Petroleum and natural gas also occur in the plateau rocks in great quantities.
- The state's great mineral wealth is in coals of various kinds, petroleum, and natural gas.
Petroleum was collected for use in the most remote ages of which we have any records.
The earliest mention 'of American petroleum occurs in Sir Walter Raleigh's account of the Trinidad pitch-lake in 1595; whilst thirty-seven years later, the account of a visit of a Franciscan, Joseph de la Roche d'Allion, to the oil springs of New York was published in Sagard's Histoire du Canada.
In 1771 Thomas Jefferson described a " burning spring " in the Kanawha Valley, and when wells were drilled for salt brine near Charleston petroleum and natural gas were found here before there was any drilling for oil in Pennsylvania.
Deposits of copper, tin, iron and tungsten have been discovered, and a variety of other mineral products (graphite, mica, spodumene, coal, petroleum, &c.).
The occurrence of commercially valuable petroleum is, however, comparatively limited, hitherto exploited deposits being confined to rocks younger than the Cambrian and older than the Quaternary, while the majority of developed oilfields have been discovered north of the equator.
Some petroleum was obtained in the S.E.
It consists in sinking a bore-hole, after the manner of a petroleum well, and letting in four pipes centrally arranged, the outer pipe being 10 in.
For the petroleum industry and the mining of the Caucasus region, see Caucasia.
Oil fields are being continually opened up in other parts of the world, and whilst America still maintains her position as the largest petroleum producer, the world's supplies are now being derived from a steadily increasing number of centres.
The active growth of the petroleum industry of the United States began in 1859, though in the early part of the century the petroleum of Lake Seneca, N.Y., was used as an embrocation under the name of " Seneca oil," and the "American Medicinal Oil" of Kentucky was largely sold after its discovery in 1829.
As early as 1804, Humboldt expressed the opinion that petroleum was produced by distillation from deep-seated strata, and Karl Reichenbach in 1834, suggested that it was derived from the action of heat on the turpentine of pine-trees, whilst Brunet, in 1838, adumbrated a similar theory of origin on the ground of certain laboratory experiments.
Immediately before the Civil War, petroleum was discovered in shallow wells near Parkersburg, and there was a great rush of prospectors and speculators to the Little Kanawha Valley.
At the same time large quantities of petroleum refuse are used as fuel in the railways of S.E.
In the malarious islet of Asinara a pond of stagnant water was treated with petroleum and all windows were protected with gauze.
In 1853 and 1854 patents for the preparation of this substance from petroleum were obtained by Warren de la Rue, and the process was applied to the " Rangoon oil " brought to Great Britain from Yenangyaung in Upper Burma.
This mixture dissolves in petroleum, escaping when the oil is stored, and conversely it invariably carries a certain amount of water and oil, which is deposited on compression.
Petroleum (" burning water ") was known in Japan in the 7th century, whilst in Europe the gas springs of the north of Italy led to the adoption in 1226 by the municipality of Salsomaggiore of a salamander surrounded by flames as its emblem.
Oils are powerful fuels, but the high price of refined petroleum, the oil generally preferred, precludes its widespread use for many purposes for which it is suitable.
Other theories of a like nature were brought forward by various chemists, Mendeleeff, for example, ascribing the formation of petroleum to the action of water at high temperatures on iron carbide in the interior of the earth.
Petroleum ranks second to coal among the state's mineral resources.
It stands at the head of the effective navigation on the Rhine, and is not only the largest port on the upper course of that stream, but is the principal emporium for south Germany for such commodities as cereals, coal, petroleum, timber, sugar and tobacco, with a large trade in hops, wine and other south German produce.
By far the most important commodity is petroleum, fully one-half of the total value.
Although our information respecting the chemical composition of petroleum has been almost entirely gained since the middle of the 18th century, a considerable amount of empirical knowledge of the substance was possessed by chemists at an earlier date, and there was much speculation as to its origin.
What we need to make its parts—iron ore to make steel, rubber to make tires, sand to make glass, petroleum to make plastics—is generally a few cents' worth of raw materials.
The external trade of the Russian empire (bullion and the external trade of Finland not included) since the year 1886 is shown in the following table: The exports rank in the following order :- cereals (wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, buckwheat) and flour, 49.2%; timber and wooden wares, 7.2; petroleum, 5.8; eggs, 5.4; flax, 5; butter, 3; sugar, 2-4; cottons and oilcake, 2 each; oleaginous seeds, &c., 1.5; with hemp, spirits, poultry, game, bristles, hair, furs, leather, manganese ore, wool, caviare, live-stock, gutta-percha, vegetables and fruit, and tobacco.
Butter is the principal export, and petroleum, coal and iron the imports.
The production of crude petroleum in the United States was officially reported to have been 2000 barrels in 1859, 4,215,000 barrels in 1869, 19,914,146 barrels in 1879, 35,163,513 barrels in 1889, 57,084,428 barrels in 1899, and 126,493,936 barrels in 1906.
The town has grown rapidly since the completion of the railway system, and has a large trade in petroleum from Baku.
Natural gas, like petroleum, was first heard of in West Virginia in connexion with a burning spring on the Kanawha, and there were gas springs on the Big Sandy and the Little Kanawha.
On the other hand, an overwhelming and increasing majority of those who have studied the natural conditions under which petroleum occurs are of opinion that it is of organic origin.
Besides the petroleum refineries the town possesses oil-works (for fuel), flour-mills, sulphuric acid works and tobacco factories.
Herodotus describes the oil pits near Ardericca (near Babylon), and the pitch spring of Zacynthus (Zante), whilst Strabo, Dioscorides and Pliny mention the use of the oil of Agrigentum, in Sicily, for illumination, and Plutarch refers to the petroleum found near Ecbatana (Kerkuk).
The manufactures comprise sheet-iron, boilers, zinc, brick and tiles, paraffin, petroleum, soap and candles.
The refined oil is exported as kerosene or petroleum, the heavier refuse (mazut) is used as fuel.
Peckham, but others have held that it is of exclusively animal origin, a view supported by such occurrences as those in the orthoceratities of the Trenton limestone, and by the experiments of C. Engler, who obtained a liquid like crude petroleum by the distillation of menhaden (fish) oil.
Wheat, coal, cotton, petroleum, wood, lime and cement are brought into Venice for shipment to the Levant or for distribution over Italy and Europe.
($11,791,223), electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies ($11,019,235), paper and wood pulp ($10,961,527) and refined petroleum ($10,948,864).
The specific gravity of crude petroleum appears to range from 771 to 1.06, and the flash point from below o° to 370°F.
The principal elements are found in various combinations, the hydrocarbons of the Pennsylvania oils being mainly paraffins (q.v.), while those of Caucasian petroleum belong for the most part to the naphthenes, isomeric with the olefines (q.v.).
The question of the origin of petroleum (and natural gas), though for the first half of the 19th century of little more than academic interest, has engaged the attention of naturalists and others for over a hundred years.
In small stoves for warming and for cooking, petroleum presents some advantages over other fuels, in that there is no chimney to sweep, and if well managed no unpleasant fumes, and the stoves are easily portable.
Treating the breeding-ponds with petroleum or similar preparations seems to be hardly applicable on a large scale, and in any case can only be a temporary expedient.
The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime and gypsum.
The policy of fiscal transformation inaugurated by the Left increased revenue from indirect taxation from 17,000,000 in 1876 to more than 24,000,000 in 1887, by substituting heavy corn duties for the grist tax, and by raising the sugar and petroleum duties to unprecedented levels.
Similarly there is a difference of opinion as to the conditions under which the organisms have been mineralized, some holding that the process has taken place at a high temperature and under great pressure; but the lack of practical evidence in nature in support of these views has led many to conclude that petroleum, like coal, has been formed at moderate temperatures, and under pressures varying with the depth of the containing rocks.
The former apply principally to successions, stamps, registrations, mortgages, &c.; the latter to distilleries, breweries, explosives, native sugar and matches, though the customs revenue and octrois upon articles of general consumption, such as corn, wine, spirits, meat, flour, petroleum butter, tea, coffee and sugar, may be considered as belonging to thu class.
Michoacan is essentially a mining region, producing gold, silver, lead and cinnabar, and having rich deposits of copper, coal, petroleum and sulphur.
as early as 1859, but the state's output was comparatively small until after petroleum was discovered in the N.W.
The physical properties of petroleum vary greatly.
Even prior to the discovery of petroleum in commercial quantities, a number of chemists had made determinations of the chemical composition of several different varieties, and these investigations, supplemented by those of a later date, show that petroleum consists of about 84% by weight of carbon with 12% of hydrogen, and varying proportions of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen.
The theories propounded may be divided into two groups, namely, those ascribing to petroleum an inorganic origin, and those which regard it as the result of the decomposition of organic matter.
This view is supported by the fact that petroleum is found on the Sardinian and Swedish coasts as a product of the decomposition of seaweed, heated only by the sun, and under atmospheric pressure.
Jacob Joseph Winterl, in 1788, appears to have been the first to examine petroleum chemically, but the earliest systematic investigation was that carried out by Professor B.
The earliest system adopted for the collection of petroleum appears to have consisted in Early skimming the oil from the surface of the water upon Methods which it had accumulated, and Professor Lesley states, that at Paint Creek, in Johnson county, Kentucky, a Mr George and others were in the habit of collecting oil from the sands, " by making shallow canals loo or 200 ft.
All puddles and collections of water should be filled in or drained; as a temporary expedient they may be treated with petroleum, which prevents the development of the larvae.
Salt and petroleum are worked in the mountains, and there is a.
In most petroleum-producing countries, however, and particularly where the product is abundant, the crude oil is fractionally distilled, so as to separate it into petroleum spirit of various grades, burning oils, gas oils, lubricating oils, and (if the crude oil yields that product) paraffin.
Petroleum is found in the vicinity.
transportation fuels derived from biomass cannot at present compete with fuels derived from petroleum.
Petroleum solvents are used to soften the wax into a spreadable paste, by preventing the individual molecules from bonding together.
Crude or unrefined petroleum needs a special air-spray pressure burner for its use, and this suffers from the disadvantage of being noisy.
In the cultivated parts the land is so exceedingly fertile and productive that it sells for almost fabulous prices, and its value is still further enhanced by the discovery of manganese and copper mines in the basin of the Rion, and of the almost inexhaustible supplies of naphtha and petroleum at Baku in the Apsheron peninsula.
Two of the most productive petroleum fields of the United States are in part in Ohio; the Appalachian field in the E.
Silliman, Jun., in 1855, who then reported upon the results which he had obtained with the " rock oil or petroleum " of Venango county, Pennsylvania.
This report has become a classic in the literature of petroleum.
The specific gravity of crude petroleum appears to range from 771 to 1.06, and the flash point from below oÃ‚° to 370Ã‚°F.
As already stated, every one of the great geological systems appears to have produced some form of bitumen, and in the following table an attempt has been made to classify on this basis the various localities in which petroleum or natural gas has been found in large or small quantities: Recent.
Crude petroleum was experimentally distilled in the United States in 1833 by Prof. Silliman (d.
The existing refineries were accordingly altered so as to adapt them for the refining of petroleum; but in the manufacture of burning oil from petroleum the small stills which had been in use in the distillation of shale-oil were at first employed.
The more important local authorities throughout the country have made regulations under the powers conferred upon them by the Petroleum Acts, with the object of regulating the " keeping, sale, conveyance and hawking " of petroleum products having a flash-point below 73Ã‚° F., and the Port of London authority, together with other water-way and harbour authorities in the United Kingdom, have their own by-laws relating to the navigation of vessels carrying such petroleum.
In Germany, the law prescribes a close-test of 21Ã‚° C., equal to about 70Ã‚° F., whilst in Russia the standard is 28Ã‚° C., equal to 84.4Ã‚° F., by the close-test; in both these countries the weights of petroleum which may be stored in specified buildings are determined by law.
The word " benzine " is sometimes used in commerce for the coal-tar product, but also for the light petroleum better known as petroleum-benzine; a similar ambiguity is presented by the word " benzoline," which is applied to the same substances as the word " benzine."
The leading exports of domestic merchandise in excess of the same value were the following: cotton ($496,334,448); iron and steel, excluding ores ($157,680,331); meat and dairy products ($151,964,037); petroleum, vegetable and animal oils ($126,350,916); wheat and wheat flour ($100,529,381); copper, excluding ores ($92,584,640); wood ($72,312,880); leather ($47,146,415); tobacco ($41,554,o58);coal($38,44I,518);agricultural implements ($27,327,428); corn and corn meal ($27,062,128); animals ($2i,007,I22); chemicals (.$2o,33o,335); oil-cake ($20,245,818); fruits and nuts ($18,707,670); vehicles ($16,774,036); naval stores ($16,103,076); and paper ($15,280,541).
in the United States) to a portion of the more volatile hydrocarbons distilled from petroleum (see Petroleum).
in 1877 Austria gave Hungary a share in the management of the bank, while the arrangement for paying the bonus on exported sugar was favourable to Austria; on the other hand, since the increased duty on coffee and petroleum would fall more heavily on Austria, the Austrians wished to persuade the Hungarians to pay a larger quota of the common expenses, and there was also a dispute whether Hungary was partly responsible for a debt of 80 M.
The high cost of coal, which has always been a hindrance to the development of manufactures, makes the petroleum deposits of peculiar value.
The hydrocarbon occurs in wood-tar and in petroleum, and is prepared commercially by fractional distillation of the light oil fraction of the coal-tar distillate (see Coal Tar).
The mineral hydrocarbons found in nature or obtained by destructive distillation do not come within the range of this article (see Naphtha, Paraffin, Petroleum), which is restricted to the following two large groups of bodies, formed naturally within the vegetable and animal organisms, viz.
Prior to the introduction of the spray we were using petroleum jelly as our method of preventing urine scald and tissue maceration.
Some use zinc formulations while others depend on petroleum byproducts.
Some oil-based lubricants include petroleum jelly and mineral oil.
Does not contain any petroleum, but it can be blended with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend.
Can be used in a diesel engine with a blend of 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent petroleum without any modification to the engine.
With the continual rising costs of petroleum products in the new century, major corporations and the United States government have looked to new markets.
Studies have shown that biodiesel from virgin vegetable oil reduces carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum consumption when used in place of petroleum diesel.
Petroleum, also known as crude oil, is used for generating electricity and for manufacturing.
Petroleum is formed from the remains of biodegraded organic marine microorganisms.
Petroleum is the most widely used fossil fuel.
Petroleum represents an estimated 40 percent of the world demand of energy.
Petroleum has a negative impact on the environment.
It is found in the deposits of petroleum and recovered during the drilling process.
Fossil fuels: The three main types of fossil fuels are petroleum, natural gas and coal.
Another reason that Styrofoam is harmful for the environment is that it is made with petroleum which is a non-sustainable resource.
Not only that, but petroleum is a heavily polluting resource.
Soy candles are natural, whereas paraffin is made from petroleum, which is an import for the United States.
By using corn as its base, PLA is manufactured with annually renewable resources rather than petroleum, which can take over a million years to form.
There are several sources for oil including shale, tar sands and the liquid petroleum that is refined into several types of fuel.
It uses a renewable source of energy unlike the finite resources of coal, natural gas, and petroleum products.
The new industry can help replace some of the destruction caused by traditional sources of energy, including coal and petroleum consumption.
Petroleum distillates are a good example.
Apply a light coat of lip balm or petroleum jelly to your lips and lightly tap the golden shadow across your pout.
Slather petroleum jelly on every outside doorknob in the school.
One is the benefit to your physical health and the other is the benefit of a healthier environment with less dependence on petroleum products.
Saves Energy: Organic farming is less dependent on petroleum products for energy as many of the labor-intensive practices common to organic procedures are still done by hand.
For those tired of worrying about animal testing and the use of petroleum in lotions and cosmetics, Full Circle has a number of options.
Synthetic ingredients commonly found in lotion, such as mineral oil and petroleum jelly, can be very drying to the skin of children and adults.
In fact, just by browsing the toy aisles at most any store, it's easy to see that a good majority of children's toys are made with some form of petroleum based plastics.
There are no petroleum products to harm your skin or body.
The scary thing is that these chemicals tend to be petroleum based and do not readily wash out of the fabric.
For acid, alkali, or petroleum product poisonings, the person should not vomit.
Acids and alkalis can burn the esophagus if they are vomited, and petroleum products can be inhaled into the lungs during vomiting, resulting in pneumonia.
In a 2001 study of youths ages 15 to 21, researchers found 33 to 50 percent of youth said it was important for the condom to fit tightly, leaving no air space at the tip, and that petroleum jelly, such as Vaseline, is a good lubricant.
The doctor may also pack the child's nose with gauze coated with petroleum jelly.
Use a humidifier during heating season to prevent drying and itching of the nasal membranes and coat the inside of the child's nose with petroleum jelly.
An antibiotic ointment or petroleum jelly may be applied to the site.
Petroleum jelly provides a protective coating, even on sore, redden skin, and is easy to clean.
Parents may use vegetable oil, petroleum jelly, or such commercial creams as Aveeno, Curel, Purpose, Dermasil, Neutrogena, DML Forte, and Eucerin.
The child's rectal area should be coated with petroleum jelly to reduce irritation.
They include Cocculus, Petroleum, and Tabacum.
Do not try to remove the tick by using petroleum jelly, alcohol, or a lit match.
I've seen those listed as aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon, petroleum and mineral oil.
Petroleum and coal have been worked, and there is a rich yield of chalk, while a good quality of bricks is made from the xxii.
The conditions of formation and accumulation of petroleum point to the fact that the principal oil fields of the world are merely reservoirs, which will become exhausted in the course of years, as in the case of the decreasing yield of certain of the American fields.
The residues from petroleum distillation have been shown to contain very dense solids and liquids of high specific gravity, having a large proportion of carbon and possessed of remarkable fluorescent properties.
Here the application of the term is limited to the liquid which is so important an article of commerce, though references will also be made to natural gas which accompanies petroleum.
The main supplies have been obtained from strata unbroken and comparatively undisturbed, but the occurrence of anticlinal or terrace structure, however slightly marked or limited in extent, exerts a powerful influence on the creation of reservoirs of petroleum.
The earlier supporters of the organic theory held that it was a product of the natural distillation of coal or carbonaceous matter; but though in a few instances volcanic intrusions appear to have converted coal or allied substances into oil, it seems that terrestrial vegetation does not generally give rise to petroleum.
The petroleum industry in the United States may be considered to date from the year 1859, when the first well avowedly drilled The for the production of oil was completed by E.
The drilling of petroleum wells is carried on by individuals or companies, either on lands owned by them, or on properties whose owners grant leases, usually on condition that a certain number of wells shall be sunk within a stated period, and that a portion of the oil obtained (usually from one-tenth to one-fourth) shall be appropriated as royalty to the lessor.
The " wild-cat " wells, sunk by speculators on untested territory or on lands which had not previously proved productive, played an important part in the earlier mapping out of the petroleum fields.
The yield of petroleum wells varies within very wide limits, and the relative importance of the different producing districts is also Yield of constantly changing.
He assumes that in what is considered a good producing district the amount of petroleum which can be obtained from a cubic foot of rock would not be more than a gallon, and that the average thickness of the oil-bearing rock would not exceed 5 ft.
The petroleum industry in Canada is mainly concentrated in the district of Petrolea, Ontario.
Although petroleum wells in Russia have not the depth of many of those in the United States, the disturbed character of the strata, with consequent liability to caving, and the occurrence of hard concretions, render drilling a lengthy and expensive Drilling in operation.
The Davis calyx drill has also been employed for petroleum drilling.
In conclusion it may be stated that the two systems of drilling for petroleum with which by far the largest amount of work has been, and is being done, are the American or rope Comparison system, and the Canadian or rod system.
In the early days of the petroleum industry the oil was transported in the most primitive manner.
In America, crude petroleum was at first transported in iron-hooped barrels, holding from 40 to 42 American gallons, which were carried by teamsters to Oil Creek and the Allegheny River, where they were loaded on boats, these being floated down stream whenever sufficient water was present - a method leading to much loss by collision and grounding.
The means of transporting petroleum in bulk commonly used at the present day is the pipe-line system, the history of which dates from 1860.
The barrels employed in the transport of petroleum products are made of well-seasoned white-oak staves bound by six or eight iron hoops.
The distillation of petroleum, especially of such as was intended for medicinal use, was regularly carried on in the 18th century, and earlier.
Ragozin states in his work on the petroleum industry that Johann Lerche, who visited the Caspian district in 1735, found that the crude Caucasian oil required to be distilled to render it satisfactorily combustible, and that, when distilled, it yielded a bright yellow oil resembling a spirit, which readily ignited.
They used an iron still, set in brickwork, and from a working charge of forty " buckets " of crude petroleum obtained a yield of sixteen buckets of " white naphtha."
1864), and the refining of petroleum in that country may be said to date from about the year 1855, when Samuel M.
At this period the supply of the raw material was insufficient to admit of any important development in the industry, and before the drilling of artesian wells for petroleum was initiated by Drake the " coal-oil " or shale-oil industry had assumed considerable proportions in the United States.
Two large refineries, one on Newtown Creek, Long Island, and another in South Brooklyn, also on Long Island, were in successful operation when the abundant pr oduction of petroleum, which immediately followed the completion of the Drake well, placed at the disposal of the refiner a material which could be worked more profitably than bituminous shale.
Various arrangements have been proposed and patented for the continuous distillation of petroleum, in which crude oil is supplied to a range of stills as fast as the distillates pass off.
This was plainly stated by Professor Silliman in the earliest stages of development of the American petroleum industry.
The result of this treatment is that the comparatively heavy oils undergo dissociation, as shown by the experiments of Thorpe and Young, into specifically lighter hydrocarbons of lower boiling points, and the yield of kerosene from ordinary crude petroleum may thus be greatly increased.
In the American petroleum refineries it is found that sufficient cracking can be produced by slow distillation in stills of which the upper part is sufficiently cool to allow of the condensation of the vapours of the less volatile hydrocarbons, the condensed liquid thus falling back into the heated body of oil.
The products obtained by the distillation of petroleum are not in a marketable condition, but require chemical treatment to remove acid and other bodies which impart a dark colour as well as an unpleasant odour to the liquid, and in the case of lamp-oils, reduce the power of rising in the wick by capillary attraction.
A large number of physical and chemical tests are applied both to crude petroleum and to the products manufactured therefrom.
In the routine examination of crude petroleum it is customary to determine the specific gravity, and the amount of water and earthy matter in suspension; the oil is also frequently subjected to a process of fractional distillation in order to ascertain whether there has been any addition of distilled products or residue.
Petroleum spirit is tested for specific gravity, range of boilingpoints, and results of fractional distillation.
Petroleum has very long been known as a source of light and heat, while the use of crude oil for the treatment of wounds and cutaneous affections, and as a lubricant, was even more general and led to the raw material being an article of commerce at a still earlier date.
For pharmaceutical purposes crude petroleum is no longer generally used by civilized races, though the product vaseline is largely employed in this way, and emulsions of petroleum have been administered internally in various pectoral complaints; while the volatile product termed rhigolene has been largely used as a local anaesthetic.
For illuminating purposes, the most extensively-used product is kerosene, but both the more and the less volatile portions Of petroleum are employed in suitable lamps.
Petroleum products are also largely utilized in gas manufacture for, (1) the production of " air-gas," (2) the manufacture of oil-gas, and (3) the enrichment of coal-gas.
The use of petroleum as liquid fuel is dealt with under Fuel, as is the employment of its products in motors, which has greatly increased the demand for petroleum spirit.
Petroleum has largely superseded other oils, and is still gaining ground, as a lubricant for machinery and railway rolling-stock, either alone or in admixture with fixed oils.
Since the inception of the petroleum industry, most civilized countries have prescribed by law a test of flash-point or inflammability, designed in most cases primarily to afford a definition of oils for lighting purposes which may be safely stored without the adoption of special precautions.
While the subject of the testing of petroleum for legislative purposes has been investigated in Great Britain by committees of both branches of the legislature, with a view to change in the law, the standard has never been raised, since such a course would tend to reduce the available supply and thus lead to increase in price or deterioration in quality.
Moreover the chief object of the Petroleum Acts passed in the United Kingdom has hitherto been to regulate storage, and it has always been possible to obtain oils either of higher or lower flash-point, when such are preferred, irrespective of the legal standard, in addition to which it may be asserted that in a properly constructed lamp used with reasonable care the ordinary oil of commerce is a safe illuminant.
The more recent legislation with regard to " petroleum spirit " relates mainly to the quantity which may be stored for use on " light locomotives."
The more important local authorities throughout the country have made regulations under the powers conferred upon them by the Petroleum Acts, with the object of regulating the " keeping, sale, conveyance and hawking " of petroleum products having a flash-point below 73° F., and the Port of London authority, together with other water-way and harbour authorities in the United Kingdom, have their own by-laws relating to the navigation of vessels carrying such petroleum.
In Germany, the law prescribes a close-test of 21° C., equal to about 70° F., whilst in Russia the standard is 28° C., equal to 84.4° F., by the close-test; in both these countries the weights of petroleum which may be stored in specified buildings are determined by law.
See Sir Boverton Redwood's Petroleum and its Products (2nd ed., London, 1906); A.
Beeby Thompson, Petroleum Mining (1910); L.
The petroleum (Quirinus-oil) found in the neighbourhood of the lake takes its name from him.
Petroleum has been discovered in the neighbourhood, and about 40 m.
Among the principal varieties are those which contain carbolic acid and other ingredients of coal tar, salicylic acid, petroleum, borax, camphor, iodine, mercurial salts, sulphur and tannin.
The region is a good one for general farming, and natural gas and petroleum are found in abundance in the vicinity.
The chief imports are textile fabrics, rice and petroleum.
Lancaster is the trade centre of a fertile agricultural region, has good transportation facilities, and is near the Hocking Valley and Sunday Creek Valley coal-fields; its commercial and industrial importance increased greatly, after 1900, through the development of the neighbouring natural gas fields and, after 1907-1908, through the discovery of petroleum near the city.
The Athabasca river region, as well as localities far north on the Mackenzie river, has decided indications of petroleum, though it is not yet developed.
The Yenangyat oil-fields, which produce quantities of petroleum, are in the south of the district, and iron used to be worked in a small way.
The important mineral products are salt, sulphur, petroleum and natural gas.
They were discovered before 1870 by searchers after petroleum, but their exploitation remained in the experimental stage until about 1900.
Evidences of petroleum were discovered long ago, in the very field where in recent years the Beaumont and Vinton wells were bored.
In 1907 the state produced 5,000,221 barrels of petroleum, valued at $4,063,033.
Bituminous products of every grade, from clear translucent oils resembling petroleum and refined naphtha, to lignite-like substances, occur in all parts of the island.
Petroleum has been used to some extent both as a fuel and as an illuminant.
The imports are woollen and cotton piece-goods, metals and petroleum.
Sulphur, arsenic, asphalt and petroleum exist.
deep), the Hansa dock, India dock, petroleum dock, several swimming and dry docks; and in the west of the free port area three other large docks, one of 77 acres for river craft, the others each 56 acres in extent, and one 234 ft.
Gold is found in the sands of all its upper tributaries, and coal and petroleum are amongst the chief mineral products which have been brought into economic prominence.
Copper is mined and extensive deposits of petroleum and asphalt are being exploited.
Either they are placed in a leaden cupboard into which the vapour is introduced, or they are dipped for a few seconds in a mixture of one part of chloride of sulphur and forty parts of carbon disulphide or purified light petroleum.
The principal centre for the remainder (textiles and petroleum), conveyed by land, is Kiakhta on the Mongolian frontier.
It is the terminus of steamer navigation on the Brahmaputra, and also of a railway running to important coal-mines and petroleum wells, which connects with the Assam-Bengal system.
Besides wool, leading imports are jute, cotton, flax, timber, petroleum, coal, pitch, wine, cereals, oil-seeds and oil-cake, nitrate of soda and other chemical products, and metals.
The industries include the spinning of jute, flax, hemp and cotton, iron-founding, brewing, and the manufacture of machinery, fishing-nets, sailcloth, sacks, casks, and soap. There are also saw-and flour-mills, petroleum refineries and oil-works.
The town has a small trade in timber, petroleum and farm produce.
The chief exports are fish, cereals, bacon; imports, petroleum and coal.
Its chief mineral products are coal, nitre, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, gypsum, porcelain-earth, pipe-clay, asphalt, petroleum, marble and ores of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, cobalt and arsenic. The principal mining regions are Zsepes-Giimor in Upper Hungary, the Kremnitz-Schemnitz district, the Nagybanya district, the Transylvanian deposits and the Banat.
Indirect taxes amounted in 1904 to £7,363,000, and the chief heads of indirect taxation yielded as follows: taxes on alcoholic drinks, £4,375,000; sugar tax, £1,292,000; petroleum tax, £418,000; meat tax, £375,000.
Besides wine, fruit, grain and timber, the surrounding uplands yield petroleum and salt.
The imports include manufactured articles of all kinds, hardware and building materials, earthenware and glassware, furniture, drugs and medicines, wines, foodstuffs, coal, petroleum and many other things.
The principal minerals are gold, copper, iron, sulphur, coal, asphalt and petroleum.
The latter place also yields petroleum.
The mineral resources include gold, silver, copper and petroleum, but no mines were in operation in 1906.
The irritant may be chemical, as is seen in the skin cancers that develop in workers in paraffin, petroleum, arsenic and aniline.
The petroleum of Burma occurs in the Miocene beds, one of the best-known fields being that of Yenangyaung.
Noetling, " The Occurrence of Petroleum in Burma, and its Technical Exploitation," Mem.
The principal seats of the petroleum industry are Yenangyaung in the Magwe, and Yenangyat in the Pakokku districts.
Subordinate products for exports include cutch dye, caoutchouc or india-rubber, cotton, petroleum and jade.
Crude petroleum and a thin tar, resulting from the process of enriching water-gas with petroleum, have been used ?
In 1911-3 a pipe-line was laid from Matadi, on the Congo estuary, to Stanley Pool to supply the river steamers with petroleum for fuel and reservoirs capable of holding 8,000 tons of oil were built.
The oldest rocks of Barbados, known as the Scotland series, are of shallow water origin, consisting of coarse grits, brown sandstones and sandy clays, in places saturated with petroleum and traversed by veins of manjak.
The imports consist mainly of European manufactured goods (especially British cotton), machinery, flour, alcohol, sugar, timber, coal and petroleum.
Within these limits are to be found most of the minerals known - gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, wolfram, bismuth, thorium, vanadium; mica, coal, &c. On or near the coast are coal, salt, sulphur, borax, nitrates and petroleum.
Petroleum has been found at several points on the coast in the department of Piura, and near Lake Titicaca in the department of Puno.
The manufacturing industries of Peru are confined chiefly to the treatment of agricultural and mineral products - the manufacture of sugar and rum from sugar cane, textiles from cotton and wool, wine and spirits from grapes, cigars and cigarettes from tobacco, chocolate from cacao, kerosene and benzine from crude petroleum, cocaine from coca, and refined metals from their ores.
Middendorf, Peru: Beobachtungen and Studien 'fiber das Land and seine Bewohner, &c. (Berlin, 1893); Federico Moreno, Petroleum in Peru (Lima, 1891); Dr M.
Wood-spirit, petroleum and coal-tar distillates are condensed in plant of the latter type.
Dephlegmation of the vapours arising from such mixtures as coaltar fractions, petroleum and the "wash" of the spirit industry, is very important, and many types of apparatus are employed in order to effect a separation of the vapours.
The technology of distillation is best studied in relation to the several industries in which it is employed; reference should be made to the articles COAL-TAR, GAS, PETROLEUM, SPIRITS, NITRIC ACID, &c. (C. E.*)
Petroleum refineries, iron-foundries, chemicals, soap-boiling, silk-spinning and the production of ships' fittings, as marine steam boilers, anchors, chains, cables, are the other principal branches of industry.
The value of trade probably exceeds 2,000,000, principal exports being rice, raw silk, dry fruit, fish, sheep and cattle, wool and cotton, and cocoons, the principal imports sugar, cotton goods, silkworm "seed" or eggs (70,160 worth in 1906-7), petroleum, glass and china., The trade in dried silkworm cocoons has increased remarkably since 1893, when only 76,150 lb valued at 6475 were exported; during the year 1906-7 ending 10th March, 2,717,540 lb valued at 238,000 were exported.
The principal exports are salt, minerals, opium, cotton, cereals, wool and live stock; and the imports cloth-goods, coffee, rice and petroleum.
It is now, however, the chief emporium of the Rhenish wine traffic, and also carries on an extensive transit trade in grain, timber, flour, petroleum, paper and vegetables.
Cotton yarn and cloth, petroleum, timber and furs are among the chief imports; copper, tin, hides and tea are important exports; medicines in the shape not only of herbs and roots, but also of fossils, shells, bones, teeth and various products of the animal kingdom; and precious stones, principally jade and rubies, are among the other exports.
Imports include cotton and silk goods, coal, iron and steel, petroleum, timber, raw wool, cotton yarn and cork.
Devoting himself to the economic side of geology in various parts of North America, he was enabled to bring out in 1861 A Practical Treatise on Coal, Petroleum and other Distilled Oils.
Although the state is supposed to have several of the minerals found in this part of Mexico (silver, cinnabar, iron, lead, gold, petroleum and coal), its mining industries continue undeveloped and neglected.
The Carpathian system is richer in metallic ores than any other mountain system of Europe, and contains large quantities of gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, coal, petroleum, salt, zinc, &c., besides a great variety of useful mineral.
Hydrocarbons, such as petroleum, bitumen, paraffin, &c., are also found occasionally in coal, but more generally in the associated sandstones and limestones of the Carboniferous formation.
By far the largest item in these totals after 1902 represented the value of petroleum.
Since 1876 it has been one of the most important oil centres of the state, and it has been connected by pipe lines with cities along the Atlantic coast; petroleum refining is an important industry.
of the city and wells throughout the city; petroleum is largely employed as fuel in factories.
In 1905 the value of petroleum refined in Los Angeles was $461,281.
At one time it gave occupation to a thousand ships, but the introduction of petroleum gradually diminished this resource of the lesser ports.
The chief exports are butter and eggs; the chief imports sugar, petroleum, coal and iron.
Livonia carries on a large export trade, especially through Riga and Pernau, in petroleum, wool, oilcake, flax, linseed, hemp, grain, timber and wooden wares; the Dvina is the chief channel for this trade.
More than thirty mineral substances are obtained in commercial quantities from the mines, quarries and wells of New York, but of the total value of the mineral products in 1908 ($45,6 6 9, 861), nearly six-sevenths was' represented by clay products ($8,929,224), pig iron ($15,879,000), stone ($6,157,279), cement ($ 2, 2 54,759), salt ($2,136,738), petroleum ($2,071,533), and sand and gravel ($1,349,163).
Petroleum springs have been tapped near New Plymouth.
Petroleum has been found in the Ficksburg, Ladybrand and Harrismith districts, and is pumped to a limited extent.
Silver follows gold in importance, but the other minerals met with, including gypsum, mica, petroleum, natural gas, granite, marble and tin are not found in paying quantities.
There is a considerable trade in livestock, preserved meat, petroleum and cereals.
Petroleum is a valuable product of Sumatra and Java, and is also found in Borneo.
The principal articles of export are sugar, tobacco, copra, forest products (various gums, &c.), coffee, petroleum, tea, cinchona, tin, rice, pepper, spices and gambier.
The average output of petroleum annually in1900-1905was 120,000,000 gallons; this, again, has fluctuated greatly.
Besides building materials, such as sandstone, slate, &c., the only mineral to be found within the canton is bituminous shale, the products of which can be used for petroleum and asphalt.
Naphtha wells are working with favourable results at Gbely in Slovakia, and researches in progress at other points (Russinia) promise results that would make Czechoslovakia independent of foreign sources in respect of petroleum, even if no surplus were produced for export.
There is not a very active trade direct with foreign countries, as the principal imports - cotton, leather, petroleum, sugar, coal and timber - are introduced through Barcelona.
It is found native as the diamond (q.v.), graphite, as a constituent of all animal and vegetable tissues and of coal and petroleum.
The most productive are those of iron and zinc. Lignite is found in the department of Algiers and petroleum in that of Oran.
Petroleum was discovered on Little Rennick's Creek, near Burkesville, in Cumberland county, in 1829, when a flowing oil well (the " American well," whose product was sold as " American oil " to heal rheumatism, burns, &c.) was struck by men boring for a "salt well," and after a second discovery in the 'sixties at the mouth of Crocus Creek a small but steady amount of oil was got each year.
In 1902 the petroleum produced in the state amounted to 248,950 barrels, valued at $172,837, a gain in quantity of 81.4% over 1901.
The chief articles of export are cereals, flour, wool, hemp, skins and fish; and the imports include hardwares, fruits, oil and petroleum.
Besides the above, the mineral resources of Mexico include coal, petroleum, asphalt, platinum, graphite, soda and marble.
Gold is found in Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Vera Cruz, Zacatecas, and to a limited extent in other states; silver in every state and territory except Campeche, Chiapas, Tabasco, Tlaxcala and the Yucatan peninsula; copper in Lower California, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Sonora, Tamaulipas and some other states; mercury chiefly in Guanajuato, Guerrero, San Luis Potosi, Vera Cruz and Zacatecas; tin in Guanajuato; coal, petroleum and asphalt in 20 states, but chiefly in Coahuila, Hidalgo, Michoacan, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas and Vera Cruz; iron in Durango, Hidalgo, Oaxaca and other states; and lead in Hidalgo, Queretaro and in many of the silver-producing districts.
The same is true of the petroleum deposits in Tamaulipas, near Tampico, and in southern Vera Cruz.
The leading products, as reported by the Geological Survey for 1907, were as follows: coal, $614,798,898 (85,604,312 tons of anthracite coal, 394.759,112 of bituminous); petroleum, $120,106,749; natural gas, ~54,222,399; iron ore, $131,996,147 (pig iron, $529,958,000); copper, refined, $173,799,300; gold, coinage value, $90,435,700; buii~..ing-stone, $71,105,805; silver, commercial value, ~272OO,700: lean.
Petroleum, according to the report of the National Conservation Commission in 1908, was then the sixth largest contributor to the Petrol nations mineral wealth, furnishing about one-sixteenth eum.
Of other non-metallic mineral substances, apart from coal, petroleum and natural gas, little need be said in detail.
The principal articles of import in 1919-20 were: cotton piece-goods and yarn £ 2,180,000, hides and skins £1,291,000, coal £626,000, grain and flour £541,000, coffee, sugar, tobacco, hardware, petroleum and provisions.
Licenses are required for the importation of petroleum and small arms and ammunition.
Though petroleum and salt occur in the southwest peninsula of Ontario, metalliferous deposits are wanting, and the real wealth of this district lies in its soil and climate, which permit the growth of all the products of temperate regions.
Coal and lignitic coal are the principal economic minerals met with in this central plain, though natural gas occurs and is put to use near Medicine Hat, and " tar sands " along the northeastern edge of the Cretaceous indicate the presence of petroleum.
The chief local industries are tanning and the manufacture of petroleum drums. The opening, in 1895, of the railway to Bucharest, which crosses the Danube by a bridge at Cerna Voda, brought Constantza a considerable transit trade in grain and petroleum, which are largely exported; coal and coke head the list of imports, followed by machinery, iron goods, and cotton and woollen fabrics.
The Harz Mountains are rich in silver, lead, iron and copper; coal is found around Osnabruck, on the Deister, at Osterwald, &c., lignite in various places; salt-springs of great richness exist at Egestorf shall and Neuhall near Hanover, and at Luneburg; and petroleum may be obtained south of Celle.
Other industrial establishments of importance include petroleum refineries, ship-yards, brick, stone and lime works, saddlery and harness factories, lithographing establishments, patent medicine works, chemical works, and copper smelters and refineries.
The Apsheron peninsula is dry and bare of vegetation; but within it are situated the famous petroleum wells of Baku.
These, which go down to depths of 700 to 1700 ft., yield crude naphtha, from which the petroleum or kerosene is distilled; while the heavier residue (mazut) is used as lubricating oil and for fuel, for instance in the locomotives of the Transcaspian railway.
NAPHTHA, a word originally applied to the more fluid kinds of petroleum, issuing from the ground in the Baku district of Russia and in Persia.
Extending from the south-west corner of the state through Greene, Washington, Allegheny, Beaver, Butler, Venango, Clarion, Forest, Elk, Warren, McKean and Tioga counties is the Pennsylvania section of the Appalachian oil-field which, with the small section in New York, furnished nearly all of the country's supply of petroleum for some years following the discovery of its value for illuminating purposes.
But it was not until the middle of the 19th century that its value as an illuminating oil became known, and not until 1859 was the first petroleum well drilled.
In 1905 the twelve leading manufactures, with the value of each, were: steel and malleable iron, $363,773,577; foundry and machineshop products, consisting most largely of steam locomotives, metalworking machinery and pumping machinery, $119,650,913; pigiron, $107,455,267; leather, $69,427,852; railway cars and repairs by steam railway companies, $61,021,374; refined petroleum, $47,459,5 02; silk and silk goods, $39,333,520; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $39,079,122; flour and grist-mill products, $38,518,702; refined sugar and molasses, $37,182,504; worsted goods, $35,683,015; and malt liquors, $34,863,823.
Within its limits, in 1905, all the sugar and molasses were manufactured and much of the petroleum was refined, nearly all of the iron and steel ships and steam locomotives were built, and 93% of the carpets and rugs were made, and the total value of the manufactures of this city in that year was nearly one-third of that for the entire state.
Philadelphia, the Atlantic port, exports chiefly petroleum, coal, grain and flour, and imports chiefly iron ore, sugar, drugs and chemicals, manufactured iron, hemp, jute and flax.
The principal exports are wool, mohair and copper ore, and imports are cotton and woollen goods, indigo, coffee, sugar, petroleum, &c.
Exports, mostly agricultural produce (butter, bacon, eggs); imports, iron, petroleum, coal, yarn and timber.
Toledo is the port of entry for the Miami customs district and is an important shipping point for the iron and copper ores and lumber from the Lake Superior and Michigan regions, for petroleum, coal, fruit, and grain and clover-seed.
Other important manufactures in 1905 were petroleum products ($2,006,484); lumber and planing mill products ($1,604,274); women's clothing ($1,477,648); children's carriages and sleds ($ 1, 4 6 5,599); car-shop construction and repairs, by steam railway companies ($1,366,506); carriages and wagons ($ 1, 22 5,387); structural iron work ($1,102,035); agricultural implements, bicycles, automobiles (a recent and growing industry), plate and cut-glass (made largely from a fine quality of sand found near the city), tobacco, spices and malted liquors.
Coal and petroleum have been found.
Despite the lack of railway communication, and the migration of the Turkish inhabitants after the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878), Sistova is an important commercial centre, exporting wine and grain and importing petroleum.
To produce the alkali metal, a calcined mixture of sodium carbonate, coal and chalk was strongly ignited in flat retorts made of boiler-plate; the sodium distilled over into condensers and was preserved under heavy petroleum.
On the east coast it sometimes yields petroleum.
The production of petroleum began to be strongly developed towards the close of the 19th century; on the Lepan River in Langkat it mounted from 362,880 gallons in 1891 to 20,141,000 gallons in 1899.
Muara Enim in Palembang also produces petroleum.
Perlak, formerly a tributary state of Achin and now a political division of the Achin government, has become one of the chief centres of the petroleum industry.
An examination of its lists of exports and imports will show that Holland receives from its colonies its spiceries, coffee, sugar, tobacco, indigo, cinnamon; from England and Belgium its manufactured goods and coals; petroleum, raw cotton and cereals from the United States; grain from the Baltic provinces, Archangel, and the ports of the Black Sea; timber from Norway and the basin of the Rhine, yarn from England, wine from France, hops from Bavaria and Alsace; ironore from Spain; while in its turn it sends its colonial wares to Germany, its agricultural produce to the London market, its fish to Belgium and Germany, and its cheese to France, Belgium and Hamburg, as well as England.
Berthelot, Jahresb., 1851), or when petroleum is led through a red-hot tube packed with charcoal (A.
the other metals, coal, petroleum and the precious stones, of which the supply is limited.
In two articles, tobacco and rice, Bremen is the greatest market in the world; in cotton and indigo it takes the first place on the continent, and it is a serious rival of Hamburg and Antwerp in the import of wool and petroleum.
Since the opening of the new port the traffic has considerably increased, and it exports oil, pig-lead, silver, flour, wine, marble and sandstone for paving purposes, while it imports quantities of coal, iron, cereals, phosphates, timber, pitch, petroleum, and mineral oils.
In the neighbourhood are petroleum wells and a diamond mine.
The development of the petroleum industry in the Apeshron peninsula (Baku) and the opening (1886) of the Transcaspian railway have greatly increased the traffic across the Caspian Sea.
And Russia draws her own supplies of petroleum, both for lighting and for use as liquid fuel, by the sea route from Baku.
PICENE, a hydrocarbon found in the pitchy residue obtained in the distillation of peat-tar and of petroleum.
At various points, especially at Hit, and from Hit southward along the edge of the Arabian plateau occur bitumen, naphtha and white petroleum springs, all of which remain undeveloped.
Petroleum 5,036,600 132,300
At the beginning of the autumn session a union of 204 members of the Reichstag was formed for the discussion of econolnic questions, and they accepted Bismarcks reforms. In December he was therefore able to issue a memorandum explaining his policy; it included a moderate duty, about 5%, on all imported goods, with the exception of raw material required for German manufactures (this was a return to the old Prussian principle); high finance duties on tobacco, beer, brandy and petroleum; and protective duties on iron, corn, cattle, wood, wine and sugar.
In the last petroleum, natural gas, salt and gypsum are obtained, but elsewhere in southern Ontario no economic minerals except building materials are obtained.
In the older districts of the province are found petroleum and salt.
The district around Petrolea produces about 30,000,000 gallons of petroleum yearly, practically the whole output of the dominion.
During 1881-1882 Hungary, desiring means of retaliation against the duties on corn and the impediments to the importation of cattle recently introduced into Germany, withdrew her opposition to protective duties; the tariff was completely revised, protective duties were introduced on all articles of home production, and high finance duties on other articles such as coffee and petroleum.
Then followed the debates in the two parliaments; there was a ministerial crisis in Austria, because the House refused to accept the tax on coffee and petroleum which was recommended by the ministers; and finally a great council of all the ministers, with the emperor presiding, determined the compromise that was at last accepted.
In 1887 things went better; there was some difficulty about the tariff, especially about the tax on petroleum, but Count Taaffe had a stronger position than the Austrian ministers of 1877.
During discussions on the economic arrangement with Hungary in 1877 a large number voted against the duties on coffee and petroleum, which were an essential part of the agreement; they demanded, moreover, that the treaty of Berlin should be laid before the House, and 112 members, led by Herbst, gave a vote hostile to some of its provisions, and in the Delegation refused the supplies necessary for the occupation of Bosnia.
The chief imports are coal from Great Britain, herrings from Sweden, petroleum from America, timber, wine and colonial goods.
Natural gas and crude petroleum from Kansas fields became of industrial importance about 1906.
Petroleum occurs at Jebel Zeit, on the west shore of the Gulf of Suez.
The principal articles imported are: cotton goods and other textiles, coal, iron and steel, timber, tobacco, machinery, flour, alcoholic liquors, petroleum, fruits, coffee and live animals.
Salt often occurs in association with petroleum and natural gas, and extensive beds were discovered in the Wyoming valley in boring for petroleum.
It exports timber, grain, salt and petroleum; importing coal, iron and textiles.
The commerce is fairly active, and is mainly in cattle, dairy products, wood and wooden articles, and petroleum.
In the early days of rotatory kilns producer gas was used as a fuel, but with little success; about 1895 petroleum was used in the United States with complete success, but at a relatively heavy cost.
At the present time, finely powdered coal injected by a blast of air is almost universally employed, petroleum being used only where it is actually cheaper than coal.
Besides having a considerable share in the commerce of the port of New York, Bayonne is an important manufacturing centre; among its manufactures are refined petroleum, refined copper and nickel (not from the ore), refined borax, foundry and machine-shop products, tubular boilers, electric launches and electric motors, chemicals (including ammonia and sulphuric and nitric acids), iron and brass products, wire cables and silk goods.
Coal of good quality has been found in Azuay and at other points, and petroleum is known to exist in several localities.
The output of petroleum in Illinois was long unimportant.
In 1889 the yield of petroleum was 1460 barrels.
In April 1906 the first pipe lines for petroleum in Illinois were laid; before that time all shipments had been in tank cars.
In connexion with petroleum, natural gas has been found, especially in Clark and Crawford counties; in 1906 the state's product of natural gas was valued at $87,211.
The Federal government completed in October 1907 the construction of a 1 According to the report of the State Geological Survey, the value of the total mineral product in the state for 1907 was $152,122,648, the values of the different minerals being as follows: coal, $54,687,382; pig iron, about $52,228,000; petroleum, $ 16, 43 2, 947; clay and clay products, $13,351,362; zinc, $6,614,608; limestone, $4,333,651; Portland cement, $2,632,576; sand and gravel, $1,367,653; natural slag, $174,282; fluorspar, $141,971; mineral waters, $91,700; lead ore, $45,760; sandstone, $14,996; and pyrite, $5700.
Numerous " shows " of petroleum exist along a broad belt running N.W.
It imports commodities to the value of nearly 2,000,000 yearly, half of which is coal, with petroleum, iron, cereals, &c. In 1906, 777,000 tons of shipping, of which about half was British, and most of the rest Italian, entered.
The leading imports are grains, flour, lard and various other foodstuffs, coal, lumber, petroleum and machinery, all mainly from the United States; wines and olive oil from Spain; jerked beef from South America; fabrics and other staples from varied sources.
There are minor manufacturing interests in tanneries, and in the manufacture of sweetmeats, malt and distilled liquors, especially rum, besides soaps, candles, starch, perfume, &c. There is one large and complete petroleum refinery (1905).
Special duties are imposed on liquors, arms and ammunition and petroleum, while imported salt pays the same duty as salt manufactured locally.
Putting aside salt, which has been already treated, the chief mining resources of India at the present day are the coal mines, the gold mines, the petroleum oil-fields, the ruby mines, manganese deposits, mica mines in Bengal, and the tin ores and jade of Burma.
The minerals found include thick beds of copper at Bembe, and deposits on the M'Brije and the Cuvo and in various places in the southern part of the province; iron at Ociras (on the Lucalla affluent of the Kwanza) and in Bailundo; petroleum and asphalt in Dande and Quinzao; gold in Lombije and Cassinga; and mineral salt in Quissama.
Petroleum is an important product, and there are wells at a number of places along the coast, from Tumbes to Sechura, the most productive being those of Talara and Zorritos.
Several salt and hot springs occur in many localities; petroleum is also found, and extensive lime quarries exist a few miles south of Thayetmyo.
The calorimeter is surrounded by an air-jacket connected to a petroleum gauge which indicates any small change of temperature in the calorimeter, and enables the manipulator to adjust the supply of cold water to compensate it.
P. 75, 1880) Repeated The Experiment, Employing The Same Method, But Using A Larger Calorimeter (About 8400 Grammes) And A Petroleum Motor, So As To Obtain A Greater Rate Of Heating (About 84 Calories Per Second), And To Reduce The Importance Of The Uncertain Correction For External Loss Of Heat.
It has been suggested that the oily water known as telya pani indicates the presence of petroleum.
Corry is situated in the midst of a fine farming region, which is rich in petroleum and natural gas, and is widely known for its mineral springs.
Gold, petroleum, copper, borax and its products, clays, quicksilver and silver lead, in order of importance, representing some fourfifths of the total.
The production of crude petroleum has grown very rapidly since about 1895.
Both in 1900 and in 1905 California ranked fifth among the states of the United States in the petroleum refining industry.
The first continued to be a drag on such industries, until after 1895 the increasing use of crude petroleum obviated the difficulty.
Grains, lumber, fish, fruits and fruit products, petroleum, vegetables and sugar are the leading items in the commerce of San Francisco.
The principal exports are cattle and dairy produce, grain, lamb and goat skins, and cloth (shayak); the imports include coal, iron and machinery, textiles, petroleum and chemicals.
copper, gold, iron, petroleum, asbestos, soda, silver and lead, gypsum, stone and clay products.
There are extensive deposits of petroleum and natural gas, v hich have become of commercial importance.
Copper, coal, petroleum, silver and precious stones are also found, and there seems little reason to doubt that the mineral resources of Nicaragua, though undeveloped, are nearly as rich as those of Honduras.
The exports are: - Cereals, cotton, cotton seed, dried fruits, drugs, fruit, gall nuts, gum tragacanth, liquorice root, maize, nuts, olive oil, opium, rice, sesame, sponges, storax, timber, tobacco, valonia, walnut wood, wine, yellow berries, carpets, cotton yarn, cocoons, hides, leather, mohair, silk, silk stuffs, rugs, wax, wool, leeches, live stock, minerals, &c. The imports are: - Coffee, cotton cloths, cotton goods, crockery, drysalteries, fezzes, glass-ware, haberdashery, hardware, henna, ironware, jute, linen goods, manufactured goods, matches, petroleum, salt, sugar, woollen goods, yarns, &c.
Shipbuilding, especially for the transport of petroleum on the Caspian Sea, and steamboat building, have recently advanced considerably.
There are petroleum springs at Kordzot, deposits of lignite at Sivan and Nurduz, several hot springs at Zilan Deresi and Julamerk.
In 1847 Lyon Playfair informed him of a spring of petroleum which had made its appearance at Ridding's Colliery at Alfreton in Derbyshire, and in the following year he began to utilize it for making both burning and lubricating oils.
Petroleum occurs in Fremont and Boulder counties.
In 1905 the state ranked eleventh, in 1907 twelfth, in production of petroleum.
Of the total product in 1905 more than four-fifths were represented by the smelting of lead, copper and zinc ores, the manufacture of iron and steel, the production of coke, and the refining of petroleum.
The invention of the apparatus, legalized in 1879, for the determination of the flash-point of petroleum, was another piece of work which fell to him by virtue of his official position.
His first instrument, the open-test apparatus, was prescribed by the act of 1868, but, being found to possess certain defects, it was superseded in 1879 by the Abel close-test instrument (see Petroleum).
There are also special corporation taxes on car companies, express companies and foreign corporations producing, refining or selling petroleum or coal oil; and a system of licence-charges or business taxes.
The goods transmitted in largest quantity are fish, metals, manufactured wares, hides, flax, timber, cereals, petroleum, oils and salt.
Many of the steamers use as fuel mazut or petroleum refuse.
Owing to its position at the junction of several routes, Kerkuk has a brisk transit trade in hides, Persian silks and cottons, colouring materials, fruit and timber; but it owes its principal importance to its petroleum and naphtha springs.
The surrounding hills are rich in petroleum, salt and lignite.
high, in a good farming country, rich in bituminous coal, natural gas, building-stone, petroleum and clay.
The coal seams are commonly associated with petroleum springs.
The principal imports into Persia in approximate order of value are cottons, sugar, tea, woollens, cotton yarn, petroleum, stuffs of wool and cotton mixed, wool, hardware, ironmongery, matches, iron and steel, dyes, rice, spices and glass-wdre.
30, 1889) Baron Julius de Reuterin consideration of giving up the rights which he held by his concession obtained in I873became the owner of a concession for the formation of a Persian State Bank, with exclusive rights of issuing bank-notes and working the mines of iron, copper, lead, mercury, coal, petroleum, manganese, borax, and asbestos in Persia.
A somewhat thick and viscid form of mineral oil is met with at Khattan in the Marri country; and petroleum of excellent quality has been found in the Sherani hills and probably occurs in other portions of the Suliman Range.
Petroleum has been found near Torres Vedras; pitchblende, arsenic, anthracite and zinc are also mined.
The development of the petroleum fields of the state has greatly stimulated manufactures, as coal has always been dear, whereas the crude oil is now produced very cheaply.
Its principal exports are grain, wood, chemicals, spirits, sugar, herrings and coal, and its imports are iron goods, chemicals, grain, petroleum and coal.
A small quantity of petroleum is obtained from thirteen wells in St Clair county in the east part of the lower peninsula; and the mineral waters at Mount Clemens, Benton Harbor and Alma are of considerable commercial value for medicinal purposes.
The values of the other leading manufactures in 1905 were as follows: products of foundry and machine shops, $49,425,385; iron and steel 2 (including products of blast furnaces and rolling mills), $23,667,483; wire (exclusive of copper wire), $11,103,959; petroleum refining, $46,608,984; tanned, curried and finished leather, $21,495,329 (5th in the United States in 1900 and 1905); malt liquors, $ 1 7,44 6, 447; slaughter-house products and packed meats, $17,238,076; electrical machinery, supplies and apparatus, $13,803,476 (5th in the United States in 1900 and in 1905); chemicals, $13,023,629; rubber belting and hose, $9,915,742; jewelry, $9,303,646 (4th in the United States in 1900 and in 1905); tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $8,331,611.
It is also found among the distillation products of bituminous coal, lignite, and various shales, and has been detected in fusel oil and crude petroleum.
The town contains flour, paper and sawmills, sugar and petroleum refineries, tanneries, distilleries and soap works; it has also a large agricultural trade and is visited in summer for sea-bathing.
A great number of other statutes confer powers or impose duties upon district councils, such as the acts relating to town gardens, agricultural gangs, fairs, petroleum, infant life protection, commons, open spaces, canal boats, factories and workshops, margarine, sale of horse-flesh and shop hours.
Palestine is the trade centre of a district which produces cotton, timber, fruit (especially peaches), an excellent grade of wrapper tobacco, petroleum, iron-ore and salt.
Pittsburg is in the midst of the most productive coalfields in the country; the region is also rich in petroleum and natural gas.
The first petroleum pipe line reached Pittsburg in 1875.
The shales of Utah, Sanpete, Juab and San Juan counties may furnish a valuable supply of petroleum if transportation facilities are improved; and there are rich supplies of asphalt-19,033 tons (valued at $100,324) was the output for 1908.
On the north side of the Y are the dry docks and the !petroleum dock (1880-1890).
The principal imports are timber, coal, grain, ore, petroleum and colonial produce.
Since the growth of the petroleum industry of Baku and the construction of the Transcaspian railway, Astrakhan has become an important commercial centre, exporting fish, caviare, sugar, metals, naphtha, cottons and woollens, and importing grain, cotton, fruit and timber, to the aggregate value of £8,250,000 with foreign countries and of £14,500,doo with the interior of Russia.
350), naphtha or petroleum is added, and some nine centuries afterwards the same substances are found forming part of mixtures described in the later receipts (which probably date from the beginning of the 13th century) of the collection known as the Liber ignium of Marcus Graecus.
Usually these cavities contain a liquid (water, a saline solution, carbon dioxide or petroleum) and a movable bubble of gas.
Petroleum, salt, lignite and brown coal are largely worked.
The presence of petroleum, indicated by many ancient workings in the shape of shallow hand- (dug wells, can be traced continuously at the foot of the Transylvanian Alps, from Turnu Severin into Bukovina.
At the beginning of the 10th century the Rumanian petroleum deposits were among the most important in the world.
Associated with petroleum is ozokerite, converted by the peasantry into candles.
Lumber is floated down the rivers of the Carpathian watershed to the Danube, and so exported to Turkey and Bulgaria; casks, shaped planks and petroleum drums go chiefly to Austria and Russia.
These include petroleum refineries, iron foundries, distilleries, flour mills, sugar refineries, sawmills, paper mills, chemical works, glass works, soap and candle works, &c. A law passed in 1887 provided that any one undertaking to found an industrial establishment with a capital of at least £2000, or employing at least 25 workmen (of whom two-thirds should be Rumanians), should be granted 12 acres of state land, exemption for a term of years from all direct taxes, freedom from customs dues for machinery and raw material imported, exemption from road taxes, reduction in cost of carriage of materials on the state railways, and preferential rights to the supply of manufactured articles to the state.
Grain (£II,297,000 in 1908), petroleum (£I,543,000) and timber (£I,059,000) are by far the most important exports, the remainder consisting of live-stock the animal products, fruit, vegetables and mineral waters.
The state revenue is derived from customs; from public works and public land; from indirect taxes in the shape of stamp, inheritance, beer, spirit, petroleum and other duties; from direct taxes on land and buildings, with road-tolls, licences for the sale of alcohol and traders' registration fees; from the tobacco, salt, match, playing-card and cigarette-paper monopolies; and from the postal, telegraphic and telephonic services.
" The new mining law, among other concessions, gave foreigners the right to lease lands for long periods for the working of petroleum, and this was denounced by the opposition as being hostile to national interests, and also as being against the spirit of the constitution, XXIII.
Superficial evidences of natural gas and petroleum are abundant in western and north-western Missouri, but these have not been found in commercially profitable quantities.
Velez „ Among the smaller towns which deserve mention are Ambalema on the upper Magdalena, celebrated for its tobacco and cigars; Buenaventura (q.v.); Chaparral (9000), a market town of Tolima in the valley of the Saldana, with coal, iron and petroleum in its vicinity; Honda (6000), an important commercial centre at the head of navigation on the lower Magdalena; Girardot, a railway centre on the upper Magdalena; and Quibd6, a small river town at the head of navigation on the Atrato.
There are also indications of petroleum in Tolima and Bolivar.
It is on the main railway from Czernovitz, in Bukovina, to Galatz; and on two branch lines, one of which enters Transylvania through the Ghimesh Pass, while both give access to the salt mines, petroleum wells and forests of the Carpathians.
The city is a headquarters of the Standard Oil Company, and the refining of petroleum is one of the principal industries.
Many occur in nature in the free state: for example, natural gas, petroleum and paraffin are entirely composed of such bodies; other natural sources are india-rubber, turpentine and certain essential oils.
It exports large quantities of hemp and copra, and imports rice, petroleum, and cotton-goods.
According to the annual report on Mineral Resources of the United States for 1906, Indiana ranked fifth in the Union in the value of natural gas produced, sixth in petroleum, and sixth in coal.
The development of the petroleum field, which extends over Adams, Wells, Jay, Blackford and Grant counties, was rapid up to 1904.
Petroleum was discovered about 1865 in Miami and Bourbon counties, and about 1892 at Neodesha, Wilson county.
The mineral resources include coal, iron, silver, gold and petroleum, the first alone is mined.
Copper ore and petroleum are worked at Sharkeui, and the neighbourhood formerly produced wine that was highly esteemed and largely exported to France for blending.
The petroleum wells of Ferghana and the beds of graphite about Zairamnor are neglected.
East Turkestan contains several minerals, such as gold, mined to a very small extent in the Kuen-lun Mountains; lead found in the country west of Kashgar and once worked in the Kuruk-tagh, and copper and petroleum near Kashgar; coal exists in abundance in the Kulja valley and is found at Ak-su, Korla, Kara-shahr, Turfan and Hami on the northern verge of the deserts.
£ T 1 3,500,000 Haberdashery, ironmongery 90,000 Sugar 500,000 Petroleum 400,000 Flour 400,000 Coffee 300,000 Rice 250,000 Cattle.
Coal and petroleum are found in the neighbourhood.
Besides these, there are the harbour of the principal shipping company - the Russian Company for Navigation and Commerce, and the petroleum harbour.
A new and spacious harbour, especially for the petroleum trade, was constructed in 1894-1900.
£21,572,000 The chief sources of revenue are customs duties, the state monopolies of salt, sugar, tobacco, matches and petroleum; national property, e.g.
The principal items of import are cotton yarns, metals, sugar, petroleum and coal; of export, silk, representing in value 34% of the total exports, cotton, tea, rice, hides and skins, wool, wheat and beans.
Some petroleum was discovered in the N.
Bitumen and petroleum have been found; graphite is plentiful, and sulphur, salt, saltpetre and lime are also procured.
Here petroleum tanks have been constructed for the storage of Rumanian petroleum, the first consignment of which in 1898, conveyed in tank boats, took six weeks on the voyage up from Giurgevo.
The principal mineral products are salt, coal and petroleum.
Some of the richest petroleum fields in Europe are spread in the region of the Carpathians, and are worked at Boryslaw and Schodnica near Drohobycz, Bobrka and Potok near Krosno, Sloboda-Rungurska near Kolomea, &c. Great quantities of ozocerite are also extracted in the petroliferous region of the Carpathians.
Then follow the petroleum refineries and kindred industries, saw-mills and the fabrication of various wood articles, paper and milling.
Besides large tobacco, glass and porcelain factories, Gijon possesses iron foundries and petroleum refineries; while its minor industries include fisheries, and the manufacture of preserved foods, soap, chocolate, candles and liqueurs.
The paper, sugar, salt petroleum and metallurgical industries were subjected to this process, but in.
Novorossiysk is connected by a branch railway to Tikhoryetskaya (169 m.) with the main Caucasian line, which crosses the Volga near Tsaritsyn, and has become an important centre for the export of corn, and since the petroleum wells of Groznyi in northern Caucasia were tapped it has become an entrepot for the export of petroleum.
Large grain elevators have been built, and a new commercial town has grown up. Besides cereals, which amount to 69% of the whole, the exports consist of petroleum and petroleum waste, oilcake, linseed, timber, bran, millet seed, wool, potash, zinc ore and liquorice, the total annual value ranging between 32 and 54 millions sterling.
Petroleum, coal, and iron-ore abound in the neighbouring region, and the city has a considerable trade in these and in its manufactures of chairs, leather, flour, carriages, wagons, boats, boilers, bricks and glass.
They are completely soluble in ether, carbon bisulphide, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, petroleum ether, and benzene.
At the same time hydrocarbons are formed (see Petroleum).
2315) for obtaining oil from crushed seeds, or from refuse cake, by the solvent action of volatile hydrocarbons from "petroleum, earth oils, asphaltum oil, coal oil or shale oil, such hydrocarbons being required to be volatile under 212° F."
Since that time the development of the petroleum industry in all parts of the world and the large quantities of low boiling-point hydrocarbons - naphtha - obtained from the petroleum fields, and also the improvements in the apparatus employed, have raised this system of extraction to the rank of a competing practical method of oil production.
At the present time the choice lies practically only between the two solvents, carbon bisulphide and naphtha (petroleum ether).
It has an active trade in petroleum, salt, metals, timber, cereals, fruit, wine, spirits, preserved meat, textiles, clothing, leather, cardboard and cigarette paper.
The staple industries are mills for husking rice and for sawing timber, and petroleum refineries.
Among the other minerals found and mined to a limited extent are lead, manganese, barytes, fluorspar, slate, granite and petroleum.
Petroleum, or rather the heavy oils obtained in tar refineries, having an equal or superior heating power to coal-gas, may also be used in laboratories for producing high temperatures.
Fumaric Acid is produced from petroleum feed stock (butane) via maleic anhydride.
Three petroleum pitches and three coal tar pitches were prepared from Ashland A240 and a soft coal tar pitches were prepared from Ashland A240 and a soft coal tar pitch, respectively.
Can anyone tell us how the petroleum coke formerly delivered by rail gets from the ship to the works?
cracking cracking Cracking is one of the most important reactions in the petroleum industry.
In bullfights, bulls are often debilitated with tranquilizers or beatings and are blinded by having petroleum jelly rubbed into their eyes.
debilitated with tranquilizers or beatings and are blinded by having petroleum jelly rubbed into their eyes.
Biodiesel can also be mixed, at any ratio, with conventional petroleum diesel can also be mixed, at any ratio, with conventional petroleum diesel.
The energy content of biodiesel is about 90 percent that of petroleum diesel is about 90 percent that of petroleum diesel.
New processes were developed for the production of high-pressure gas using petroleum distillates.