studies.

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  • Basing his conclusions upon philological data, such as the names of wheat in the oldest known languages, the writings of the most ancient historians, and the observations of botanical travellers, De Candolle infers that the hdistromeib u a n d original home of the wheat plant was in Mesopotamia, don.

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  • He had a very distinguished pupil in Stoyan Novakovich, who wrote numerous studies on philological subjects, and whose Servian grammar is still the standard book in all Servian schools.

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  • His chief studies, however, were philological; and in 1829 he published An Etymological Glossary of English Words of Foreign Derivation.

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  • Continuing his studies in the science of language, he published his Philological Grammar in 1854, drawing examples from more than sixty languages.

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  • In 1861 he was awarded a civil list pension of 70 a year, and in the next year published Tiw, the most striking of his philological studies, in which the Teutonic roots in the English language are discussed.

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  • Such myths were often based on grotesque philological analogies, according to which an existing connexion between two personalities (cities, &c.) was traced back to a common mythical origin.

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  • From 1763 till 1784 he was classical and philological tutor in Coward's training college at Hoxton; and subsequently for some years at another institution of the same kind at Hackney.

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  • These writings possess more philological interest than literary merit, and are hardly known outside Croatia-Slavonia and the Slovene districts of Austria.

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  • In 1784 he founded a philological society, which grew into a philological seminary, superintended by him until his death.

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  • His philological lectures, in which grammar and criticism were subordinated to history, were largely attended by hearers from all parts of Germany.

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  • He also wrote on theological and historical subjects, and edited philological and bibliographical journals.

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  • Socrates, in the Cratylus of Plato, expounds " a philosophy which came to him all in an instant," an explanation of the divine beings based on crude philological analyses of theif names.

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  • For the sake of brevity we might call the former the " philological " system, as it rests chiefly on the study of language, while the latter might be styled the " historical " or " anthropological " school, as it is based on the study of man in the sum of his manners, ideas and institutions.

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  • The most distinguished and popular advocate of the philological school was Max Muller, whose views may be found in his Selected Essays and Lectures on Language.

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  • It is no longer necessary to give an elaborate analysis of this theory, because neither in its philological nor mythological side has it any advocates who need be reckoned with.

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  • Max Muller's system was a result of the philological theories that indicated the linguistic unity of the Indo-European or " Aryan " peoples, and was founded on an analysis of their language.

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  • For all these reasons the information obtained from philological analysis of names is to be distrusted.

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  • So far Spencer seems at one with the philological school of mythologists, but he warns us that the misconstructions of language in his system are " different in kind, and the erroneous course of thought is opposite in direction."

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  • The philological arguments advanced are extremely weak, and by no means convincing.

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  • 128, note 1, for this and other philological conjectures.

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  • That there are in the Eddas and Sagas early ideas and later ideas tinged by Christian legend seems indubitable, but philological and historical learning has by no means settled the questions of relative purity and antiquity tin the myths.

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  • The division is primarily philological.

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  • The former is unsatisfactory partly from the philological standpoint, and the latter, though not certain, is preferable.

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  • Returning to Spain in 1798, he published his famous Catdlogo de las lenguas de las naciones conocidas (6 vols., 1800-1805), in which he collected the philological peculiarities of three hundred languages and drew up grammars of forty languages.

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  • He edited several of his brother's works, and was also author of original works on philological and historical subjects, among which may be mentioned Nouvelles recherches sur les patois ou idiomes vulgaires de la France (1809), Annales de Lagides (1819) and Chartes latines sur papyrus du VP e siecle de l'ere chretienne.

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  • He made another find in the Cambridge library of considerable philological and historical importance.

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  • He followed up his researches with his Etudes iraniennes (1883), and ten years later published a complete translation of the Zend Avesta, with historical and philological commentary (3 vols., 1892-1893), in the Annales du musee Guimet.

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  • He concludes, on very thorough philological and other grounds, that this is with one possible slight exception the work of the same "Ambrosiaster."

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  • This hypothesis at least explains all myths of fire-stealing by the natural needs, passions, and characters of men, "a jealous race," whereas the philological theory explains the Greek myth by an exceptional accident of changing language, and leaves the other widely diffused myths of fire-stealing in the dark.

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  • Furthermore the philological basis of Harvey's argument appears questionable on occasion.

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  • Black presented the philological and pedagogical rationale for the project, while Robson discussed its operating procedure.

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  • But let us not waste our time over such philological scholasticism.

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  • Vossianus, c. 1300 (A); Laurentianus, end of 14th century (F); Ottoboniano-Vaticanus, 15th century (V); Daventriensis, 15th century (D), to which has to be added the Holkhamicus, 1421 (L), collated by Postgate, Cambridge Philological Transactions (1894) vol.

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  • Abroad its navigators monopolized the commerce of the world, and explored unknown seas; at home the Dutch school of painting reached its acme in Rembrandt (1607-1669); and the philological reputation of the country was sustained by Grotius, Vossius and the elder Heinsius.

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  • Prefixed to this are two sections dealing respectively with (A) the ethnographical and philological divisions of ancient Italy, and (B) the unification of the country under Augustus, the growth of the road system and so forth.

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  • The Andaman languages are extremely interesting from the philological standpoint.

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  • The inscriptions have now been subjected to a very full critical and philological analysis in Professor Otto Franke's Pali and Sanskrit (Strassburg, 1902).

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  • The careful and complete collection, by Franke, of the philological evidence at present available, has raised this hypothesis into a practical certainty.

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  • Westergaard, Ober den altesten Zeitraum der indischen Geschichte, p. 87; Rhys Davids, Transactions of the Philological Society (1875), p. 70; Kuhn, Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik, 7-9.

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  • 1805), author of Shire Tiphe'reth, a long poem on the Exodus, Diblue Shalom, a plea for liberalism, Sepher ha-middoth, on ethics, besides philological works and commentaries.

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  • He was one of the principal founders of the Philological Seminary established at Heidelberg in 1807.

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  • (Yuriev or Dorpat, Kazan, Kharkov, Kiev, Moscow, Odessa, St Petersburg, Warsaw and Tomsk), with 19,400 students, 6 medical academies (one for women), 6 theological academies, 6 military academies, 5 philological institutes, 3 Eastern languages institutes,.

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  • The same cult survived to later times in Caria in the case of Zeus Labrandeus, whose name is derived from labrys, the native name for the double axe, and it had already been L suggested on philological grounds that the Cretan 'a ' labyrinthos " was formed from a kindred form of the same word.

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  • The Minoan remains at Orchomenus which are traceable to the latest period go far to substantiate the philological comparison between the name of Minyas, the traditional ancestor of this ancient race, and that of Minos.

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  • The origin of the word almucium is a philological mystery.

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  • In the Malay Peninsula itself there is abundant evidence, ethnological and philological, of at least two distinct immigrations of people of the Malayan stock, the earlier incursions, it is probable, taking place from the eastern archipelago to the south, the later invasion spreading across the Straits of Malacca from Sumatra at a comparatively recent date.

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  • Philological investigations show that it is probable that the progenitors I From the enlistment of Kabyles speaking the Zouave dialect the Zouave regiments of the French army came to be so called.

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  • It has been equated on philological grounds to the Leja.

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  • The Kiteib ul-Hayawan, or "Book of Animals," a philological and literary, not a scientific, work, was published at Cairo (1906).

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  • On the other hand, Alphonse de Candolle, from philological and other considerations, considers the peach to be of Chinese origin.

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  • His philological studies, to which the last fourteen years of his life were devoted, resulted in the compilation of "A Glossary of Provincial and Archaic Words," intended as a supplement to Dr Johnson's Dictionary, but never published except in part, which finally in 1831 passed into the hands of the English compilers of Webster's Dictionary, by whom it was utilized.

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  • In passing through Holland he made the acquaintance of Albert Schultens (1686-1750), whose influence on his philological views became allpowerful a few years later.

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  • His linguistic work indeed was always hampered by the lack of manuscript material, which is felt in his philological writings, e.g.

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  • Reiske (1716-1774); and, though for many years the most famous teacher of Semitic languages in Europe, he had little of the higher philological faculty, and neither his grammatical nor his critical work has left a permanent mark, with the exception perhaps of his text-critical studies on the Peshitta.

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  • In 1786 Horne Tooke conferred perpetual fame upon his benefactor's country house by adopting, as a second title of his elaborate philological treatise of "EirEa the more popular though misleading title of The Diversions of Purley.

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  • Recognized as among the first mathematicians of his day, he was also widely known for the universality and depth of his philological and philosophical knowledge.

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  • The Uralian travels of Anthony Reguly (1843-1845), and the philological labours of Paul Hunfalvy and Joseph Budenz, may be said to have established it, and no doubt has been thrown on it by recent research, though most authorities regard the Magyars as of mixed origin physically and combining Turkish with Finno-Ugric elements.

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  • The Calvinist Albert Molnar, already mentioned, was more remarkable for his philological than for his theological labours.

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  • During the earlier part of its existence the Hungarian academy devoted itself mainly to the scientific development of the language and philological research.

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  • For philological and ethnographical research into the origin and growth of the language none excels Paul Hunfalvy.

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  • Between 1862 and 1866 valuable philological studies bearing on the same subject were published by Joseph Budenz in the Nyelvtudomdnyi kozlemenyek (Philological Transactions).

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  • His two newspapers, the Illyrian National Gazette and the Danica Ilirska (Illyrian Daystar) provided a literary focus for the rising generation; while his reform of Croat orthography, planned on parallel lines with Vuk Karadzic's epochmaking philological work in Serbia, assured to modern SerboCroat literature a definitely unitary development.

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  • - Let us now briefly sketch the progress of Isaiah's prophesying on the basis of philological exegesis, and a comparison of the sound results of the study of the inscriptions.

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  • It will be admitted by philological students that the exegetical data supplied by (at any rate) Isa.

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  • 70 sqq., who from philological and other data infers the late date of the introduction of incense into the Jewish ritual.

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  • His father advised him to revise his philological and philosophical studies, and read over Calvin's Institutions, before finally determining.

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  • In 1849 he was placed in charge of the Philological Seminary at Prague, and two years later was appointed professor of classical philology in Prague University.

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  • His philological theories exercised a widespread influence.

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  • The one at present in favour on the ground of philological analogy (see Z.N.T.W., 1906, p. 91 for a fresh instance), viz.

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  • Tha`alibi (q.v.) and Jurjani (q.v.) were almost contemporary, and a little later came Zamakhshari, whose philological works are almost as famous as his commentary on the Koran.

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  • It is true, he wrote no actual commentary on the Bible, but his philological works exercised the greatest influence on Judaic exegesis.

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  • Abulwalid's works mark the culminating point of Hebrew scholarship during the middle ages, and he attained a level which was not surpassed till the modern development of philological science in the 19th century.

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  • Herder's services in laying the foundations of a comparative science of religion and mythology are even of greater value than his somewhat crude philological speculations.

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  • The philological analysis of Wolf and his successors had raised doubts as to the very existence of Homer, and at one time the main current of scholarly opinion had set strongly in the direction of the belief that the Iliad and the Odyssey were in reality but latter-day collections of divers recitals that had been handed down by word of mouth from one generation to another of bards through ages of illiteracy.

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  • The complete philological examination of any work consisted, according to them, of the following processes: - BcopOwacs, arrangement of the text; dvayvwacs, settlement of accents; TExvr l, theory of forms, syntax; i rtyrtocs, explanation either of words or things; and finally,?puts, judgment on the author and his work, including all questions as to authenticity and integrity.

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  • These philological labours were of great indirect importance, for they led immediately to the study of the natural sciences, and in particular to a more accurate knowledge of geography andhistory.

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  • In 1831 the friends established the Philological Museum, which lived through only six numbers, though among Thirlwall's contributions was his masterly paper on the irony of Sophocles - "the most exquisite criticism I ever read," says Sterling.

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  • Another great service to English philology was rendered by his paper, read before the Philological Society, "On some Deficiencies in our English Dictionaries" (1857), which gave the first impulse to the great Oxford New EnglishDictionary.

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  • There is a vast field for philological explorations in the archipelago.

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  • Where Erasmus excelled was in prefaces - not philological introductions to each author, but spirited appeals to the interest of the general reader, showing how an ancient book might be made to minister to modern spiritual demands.

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  • Scientific effort received an impetus from the establishment of an independent Czech university at Prague in 1881, and from that time there is hardly a branch of science in which workers of profound and creative talent did not arise (in physics Zenger, in biology Vejdovsky), while a whole series of eminent names as well in the technical and mathematical as in the historical and philological (e.g.

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  • The most memorable name, however, among the scholars of this century is that of Eustathius, whose philological studies at Constantinople preceded his tenure of the archbishopric of Thessalonica (1175-1192).

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  • It was taken up anew by the Cambridge Philological Society in 1886, by the Modern Languages Association in 1901, by the Classical Association in 1904-1905, and the Philological Societies of Oxford and Cambridge in 1906.

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  • 1707), the founder of the first philological Seminar (1697).

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  • But this they could not do; and since the version, owing to the limitations of the translators, departs widely from the sense of the original, Christian scholars were on the whole kept much farther from the original meaning than their Jewish contemporaries, who used the Hebrew text; and later, after Jewish grammatical and philological study had been stimulated by intercourse with the Arabs, the relative disadvantages under which Christian scholarship laboured increased.

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  • The considerations from which he acutely and accurately draws far-reaching and important conclusions might be suggested by a very superficial examination of the literature; they involve, for example, no special philological knowledge.

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  • Before passing to the new epoch it must suffice to make a simple reference to the philological work of Gesenius and Ewald, which assisted a sounder exegesis and so secured for later criticism a more stable basis.

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  • The legends of his escape from a fiery furnace may have a philological basis (Ur interpreted as " fire "), but the allusion to the redemption of Abraham in Isa.

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  • New versions are made, wherever practicable, from the original Hebrew or Greek text, and the results thus obtained have a high philological value and interest.

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  • Gogol, the novelist, was a student), now transformed into a philological institute.

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  • He was not an original thinker, but a diligent student, distinguished by great learning, by a turn for historical and philological criticism, and by an earnest purpose to uproot false teaching - especially Christianity, to ennoble men and train them to goodness.

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  • In 1799 he quitted Malda for Serampore, where he established a church, a school, and a printing-press for the publication of the Scriptures and philological works.

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  • From this time to his death he devoted himself to the preparation of numerous philological works, consisting of grammars and dictionaries in the Mahratta, Sanskrit, Punjabi, Telinga, Bengali and Bhotanta dialects.

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  • Crawfurd, on philological grounds, considers that rice was introduced into Persia from southern India.

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  • Philological rather than theological in character, it marked an epochal change from the old homiletic commentary, and though more recent research, patristic and papyral, has largely changed the method of New Testament exegesis, Alford's work is still a quarry where the student can dig with a good deal of profit.

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  • Neilson, John Barbour, Poet and Translator (1900) (a reprint from the Transactions of the Philological Society); J.

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  • The Pricke of Conscience was edited (1863) by Richard Morris for the Philological Society.

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  • Grotius's philological skill, however, was not sufficient to enable him to work up to this ideal.

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  • The cultivation of it is shown and was no doubt promoted by the many philological works (grammars, lexicons and masorah) which are extant from the 10th century onward.

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  • The philological study of Hebrew among the Jews is described below, under Hebrew Literature, of which it formed an integral part.

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  • The philological lectures of Johann Friedrich Christ (1700-1756) and Johann August Ernesti (1707-1781) proved, however, more attractive than those on theology, and he attended the philosophical disputations presided over by his friend A.

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  • The curriculum is classical and philological, but in the two upper classes there is a bifurcation in favour of scientific subjects for those who wish.

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  • Until further light has been thrown on the nature of Sumerian, this language should be regarded as standing quite alone, a prehistoric philological remnant, and its etymology should be studied only with reference to the Sumerian inscriptions themselves.

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  • Sayce's interesting article in Philological Society (1877-1878), pp. I-20.

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  • Matthews, Berlin, 1887), Joseph Kimhi attacks the philological work of the greatest French Talmud scholar of that day, R.

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  • This work is a mine of varied exegetical and philological details.

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  • On the philological methods of the ancient Babylonian priesthood, see Prince, Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon, Introduction.

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  • A good many fragments of this older theological and philological exegesis have survived from the first two centuries of the Flight, although we have no complete commentary of this period.

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  • Apart from their philological interest, as giving the history of a remarkable language during a period of several thousand years, the grammatical studies of the last quarter of the I9th century and afterwards are beginning to bear fruit in regard to the exact interpretation of historical documents on Egyptian monuments and papyri.

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  • It has also a certain philological interest.

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  • Mr Skene held that the Picts were a Gaelicspeaking people, but the weight of philological authority is with Mr Whitley Stokes, who says that Pictish phonetics, " so far as we can ascertain them, resemble those of Welsh rather than of Irish " (see Zimmer, Das Mutterrecht der Pikten; Rhys, Royal Commission's Report on Land in Wales, Celtic Britain, Rhind Lectures; Skene's Celtic Scotland; J.

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  • The interesting philological tractate Of the Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue by Alexander Hume (not the verse writer, u.s.) is in its language a medley; and William Lithgow had travelled too widely to retain his native speech in purity, even in his indifferent verse.

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  • He was a teacher at Swanzey, New Hampshire, and at the Leicester Academy, Massachusetts, in 1845-1847, and attempted the philological method of teaching English "like Latin and Greek," later described in his Method of Philological Study of the English Language (1865); at Amherst in 1847-1849; at Fredericksburg, Virginia, in 1852-1855; and in 1855 became a tutor at Lafayette College, where he became adjunct professor of belles-lettres and English literature in 1856, and professor of English language and comparative philology - the first chair of the kind established - in 1857.

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  • At Lafayette he introduced the first carefully scientific study of English in any American college, and in 1870 published A Comparative Grammar of the AngloSaxon Language, in which its Forms are Illustrated by Those of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Old Saxon, Old Friesic, Old Norse and Old High German, and An Anglo-Saxon Reader; he was editor of the "Douglass Series of Christian Greek and Latin Classics," to which he contributed Latin Hymns (1874); he was chairman of the Commission of the State of Pennsylvania on Amended Orthography; and was consulting editor of the Standard Dictionary, and in 1879-1882 was director of the American readers for the Philological Society's (New Oxford) Dictionary.

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  • He was president of the American Philological Association in 1873-1874 and in 1895-1896, of the Spelling Reform Association after 1876, and of the Modern Language Association in 1891-1893.

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  • His article "On Recent Discussions of Grimm's Law" in the Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association for 1873 in large part anticipated Verner's law.

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  • Pellican's autobiography describes the gradual multiplication of accessible books on the subjects, and he not only studied but translated a vast mass of rabbinical and Talmudic texts, his interest in Jewish literature being mainly philological.

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  • But, although not a critical scholar, he was the first to attempt a scientific treatment of Greek mythology, and he gave an undoubted impulse to philological studies.

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  • The name is preserved in the abbreviated form Ebor in the official name of the archbishop of York, but the philological connexion between Eboracum and the modern name York is doubtful and has probably been complicated by Danish influence.

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  • Hamann seems at this time to have thought that any strenuous devotion to "bread-and-butter" studies was lowering, and accordingly gave himself entirely to reading, criticism and philological inquiries.

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  • C and IC, as k was frequently written, would easily be confusedin writing, and Professor Hempl (Transactions of the American Philological Association for 18 99, pp. 24 ff.) shows that the Chalcidian form of y` - = developed into shapes which might have partaken of the confusion.

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  • Philological: Critical editions of Juvenal, Persius and Sulpicia (3rd ed.

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  • of the American Philological Association (1876).

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  • The fundamental idea remains the same in the Zend Asha, its philological counterpart, but it is applied with a difference.

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  • in Bohn's Philological Library (1889).

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  • As a teacher, Laetus, who has been called the first head of a philological school, was extraordinarily successful; in his own words, like Socrates and Christ, he expected to live on in the person of his pupils, amongst whom were many of the most famous scholars of the period.

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  • Tarikh-i- Tabari, the oldest prose work in modern Persian, is not merely remarkable from a philological point of view, it is also the classic model of an easy and simple style (French trans.

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  • 1750, 1760) founded on the Life by Jean Le Clerc; and Tracts Philological Critical and Miscellaneous (1790).

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  • The philological classification of the Brahui dialect has been much disputed, but the latest enquiries, conducted by Dr G.

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  • The part Panaetius took in philological and historical studies is characteristic of the man.

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  • Padre Ferreira de Almeida's translation of the Bible has considerable linguistic importance, and philological studies had an able exponent in Amaro de Roboredo.

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  • Philological studies were pursued with ardour and many valuable publications have to be recorded, among them Bluteau's Vocabulario Portuguez, the Reflexoes sobre a lingoa portugueza and an Arte poetica by Francisco Jose Freire, the Exercicios and Espirito da lingoa e eloquencia of Pereira de Figueiredo, translator of the Vulgate, and Viterbo's Elucidario, a dictionary of old terms and phrases which has not been superseded.

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  • Kolar's other works are mostly philological studies.

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  • Lietzmann's edition, again, is slight and philological (Handbuch zum Neuen Testament, 1907).

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  • Die deutsche Philologie im Grundriss (1836) was at the time of its publication a valuable contribution to philological research, and historians of German literature still attach importance to his Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenliedes bis auf Luther (1832; 3rd ed., 1861), Unsere volkstiimlichen Lieder (3rd ed., 1869) and Die deutschen Gesellschaftslieder des 16.

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  • (2 vols., London, 1908), largely geographical, historical, anthropological and philological studies based on the work of Grenfell.

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  • Alecsandri is less successful in his dramas, most of which are adaptations from French originals; the only merit of his novels is that amidst the phonetic and philological turmoil he kept to the purer language of the people.

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  • They suffered in consequence of the philological confusion brought about by Eliade and his assistants,.

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  • In Moldavia where the knowledge of the old chroniclers had not entirely died out and disturbing philological influences were not so acutely felt, we find the vigorous writings of Mihail Cogalniceanu - one of the leading spirits of the 19th century, the greatest mind and the real founder of Rumania.

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  • Among the special collections of the general library are the classical library of Charles Anthon, the philological library of Franz Bopp, the Goldwin Smith library (1869), the White architectural and historical libraries, the Spinoza collection presented by Andrew D.

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  • He had meanwhile continued his classical and philological studies, and his liberal views brought him into frequent conflict with his superiors.

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  • The rigorously authentic character of these laws, relating to, and dealing with, the actual realities of life, and with institutions and a state of society nowhere else revealed to the same extent, the extreme antiquity both of the provisions and of the language, and the meagreness of continental material illustrative of the same things, endow them with exceptional archaic, archaeological and philological interest.

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  • Here he developed special aptitude for linguistic and philological studies.

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  • Basing his conclusions upon philological data, such as the names of wheat in the oldest known languages, the writings of the most ancient historians, and the observations of botanical travellers, De Candolle infers that the hdistromeib u a n d original home of the wheat plant was in Mesopotamia, don.

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  • He had a very distinguished pupil in Stoyan Novakovich, who wrote numerous studies on philological subjects, and whose Servian grammar is still the standard book in all Servian schools.

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  • His chief studies, however, were philological; and in 1829 he published An Etymological Glossary of English Words of Foreign Derivation.

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  • Continuing his studies in the science of language, he published his Philological Grammar in 1854, drawing examples from more than sixty languages.

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  • In 1861 he was awarded a civil list pension of 70 a year, and in the next year published Tiw, the most striking of his philological studies, in which the Teutonic roots in the English language are discussed.

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  • Such myths were often based on grotesque philological analogies, according to which an existing connexion between two personalities (cities, &c.) was traced back to a common mythical origin.

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  • From 1763 till 1784 he was classical and philological tutor in Coward's training college at Hoxton; and subsequently for some years at another institution of the same kind at Hackney.

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  • These writings possess more philological interest than literary merit, and are hardly known outside Croatia-Slavonia and the Slovene districts of Austria.

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  • In 1784 he founded a philological society, which grew into a philological seminary, superintended by him until his death.

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  • His philological lectures, in which grammar and criticism were subordinated to history, were largely attended by hearers from all parts of Germany.

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  • He also wrote on theological and historical subjects, and edited philological and bibliographical journals.

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  • Socrates, in the Cratylus of Plato, expounds " a philosophy which came to him all in an instant," an explanation of the divine beings based on crude philological analyses of theif names.

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  • For the sake of brevity we might call the former the " philological " system, as it rests chiefly on the study of language, while the latter might be styled the " historical " or " anthropological " school, as it is based on the study of man in the sum of his manners, ideas and institutions.

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  • The most distinguished and popular advocate of the philological school was Max Muller, whose views may be found in his Selected Essays and Lectures on Language.

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  • It is no longer necessary to give an elaborate analysis of this theory, because neither in its philological nor mythological side has it any advocates who need be reckoned with.

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  • Max Muller's system was a result of the philological theories that indicated the linguistic unity of the Indo-European or " Aryan " peoples, and was founded on an analysis of their language.

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  • For all these reasons the information obtained from philological analysis of names is to be distrusted.

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  • So far Spencer seems at one with the philological school of mythologists, but he warns us that the misconstructions of language in his system are " different in kind, and the erroneous course of thought is opposite in direction."

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  • The philological arguments advanced are extremely weak, and by no means convincing.

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  • 128, note 1, for this and other philological conjectures.

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  • That there are in the Eddas and Sagas early ideas and later ideas tinged by Christian legend seems indubitable, but philological and historical learning has by no means settled the questions of relative purity and antiquity tin the myths.

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  • The division is primarily philological.

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  • The former is unsatisfactory partly from the philological standpoint, and the latter, though not certain, is preferable.

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  • Returning to Spain in 1798, he published his famous Catdlogo de las lenguas de las naciones conocidas (6 vols., 1800-1805), in which he collected the philological peculiarities of three hundred languages and drew up grammars of forty languages.

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  • He edited several of his brother's works, and was also author of original works on philological and historical subjects, among which may be mentioned Nouvelles recherches sur les patois ou idiomes vulgaires de la France (1809), Annales de Lagides (1819) and Chartes latines sur papyrus du VP e siecle de l'ere chretienne.

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  • He made another find in the Cambridge library of considerable philological and historical importance.

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  • He followed up his researches with his Etudes iraniennes (1883), and ten years later published a complete translation of the Zend Avesta, with historical and philological commentary (3 vols., 1892-1893), in the Annales du musee Guimet.

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  • He concludes, on very thorough philological and other grounds, that this is with one possible slight exception the work of the same "Ambrosiaster."

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  • This hypothesis at least explains all myths of fire-stealing by the natural needs, passions, and characters of men, "a jealous race," whereas the philological theory explains the Greek myth by an exceptional accident of changing language, and leaves the other widely diffused myths of fire-stealing in the dark.

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  • Furthermore the philological basis of Harvey 's argument appears questionable on occasion.

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  • Black presented the philological and pedagogical rationale for the project, while Robson discussed its operating procedure.

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  • But let us not waste our time over such philological scholasticism.

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  • The Philological Society of London decided that a new English Dictionary needed to be created.

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  • Herder's services in laying the foundations of a comparative science of religion and mythology are even of greater value than his somewhat crude philological speculations.

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