Phenomena Sentence Examples
The phenomena of the year take place every day in a pond on a small scale.
In all his travels he studied only the phenomena of nature and human life.
Dissipation seems largely dependent on meteorological conditions, but the phenomena at different stations vary so much as to suggest that the connexion is largely indirect.
We shall then observe the following phenomena.
The various electrical phenomena of plants also are obscure.Advertisement
Cylindrical organs may exhibit similar phenomena.
And as I look to the past and the present, I see two phenomena that especially drive my optimism.
The now well-known fact that small doses of poisonous substances may act as stimuli to living protoplasm, and that respiratory activity and growth may be accelerated by chloroform, ether and even powerful mineral poisons, such as mercuric chloride, in minimal doses, offers some explanation of these phenomena of hypertrophy, wound fever, and other responses to the presence of irritating agents.
It is remarkable that the phenomena of magnetic viscosity are much more evident in a thick rod than in a thin wire, or even in a large bundle of thin wires.
The purpose of the work is to exhibit social phenomena, not to demonstrate their source in the mental constitution of the individual.Advertisement
He clearly set forth also the phenomena of analogous or parallel adaptation.
All these principles are consistent with Francis Galton's law of particulate inheritance in heredity, and with the modern doctrine of " unity of characters " held by students of Mendelian phenomena.
Diogenes made this conception of a vital and intelligent air the ground of a teleological view of climatic and atmospheric phenomena.
It reminds us of a similar property of animal protoplasm which finds its expression in the rhythmic beat of the heart and other phenomena.
Within it or its modifications all the vital phenomena of which living organisms are capable have their origin.Advertisement
The method included a recognition of the causes and effects of phenomena as well as the mere fact of their occurrence, and for the first time the importance of the vertical relief of the land was fairly recognized.
It is a plain, straightforward description of the globe, and of the various phenomena of the surface, dealing only with definitely ascertained facts in the natural order of their relationships, but avoiding any systematic classification or even definitions of terms.
It thus draws upon physics for the explanation of the phenomena with the space-relations of which it is specially concerned.
Thus the scenery of a limestone country depends on the solubility and permeability of the rocks, leading to the typical Karst-formations of caverns, swallowholes and underground stream courses, with the contingent phenomena of dry valleys and natural bridges.
Daniel Dunglas Home, the next medium of importance who appeared in London, came over from America in 1855; and for many years almost all the chief mediums for physical phenomena known in England came from the United States.Advertisement
The greater part of the phenomena may be divided into two classes.
There have been several professional photographers (all detected in fraud sooner or later) who made it their business to take photo complaints, to certain epidemics of the middles ages,' and to phenomena that have occurred at some religious revivals.
It is with a full knowledge of these difficulties in the way of investigation that they maintain that unmistakably genuine phenomena are of constant occurrence.
Many volumes containing accounts of such phenomena have been printed, and appeal is often made to the mass of evidence so accumulated.
Yet, if there is not a mass of scientific evidence, there are a number of witnesses - among them distinguished men of science and others of undoubted intelligence --who have convinced themselves by observation that phenomena occur which cannot be explained by known causes; and this fact must carry weight, even without careful records, when the witnesses are otherwise known to be competent and trustworthy observers.Advertisement
Among proposed normal explanations of these phenomena that of hallucination (q.v.), including illusion as to what is seen almost amounting to hallucination, deserves careful consideration.
What may broadly be called "conjuring" is a much more probable explanation of most of the recorded phenomena; and in the vast majority of cases the witnesses do not seem to have duly appreciated the possibilities of conjuring, and have consequently neither taken sufficient precautions to exclude it nor allowed for the accidental circumstances which may on any particular occasion favour special tricks or illusions.
Besides the general arguments for supposing that the physical phenomena of spiritualism may be due to conjuring, there are two special reasons which gain in force as time goes on.
Nevertheless there does exist evidence for the genuineness of the physical phenomena which deserves consideration.
There is also an English translation entitled Metapsychical Phenomena (London, 1905).
The intellectual influence of Greece, manifested in Alexandrian philosophy, tended to remove God still further from the human world of phenomena into that of an inaccessible transcendental abstraction.
Gauss had shown how to reduce all the phenomena of statical electricity to mere attractions and repulsions exerted at a distance by particles of an imponderable on one another.
The step to magnetic phenomena was comparatively simple; but it was otherwise as regards electromagnetic phenomena, where current electricity is essentially involved.
Weber, which was found capable of explaining all the phenomena investigated by Ampere as well as the induction currents of Faraday.
The portion of Carniola belonging to the Karst region presents a great number of caves, subterranean streams, funnels and similar phenomena.
Although these and other phenomena cannot yet be safely placed in a historical frame, the methodical labours of past scholars have shed much light upon the obscurities of the exilic and post-exilic ages, and one must await the more comprehensive study of the two or three centuries which are of the first importance for biblical history and theology.
The growth of the Old Testament into its present form, and its preservation despite hostile forces, are the two remarkable phenomena which most arrest the attention of the historian; it is for the theologian to interpret their bearing upon the history of religious thought.
Although the foregoing account of the temperatures of Asia supplies the main outline of the observed phenomena, a very important modifying cause, of which more will be said hereafter, comes into operation over the whole of the tropical region, namely, the periodical summer rains.
Among the more remarkable phenomena of the hotter seas of Asia must be noticed the revolving storms or cyclones, which are of frequent occurrence in the hot months in the Indian Ocean and China Sea, in which last they are known under the name of typhoon.
On the 18th of the same month he presented a paper to the Academy, containing a far more complete exposition of that and kindred phenomena.
What was the secret power which enabled him to bring under the domain of scientific laws phenomena of disease which had so far baffled human endeavour?
But in his character as phenomena must be examined or what may be neglected p y g in economic inquiry.
For short historical periods, indeed, many phenomena are so remotely connected with the ordinary business of life that we may ignore them.
On this subject many monographs and larger works have been published in recent years, but dealing rather with such questions as trade unionism, co-operation and factory legislation, than the structure and organization of particular industries, or the causes and the results of the formation of the great combinations, peculiarly characteristic of the United States, but not wanting in England, which are amongst the most striking economic phenomena of modern times.
In 1834 he was appointed professor of physics, but in 5839 contracted an affection of the eyes while studying the phenomena of colour and vision, and, after much suffering, resigned.
His best known work was Die Betooverde Wereld (1691), or The World Bewitched (1695; one volume of an English translation from a French copy), in which he examined critically the phenomena generally ascribed to spiritual agency, and attacked the belief in sorcery and "possession" by the devil, whose very existence he questioned.
Insect metamorphosis may be briefly described as phenomena of development characterized by abrupt changes of appearance and of structure, occurring during the period subsequent to embryonic development and antecedent to the reproductive state.
The differences in appearance between the caterpillar and the butterfly, striking as they are to the eye, do not sufficiently represent the phenomena of metamorphosis to the intelligence.
A much more thorough appreciation than we yet possess of the phenomena in these cases is necessary in order completely to demonstrate the special characteristics of the holometabolous transformation.
It has been previously remarked that the phenomena of holometabolism are connected with the development of wings inside the body (except in the case of the fleas, where there are no wings in the perfect insect).
An attempt is made to get rid of the distinctive nature of miracle when the exceptionalness of the events so regarded is reduced to a new subjective mode of regarding natural phenomena.
The miracles connected with the beginnings of the national history - the period of the Exodus - appear on closer inspection to have been ordinarily natural phenomena, to which a supernatural character was given by their connexion with the prophetic word of Moses.
Under the pressure of this strain "spiritualistic" phenomena began to appear.
It was in the ranks of the Provencals, where the religiosity of Count Raymund seems to have extended to his followers, that these phenomena appeared; and they culminated in the discovery of the Holy Lance, which had pierced the side of the Saviour.
He gives an ecclesiastic's account of the First Crusade, and is specially full on the spiritualistic phenomena which accompanied and followed the finding of the Holy Lance.
Two important principles are illustrated by these thoughts, (1) that there is no absolute distinction between the organic and the inorganic, and (2) that the argument from final causes is no explanation of phenomena.
Ancient historical reminiscences and natural phenomena, especially volcanic catastrophes, are at the bottom of the legend.
As a stratigraphical geologist he rendered much assistance on the Geological Survey of France, but in the course of time he gave his special attention to the study of volcanic phenomena and earthquakes, to minerals and rocks; and he was the first to introduce modern petrographical methods into France.
Chemistry and physics, however, meet on common ground in a well-defined branch of science, named physical chemistry, which is primarily concerned with the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition, and, more generally, with the elucidation of natural phenomena on the molecular theory.
In 1845 a further contribution to the study of allotropy was made by Anton Schrotter, who investigated the transformations of yellow and red phosphorus, phenomena previously noticed by Berzelius, the inventor of the term " allotropy."
This equation, which is mathematically deducible from the kinetic theory of gases, expresses the behaviour of gases, the phenomena of the critical state, and the behaviour of liquids; solids are not accounted for.
The vast myth of the Ring is related in full several times in each of the three main dramas, with ruthless disregard for the otherwise magnificent dramatic effect of the whole; hosts of original dramatic and ethical ideas, with which Wagner's brain was even more fertile than his voluminous prose works would indicate, assert themselves at all points, only to be thwarted by repeated attempts to allegorize the philosophy of Schopenhauer; all efforts to read a consistent scheme, ethical or philosophical, into the result are doomed to failure; but all this matters little, so long as we have Wagner's unfailing later resources in those higher dramatic verities which present to us emotions and actions, human and divine, as things essentially complex and conflicting, inevitable as natural laws, incalculable as natural phenomena.
Its phenomena are, however, perfectly real, and can be observed wherever artistic conditions make the tone of a mass of harmony more important than the interior threads of its texture.
The irrational discords of Strauss are also real phenomena in musical aesthetics.
The present influence of Wagnerian harmony is, then, somewhat indefinite, since the most important real phenomena of later music indicate a revolt both from it and from earlier classical methods.
To the south of Rotoiti is Tikitere, a sombre valley abounding in mud volcanoes, springs and other active volcanic phenomena.
This union, when accomplished by the individual soul, must enhance its susceptibilities and powers, and so the yogis claim a far-reaching knowledge of the secrets of nature and extensive sway over men and natural phenomena.
In biological chemistry he worked at the problems of animal heat and at the phenomena accompanying the growth of plants, and he also devoted much time to meteorological questions and observations.
Edmond Becquerel was associated with his father in much of his work, but he himself paid special attention to the study of light, investigating the photochemical effects and spectroscopic characters of solar radiation and the electric light, and the phenomena of phosphorescence, particularly as displayed by the sulphides and by compounds of uranium.
He also investigated the diamagnetic and paramagnetic properties of substances; and was keenly interested in the phenomena of electrochemical decomposition, accumulating much evidence in favour of Faraday's law and proposing a modified statement of it which was intended to cover certain apparent exceptions.
He explained not only the gods but also the heroes Agamemnon, Achilles, Hector, as representing primary elements and natural phenomena.
He carried this tendency to mysticism into his physical researches, and was led by it to take a deep interest in the phenomena of animal magnetism.
The first class comprises works on grammar, one on natural phenomena, and two on chronology and the calendar.
Thera is also of special interest to geologists owing to its remarkable volcanic phenomena.
Greek influence appears clearly in the sages' attitude toward the phenomena of life.
Thus the current applications of mathematics to the analysis of phenomena can be justified by no a priori necessity.
When once the fixed conditions which any hypothetical group of entities are to satisfy have been precisely formulated, the deduction of the further propositions, which also will hold respecting them, can proceed in complete independence of the question as to whether or no any such group of entities can be found in the world of phenomena.
The argument is supported by an analysis of the phenomena of dreams, which are ascribed to direct spiritual influences.
But these interesting phenomena have not hitherto been subject to systematic observation, and our knowledge of them is therefore uncertain.
There is no reason to doubt that most of the records have at least a basis of fact, for the cases are in accord with well-attested phenomena of a similar nature at the present day; but there are others, such as the miraculous mending of a broken vase, which suggest either invention or trickery.
It is proper, however, to point out at once how very complicated may be the relationships between oceanographical and strictly biological phenomena, though, of course, the latter are ultimately dependent on the former.
In these attempts new methods are elaborated and in their criticism contributory phenomena are discovered.
Given, then, that the variations in tide-generating force are big enough, the periods when the maxima occur will be critical with regard to oceanographical and meteorological phenomena.
As cooling progresses the glassy rock contracts and strain phenomena appear in consequence.
With other electrolytes similar phenomena appear, though the primary chemical changes may be masked by secondary actions.
The first exact quantitative study of electrolytic phenomena was made about 1830 by Michael Faraday (Experimental Researches, 1833).
Similar phenomena are seen in the case of a solution of hydrochloric acid.
The obvious phenomena to be explained by any theory of electrolysis are the liberation of the products of chemical decomposition at the two electrodes while the intervening liquid is unaltered.
Chemical phenomena throw further light on this question.
On the theory that the phenomena are wholly due to unequal ionic velocities this result would mean that the cation like the anion moved against the conventional direction of the current.
If some of the anions, instead of being simple iodine ions represented chemically by the symbol I, are complex structures formed by the union of iodine with unaltered cadmium iodide - structures represented by some such chemical formula as I(CdI 2), the concentration of the solution round the anode would be increased by the passage of an electric current, and the phenomena observed would be explained.
But when we pass to solutions of mineral salts and acids - to solutions of electrolytes in fact - we find that the observed values of the osmotic pressures and of the allied phenomena are greater than the normal values.
The electrical phenomena show that there are two ions to the molecule, and that these ions are electrically charged.
This view of the nature of electrolytic solutions at once explains many well-known phenomena.
While it seems clear that the conduction in this case is carried on by ions similar to those of solutions, since Faraday's laws apply equally to both, it does not follow necessarily that semi-permanent dissociation is the only way to explain the phenomena.
These phenomena are explained by the existence of a reverse electromotive force at the surface of the platinum plates.
The phenomena of polarization are thus seen to be due to the changes of surface produced, and are correlated with the differences of potential which exist at any surface of separation between a metal and an electrolyte.
In the case of nonelectrolytes and of all non-ionized molecules this analogy completely represents the facts, and the phenomena of diffusion can be deduced from it alone.
The interpretation of the phenomena of gaseous conduction was rendered possible by the knowledge previously acquired of conduction through liquids; the newer subject is now reaching a position whence it can repay its debt to the older.
Thence he was led to his famous researches on the phenomena produced by the discharge of electricity through highly exhausted tubes (sometimes known as "Crookes' tubes" in consequence), and to the development of his theory of "radiant matter" or matter in a "fourth state," which led up to the modern electronic theory.
In addition to many other researches besides those here mentioned, he wrote or edited various books on chemistry and chemical technology, including Select Methods of Chemical Analysis, which went through a number of editions; and he also gave a certain amount of time to the investigation of psychic phenomena, endeavouring to effect some measure of correlation between them and ordinary physical laws.
As all intellectual phenomena have by experimentalists been reduced to sensation, so all emotion has been and is regarded as reducible to simple mental affection, the element of which all emotional manifestations are ultimately composed.
In the first, all affection phenomena are primarily divisible into those which are pleasurable and those which are the reverse.
The main objections to this are that it does not explain the infinite variety of phenomena, and that it disregards the distinction which most philosophers admit between higher and lower pleasures.
The only phenomena of the sort available are eclipses of Jupiter's satellites, especially of the first.
Unfortunately these eclipses are not sudden but slowly changing phenomena, so that they cannot be observed without an error of at least several seconds, and not infrequently important fractions of a minute.
Of these thirteen sections, the first contains a simple description of the more prominent phenomena, without mathematical symbols or numerical data.
In Englishspeaking countries the ore is commonly known as magnetite, and pieces which exhibit attraction as magnets; the cause to which the attractive property is attributed is called magnetism, a name also applied to the important branch of science which has been evolved from the study of phenomena associated with the magnet.
Up to the end of the 15th century only two magnetic phenomena of importance, besides that of attraction, had been observed.
Some of the principal phenomena of magnetism may be demonstrated with very little apparatus; much may be done with a small bar-magnet, a pocket compass and a few ounces of iron filings.
This experiment proves that the condition of magnetization is not confined to those parts where polar phenomena are exhibited, but exists throughout the whole body of the magnet; it also suggests the idea of molecular magnetism, upon which the accepted theory of magnetization is based.
Iron and its alloys, including the various kinds of steel, though exhibiting magnetic phenomena in a pre-eminent degree, are not the only substances capable of magnetization.
The phenomena may therefore be exceedingly complicated.$ 3.
The point at issue has an important bearing upon the possible correlation of magnetic phenomena, but, though it has given rise to much discussion, no accepted conclusion has yet been reached.'
Thus a close connexion between the two sets of phenomena seems to be established.
Although the amended theory as worked out by Maxwell is in rough agreement with certain leading phenomena of magnetization, it fails to account for many others, and is in some cases at variance with observed facts.
The principle of Weber's theory, with the modification necessitated by lately acquired knowledge, is the basis of the best modern explanation of diamagnetic phenomena.
The process of electric conduction in metals consists in the movement of detached electrons, and many other phenomena, both electrical and thermal, can be more or less completely explained by their agency.
It has been supposed that certain electrons revolve like satellites in orbits around the atoms with which they are associated, a view which receives strong support from the phenomena of the Zeeman effect, and on this assumption a theory has been worked out by P. Langevin, 2 which accounts for many, of the observed facts of magnetism.
Diamagnetism, in short, is an atomic phenomenon; paramagnetism and ferromagnetism are molecular phenomena.
Among the most splendid of his achievements was the discovery of the phenomena and laws of magneto-electric induction, the subject of two papers communicated to the Royal Society in 1831 and 1832.
This was followed at the close of the same year by the discovery of the magnetic condition of all matter, a discovery which initiated a prolonged and fruitful study of paramagnetic and diamagnetic phenomena, including magnecrystallic action and " magnetic conducting power," now known as permeability.
They relate almost entirely to electrical phenomena, such as the magnetic rotation of light, the action of gas batteries, the effects of torsion on magnetism, the polarization of electrodes, &c., sufficiently complete accounts of which are given in Wiedemann's Galvanismus.
According to him, the myths arose from definite local (especially atmospheric and aquatic) phenomena, and represented the annually recurring processes of nature as the acts of gods and heroes; thus, in Achill (1853), the Trojan War is the winter conflict of the elements in that district.
Thus, in the Republic, van is the faculty which apprehends necessary truth, while 60 a (opinion) is concerned with phenomena.
But his best known contribution to general chemistry is his work on the phenomena of reversible reactions, which he comprehended under a general theory of " dissociation.
He made researches on volcanic phenomena, especially on the gaseous emanations.
This is Realism, which may be of two varieties, according as the substantially existent universals are supposed to exist apart from the sensible phenomena or only in and with the objects of sense as their essence.
Laplace was, moreover, the first to offer a complete analysis of capillary action based upon a definite hypothesis - that of forces "sensible only at insensible distances"; and he made strenuous but unsuccessful efforts to explain the phenomena of light on an identical principle.
The theory of probabilities, which Laplace described as common sense expressed in mathematical language, engaged his attention from its importance in physics and astronomy; and he applied his theory, not only to the ordinary problems of chances, but also to the inquiry into the causes of phenomena, vital statistics and future events.
He had conceived the project of a work which should set in a new light the phenomena, especially the languages and mythologies, of the ancient world; and, after his father's death, he went to Paris in order to be near the necessary books.
While, therefore, the logical development of algebraic reasoning must depend on certain fundamental relations, it is important that in the early study of the subject these relations should be introduced gradually, and not until there is some empirical acquaintance with the phenomena with which they are concerned.
Here Cuvier was imperfectly formulating, without recognizing the real physical basis of the phenomena, the results of the laws of heredity, which were subsequently investigated and brought to bear on the problems of animal structure by Darwin.
The facts of the relationships of animals to one another, which had been treated as the outcome of an inscrutable law by most zoologists and glibly explained by the transcendental morphologists, were amongst the most powerful arguments in support of Darwin's theory, since they, together with all other vital phenomena, received a sufficient explanation through it.
A due appreciation of the far-reaching results of " correlated variation " must, it appears, give a new and distinct explanation to the phenomena which are referred to as " large mutations," " discontinuous variation " and " saltatory evolution."
The phenomena thus presented were described by Grimaldi and by Newton.
Abbe published a somewhat more complete investigation, also founded upon the phenomena presented by gratings.
In physical chemistry he carried out many researches on the nature and process of solution, investigating in particular the thermal effects produced by the dilution of saline solutions, the variation of the specific heat of saline solutions with temperature and concentration, and the phenomena of liquid diffusion.
The biological sciences are those which deal with the phenomena manifested by living matter; and though it is customary and convenient to group apart such of these phenomena as are termed mental, and such of them as are exhibited by men in society, under the heads of psychology and sociology, yet it must be allowed that no natural boundary separates the subject matter of the latter sciences from that of biology.
On the other hand, the biological sciences are sharply marked off from the abiological, or those which treat of the phenomena manifested by not-living matter, in so far as the properties of living matter distinguish it absolutely from all other kinds of things, and as the present state of knowledge furnishes us with no link between the living and the not-living.
No forms of matter which are either not living, or have not been derived from living matter, exhibit these three properties, nor any approach to the remarkable phenomena defined under the second and third heads.
Considered apart from the phenomena of consciousness, the phenomena of life are all dependent upon the working of the same physical and chemical forces as those which are active in the rest of the world.
It may be convenient to use the terms "vitality" and "vital force" to denote the causes of certain great groups of natural operations, as we employ the names of "electricity" and "electrical force" to denote others; but it ceases to be proper to do so, if such a name implies the absurd assumption that "electricity" and "vitality" are entities playing the part of efficient causes of electrical or vital phenomena.
A mass of living protoplasm is simply a molecular machine of great complexity, the total results of the working of which, or its vital phenomena, depend - on the one hand, Life con- of this water is absolutely incompatible with either moister by a ctual or potential life.
It attracts many visitors both as a health resort and on account of the magnificent scenery and remarkable volcanic phenomena of the surrounding district.
The district abounds in geysers, springs, mud volcanoes and other phenomena; some of the waters have petrifying powers, and some of the springs are vividly coloured.
Influenced by the prevailing philosophy of the day, they interpreted the phenomena of disease through its lights, and endeavoured from time to time to reduce the study of pathology to philosophical order when the very elements of philosophical order were wanting.
Organization and healing have been keenly inquired into, with results which seem to point the lesson that all methods of healing are to be regarded as extensions of the natural phenomena of growth.
The somatic cells represent communities or republics, as it were, which we name organs and tissues, but each cell possesses a certain autonomy and independence of action, and exhibits phenomena which are indicative of vitality.
The most striking peculiarity of the empirics was that they rejected anatomy, regarding it as useless to inquire into the causes of things, and thus, as they contended, being the more minute in their observation of the actual phenomena of disease.
Freind (1675-1728) in his Emmenologia gave a mechanical explanation of the phenomena of menstruation.
Afterwards he modified his hypothesis, and referred the disturbances produced to the "nervous liquor," which he supposed to be a quantity of the "universal elastic matter" diffused through the universe, by which Newton explained the phenomena of light - i.e.
On this system are explained all the phenomena of life and disease.
If at first in the 18th century, and in the earlier 19th, the discoveries in this branch of medical knowledge had a certain isolation, due perhaps to the prepossessions of the school of Sydenham, they soon became the property of the physician, and were brought into co-ordination with the clinical phenomena of disease.
The discoveries of the separate paths of sensory and motor impulses in the spinal cord, and consequently of the laws of reflex action, by Charles Bell and Marshall Hall respectively, in their illumination of the phenomena of nervous function, may be compared with the discovery in the region of the vascular system of the circulation of the blood; for therein a key to large classes of normal and aberrant functions and a fertile principle of interpretation were obtained.
He also devoted much attention to the pyroelectric phenomena of crystals, which served as the theme of one of the two memoirs he presented for the degree of D.Sc. in 1869, and to the determination of crystallographic constants.
They are repelled by the dryness of much of the matter, the unsuitableness of many of the topics discussed for poetic treatment, the arbitrary assumption of premises, the entire failure to establish the connexion between the concrete phenomena which the author professes to explain and these assumptions, and the erroneousness of many of the doctrines which are stated with dogmatic confidence.
The third and fourth books give evidence of acuteness in psychological analysis; the fourth and sixth of the most active and varied observation of natural phenomena; the fifth of original insight and strong common sense in conceiving the origin of society and the progressive advance of man to civilization.
All phenomena, moral as well as material, are contemplated by him in their relation to one great organic whole, which he acknowledges under the name of "Natura daedala rerum," and the most beneficent manifestations of which he seems to symbolize and almost to deify in the "Alma Venus," whom, in apparent contradiction to his denial of a divine interference with human affairs, he invokes with prayer in the opening lines of the poem.
On the one hand he worked out the general theory of the magnetic circuit in the dynamo (in conjunction with his brother Edward), and the theory of alternating currents, and conducted a long series of observations on the phenomena attending magnetization in iron, nickel and the curious alloys of the two which can exist both in a magnetic and non-magnetic state at the same temperature.
Moreover, his association with glass manufacture led him to study the refractive indices of different kinds of glass; he further undertook abstruse researches on electrostatic capacity, the phenomena of the residual charge, and other problems arising out of Clerk Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory.
In 1628 Castelli published a small work, Della misura dell' acque correnti, in which he satisfactorily explained several phenomena in the motion of fluids in rivers and canals; but he committed a great paralogism in supposing the velocity of the water proportional to the depth of the orifice below the surface of the vessel.
His object was to measure the contracted part of a fluid vein, to examine the phenomena attendant on additional tubes, and to investigate the form of the fluid vein and the results obtained when different forms of orifices are employed.
These arrangements have doubtless some reference to climatic phenomena, continuity of growth being arrested by cold and promoted by warmth.
Nervous phenomena, such as chorea and epileptic seizures, have been attributed to the presence of the tapeworm.
But the flexibility of a letter-writer, under different moods of feeling, which would naturally lead to rapid transitions, may be adduced as some explanation of the latter phenomena.
Forbes was also interested in geology, and published memoirs on the thermal springs of the Pyrenees, on the extinct volcanoes of the Vivarais (Ardeche), on the geology of the Cuchullin and Eildon hills, &c. In addition to about 150 scientific papers, he wrote Travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers (1843); Norway and its Glaciers (1853); Occasional Papers on the Theory of Glaciers (1859); A Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa (1855).
By subsequent journeys in Hungary, Transylvania, Italy, Sicily, France and Germany he extended his knowledge of volcanic phenomena; and in 1826 the results of his observations were given in a work entitled A Description of Active and Extinct Volcanos (2nd ed., 1848).
After discussing the structure of the eye he gives an experiment in which the appearance of the reversed images of outside objects on a piece of paper held in front of a small hole in a darkened room, with their forms and colours, is quite clearly described and explained with a diagram, as an illustration of the phenomena of vision.
These are probably the earliest distinct accounts of the natural phenomena of the camera obscura, but remained unpublished for some three centuries.
The attention devoted to the matter soon elucidated the phenomena of meteors, and proved them to be small planetary bodies, practically infinite in numbers and illimitable in the extent and variety of their orbits.
In thus rapidly penetrating the air heat is generated, the meteor becomes incandescent, and the phenomena of the streak or train is produced.
The explanation of these recurring phenomena is that a great cloud or distended stream of meteors revolves around the sun in a period of 331years, and that one portion of the elliptical orbit intersects that of the earth.
The revelation at Sinai is amid the awe-inspiring phenomena of tempest.
Rather, as the god - or the chief god - of a region and a people, the most sublime and impressive phenomena, the control of the mightiest forces of nature are attributed to him.
He held that the air, with its variety of contents, its universal presence, its vague associations in popular fancy with the phenomena of life and growth, is the source of all that exists.
Comte is in no true sense a follower of Saint-Simon, but it was undoubtedly Saint-Simon who launched him, to take Comte's own word, by suggesting the two starting-points of what grew into the Comtist system - first, that political phenomena are as capable of being grouped under laws as other phenomena; and second, that the true destination of philosophy must be social, and the true object of the thinker must be the reorganization of the moral, religious and political systems. We can readily see what an impulse these far-reaching conceptions would give to Comte's meditations.
Each of our leading conceptions, each branch of our knowledge, passes successively through three different phases; there are three different ways in which the human mind explains phenomena, each way following the other in order.
Knowledge, or a branch H of knowledge, is in the Theological state, when it supposes the phenomena under consideration to be due to immediate volition, either in the Object or in some supernatural being.
In the Metaphysical state, for volition is substituted abstract force residing in the object, yet existing independently of the object; the phenomena are viewed as if apart from the bodies manifesting them; and the properties of each substance have attributed to them an existence distinct from that substance.
Comte's principle of classification is that the dependence and order of scientific study follows the dependence of the phenomena.
Thus, as has been said, it represents both the objective dependence of the phenomena and the subjective dependence of our means of knowing them.
The more particular and complex phenomena depend upon the simpler and more general.
It follows that the crowning science of the hierarchy, dealing with the phenomena of human society, will remain longest under the influence of theological dogmas and abstract figments, and will be the last to pass into the positive stage.
Lewes asserts against Spencer that the arrangement in a series is necessary, on grounds similar to those which require that the various truths constituting a science should be systematically co-ordinated although in nature the phenomena are intermingled.
Thus we acquire a bodyof empirical generalizations as to social phenomena, and then we connect the generalizations with the positive theory of human nature.
On the other hand, if laws of social phenomena, empirically generalized from history, can, when once suggested, be affiliated to the known laws of human nature; if the direction actually taken by the developments and changes of human society, can be seen to be such as the properties of man and of his dwelling-place made antecedently probable, the empirical generalizations are raised into positive laws, and sociology becomes a science."
There is a nexus between each leading group of social phenomena and other leading groups; if there is a change in one of them, that change is accompanied by a corresponding modification of all the rest.
Thus with respect to early religious beliefs he rejected Hume's notion that religion sprang out of the fears of primitive men, in favour of the theory that it represents the first attempts of our species to explain phenomena.
He has, indeed, described in graphic terms the greatest of the more superficial changes he underwent; how he had " carried into logical and ethical problems the maxims and postulates of physical knowledge," and had moved within the narrow lines drawn by the philosophical instructions of the class-room " interpreting human phenomena by the analogy of external nature "; how he served in willing captivity " the ` empirical ' and ` necessarian ' mode of thought," even though " shocked " by the dogmatism and acrid humours " of certain distinguished representatives "; 1 and how in a period of " second education " at Berlin, " mainly under the admirable guidance of Professor Trendelenburg," he experienced " a new intellectual birth" which " was essentially the gift of fresh conceptions, the unsealing of hidden openings of self-consciousness, with unmeasured corridors and sacred halls behind; and, once gained, was more or less available throughout the history of philosophy, and lifted the darkness from the pages of Kant and even Hegel."
The frequency of these phenomena is in some degree a source of security, for the minor vibrations are believed to exercise a binding effect by removing weak cleavages.
If the calculation be carried farther backas has been done by the seismic disaster investigation committee of Japan, a body of scientists constantly engaged in studying these phenomena under government auspices,it is found that, since the countrys history began to be written in the 8th century AD,, there have been 2006 major disturbances; but inasmuch as 1489 of these occurred before the beginning of the Tokugawa administration (early in the 17th century, and therefore in an era when methods of recording were comparatively defective), exact details are naturally lacking.
Similar phenomena were found in Sakhalin by Schmidt and on the north-east coast of the main island by Rein, and there can be little doubt that they exist at other places also.
September had 14 of these phenomena, March II and April 10, leaving 85 for the remaining 9 months.
This work is divided into two parts; the first intended to show that while ultimate metaphysical questions are insoluble they compel to a recognition of an inscrutable Power behind phenomena which is called the Unknowable; the second devoted to the formulation and illustration of the Law of Evolution.
Spencer recognizes successively likenesses and unlikenesses among phenomena (the effects of the Unknowable), which are segregated into manifestations, vivid (object, nonego) or faint (subject, ego), and then into space and time, matter and motion and force, of which the last is symbolized for us by the experience of resistance, and is that out of which our ideas of matter and motion are built.
In his Principles of Psychology Spencer advocates the genetic explanation of the phenomena of the adult human mind by reference to its infant and animal ancestry.
He wrote a lucid account of the phenomena of phosphorescence, and adduced a molecular magnetic theory which anticipated some of the chief features of the hypothesis of to-day.
The phenomena which succeed each other are then very similar, whether A and B are two metals, such as lead and tin or silver and copper, or are a pair of fused salts, or are water and common salt.
So far we have been considering alloys containing two metals; the phenomena they present are by no means simple.
But when three or more metals are present, as is often the case in useful alloys, the phenomena are much more complicated.
The reader possessed of no previous knowledge of electrical phenomena will best appreciate the meaning of the terms employed by the aid of a few simple experiments.
Dielectric constant.-Since all electric charge consists in a state of strain or polarization of the dielectric, it is evident that the physical state and chemical composition of the insulator must be of great importance in determining electrical phenomena.
The student will find it to be a great advantage to read through Faraday's three volumes entitled Experimental Researches on Electricity, as soon as he has mastered some modern elementary book giving in compact form a general account of electrical phenomena.
To these phenomena he gives accordingly a correspondingly early date.
The problem of the cause of these striking and novel phenomena at first produced considerable perplexity.
The general nature of the phenomena is thus easily understood; but it is at a maximum at pressures comparable with a millimetre of mercury, at which the free path is still small, the greater number of molecules operating in intensifying the result.
He lays stress on the dimensional relations of the problem, pointing out that the phenomena which occur with large vanes in highly rarefied gas could also occur with proportionally smaller vanes in gas at higher pressure.
Thus apparently the only remaining theory which can account for both these phenomena is that at which we have now arrived, i.e.
These phenomena belong to a period considerably later than the time of Nero.
Like geography, oceanography may be viewed in two different ways, and is conveniently divided into general oceanography, which deals with phenomena common to the whole ocean, and special oceanography, which has to do with the individual characteristics of the various divisions of the ocean.
In recent times, especially since the rapid increase in the study of the exact sciences during the 19th century, observations at sea with accurate instruments have become common, and the ships' logs of to-day are provided with headings for entering daily observations of the phenomena of the seasurface.
While the sailors' logs supply the greater part of the scientific evidence available for the study of the surface phenomena of the ocean, they have been supplemented by the records of numerous scientific expeditions and latterly by publications embodying systematic observations on a permanent basis.
Amid all the varying and contradictory phenomena of the universe there is something which gives coherence and intelligibility to them.
The smallest unit of matter with which physical phenomena are concerned is the molecule.
When chemical phenomena occur the molecule may be divided into atoms, and these atoms, in the presence of electrical phenomena, may themselves be further divided into electrons or corpuscles.
Apart from speculation, the first definite evidence for the molecular structure of matter occurs when it is found that certain physical phenomena change their whole nature as soon as we deal with matter of which the linear dimensions are less than a certain amount.
What is given by the formulae is accordingly the mean radius of an irregularly shaped solid (or, more probably, of the region in which the field of force surrounding such a solid is above a certain intensity), and the mean has to be taken in different ways in the different phenomena.
The explanation of the phenomena of combustion was at tempted at very early times, and the early theories were generally bound up in the explanation of the nature of fire or flame.
His idea of applying the natural history method of classification to psychical phenomena gave scientific character to his work, the value of which was enhanced by his methodical exposition and his command of illustration.
Suffice it to say that in spite of its spiritualistic starting-point its general result was to give a stimulus to the prevailing scientific tendency as represented by Galileo, Kepler and Harvey to the principle of mechanical explanations of the phenomena of the universe.
They are, through poverty of material, unclassed languages, merely outstanding phenomena.
This personeity lifts the majority of earthly phenomena out of the merely physical world and places them in the spirit world.
In the Arctic province the overpowering influence of meteorological phenomena manifested itself both in the doctrine of shades and in their shamanistic practices.
Meteorological phenomena seated more directly in the atmosphere obtained early recognition; thus Hesiod, in his Works and Days, speculated on the origin of winds, ascribing them to the heating effects of the sun on the air.
Most of these systems come into the category of occult pursuits, as they are the interpretations of phenomena on the ground of fanciful presumptions, by an appeal to unreal or at least unverifiable influences and relations.
Many of the well-known phenomena of optical diffraction may be imitated with sound waves, especially if the waves be short.
Thomson, Sound (5th ed., 1909), contains a descriptive account of the chief phenomena, and an elementary mathematical treatment.
The difficulty arises from a confusion between the spheres of phenomena and noumena.
Quetelet's astronomical papers refer chiefly to shooting stars and similar phenomena.
He organised extensive magnetical and meteorological observations, and in 1839 he started regular observations of the periodical phenomena of vegetation, especially the flowering of plants.
Subsequently he studied the expansion of solids by heat, and applied the phenomena of interference of light to the measurement of the dilatations of crystals.
The phenomena of movements of the organs of plants attracted the attention of John Ray (1693), who ascribed the movements of the leaf of Mimosa and others to alteration in temperature.
Metaphysics, again, is concerned with the ultimate problems of matter and spirit; it endeavours to go behind the phenomena of sense and focus its attention on the fundamental truths which are the only logical bases of natural science.
He claims recognition as an independent a priori propounder of the "First Law of Thermodynamics," but more especially as having early and ably applied that law to the explanation of many remarkable phenomena, both cosmical and terrestrial.
Newton himself, however, endeavoured to account for gravitation by differences of pressure in an aether; but he did not publish his theory, ` because he was not able from experiment and observation to give a satisfactory account of this medium, and the manner of its operation in producing the chief phenomena of nature.'
On the other hand, those who imagined aethers in order to explain phenomena could not specify the nature of the motion of these media, and could not prove that the media, as imagined by them, would produce the effects they were meant to explain.
The evidence for the existence of the luminiferous aether has accumulated as additional phenomena of light and other radiations have been discovered; and the properties of this medium, as deduced from the phenomena of light, have been found to be precisely those required to explain electromagnetic phenomena."
But on the modern theory, which includes the play of electrical phenomena as a function of the aether, there are other considerations which show that this number io 2 is really an enormous overestimate; and it is not impossible that the co-efficient of ultimate inertia of the aether is greater than the co-efficient of inertia (of different kind) of any existing material substance.
This great advance, which is the result of the gradual focussing of a century's work in the minute exploration of the exact laws of optical and electric phenomena, clearly carries with it deeper insight into the physical nature of matter itself and its modes of inanimate interaction.
If the surrounding aether is thereby disturbed, the waves of light arriving from the stars will partake of its movement; the ascertained phenomena of the astronomical aberration of light show that the rays travel to the observer, across this disturbed aether near the earth, in straight lines.
This statement constitutes the famous hypothesis of Fresnel, which thus ensures that all phenomena of ray-path and refraction, and all those depending on phase, shall be unaffected by uniform convection of the material medium, in accordance with the results of experiment.
It is, however, in complete accordance with a view that would make the aether near the earth fully partake in its orbital motion - a view which the null effect of convection on all terrestrial optical and electrical phenomena also strongly suggests.
Now the kinetics of a medium in which the parts can have finite relative motions will lead to equations which are not linear - as, for example, those of hydrodynamics - and the phenomena will be far more complexly involved.
When Clerk Maxwell pointed out the way to the common origin of optical and electrical phenomena, these equations naturally came to repose on an electric basis, the connexion having been first definitely exhibited by FitzGerald in 1878; and according as the independent variable was one or other of the vectors which represent electric force, magnetic force or electric polarity, they took the form appropriate to one or other of the elastic theories above mentioned.
These equations determine all the phenomena.
It is supposed that these remarkable phenomena have gradually been evoked by difference in the nutrition of the alternating generations.
What have been designated faculties are, upon his view, merely classified facts or phenomena of consciousness.
Subsequent volumes of the same series contained his observations of the transits of Venus (1761 and 1769), on the tides at St Helena (1762), and on various astronomical phenomena at St Helena (1764) and at Barbados (1764).
This work contains an elaborate account of the phenomena presented by the planet; but although favourably received by astronomers, it had no great sale.
He also devoted much attention to the study of obscure morbid conditions like hysteria, especially in relation to hypnotism; indeed, it is in connexion with his investigation into the phenomena and results of the latter that his name is popularly known.
The attack and defence of these entrenchments led to tactical phenomena of unusual interest.
The phenomena which are sometimes supposed to require the hypothesis of an Ur-Marcus are more simply and satisfactorily explained as incidents in the transmission of the Marcan text.
It is impossible, in face of the fact that the evidence of the oldest witnesses of all sorts is constantly opposed to the longer readings, to doubt that WH were right in arguing that these phenomena prove that the later text was made up by a process of revision and conflation of the earlier forms. Influenced by the use of the later text by Chrysostom, WH called it the Syrian or Antiochene text, and refer to the revision which produced it as the Syrian revision.
High temperature in the depth may be taken to mean descending water, just as high atmospheric pressure means descending air, and hence it would seem that the slow vertical movement of water in the Pacific reproduces to some extent the phenomena of the " doldrums " and " horse latitudes," with this difference, that the centres of maximum intensity lie off the east of the land instead of the west as in the case of the continents.
The Nazarites and the Rechabites are parallel phenomena, though of vastly inferior historical importance.
Neither of these methods could do much for the historical understanding of the phenomena of prophecy as a whole, and the more liberal students of the Old Testament were long blinded by the moralizing unhistorical rationalism which succeeded the old orthodoxy.
The term has also been applied to the Italian humanists of the Renaissance, and in modern times, somewhat vaguely, to thinkers who have based their speculations on the Platonic metaphysics or on Plotinus, and incorporated with it a tendency towards a mystical explanation of ultimate phenomena.
This shows how little it was Smith's habit to separate (except provisionally), in his conceptions or his researches, the economic phenomena of society from all the rest.
This survey of the phenomena of extinction in one great class of animals certainly establishes the existence of an almost infinite variety of causes, some of which are internal, some external in origin, operating on animals of different kinds.
Animism may have arisen out of or simultaneously with animatism as a primitive explanation of many different phenomena; if animism was originally applied to non-human or inanimate objects, animism may from the outset have been in vogue as a theory of the nature of man.
Lists of phenomena from the contemplation of which the savage was led to believe in animism have been given by Dr Tylor, Herbert Spencer, Mr Andrew Lang and others; an animated controversy arose between the former as to the priority of their respective lists.
More important perhaps than all these phenomena, because more regular and normal, was the daily period of sleep with its frequent concomitant of fitful and incoherent ideas and images.
In a minor degree revival of memory during sleep and similar phenomena of the sub-conscious life may have contributed to the same result.
If the phenomena of dreams were, as suggested above, of great importance for the development of animism, the belief, which must originally have been a doctrine of human psychology, cannot have failed to expand speedily into a general philosophy of nature.
The same theory has since been applied to man, with this difference that, accompanying the mechanical phenomena of action, and entirely disconnected with it, are the phenomena of consciousness.
Huxley (Science and Culture) and Shadworth Hodgson (Metaphysic of Experience and Theory of Practice), must be distinguished from that of the psychophysical parallelism, or the "double aspect theory" according to which both the mental state and the physical phenomena result from a so-called "mind stuff," or single substance, the material or cause of both.
Phenomena of this kind play a large part in primitive ceremonies of divination and in our own day furnish much of the material of Psychical Research.
They carry off children, leaving changeling substitutes, transport men and women into fairyland, and are generally the causes of all mysterious phenomena.
The discovery of this significant looped arrangement of the morainic belts is the greatest advance in interpretation of glacial phenomena since the first suggestion of a glacial period; it is also the strongest proof that the ice here concerned was a continuous sheet of creeping land ice, and not a discontinuous series of floating icebergs, as had been supposed.
For this purpose the exhibition of " physical phenomena " was found necessary.
During an attack of fever he made observations on himself with reference to the action of quickened circulation upon thought, which led him to the conclusion that psychical phenomena were to be accounted for as the effects of organic changes in the brain and nervous system.
At first he adopted the somewhat ascetic views of his master about soul and body, and about goods of body and estate; but before Plato's death he had rejected the hypothesis of forms, formal numbers and the form of the good identified with the one, by which Plato tried to explain moral phenomena; while his studies and teaching on rhetoric and poetry soon began to make him take a more tolerant view than Plato did of men's passions.
If The Commencement Of The Year, Instead Of Being Retained At The Same Place In The Seasons By A Uniform Method Of Intercalation, Were Made To Depend On Astronomical Phenomena, The Intercalations Would Succeed Each Other In An Irregular Manner, Sometimes After Four Years And Sometimes After Five; And It Would Occasionally, Though Rarely Indeed, Happen, That It Would Be Impossible To Determine The Day On Which The Year Ought To Begin.
As the cycle restores these phenomena to the same days of the civil month, they will fall on the same days in any two years which occupy the same place in the cycle; consequently a table of the moon's phases for 19 years will serve for any year whatever when we know its number in the cycle.
About The Year 73 O The Venerable Bede Had Already Perceived The Anticipation Of The Equinoxes, And Remarked That These Phenomena Then Took Place About Three Days Earlier Than At The Time Of The Council Of Nicaea.
Its principal, though perhaps least obvious advantage, consists in its being entirely independent of astronomical tables, or indeed of any celestial phenomena whatever; so that all chances of disagreement arising from the inevitable errors of tables, or the uncertainty of observation, are avoided, and Easter determined without the possibility of mistake.
Matter, as an abstract, unperceived substance or cause, is shown to be impossible, an unreal conception; true substance is affirmed to be conscious spirit, true causality the free activity of such a spirit, while physical substantiality and causality are held to be merely arbitrary, though constant, relations among phenomena connected subjectively by suggestion or association, objectively in the Universal Mind.
It would be difficult to determine exactly what natural phenomena are symbolized by the Hecatoncheires.
In medicine, the term is applied to a school of physicians who, in the time of Celsus and Galen, advocated accurate observation of the phenomena of health and disease in the belief that only by the collection of a vast mass of instances would a true science of medicine be attained.
A re-examination of his previously considered hypotheses as to the cause of these phenomena was fruitless; the true theory was ultimately discovered by a pure accident, comparable in simplicity and importance with the association of a falling apple with the discovery of the principle of universal gravitation.
Among the natural causes may be classed all failures of crops due to excess or defect of rainfall and other meteorological phenomena, or to the ravages of insects and vermin.
The definition of temperature given above, though difficult in the case of a flame and perhaps still admissible in the case of an electric arc, becomes precarious when applied to the disruptive phenomena of a spark discharge.
In interpreting the phenomena observed in a spectroscope, it is necessary to remember that the instrument, as pointed out by Lord Rayleigh, is itself a producer of homogeneity within the limits defined by its resolving power.
While some of the phenomena seem to indicate that the projection of metallic vapours into the centre of the spark is a process of molecular diffusion independent of the mechanism of the discharge, the different velocities obtained with bismuth, and the probability that the vibrating systems are not electrically neutral, seem to indicate that the projected metallic particles are electrified and play some part in the discharge.
It is not possible here to enter into a detailed description of the phenomena of fluorescence (q.v.), though their importance from a spectroscopic point of view has been materially increased through the recent researches of Wood s on the fluorescence of sodium vapour.
Wood remarks, the careful investigation of these phenomena is.
Phosphorescence (q.v.) can only be here alluded to in order to draw attention to the phenomena studied by Sir William Crookes and others in vacuum tubes.
It should be mentioned that the infra-red rays have a remarkable damping effect on the phenomena of phosphorescence, a fact which has.
This oral theory was for a long time the favourite one in England; it was never widely held in Germany, and in recent years the majority of English students of the Synoptic Problem have come to feel that it does not satisfactorily explain the phenomena.
Since the Rev. William Ellis and a party of American missionaries first made the volcano known to the civilized ' Among the minqr phenomena of Hawaiian volcanoes are the delicate glassy fibres called Pele's hair by the Hawaiians, which are spun by the wind from the rising and falling drops of liquid lava, and blown over the edge or into the crevices of the crater.
His First Principles, his book on metaphysics, is founded on this same point, that what we know is phenomena produced by an unknown noumenal power.
He divides phenomena into impressions and ideas, vivid and faint, object and subject, non-ego and ego, outer and inner, physical and psychical, matter and spirit; all of which are expressions of the same antithesis among phenomena.
He holds that all the time, space, motion, matter known to us are phenomena; and that force, the ultimate of ultimates, is, as known to us, a phenomenon, " an affection of consciousness."
If so, then all we know is these phenomena, affections of consciousness, subjective affections, but produced by an unknown power.
But it is not maintained, on the side either of phenomena or of noumena; and hence its tendency to materialism.
This connexion of isomerism with resistant linking, and of this with high valency, explains, in considerable measure, why inorganic compounds afforded, as a rule, no phenomena of this kind until the systematic investigation of metallic compounds by Werner brought to light many instances of isomerism in inorganic compounds.
Whereas carbon renders isomerism possible in organic compounds, cobalt and platinum are the determining elements in inorganic chemistry, the phenomena being exhibited especially by complex ammoniacal derivatives.
A general philosophical interest is attached to the phenomena of isomerism.
On the basis of the relation between physical phenomena and thermodynamical laws, properties of the polymorphous compounds may be predicted.
Abortion resembles ordinary labour in its general phenomena, excepting that in the former hemorrhage often to a large extent forms one of the leading symptoms. The treatment embraces the means to be used by rest, astringents and sedatives, to prevent the occurrence when it merely threatens; or when, on the contrary, it is inevitable, to accomplish as speedily as possible the complete removal of the entire contents of the uterus.
But the theory is not strictly applicable, as the phenomena are not accurately periodic, and the state of the soil is continually varying, and differs at different depths, particularly in regard to its degree of wetness.
His scheme was first to work out, in a separate treatise De corpore, a systematic doctrine of Body, showing how physical phenomena were universally explicable in terms of motion, as motion or mechanical action was then (through Galileo and others) understood - the theory of motion being applied in the light of mathematical science, after quantity, the subject-matter of mathematics, had been duly considered in its place among the fundamental conceptions of philosophy, and a clear indication had been given, at first starting, of the logical ground and method of all philosophical inquiry.
He would then single out Man from the realm of nature, and, in a treatise De homine, show what specific bodily motions were involved in the production of the peculiar phenomena of sensation and knowledge, as also of the affections and passions thence resulting, whereby man came into relation with man.
Thus he proposed to unite in one coherent whole the separate phenomena of Body, Man and the State.
But even more than in external nature, Hobbes was interested in the phenomena of social life, presenting themselves so impressively in an age of political revolution.
In the Epicurean physics there are two parts - a general metaphysic and psychology, and a special explanation of particular phenomena of nature.
It is an attempt to make the phenomena of nature intelligible to us by regarding them as instances on a grand scale of that with which we are already familiar on a small scale.
We must indeed accept our feelings; but we must also believe much which is not directly testified by sensation, if only it serves to explain phenomena and does not contravene our sensations.
From the surfaces of all objects there are continually flowing thin filmy images exactly copying the solid body whence they originate; and these images by direct impact on the organism produce (we need not care to ask how) the phenomena of vision.
This aspect of the Epicurean physics becomes clearer when we look at his mode of rendering particular phenomena intelligible.
To prevent all reference of the more potent phenomena of nature to divine action Epicurus rationalizes the processes of the cosmos.
When two or more modes of accounting for a phenomena are equally admissible as not directly contradicted by known phenomena, it seems to Epicurus almost a return to the old mythological habit of mind when a savant asserts that the real cause is one and only one.
We need not be too curious to inquire how these celestial phenomena actually do come about; we can learn how they might have been produced, and to go further is to trench on ground beyond the limits of human knowledge.
The idea of a systematic enchainment of phenomena, in which each is conditioned by every other, and none can be taken in isolation and explained apart from the rest, was foreign to his mind.
Dr John Elliotson and his followers attributed the phenomena to mesmerism.
Carpenter and others pointed out, however, that the phenomena obviously depended upon the expectation of the sitters, and could be stopped altogether by appropriate suggestion.
When by this means it was made clear to the experimenters that it was the fingers which moved the table, not the table the fingers, the phenomena generally ceased.
He was the author of many scientific papers and reports, especially on the surface geology and glacial phenomena of the northern and western parts of Canada.
The influence of daylight is presumably the principal cause of the difference between the phenomena during November, December and January at Cape Thorsden and Jan Mayen, for in the equinoctial months the results from these two stations are closely similar.
The maxima and minima in the two phenomena in a good many cases are not found in the same years.
Thus there must in general be a difference between the observer's magnetic meridian - answering to the mean position of the magnetic needle at his station - and the direction the needle would have at a given hour, if undisturbed by the aurora, at any spot where the phenomena which the observer sees as aurora exist.
Artificial Phenomena resembling Aurora.-At Sodankyla, the station occupied by the Finnish Arctic Expedition of 1882-1883, Selim Lemstrom and Biese (23) described and gave drawings of optical phenomena which they believed to be artificially produced aurora.
Birkeland (19) has produced phenomena bearing a striking resemblance to several forms of aurora.
His apparatus consists of a vacuum vessel containing a magnetic sphere-intended to represent the earth-and the phenomena are produced by sending electric discharges through the vessel.
It is with the neural element of muscle tonus that tendon phenomena are intimately associated.
This is the cataleptic state, the phase of hypnotism which the phenomena of so-called "animal hypnotism" resemble most.