The scanty details of these important events must naturally be contrasted with the comparatively full accounts of earlier Philistine wars and internal conflicts in narratives which date from this or even a later age.
Again (b) the primitive stories of conflicts with " Philistine " giants between Hebron and Jerusalem (2 Sam.
She was a Philistine of Sorek (mod.
Baal Zebub of the Philistine Ekron became the Beelzebub who was equivalent to Satan.
The Philistines naturally had a prominent place in popular tradition, and the story of Isaac and the Philistine Abimelech (Gen.
Abishai on one occasion saved the king's life from a Philistine giant (2 Sam.
Idumaean or Philistine of Ascalon, Antipater had displayed the capacity of his adoptive or adopted nation for his own profit and theirs.
The principal Philistine tribe is indeed known in the biblical records as the Cherethims or Cretans, and the Minoan name and the cult of the Cretan Zeus were preserved at Gaza to the latest classical days.
south of Beersheba (the southern end of Israel as opposed to Dan in the north), and the precise borders must always have been determined by political conditions: by the relations between Edom and its neighbours, Judah, the Philistine states, Moab, and the restless desert tribes with which Edom was always very closely allied.
Despite the capture of the ark after the disastrous battle of Shiloh, Yahweh had in the end shown himself through a destructive plague superior in might to the Philistine Dagon.
In defence of university studies he stood manfully forth in the chamber of peers in 1844, against the clerical party on the one hand and the levelling or Philistine party on the other.
3-10), and near the Philistine border (2 Sam.
(2) But other traditions represent the people scattered and in hiding; Israel is groaning under the Philistine yoke, and the unknown Saul is raised up by Yahweh to save his people.
objects of typical Minoan forms. Farther to the east the recent excavations on the old Philistine sites like Gezer have brought to light swords and vases of Cretan manufacture in the later palace style.
1-6 (to " Philistine "), the first and last clauses of 8, Io-I I, the reason given for Saul's fear in 12, 17-19, the second half of 21.
4 The passage anticipates chap. xxvii., and it is hardly probable that the slayer of Goliath or of any other Philistine giant fled to the Philistines with their dead hero's sword.
The trophy was set up in the Philistine temple of Ashdod, but vindicated its superiority by overthrowing the god Dagon.
Strauss as the typical "Philistine of culture"; his revolt against the fashion of pessimism to demand a new and more robust affirmation of life, not merely although, but because, it is painful.
when Abimelech (the Philistine king in the stories of Abraham and Isaac) could be substituted in the title of Ps.
63, 76), and metal armour, though known farther west, scarcely appear in old oriental costume, and the passage which attributes bronze helmets and coats of mail to the Philistine Goliath and the Israelite il Saul cannot be held (on other grounds) to be necessarily reliable for the middle or close of the Iith century (1 Sam.
That Micah lived in the Shephelah or Judaean lowland near the Philistine country is clear from the local colouring of i.
In 1867 he determined to make for himself a haven of refuge against the invading Philistine, and bought some land on Blackdown, above Haslemere, then a secluded corner of England; here 1'Ir (afterwards Sir) James Knowles began to build him a house, ultimately named Aldworth.
p-r-s-t), a district embracing the rich lowlands on the Mediterranean coast from the neighbourhood 1 " Philistine," as a term of contempt, hostility or reproach, appears first in English, in a sense equivalent to " the enemy," as early as the beginning of the 17th century, and later as a slang term for a bailiff or a sheriff's officer, or merely for drunken or vicious people generally.
The institution of the Hebrew monarchy (c. moo B.C.) follows upon periods of Philistine oppression (Judges iii.
Somewhat later the evidence becomes fuller, and much valuable light is thrown upon the part which the Philistine coast played in the political history of Palestine.
17), and this, together with the statement that he took " the Philistine " from Jehoahaz of Israel (ibid.
But it is important to notice that a parallel story (xx.) is without this distinctively Philistine background, and this variation is significant.
It is inherently not improbable that a recollection has been preserved of Philistine oppressions in the 1 ith century, but it is extremely difficult to sketch any adequate sequence of events, and among the conflicting traditions are situations equally applicable to later periods of hostility.
17, 18), while the founder of the Judaean dynasty has intimate relations with a Philistine king Achish (or Abimelech, Ps.
The biblical evidence does not favour any continued Philistine domination since the time of Rameses III., who indeed, later in his reign, made an expedition, not against the Purasati, but into North Syria, and, as appears from the Papyrus Harris, restored Egyptian supremacy over Palestine and Syria.
Only at Gezer - perhaps Philistine, 2 Sam.
So far, however, of the cities lying within or immediately exposed to Philistine influence, the discoveries at Gezer are unique.'
Thus the deeper feelings of religion were embodied in warlike patriotism, and these feelings the Philistine oppression had raised to extreme tension among all who loved liberty, while yet the want of a captain to lead forth the armies of Yahweh against his foemen deprived them of their natural outlet.
Ghuzzeh), the most southerly of the five princely Philistine cities, situated near the sea, at the point where the old trade routes from Egypt, Arabia and Petra to Syria met.
In Tiglath-pileser's Philistine campaign of 734 Byblus and Aradus paid tribute, and an Assyrian chief officer (the Rab-shakeh) was sent to Tyre and extorted from the king, now Metten or Mattun, the large sum of 150 talents of gold (KB.
24, the " speech of Ashdod " is more probably a distinct (Philistine) language.
as one of the cities of Dan, it was in Philistine possession in the days of Samuel, and apparently maintained its independence.
Even the convention above referred to is inexact: it includes the Philistine territory, claimed but never settled by the Hebrews, and excludes the outlying parts of the large area claimed in Num.
to its interference in Philistia and friendliness to Judah, see Philistine), the chief event was the great invasion by Sheshonk (Shishak) in the latter part of the 10th century; but although it appears to be an isolated campaign, contact with Egypt, to judge from the archaeological results of the excavations, was never intermittent.
Thus Edom formed a prominent centre for traffic from Arabia and its seats of culture to Egypt, the Philistine towns, Palestine and the Syrian states, and it enjoyed a commercial importance which made it a significant factor in Palestinian history.
the house of Jacob shall regain their old possessions; Edom shall be burned up before them as chaff before the flame; they shall spread over all Canaan, over the mountain of Esau and the south of Judah, as well as over Gilead and the Philistine and Phoenician coast.
He was at the same time a man of impressive power, of rare and wide culture, and of lofty aim, - far above priestly conception and Philistine narrowness.
5, a Philistine custom) - a protest against heathen intercourse, for which cf.
we read that Ahaziah ben Ahab, king of Israel, fell sick, and sent to inquire of Baalzebub, the god of the Philistine city Ekron, whether he should recover.
28 sqq.), on the other hand, is only intelligible when one recalls the attitude of Judah to the Philistine cities in the 2nd century B.C.; see R.
is scarcely tenable considering Asa's weakness; but inroads by desert hordes frequently troubled Judah, and if the tradition be correct in locating the battle at Mareshah it is probable that the invaders were in league with the Philistine towns.
A Philistine oppression of twenty years ends when Samuel, here the recognized " judge " of Israel, gains a great victory at Ebenezer near Mizpah (vii.).
The punishment of Eli and his sons (iv.) becomes a passing interest, and the fate of the ark is by no means so central an idea as its wonder-working in the Philistine territory.
is evidently by an admirer; it is immediately followed by a reference to the continuous Philistine warfare (v.
II, 20) find no place by the side of the more detailed records of David's sojourn under the protection of a king of Gath, one of a confederation of Philistine cities (i Sam.
21 seq., with the " Philistine " lords, ib.
His flight northwards to the Philistine king of Gath (xxvii.) is hardly connected with the preceding situations in xxiv.
6, an extremely composite passage), and (b) the Ammonite and Philistine oppression (ib.
ix.) by the sudden introduction of a Philistine oppression which cannot be connected with vii.
refers to a Philistine oppression which has no sequel.
I, that passage actually brings the story of its fortunes to a close by relating the return of the ark from Philistine territory to the care of Abinadab and Eleazar at Kirjath-jearim (note the " Levitical " type of the names; Budde, Sam.
Kennedy, Century Bible: Samuel, p. 122, argues that David's Philistine adversary was originally nameless, in I Sam.
Ashdod, Ammon, Moab and Edom now submitted, but Hezekiah of Judah with the dependent Philistine princes.
bombastic representative of the petty-bourgeois Philistine.
What can you say to a Philistine who's into Phil Collins and Dire Straits and other such frivolity?
Not likely to make it onto the increasingly philistine Channel 4. A convincing religious parable about nuclear war and, well, sacrifice.
In the Purasati, apparently the most influential of these peoples, may be recognized the origin of the name " Philistine."
Jeroboam's son Nadab perished in a conspiracy whilst besieging the Philistine city of Gibbethon, and Baasha of (north) Israel seized the throne.
The popular story of Jehoram's campaign against Moab, with which Edom was probably allied (see MoAn), hints at a disastrous ending, and the Judaean annals, in their turn, record the revolt of Edom and the Philistine Libnah (see Philistines), and allude obscurely to a defeat of the Judaean Jehoram (2 Kings viii.
It is to be hoped that continued work will discover traces of the Philistine period at Ascalon, and relics of the same age will no doubt be discovered at Bethshan (Beisan), for a time the furthest eastward outpost of the Philistines, which is about to be explored by the American School at Jerusalem.
" Philistine " thus became the name of contempt applied by the cultured to those whom they considered beneath them in intellect and taste, and was first so used in English by Carlyle, and Matthew Arnold (Essays in Criticism, " Heinrich Heine," 1865) gave the word its vogue and its final connotation, as signifying " inaccessible to and impatient of ideas."
Gaza, the most southerly and famous of the Philistine towns, was the terminus of the great caravan-route from Edom and south Arabia, with whose Bedouin it was generally on good terms. It was " the outpost of Africa, the door of Asia " (G.
2 Hence the two sieges of the Philistine Gibbethon by the Israelites (above) obviously have some significance for Judaean history, but the Judaean annals unfortunately afford no help (see AsA).
pellex), and seren (ri,pavvos) the title applied to the five lords of the Philistine confederation; seren otherwise means " axle," and may have been applied metaphorically like the Arab.
The appearance of the nebhiim in the time of Samuel was, it would seem, as is explained in the article Hebrew Religion, one manifestation of the deep pulse of suppressed indignant patriotism which began to beat in the hearts' of the nation in the age of Philistine oppression, and this fact explains the influence of the movement on Saul and the interest taken in it by Samuel.
5 The references to Philistines are anachronistic for the pre-Mosaic age, and it is clear that the tradition of a solemn covenant with a Philistine king and his general (xxi.
Under his son Hezekiah there were fresh disturbances in the southern states, and anti-Assyrian intrigues began to take a more definite shape among the Philistine cities.
The historic tradition which identifies with the Cretans the principal element of the Philistine confederation, and places the tomb of Minos himself in western Sicily, thus receives remarkable confirmation.
By a pure error, or perhaps through a confusion in the traditions, Achish the Philistine (of Gath, I Sam.
A similar experience is said to have happened to Abraham and Sarah at Gerar with the Philistine king Abimelech (xx.
The history of the Philistine district goes back long before the time of the Purasati (c. 1200 B.C.), and if the references to Philistines in pre-Mosaic times are treated as anachronisms, those which can be applied to the 12th-11th century do not at once acquire an historical value.'
The Cherethites, associated with the Philistine district (I Sam.
3), and the reorganization of (north) Israel with the aid of Abner does not accord with other traditions which represent David as the deliverer of (all?) Israel from the Philistine yoke (iii.
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