Phenol Sentence Examples
He recommended that yeast should be purified by cultivating it in a solution of sugar containing tartaric acid, or, in wort containing a small quantity of phenol.
The hydrogen of the hydroxyl group in phenol can be replaced by metals, by alkyl groups and by acid radicals.
The metallic derivatives (phenolates, phenates or carbolates) of the alkali metals are obtained by dissolving phenol in a solution of a caustic alkali, in the absence of air.
The alkyl derivatives may be obtained by heating phenol with one molecular proportion of a caustic alkali and of an alkyl iodide.
O CH 3, is prepared either by the above method or by the action of diazomethane on phenol, C6HSOH+CH2N2=N2+C6H5.Advertisement
When heated with aniline it yields phenol and acetanilide.
Phenol is characterized by the readiness with which it forms substitution products; chlorine and bromine, for example, react readily with phenol, forming orthoand parachlorand -bromphenol, and, by further action, trichlorand tribrom-phenol.
Nitro-phenols are readily obtained by the action of nitric acid on phenol.
Phenol dissolves readily in concentrated sulphuric acid, a mixture of phenol-orthoand -para-sulphonic acids being formed.
A thiophenol, C 6 H 5 SH, is known, and is prepared by the action of phosphorus pentasulphide on phenol, or by distilling a mixture of sodium benzene sulphonate and potassium sulphydrate.Advertisement
When fused with caustic potash it yields phenol and salicylic acid.
Xanthene, C13H100, may be synthesized by condensing phenol with ortho-cresol in the presence of aluminium chloride.
These three acids yield on heating phenol, identical with the substance started with, and since in the three oxybenzoic acids the hydroxyl groups must occupy positions other than I, it follows that four hydrogen atoms are equal in value.
Substitution of the Benzene Ring.-As a general rule, homologues and mono-derivatives of benzene react more readily with substituting agents than the parent hydrocarbon; for example, phenol is converted into tribromphenol by the action of bromine water, and into the nitrophenols by dilute nitric acid; similar activity characterizes aniline.
Potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid oxidize phenol, salicylic acid (o-oxybenzoic acid), and gallic acid ([2.3.4] trioxybenzoic acid) to tri chlorpyroracemic acid (isotrichlorglyceric acid), CC13 C(OH)2 C02H, a substance also obtained from trichloracetonitrile, CC1 3 CO CN, by hydrolysis.Advertisement
When thus chlorinated phenol (I) yields trichlor-o-diketo-R-hexene (2), which may be hydrolysed to an acid (3), which, in turn, suffers rearrangement to trichlor-R-pentene-oxycarboxylic acid (4).
Manasse (German patent 73,279) prepared an intimate mixture of phenol and potassium carbonate, which is then heated in a closed vessel with carbon dioxide, best at 130 -160 C. The Chemische Fabrik vorm.
It sublimes, but on rapid heating decomposes into carbon dioxide and phenol.
It yields both esters and ethers since it is an acid and also a phenol.
When boiled with aniline it gives methylaniline and phenol.Advertisement
When heated in air for many hours it decomposes, yielding carbon dioxide, phenol and xanthone.
The latter on reduction yields a diamino compound, the disulphonic acid of which on diazotization and coupling with a phenol, &c., gives valuable substantive cotton dyes after the type yielded by Benzidine.
The secondary amines may be of two types-namely,the purely aromatic amines, and the mixed secondary amines, which contain an aromatic residue and an alkyl group. The purely aromatic amines result upon heating the primary amines with their hydrochlorides, and, in some cases, by heating a phenol with a primary amine and anhydrous zinc chloride.
Picric acid can also be obtained from it by first treating acetylene with sulphuric acid, converting the product into phenol by solution in potash and then treating the phenol with fuming nitric acid.
They may be prepared by the reduction of nitro compounds in alkaline solution (using zinc dust and alkali, or a solution of an alkaline stannite as a reducing agent); by oxidation of hydrazo compounds; or by the coupling of a diazotized amine and any compound of a phenolic or aminic type, provided that there is a free para position in the amine or phenol.Advertisement
The oxyazo compounds are prepared by adding a solution of a diazonium salt to a cold slightly alkaline solution of a phenol.
The more complete phenomena of mutual solubility are illustrated by the case of phenol and water.
At B is a nonvariant system made up of ice, solid phenol, saturated solution and vapour.
Carum copticum, from which it may be extracted by shaking with potassium hydroxide, filtering and precipitating the phenol with hydrochloric acid.
Cyclo-hexanone, C 6 H 10 0, is obtained by the distillation of calcium pimelate, and by the electrolytic reduction of phenol, using an alternating current.
It retains some of the nutrients found in raw cane S Return to Top Salicylates Salicylates are a type of Phenol.
Swinburne became interested in plastics in 1902 when he was introduced to the phenol formaldehyde reaction.
Human Mixtard 30 Pen also contains glycerol, sodium phosphate, protamine sulfate as retarding agent and m-cresol and phenol as added preservative.
This analog contains the phenol moiety of tyrosine and thus the contacts that drive the chemistry and define the TPL specificity can be identified.
Peripheral nerve block using phenol is a relatively old technique.
Fears were expressed that other cancer causing chemicals including phenol and benzene are also polluting the site.
Paraplegia from injecting phenol into the arteries that supply the spinal cord (prevented by checking the needle position with radio-opaque dye ).
In the case of a phenol, you can react the phenol with sodium hydroxide solution first, producing the more reactive phenoxide ion.
For neurolytic blocks (arterial insufficiency) 3 - 5 ml 6% aqueous phenol is injected.
Paints The main substances of concern likely to be found in paints are alkyl phenol ethoxylates, chlorinated paraffins and phthalates.
The top layer is a solution of phenol in water, and the bottom one a solution of water in phenol in water, and the bottom one a solution of water in phenol.
Investigations in phenol formaldehyde resins for example elucidate mechanism and provide new flame retardant materials.
Phenol tends to burn in air with an extremely smoky flame - full of carbon particles.
Lignified tissues are colored yellow by aniline sulphate or aniline chloride, violet with phloroglucin and hydrochloric acid, and characteristic reactions are also given by mixtures containing phenol, indol, skatol, thailin, sulphate, &c. (see Zimmermanns Microtechnique).
Phys., 1888 (6) 14, p. 435); by heating phenol carboxylic acids with baryta; and, in small quantities by the oxidation of benzene with hydrogen peroxide or nascent ozone (A.
By nitrating phenol with concentrated nitric acid, no care being taken to keep the temperature of reaction down, trinitrophenol (picric acid) is obtained (see Picric Acid).
Various methods have been devised for the quantitative determination of phenol.
Succinosuccinic ester behaves both as a ketone and as a phenol, thereby exhibiting desmotropy; assuming the ketone formula as indicating the constitution, then in Baeyer's equation we have a migration of a hydrogen atom, whereas to bring Ladenburg's formula into line, an oxygen atom must migrate.
This holds for benzene and phenol, and is supported by the observations of Gossner on [1.3.5] trinitrobenzene and picric acid (1.3.5-trinitro, 2 oxybenzene); these last two substances assume rhombic forms, and picric acid differs from trinitrobenzene in having w considerably greater, with x and slightly less.
Benzidine finds commercial application since its tetrazo compound couples readily with amino-sulphonic acids, phenol carboxylic acids, and phenol and naphthol-sulphonic acids to produce substantive cotton dyes (see Dyeing).
The acid (and anhydride) are largely used in the colour industry (see Fluorescein; Phenol Phthalein) .
Isolated in such blocks the selected prisoner perished either from hunger or from an injection of phenol or were suffocated by gas.
During the 1920's and 1930's, a researcher named Arthur Penfold studied tea tree oil and discovered that the oil was eleven times more active than phenol (carbolic acid).
Phenols, specifically Nonyl phenol ethoxylate - Per the National Institutes of Health, phenol is toxic.
Alcohol and phenol are injected in combination but are less commonly used to treat spasticity.
Short-term medications such as lidocaine, a local anesthetic, can be used to assess the potential benefit of botulinum toxin or alcohol and phenol injections.
Over-the-counter lip products that contain the chemical phenol (such as Blistex Medicated Lip Ointment) and numbing ointments (Anbesol) help to relieve cold sores.
Alcohol or phenol injections into the nerve controlling the muscle are another option.
Irritant dermatitis is essentially a direct injury to the skin, caused by such compounds as acids, alkalis, phenol, and detergents.
Alcohol and phenol are injected in combination, but are less common treatments.
Short-term medications such as lidocaine, a local anesthetic, can be used to assess the potential benefit of botulinum-toxin or alcohol and phenol injections.
The Bean mat contains no phthalates, dioxins, furans, phenol, or heavy metals, has an ecologically safer method of production, and is available for under $15.
Chemical peel kits can contain salicylic acid, resorcinol, sulfur, PPT, and/or phenol.
In order to obtain the phenol from this distillate, it is treated with caustic soda, which dissolves the phenol and its homologues tegether with a certain quantity of naphthalene and other hydrocarbons.
This layer is separated, and the phenol recovered by a process of fractional distillation.