On the continent of Europe the dispensing of prescriptions is confined to pharmacists (pharmaciens and apothe- hers).
By a law enacted in 1909 the licensing of the sale of intoxicating liquors, other than for medical purposes by druggists and pharmacists, is left to the option of counties and cities.
The apothecaries, who were the pharmacists of those days, were not represented by any corporate body, but in the reign of King James I., in 1606, were incorporated with the Company of Grocers.
The germs of analytical chemistry are to be found in the writings of the pharmacists and chemists of the iatrochemical period.
Any town (but not any city) may at its option wholly forbid the sale of intoxicating liquors, may allow it to be sold only on condition that it be not drunk on the vendor's premises, or may allow it to be sold only by hotel-keepers and pharmacists, or by pharmacists alone.
The pharmacists were divided into two classes, the stationarii, who sold simple drugs and non-magisterial preparations at a tariff determined by competent authorities, and the confectionarii, whose business it was to dispense scrupulously the prescriptions of medical men; all pharmaceutical establishments were placed under the surveillance of the college of medicine.