After being well shaken, the liquid was poured into a sterile glass Petrie dish and covered with a moist and sterile bell-jar.
road, which agrees with the generally received identification, Tell el-Ilesi, an important mound excavated for the Palestine Exploration Fund by Petrie and Bliss, 1890-1893.
Flinders Petrie, Tell el-Hesy, and F.
In the south of the Sinaitic peninsula, remains have been found of an elaborate half-Egyptian, half-Semitic cultus (Petrie, Researches in Sinai, xiii.), and not only does Edom possess some reputation for " wisdom," but, where this district is concerned, the old Arabian religion (whose historical connexion with Palestine is still imperfectly known) claims some attention.
Imported specimens of this ware were found by Flinders Petrie among XIIth Dynasty remains at Kahun.
Petrie found painted sherds of Cretan style at Kahun in the Fayum, and farther up the Nile, at Tell el-Amarna, chanced on bits of no fewer than Boo Aegean vases in 1889.
Passing by certain fragments of stone vessels, found at Cnossus, and coincident with forms characteristic of the IVth Pharaonic Dynasty, we reach another fairly certain date in the synchronism of remains belonging to the XIIth Dynasty (c. 2500 B.C. according to Petrie, but later according to the Berlin School) with products of Minoan Period II.
Characteristic Cretan pottery of this period was found by Petrie in the Fayum in conjunction with XIIth Dynasty remains, and various Cretan products of the period show striking coincidences with XIIth Dynasty styles, especially in their adoption of spiraliform ornament.
Flinders Petrie began the systematic exploration of the ruins of Bedreshen, and in three seasons cleared up much of the topography of the ancient city, identifying the mound of the citadel and palace, a foreign quarter, &c. Among his finds not the least interesting is a large series of terra-cotta heads representing the characteristic features of the foreigners who thronged the bazaars of Memphis.
Flinders Petrie, Memphis I.
Petrie, Syria and Egypt from the Tell elAmarna Letters (1898).
The text of Gildas founded on Gale's edition collated with two other MSS., with elaborate introductions, is included in the Monumenta historica Britannica, edited by Petrie and Sharpe (London, 1848).
In the years immediately preceding the war we have to chronicle first a great advance in our knowledge of the beginnings of Egyptian history, owing mainly to the excavations of Prof. Flinders Petrie at Tarkhan 1 and of the German, Prof. Junker (working for Austria), at Tura.
Prof. Petrie resumed operations in Middle Egypt after the war:, and made interesting discoveries (1921).
The New York Museum has further investigated the Middle Kingdom pyramid field at Lisht and its neighbourhood, 53 and Prof. Petrie and Mr. Brunton have found fine XII.
p. 143, ff.; Petrie, Anc. Egypt, 1916; (53) N.
79, 7), Aribazus, governor of Cilicia (Flinders Petrie, Papyri, II., No.
The earliest specimens of glass-ware which can be definitely claimed as Egyptian productions, and the glass manufactory discovered by Dr Flinders Petrie at Tell el Amarna, belong to the period of the XVIIIth dynasty.
Dr Petrie surmounts the difficulty by saying that the process depicted is not glass-blowing, but some metallurgical process in which reeds were used tipped with lumps of clay.
Dr Petrie has called attention to two technical peculiarities to be found in almost every specimen of early glass-ware.
The technical difficulties to which Dr Petrie has called attention seem to admit of a somewhat less heroic explanation.
Petrie, Tell-el-Amarna, Egypt Exploration Fund (1894); " Egypt," sect.
Flinders Petrie, Journ.
Professor Flinders Petrie, in his Huxley Lecture for 1906 on Migrations (reprinted by the Anthropological Institute), deals with the mutations and movements of races from an anthropological standpoint with profound knowledge and originality.
Lists of kings found on the temple wall at Abydos, in the fragments of the Turin papyrus and elsewhere, have cleared up many doubtful points in the lists of Manetho, and at the same time, as Professor Petrie has pointed out, have proved to us how true a historian that much-discussed writer was.
Indeed, approximate accuracy is not attained until we are within sixteen hundred years of our own era; but the sequence of events of a period preceding this by two thousand years is well established, and the recent discoveries of Professor Petrie carry back the record to a period which cannot well be less than five thousand, perhaps not less than six thousand years B.C. Both from Egypt and Mesopotamia, then, the records of the archaeologist have brought us evidence of the existence of a highly developed civilization for a period exceeding by hundreds, perhaps by thousands, of years the term which had hitherto been considered the full period of man's existence.
Not only have antiquities been found in Crete that point to Egyptian inspiration, but quite recently Professor Petrie has found at Tel el-Amarna Mycenaean pottery.
Petrie's excavation of the cemetery behind the temple enclosures revealed burials dating from the fourth dynasty onwards, the most important being mastables of the period from the sixth to the eleventh dynasties; many of these exhibited a peculiar degradation of the contemporary style of sculpture.
The Ombos in question is not the distant Ombos south of Edfu, where the crocodile was worshipped; Petrie has shown that opposite Coptos, only about 15 m.
Petrie, Denderah (1900); Nagada and Ballas (1896).
It seems that representations of deities, and indeed any representations at all, were rare upon the polished walls of the great monuments of the fourth dynasty, and Petrie thinks that he can trace a violent religious revolution with confiscation of endowments at this time in the temple remains at Abydos; but none the less the wants of the deities were then attended to by priests selected from the royal family and the highest in the land.
Two tablets at the mines of Wadi Maghara in the peninsula of Sinai, a granite block from Bubastis, and a beautiful ivory statuette found by Petrie in the temple at Abydos, are almost all that can be definitely assigned to Khufu outside the pyramid at Giza and its ruined accompaniments.
His date, according to Petrie, is 3969-3908 B.C., but in the shorter chronology of Meyer, Breasted and others he reigned (23 years) about a thousand years later, c. 2900 B.C.
A 3rd-century papyrus (Flinders Petrie, Papyri, ed.
Egyptian chronology is unfortunately imperfect; but Professor Petrie, who has paid particular attention to the subject, and who assigns the reign of Amen-hotep IV.
The mention of Israel on the stele of Merenptah, discovered by Petrie in 1896 (" Israel [Ysirael] is desolated; its seed [or] is not "), is too vague and indefinite in its terms to throw any light on the question of the Exodus.
This period might no doubt be reduced to 480 years by the supposition, in itself not improbable, that some of the judges were local and contemporaneous; the suggestion has also been made that, as is usual in Oriental chronologies, the years of foreign domination were not counted, the beginning of each judge's rule being reckoned, not from the victory which brought him into power, but from the death of his predecessor; we should in this case obtain for the period from the Exodus to the foundation of the Temple 440+x+y years,' which if 30 years be assigned con 1 Petrie, Hist.
3 Petrie's dates, Hist.
Meyer in giving, for reasons which cannot be here explained, for the beginning of the 1st dynasty c. B c. 3400, for the 4th dynasty c. B.C. 2900-2750, and for the rule of the Hyksos c. B.C. 1680-1580; and in his Researches in Sinai, 1906, p. 175, Petrie proposes for Menes B.C. 5510, and for the 4th dynasty B.C. 473 1 -4454.
Petrie places the accession of Rehoboam in 937 B.C.
Petrie, Inductive Metrology (1877) (principles and tentative results);
P. Hasse, Von Plotin zu Goethe (1909); Thomas Whittaker, The NeoPlatonists (1901); Petrie, Personal Religion in Egypt before Christ (1909); M.
Flinders Petrie in 1884, on the eastern bank of a canal, about 10 m.
Petrie, &c., Naukratis I., third Memoir of the Egypt Exploration Fund (1886); E.
The chief passages are collected in Petrie's Monumenta Hist.
37 sqq.; Petrie, Syria and Egypt in the Tell el Am.
Petrie, Six Temples at Thebes (ruined temples on west bank), (London, 1897); G.
Flinders Petrie then pointed out a group of kings named on scarabs of peculiar type, which, including Khyan, he attributed to the period between the Old Kingdom and the New, while others were in favour of assigning them all to the Hyksos, whose appellation seemed to be recognizable in the title Hek-khos, "ruler of the barbarians," borne by Khyan.
Semitic features were pointed out in the supposed Hyksos names, and Petrie was convinced of their date by his excavations of1905-1906in the eastern Delta.
Avaris is generally assigned to the region towards Pelusium on the strength of its being located in the Sethroite nome by Josephus, but Petrie thinks it was at Tell el-Yahudiyeh (Yehudia), where Hyksos scarabs are common.
Petrie, Hyksos and Israelite Cities, p. 67; Golenischeff in Recueil de travaux, xv.
Since Flinders Petrie began, the general level of research has gradually risen, and, while much is shamefully bad and destructive, there is a certain proportion that fully realizes the requirements of scientific archaeology.
Fhnders Petrie has collected and discussed a series of facial types shown in prehiltoric and early Egyptian sculpture, Journal Anthropological Institute, 1901, 248.
Smyly, Petrie Papyri, iii.
Petrie, Hawara, Biahmu, and Arsinee (London, 1889); Kahun, Gurob and Hawara (1890); V.
Professor Petrie has indeed suggested, chiefly on chronological grounds, that a table of stars on the ceiling of the Ramesseum temple and another in the tomb of Rameses VI.
Petrie, Egyptian Tales (2 vols., London, 1895); G.
Petrie, Tell el Amarna; P.Ab.,, Abydos; P.D.
For the XIXth Meyer 1887 Petrie Meyer Sethe Br Dynasty.
began about 1570 B.C., taking what seems to be the utmost interval that it permits, 220 years have to contain a crowd of kings of whom nearly 100 are already known by name from monuments and papyri, while fresh names are being added annually to the long list; the shattered fragments of the last columns in the Turin Papyrus show space for 150 or perhaps _____ - 180 kings of this period, apparently with ~asted Petrie out reaching the XVIIth Dynasty.
Professor Petrie, however, thinks it best, while accepting the evidence of the Sirius date, to suppose further that a whole Sothic period of 1460 years had passed in the interval, making a total of 1650 years for the six dynasties in place of 220 years.
Corroboration has been sought by Mahler, Sethe and Petrie in the dates of new moons, of warlike and other expeditions, and of high Nile, but their evidence so far is too vague and uncertain to affect the question seriously.
Before the discovery of the Kahun Sothic date, Professor Petrie Viedemann Meyer Petrie Breasted Maspero 1884.1884.1905-1906.1906.1904.
Petrie, A History of Egypt, vol.
de Morgan, Petrie, Reisner and others on the desert edgings of the cultivated alluvium.
The succession of archaeological types revealed in them has been tabulated by Petrie in his Diospolis Parva; and the detailed publication of Reisners unusually careful researches is bringing much new light on the questions involved, amongst other things showing the exact point at which the prehistoric series merges into the 1st Dynasty, for, as might be surmised, in many cases the prehistoric cemeteries continued in use under the earliest dynasties.
Petrie considers that one of the kings buried at Abydos, provisionally called Nar-mer and whose real name may be Mer or Beza, preceded Menes; of him there are several inscribed records, notably a magnificent carved and inscribed remembered that even Manetho attributes to him ninety-four years; its length probably caused the ruin of the dynasty.
Petrie, A History of Egypt (from the earliest times to the XXXth Dynasty) (3 vols., London, 1899-1905); E.
The history of the city begins in the late prehistoric age, it having been founded by the pre-Menite kings (Petrie, Abydos, ii.
From the Ptolemaic times the place continued to decay and no later works are known (Petrie, Abydos, i.
depth of ruins; these needed the closest examination to discriminate the various buildings, and were recorded by over 4000 measurements and 1000 levellings (Petrie, Abydos, ii.).
The sealings of the various officials, of which over 200 varieties have been found, give an insight into the public arrangements (Petrie, Royal Tombs, i.
The works of Cusanus were published in a complete form by Henri Petrie (1 vol.
Petrie, Tell el-Hesy (1891); F.
Dr Franz Pruner-Bey, Henri Duveyrier and Prof. Flinders Petrie maintain that they are closely related to the ancient Egyptians.
Flinders Petrie in The Academy, 10th of April 1895; Jules Lionel, Races berberes (1894); Sir H.
The usual identification of So (or Seve), king of Mizraim, with Shabaka of Egypt is difficult, partly on chronological grounds (which Petrie, History of Egypt, pp. 277, 281 sqq.
Petrie, Tanis, pt.
WILLIAM MATTHEW FLINDERS PETRIE (1853-), English egyptologist, was born at Charlton on the 3rd of June 1853, being the son of William Petrie, C.E.
Perhaps the most important work which the School has accomplished has been the investigation of the site of Memphis (q.v.) The extent as well as the chronological order of Professor Petrie's excavations may best be shown by a list of his works.
It was the work of Amenemhe III., of the 12th dynasty, who lived about 2300 B.C. It was first located by the Egyptologist Lepsius to the north of Hawara in the Fayum, and (in 1888) Flinders Petrie discovered its foundation, the extent of which is about l000 ft.
Flinders Petrie, Hawara, Biahmu, and Arsinoe, 1889).
The annexed plan, which is that of Professor Flinders Petrie, xxv.
Flinders Petrie, Stonehenge: Plans, Descriptions and Theories (1880); E.
The vast gulf which lies between the history of Egypt by Herodotus and that by Flinders Petrie is the measure of its achievement.
Petrie and J.
Loraine Petrie, The Republic of Colombia (London, 1906); Elisee Reclus, Geografia de Colombia (Bogota, 18 93); W.
George Petrie >>
A pair from Tanis are attributed by Flinders Petrie to Pepi I.
Petrie, History of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the XVIth Dynasty, p. 51, &c.; L.
The first group of deities belongs to a period and a district in which Semitic influences had undoubtedly begun to work " (Petrie).
Excavations were made here in 1890-1892 by Flinders Petrie and Bliss.
i and others discovered by Petrie at Abydos in Egypt and referred by him to the Ist Dynasty.
90 (Flinders Petrie, Koptos, pp. 27 sqq.) and the Latin Tariff of Zarai (Corp. inscr.
From this evidence Dr Petrie has assumed that the vessels were not blown, but formed upon a core of sandy paste, modelled upon a copper rod, the rod being the core of the neck (see Egypt: Art and Archaeology).
Such scholars as Lepsius, Brugsch, de Rouge, Lenormant, Birch, Mariette, Maspero and Erman have perfected the studies of Young and Champollion; while at the same time these and a considerable company of other explorers, most notable of whom are Gardner Wilkinson and Professor Flinders Petrie, have brought to light a vast accumulation of new material, much of which has the highest importance from the standpoint of the historian.
Petrie, History of Egypt, vol.
A Bes-like mask was found by Petrie amongst remains of the twelfth dynasty, but the earliest occurrence of the god is in the temple of the queen Hatshepsut at Deir el Bahri (c. 1500 B.C.), where he is figured along with the hippopotamus goddess as present at the queen's birth.
(1448-1420 B.C., Breasted; 1449-1423, Petrie), the successor of Thothmes, and more time would be allowed for the events between the Exodus and the time of David (c. moo), which, if the date given above be correct, have been thought to be unduly compressed (see Orr in the Expositor, March 1897, p. 161 ff.); but there are difficulties attaching to this view, and it has not been adopted generally by scholars.
Professor Petrie naturally supposed this great enclosure to be the Hellenion or common sanctuary of the Greeks, but Mr. Hogarth subsequently found traces of another great walled enclosure to the north-east of the town, together with pottery dedicated rois TC.w `EXX vwv eeois, and he claims with reason that this enclosure is more likely than the other to be the Hellenion, since no early Greek antiquities have been found in the southern part of the town, which seems rather to have been a native settlement.
Flinders Petrie, History, vol.
Flinders Petrie in London (University College) ~n 1896, and since 1905 called the British School of Archaeology in Egypt (see especially MEMPnIS).
// __ also Petrie and Griffith, Two Hieroglyphic Papyrifrom ~ Tanis (London, 1889) (native Per~o ~nfr 1mw, nb sign-list); G.
Petrie, Tell-el-Hesy (1891), p. 47 seq., and Bliss and Macalister, Excavations in Palestine (1902), pp. 72, 74, 101, 124; and, for the suggestion in the text, S.
Cream products: Scoop a little out and put it in a petrie dish or on a paper plate.
Petrie, Steph, et al. Respectful Care for Infants in Groups: The RIE Approach to Day Care Practice.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.