He liked Petersburg and despised Moscow.
Livonia Minsk Mogilev Moscow Nizhniy-Novgorod Novgorod Olonets Orel Orenburg Penza Perm Podolia Poltava Pskov Ryazan St Petersburg Samara Piotrkow Plock Radom St Michel Tavastehus Uleaborg Stavropol Elizavetpol Erivan Kars Saratov Simbirsk Smolensk Tambov Taurida Tula Tver Ufa Vilna Vitebsk Vladimir Volhynia Vologda Voronezh Vyatka Yaroslavl Siedlce Suwalki Warsaw Viborg Vasa Terek Kutais Tiflis with Zakataly Akmolinsk Semipalatinsk The Steppes Turgai Uralsk Semiryechensk Samarkand Ferghana Syr-darya The effects of emigration and immigration cannot be estimated with accuracy, because only those who cross the frontier with passports are taken account of.
Miliukov, leader of the cadets, were both returned by the second curia of St Petersburg to the third Duma.
In the last-mentioned work he seeks to prove that the St Petersburg Codex, for so many years accepted as the genuine text of the Babylonian school, is in reality a Palestinian text carefully altered so as to render it conformable to the Babylonian recension.
(St Petersburg, 1895); A.
He was afterwards ambassador at Berlin and St Petersburg.
There his progress was very rapid, especially in Latin, and in 1734 he was sent from Moscow to St Petersburg.
His Ode on the Taking of Khotin from the Turks was composed in 1739, and attracted a great deal of attention at St Petersburg.
On his arrival in Russia he rapidly rose to distinction, and was made professor of chemistry in the university of St Petersburg; he ultimately became_rector, and in 1764 secretary of state.
He became secretary of the embassy in London; was employed on special missions in the principalities and at St Petersburg (1848), and was sent to Egypt as special commissioner in 1851.
The Cambrian is represented by blue clays, ungulite sandstones and bituminous slates in Esthonia and St Petersburg.
Russia (Esthonia, Livonia, St Petersburg and on the Volkhov), where all the subdivisions of the system have been found; in the Timan ridge; on the W.
Consequently there were only 87.4 and 89.8 women to every 100 men in the governments of St Petersburg and Taurida respectively, but as many as 133.8 in Yaroslavl, 119 in Tver and 117 in Kostroma.
The following table shows the urban population in the various divisions of the empire in 1897: - There were in European Russia and Poland only twelve cities with more than too,000 inhabitants in 1884; in 1900 there were sixteen, namely, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Odessa, Lodz, Riga, Kiev, Kharkov, Vilna, Saratov, Kazan, Ekaterinoslav, Rostov-on-the Don, Astrakhan, Tula and Kishinev.
That in the Duma any Radical elements survive at all is mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns - St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Lodz.
In this way the fundamental laws were suspended not only in Poland but in St Petersburg and other parts of the empire during the greater part of the four years succeeding the grant of the constitution.
(Yuriev or Dorpat, Kazan, Kharkov, Kiev, Moscow, Odessa, St Petersburg, Warsaw and Tomsk), with 19,400 students, 6 medical academies (one for women), 6 theological academies, 6 military academies, 5 philological institutes, 3 Eastern languages institutes,.
3 law schools, 4 veterinary institutes, 4 agricultural colleges, 2 mining institutes, 4 engineering institutes, 2 universities for women (93 o students at St Petersburg), 3 technical pedagogic schools, to technical institutes, I forestry and 1 topographical school.
At St Petersburg a women's medical academy, the examinations of which were even more searching than those of the ordinary academy (especially as regards diseases of women and children), was opened, but after about one hundred women had received the degree of M.D.
Martynov, Das Petschoragebiet (St Petersburg, 1905); G.
von Helmersen, Das Olonezische Bergrevier (St Petersburg, 1860); Turbin, The Dnieper; Prasolenko, " The Dniester," in Engin.
von Baer, Kaspische Studien (St Petersburg, 1857-59) V.
Ragozin, Volga (St Petersburg, 1890); Peretyatkovich, Volga; and Mikhailov, Kama.
Russia; thus the isotherm of 39° runs from St Petersburg to Orenburg, and that of 35° from Tornea in Finland to Uralsk.
and S.; thus Odessa and Konigsberg are situated on the same winter isotherm of 28°; St Petersburg, Orel and the mouth of the Ural river on about 20°; and Mezen and Ufa on 9°.
as St Petersburg and South Finland (Q.
A list, still incomplete, of the birds of St Petersburg runs to 251 species.
von Trautvetter, Rossiae Arcticae Plantae (1880), and Florae Rossicae Fontes (St Petersburg, 1880).
of St Petersburg University, xv.
iv., Zoology (St Petersburg, 1875), though dealing more especially with Siberia, is an invaluable source of information for the Russian fauna generally.
For more detailed bibliographical information see Apercu des travaux zoo-ge'ographiques, published at St Petersburg in connexion with the Exhibition of 1878; and the index Ukazatel Russkoi Literatury for natural science, mathematics and medicine, published since 1872 by the Society of the Kiev University.
The governments of St Petersburg (apart from the capital), Olonets and Archangel contain an admixture of Karelians, Samoyedes and Syryenians, the remainder being Great Russians.
When workmen from any province come, for instance, to St Petersburg to engage in the textile industries, or to work as carpenters, masons, &c., they immediately unite in groups of ten to fifty persons, settle in a house together, keep a common table and pay each his part of the expense to the elected elder of the artel.
Manufacturing industry in the modern sense can hardly be said to have existed in Russia ' See Russian Journal of Financial Statistics, in English (2 vols., St Petersburg, 1901).
Similar industries, carried on by similar methods, exist at St Petersburg, Riga, Narva and Odessa.
Tanneries exist in nearly every government, but it is especially at Warsaw and St Petersburg, and after these at Moscow, that the largest and best modern tanneries and shoe and glove factories are established.
portion of the Russian railway system was further completed by the opening in 1906 of a line from St Petersburg via Vologda to Vyatka, intersecting the MoscowArchangel line at Vologda.
Crawford, 5 vols., St Petersburg, 1893); A.
(St Petersburg, 1818); autobiography of Herberstein in Fontes rerum Austriacarum, part i.
She proclaimed, therefore, as heir-apparent the son of her deceased elder sister Anna, Charles Peter Ulrich, duke of HolsteinGottorp, a German in character, habits and religion, and tried to Russianize him by making him adopt the Eastern Orthodox faith and live in St Petersburg during the whole of her reign; but her well-meant efforts were singularly unsuccessful.
Whilst primary education was neglected, secondary schools were created in the principal towns and a Russian Academy was founded in St Petersburg.
A taste for French literature spread rapidly, and the poets and dramatists of Paris found clever imitators in St Petersburg.
In 1773 a Don Cossack called Pugachev, who was so uneducated that he could not even sign the manifestoes written for him, declared himself to be Peter III., and announced that he was going to St Petersburg to punish his faithless wife and place his son Paul on the throne.
She waited, however, until a deputation of the malcontents, who regretted the loss of liberum veto and who were afraid that the party of reform might undertake the emancipation of the serfs, came to St Petersburg and asked for support in defence of the ancient liberties.
He had died at St Petersburg on the 2nd of March 1855 and had been succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander II.
General Mezentsov, the head of the political police, was assassinated in broad daylight in one of the principal streets of St Petersburg, and in the provinces a good many officials of various grades shared the same fate.
Stamboloff, pursued systematically an anti-Russian policy, but the cabinet of St Petersburg confined itself officially to breaking off diplomatic relations and making diplomatic protests, and unofficially to giving tacit encouragement to revolutionary agitation.
With this view, the cabinet of St Petersburg, at the close of the Chino-Japanese War in 18 9 5, objected to all annexations by Japan in that quarter, and insisted on having the treaty of Shimonoseki modified accordingly.
With great reluctance the tsar consented to convoke a consultative chamber of deputies as a sop to public opinion, but that concession stimulated rather than calmed public opinion, and shortly after the conclusion of peace the Liberals and the Revolutionaries, combining their forces, brought about a general strike in St Petersburg together with the stoppage of railway communication all over the empire.
in St Petersburg to discuss the situation.
ceremonial visit to the Duma at St Petersburg, and in this " neo-Slav " demonstration M.
sqq.); Nikolai Ivanovich Kostomarov (1817-1885), professor of history at Kiev and St Petersburg, whose monographs and researches are collected in his Sobranye sochinenye (collected works, 21 vols., St Petersburg, 1903-6); V.
The publications of the Imperial Russian Historical Society of St Petersburg, amounting to upwards of 100 vols., are of great value.
de Martens, Recueil des traites conclus par la Russie avec les puissances etrangeres (St Petersburg, from 1878 still incomplete), which contains valuable historical introductions based on unpublished sources; A.
Bestuzhev-Riumin, Russkaya istoriya (2 vols., St Petersburg, 1872), especially for internal history and social life; A.
by rail east of St Petersburg) to Vladivostok, a distance of 4073 m., with a branch from Kharbin about Soo m.
of Notices et extraits, Paris, 1 799, p. 192 seq.), and by Hammer in Sur les origines russes, St Petersburg, 1825, p. 52 seq.); "Timur's Expedition against Tuktamish Khan," Persian and French, by Charmoy, in Memoires de l'acad.
Panin (Rus.; St Petersburg, 1787); Political correspondence (Rus.
(St Petersburg, 1872); V.
Bruckner, Materials for the Biography of Count Panin (Rus.; St Petersburg, 1888).
Ex Ploration The progress of geodetic surveys in Russia had long ago extended across the European half of the great empire, St Petersburg being connected with Tiflis on the southern slopes of the Caucasus by a direct system of triangulation carried out with the highest scientific precision.
St Petersburg, again, is connected with Greenwich by European systems of triangulation; and the Greenwich meridian is adopted by Russia as the zero for all her longitude values.
(St Petersburg, November 1896) (Acanthobdella); A.
In 1790 he conducted the military operations on the Dniester and held his court at Jassy with more than Asiatic pomp. In 1791 he returned to St Petersburg where, along with his friend Bezborodko (q.v.), he made vain efforts to overthrow the new favourite, Zubov, and in four months spent 850,000 roubles in banquets and entertainments, a sum subsequently reimbursed to him from the treasury.
Ses collaborateurs (St Petersburg, 1899); A.
Lopukhin, Sketch of the Congress of Jassy, 1791 (Rus.; St Petersburg, 1893); The Papers of Prince Potemkin, 1744-1793 (Rus.; St Petersburg, 1893-1895).
Trointsky (St Petersburg, 1905, 2 vols.), in Russian and French.
He proposed in 1715 the "diffractiontheory" of the sun's corona, visited England and was received into the Royal Society in 1724, and left Paris for St Petersburg on a summons from the empress Catherine, towards the end of 1725.
The records of Delisle's observations at St Petersburg are preserved in manuscript at the Pulkowa observatory.
A report upon them was presented to the St Petersburg academy of sciences by O.
General Lee that General Grant had broken through the lines at Petersburg and that Richmond must be evacuated.
He was succeeded by his nephew, William Byrd (1652-1704), who was born in London, went to Virginia about 1670, became a successful Indian trader, was a member of the House of Burgesses in 16 771682, was a supporter of Nathaniel Bacon at the beginning of James river, at the falls, visited: the tract in September 1733, and decided to found there the town of Richmond, at the same time selecting and naming the present site of Petersburg.
This with his other publications, A Journey to the Land of Eden and A Progress to the Mines, was published at Petersburg, Va., in 1841, and again (New York, 1901) as The Writings of Colonel William Byrd of Westover in Virginia, edited by John S.
In June Grant's army crossed the James and attacked Lee in Petersburg.
Then followed many months of unintermittent pressure upon both Petersburg and Richmond.
On the 2nd of April 1865 Petersburg fell.
In his belief that he could ensnare the courts of London and St Petersburg into separate and proportionately disadvantageous treaties, he overreached himself.
Opinions were divided in the emperor's circle between a Russian and an Austrian princess; but the marked coolness with which overtures for the hand of the tsar's sister were received at St Petersburg, and the skill with which Count Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, let it be known that a union with the archduchess, Marie Louise, would be welcomed at Schonbrunn, helped to decide the matter.
But why did Napoleon fix his choice on Vienna rather than St Petersburg?
G..Gmelin, Giildenstalt, Lepechin and others - in the exploration of the recently extended Russian empire supplied not only much material to the Commentarii and Acta of the Academy of St Petersburg, but more that is to be found in their narratives - all of it being of the highest interest to students of Palaearctic or Nearctic ornithology.
A similar bibliography of Russian ornithology by Alexander Brandt was printed at St Petersburg in 1877 or 1878.
Next must be noticed a series of short treatises communicated by Johann Friedrich Brandt, between the years 1836 and 1839, to the Academy of Sciences of St Petersburg, and published Brandt.
He married in 1803 Eleanora, daughter of William Shairp, consulgeneral for Russia, and widow of Thomas Yeldham of St Petersburg.
(St Petersburg, 1895, seq.); V.
II-12) (St Petersburg, 1883); R.
Mendeleeff in St Petersburg.
It is the terminus of a branch line (85 m.) from the St Petersburg & Moscow railway, and is the centre of a large transit trade between Orel, Kaluga and Smolensk and the ports of St Petersburg and Riga.
Nine or ten miles before reaching its outfall the river enters St Petersburg, and 5 or 6 m.
wide, and admitting vessels with a draught of 182 ft., from Kronstadt to St Petersburg.
has been in progress since 1870, but of the map of [[[Topographical Surveys]] Berlin, 1885-1890) or Bretschneider's Map of China (1:4,600,000) a new edition of which appeared at St Petersburg in 1900.
In 1762 she was at St Petersburg and took a leading part, according to her own account the leading part, in the coup d'etat by which Catherine was raised to the throne.
Immediately after her return the princess was appointed "directeur" of the St Petersburg Academy of Arts and Sciences; and in 1784 she was named the first president of the Russian Academy, which had been founded at her suggestion.
The Berlin herbarium is especially rich in more recent collections, and other national herbaria sufficiently extensive to subserve the requirements of the systematic botanist exist at St Petersburg, Vienna, Leiden, Stockholm, Upsala, Copenhagen and Florence.
Kulakovsky in Materials for Russian Archaeology (St Petersburg, 1896; a publication of the Russian Imperial Archaeological Commission), but it is written in Russian, as also is the account by V.
(St Petersburg, 1899).
Petersburg and passed his bar examination there.
This gave a handle to the Petersburg secret police, and they employed him as a spy and agent provocateur.
to send the duke of Wellington to St Petersburg in order to concert joint measures.
Lord Aberdeen made no secret of his dislike for the Turks, and openly expressed his disbelief in the reality of their reforms; and in January 1853 the tsar, in conversation with Sir Hamilton Seymour, the British ambassador at St Petersburg, spoke of the Ottoman Empire as " the Sick Man," and renewed the proposals for a partition made in 1844.
So far as the extreme claims of the tsar were concerned, neither Austria nor Prussia was willing to concede them, and both had joined with France and Great Britain in presenting, on the 12th of December 1853, an identical note at St Petersburg, drawn up at the Conference of Vienna, reaffirming the principles of the treaty of 1841.
Whilst waiting his return Murat was enjoined to skirmish with Kutusov, and the emperor himself worked out a scheme to assume the offensive with his whole army towards St Petersburg, calling in Victor and St Cyr on the way.
She journeyed slowly through Russia and Finland to Sweden, making some stay at St Petersburg, spent the winter in Stockholm, and-then set out for England.
In 1761 he went to St Petersburg with Gerhardt Friedrich Miller, the Russian historiographer, as Miller's literary assistant and as tutor in his family.
SCHLUSSELBURG, a town of Russia, in the government of St Petersburg, situated on low ground surrounded by marshes, at the issue of the river Neva from Lake Ladoga, 40 m.
of the city of St Petersburg.
His Diary of his residence in St Petersburg and London was published in Philadelphia in 1892.
In 1757 be became an associate of the Imperial Academy of St Petersburg, and a foreign member of the Royal Society of London, and in 1758 a member of the Academy of Berlin, in 1766 of that of Stockholm, and in 1770 of the Academies of Copenhagen and of Bern.
He remained at St Petersburg from 1781 to 1783, but was never formally received by the empress Catherine.
Neither the serious illness of the empress, which began with a fainting-fit at Tsarskoe Selo (September 19, 1757), nor the fall of Bestuzhev (February 21, 1758), nor the cabals and intrigues of the various foreign powers at St Petersburg,.
The failure of the campaign of 1760, so far as Russiaand France were concerned, induced the court of Versailles, on the evening of the 22nd of January 1761, to present to the court of St Petersburg a despatch to the effect that the king of France by reason of the condition of his dominions absolutely desired peace.
(St Petersburg, 1857-1877); Politische Correspondenz Friedrichs des Grossen, vols.
falls on a zone that stretches from Moscow and St Petersburg through Perm to Tobolsk and, after a dry belt as far as Tomsk, continues in a narrower strip as far as the S.
The Samoyedes, who are confined to the province of Tobolsk, Tomsk ' See Yadrintsev, Siberia as a Colony (in Russian, 2nd ed., St Petersburg, 1892).
They were acquainted with iron, and learned from their subjects the art of bronze-casting, which they used for decorative purposes only, and to which they gave a still higher artistic stamp. Their pottery is much more perfect and more artistic than that of the Bronze period, and their ornaments are accounted among the finest of the collections at the St Petersburg museum of the Hermitage.
von Middendorff, Sibirische Reise (St Petersburg, 1848-1875); L.
Schrenck, Reisen and Forschungen im Amurgebiet (St Petersburg, 1858-1891); Trudy of the Siberian expedition - mathematical part (also geographical) by Schwarz, and physical part by Schmidt, Glehn and Brylkin (1874, seq.); G.
Dictionary of the Russian Empire (in Russian, 5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-1884) - a most valuable source of information, with full bibliographical details under each article; Picturesque Russia (in Russian), ed.
Consult further Materials for the Study of the Economic Conditions of West Siberia (22 vols., St Petersburg, 1889-1898), condensed in Peasant Land-Tenure and Husbandry in Tobolsk and Tomsk (St Petersburg, 1894), both in Russian.
Similar Materials for the Altai region, published at St Petersburg by the Cabinet of the emperor, and for Irkutsk and Yeniseisk (12 fasc., Irkutsk, 1889-1893); Materials for Transbaikalia (16 vols., St Petersburg, 1898), summed up in Transbaikalia, by N.
Razumov (St Petersburg, 1899).
Patkanov, Essai d'une statistique et d'une geographie des peuples paleoasiatiques de la Siberie (St Petersburg, 1903); M.
Climatological Atlas of the Russian Empire, by the Physical Observatory (St Petersburg, 1900), gives data and observations covering the period 1849-1899.
A full bibliography will be found in the Russian Encyclopaedic Dictionary, as also in Mezhov, Siberian Bibliography (3 vols., St Petersburg, 1891-1892), and in A.
See Henryk Lisicki, Le Marquis Wielopolski, sa vie et son temps (Vienna, 1880); Wlodzimieriz Spasowicz, The Life and Policy of the Marquis Wielopolski (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1882).
p. 289, 1892; Wagner, Embryonal Entwick, von Ixodes (St Petersburg, 1893); 41.
de Martens, then member of the council of the ministry of foreign affairs at St Petersburg.
ed., London, 1856); Claudius Rondeau, Diplomatic Dispatches from Russia (St Petersburg, 1889-1892).
An amplified form of the same story is furnished by the Doctrine of Addai, an original Syriac work which survives complete in a St Petersburg MS. of the 6th century, and is also represented by fragments in other MSS.
London, Hamburg, Bremen and the chief Baltic ports as far as Riga and St Petersburg participate in the traffic on the Rhine.
In 183 2 he entered the university of Edinburgh, where, after studying in Berlin and St Petersburg, he graduated as M.D.
took him to London in 1714, and sent him to St Petersburg as his accredited minister with a notification of his accession.
1, 3, 5, 7, 12, 22, 26, 66, 79, 80, 81, 85-86, 91-92, 96, 99, 100, 103 (St Petersburg, 1870, &c.); Politische Correspondenz Friedrichs des Grossen, vols.
In St Petersburg 15 per cent.
Petersburg, 1875); N.
(St Petersburg, 1888, Fec.); R.
Gottwaldt, St Petersburg, 1844); Ibn al-Qutiya wrote a History of Spain; Ibn Zulaq (d.
Byzantine Historians: The relative passages are collected in Stritter's Memoriae populorum (St Petersburg, 1778).
Petersburg unattended, but also great lack of faith in the existing order, since, having discovered that through an irregularity his pay depended on the Privy Purse, he caused it to be charged to the Treasury as the first act of his tenure of office.
(St Petersburg, 1895, &c.); M.
Steinschneider's article in the Memoires de l'Academie (St Petersburg, serie 7, tom.
At Cold Harbor six thousand men fell in one useless assault lasting an hour, and after two months the Union armies lay before Richmond and Petersburg indeed, but had lost no fewer than 72,000 men.
to fill the professorship of natural history in the Imperial Academy of Science, St Petersburg, and in the same year he was appointed naturalist to a scientific expedition through Russia and Siberia, the immediate object of which was the observation of the transit of Venus in 1769.
The leading results were given in his Reisen durch verschiedene Provinzen des riissischen Reichs (3 vols., St Petersburg, 17 7 1-1776), richly illustrated with coloured plates.
St Petersburg, 1776-1802); Novae species quadrupedum, 1778 - 1779; Pallas's contributions to the dictionary of languages of the Russian empire, 1786-1789; Icones insectorum, praesertim Rossiae Siberiaeque peculiarium, 1781-1806; Zoographia rossoasiatica (3 vols., 1831); besides many special papers in the Transactions of the academies of St Petersburg and Berlin.
His grandfather, Sir James Leighton, also a physician, was long resident at the court of St Petersburg.
Petersburg; Catholic and Uniate Church property sequestrated from 1836 onwards; the Lithuanian Statute, which had remained the law of the land through four centuries of union with Poland, replaced by the Russian code in 1840, while prominent natives, debarred from public service in their own country, were forced to emigrate or exiled to Siberia.
In January 1865 Sherman marched northwards again, once more abandoning his base, towards Petersburg, where Grant and Lee were waging a war of giants.
PETERHOF, a town of Russia, in the government of St Petersburg, 18 m.
(1868-), emperor of Russia, eldest son and successor of Alexander III., was born at St Petersburg on the 18th of May 1868.
It was employed in 1797 at the St Petersburg mint.
Petersburg and abroad.
Both were appointed at the same time professors of mathematics in the academy of St Petersburg; but this office Nicolas enjoyed for little more then eight months.
After his'return,though only twenty-four years of age, he was invited to become president of an academy then projected at Genoa; but, declining this honour, he was, in the following year, appointed professor of mathematics at St Petersburg.
In 1864 he entered the chancellery of the minister for foreign affairs at St Petersburg, and was soon afterwards attached to the Russian legation at Stuttgart, where he attracted the notice of Queen Olga of Wurttemberg.
Petersburg on Feb.
Makaroff, Le Vitiaz et l'Ocean Pacifique, 1886-1889 (St Petersburg, 1894); S.
Makaroff, The Yermak in the Ice (in Russian) (St Petersburg, 1901); The Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition (on the " Voringen "), 1876-1878 (Christiania, 1880-1900); Expeditions scientifiques du " Travailleur " et du " Talisman," 1880-1883 (Paris, 1891 et seq.); Die Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition, 1889 (Kiel, 1892 et seq.); Resultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert I e ' Prince Souverain de Monaco (Monaco, from 1889); The Danish " Ingolf " Expedition, 1806 (Copenhagen, 1900); Prof. Luksch, Expeditionen S.M.
He was educated at Warsaw and studied law at the university in St Petersburg before he entered the bureaucracy in the department of justice, in which he rose rapidly to be assistant solicitorgeneral in Warsaw, then solicitor-general in St Petersburg, and in 1881 director of the state police.
COUNT MIKHAIL MIKHAILOVICH SPERANSKI (1772-1839), Russian statesman, the son of a village priest, spent his early days at the ecclesiastical seminary in St Petersburg, where he rose to be professor of mathematics and physics.
Korff (St Petersburg, 1861).
Vagin (St Petersburg, 1872 and Moscow, 1905).
Antonovich (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1866); A.
In Europe there are excellent collections in London, Cambridge, Paris, Berlin, St Petersburg and Prague.
by the governments of St Petersburg, Pskov and Vitebsk, and S.
Researches in the Kalmyk Steppe in X884188 5 (St Petersburg, 1894, in Russian); Kostenkov's works (1868-1870); and other works quoted in Semenov's Geogr.
He was for the ten years 1860 to 1870 secretary of embassy at London, and then, after serving at Rome and Copenhagen, was in 1880 appointed ambassador at St Petersburg.
He was educated at the university of Moscow, and in 1859 became professor of mathematics in the university of St Petersburg, a position from which he retired in 1880.
He died _at St Petersburg on the 8th of December 1894.
A Viennese notice of his appointment as Oberka pellmeister spoke of him as " the darling of our nation," his works were reprinted or performed in every capital from Madrid to St Petersburg.
The subsequent occupation of Port Arthur and other Chinese harbours by European powers, and the evident intention of consolidating Russian influence in Manchuria, were again and again the subject of Japanese representations at St Petersburg, and these representations became more vigorous when, in 1903, Russia seemed to be about to extend her Manchurian policy into Korea.
At St Petersburg the talk was not of peace but of victory, and after a period of reorganization the Russians advanced afresh to a new trial of strength.
Nogi and Oyama were equally impressed with the strength of the new (west) Russian front, and like Grant at Petersburg in 1864, extended farther and farther to the outer flank, the Russians following suit.
This was contrary to his instructions, and although he was received in St Petersburg with enthusiasm, and presented with a sword of honour by the emperor, he was not again employed in the military service, and retired from it in July 1874.
He succeeded Kaufmann (q.v.) as governor of Turkestan in 1882, but his aggressive policy led to his recall two years later, when he was appointed a member of the council of war at St Petersburg.
8 1783) was a diplomat and soldier, who rose to be field-marshal and governor of St Petersburg.
(Rus.) (Petersburg, 1895).
Like his predecessor, Prince Gorchakov, he was educated at the lyceum of Tsarskoye Selo, near St Petersburg, but his career was much less rapid, because he had no influential protectors, and was handicapped by being a Protestant of Teutonic origin.
After the third partition the estates of the Czartoryskis were confiscated, and in May 1795 Adam and his younger brother Constantine were summoned to St Petersburg; later in the year they were commanded to enter the Russian service, Adam becoming an officer in the horse, and Constantine in the foot guards.
In the spring of 1801 the new emperor Alexander summoned his friend back to St Petersburg.
On the 7th of June the French minister Hedouville quitted St Petersburg; and on the 11th of August a note dictated by Czartoryski to Alexander was sent to the Russian minister in London, urging the formation of an anti-French coalition.
The same year Czartoryski quitted St Petersburg for ever; but the personal relations between him and Alexander were never better.
On the accession of Paul to the throne Arakcheev was promptly summoned to St Petersburg, appointed military commandant in the capital, and major-general in the grenadier battalion of the Preobrazhenskoe Guard.
Only on the 27th of April 1803, was the count recalled to St Petersburg, and employed as inspectorgeneral of the artillery.
See Vasily Ratch, Memorials of Count Arakcheev (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1864); Mikhail Ivanovich Semevsky, Count Arakcheev and the Military Colonies (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1871); Theodor Schiemann, Gesch.
This advance was only arrested, when the opposing forces were almost within touch of each other, by the tidings that a revolution had taken place at St Petersburg, and that Peter III.
had already determined (Treaty of St Petersburg, April 22, 1764) that the existing state of things in Poland must be maintained, and as early as the r8th of October 1763 Catherine had recommended the election of Stanislaus Poniatowski as "the individual most convenient for our common interests."
Petersburg, petitioning Catherine to guarantee the liberties of the Republic, and allow the form of the Polish constitution to be settled by the Russian ambassador at Warsaw.
In February 1769 Frederick sent Count Rochus Friedrich Lynar (1708-1783) to St Petersburg to sound the empress as to the expediency of a partition, in August Joseph II.
The first treaty of partition was signed at St Petersburg between Prussia and Russia on the 6-17th of February 1772; the second treaty, which admitted Austria also to a share of the spoil, on the 5-16th of August the same year.
Cobenzl, the Austrian minister at St Petersburg, writing to his court immediately after the reception of the tidings at the Russian capital, describes the empress as full of consternation at the idea that Poland under an hereditary dynasty might once more become a considerable power.
The constitution of the 3rd of May had scarce been signed when Felix Potocki, Severin Rzewuski and Xavier Branicki, three of the chief dignitaries of Poland, hastened to St Petersburg, and there entered into a secret convention with the empress, whereby she undertook to restore the old constitution by force of arms, but at the same time promised to respect the territorial integrity of the Republic. On the 14th of May 1792 the conspirators formed a confederation, consisting, in the first instance, of only ten other persons, at the little town of Targowica in the Ukraine, protesting against the constitution of the 3rd of May as tyrannous and revolutionary, and at the same time the new Russian minister at Warsaw presented a formal declaration of war to the king and the diet.
The Polish universities of Warsaw and Vilna were suppressed, and the students compelled to go to St Petersburg and Kiev.
He collected a splendid library of about 300,000 volumes and 15,000 manuscripts, which he bequeathed to the Polish nation; but it was afterwards carried off to St Petersburg, where it formed the foundation of the imperial public library.
Wladimir Spasowicz, a lawyer of St Petersburg, assisted Pipin in his valuable work on Slavonic literature.
- Pipin and Spafovich, Istoria slavianskikh Literatur (in Russian; St Petersburg, 1879); Geschichte der polnischen Literatur von Dr A.
Among recent publications are: Rambaud's La Russie epique (Paris, 1876); Avenarius, Kniga o Kievskikh Bogatuiryakh (St Petersburg, 1876), dealing with the early Kiev heroes; Zakrevski, Opisanie Kieva (1868); the materials issued by the commission for the investigation of the ancient records of the city; Taranovskiy, Gorod Kiev (Kiev, 1881); De Baye, Kiev, la mere des villes cusses (Paris, 1896) Goetz, Das Kiewer Hohlenkloster als Kulturzentrum des Vormongolischen Russlands (Passau, 1904).
Kostomarov, The Rebellion of Stenka Razin (Rus.) (2nd ed., Petersburg, 1859); S.
(Petersburg, 1895, &c.); R.
In 1874 and again in 1875, he presided over the Reunion Conferences held at Bonn and attended by leading ecclesiastics from the British Isles and from the Oriental Church, among whom were Bishop Christopher Wordsworth of Lincoln; Bishop Harold Browne of Ely; Lord Plunket, archbishop of Dublin; Lycurgus, archbishop of Syros and Tenos; Canon Liddon; and Professor Ossinine of St Petersburg.
At the age of fifteen Prince Peter Kropotkin, who had been designed by his father for the army, entered the Corps of Pages at St Petersburg (1857).
Kropotkin had never wished for a military career, but, as he had not the means to enter the St Petersburg University, he elected to join a Siberian Cossack regiment in the recently annexed Amur district, where there were prospects of administrative work.
In 1867 he quitted the army and returned to St Petersburg, where he entered the university, becoming at the same time secretary to the physical geography section of the Russian Geographical Society.
But by this time he had determined that it was his duty not to work at fresh discoveries but to aid in diffusing existing knowledge among the people at large, and he accordingly refused the offer, and returned to St Petersburg, where he joined the revolutionary party.
Butler with the new Army of the James was to move up that river towards Richmond and Petersburg.
The river was crossed, Lee as usual conforming to the movement, and on the 15th of June the Federals appeared before the works of Petersburg (q.v.).
Early had been nearer to the immediate success than Lee had been in 1862 and 1863, but he had failed utterly to relax Grant's hold on Petersburg, which was becoming daily more crushing.
The victory was decisive, and, the country being now bare of supplies, the Army of the Shenandoah was sent to reinforce Grant, while the remnant of Early's forces also went to Petersburg.
Meanwhile the bulk of the forces at Nashville had been sent to the north-east to close Lee's escape to the mountains, and in March the final campaign had opened at Petersburg.
The western movement was covered by a furious sortie from the lines of Petersburg, which was repulsed with heavy loss.
Corps at last carried the Petersburg lines by storm.
Thereupon Lee and Longstreet evacuated the Petersburg and Richmond lines and began their retreat.
St Petersburg, " Caspian Entomostraca " (1897); Giesbrecht and Schmeil, " Copepoda gymnoplea," Das Tierreich (1898); Giesbrecht, " Asterocheriden," F.
[ Phototypic editions have been issued in Rome in 1889-1890 and in 1905.] Codex Sinaiticus (St Petersburg, Imperial library), Greg.
Sangermanensis (a direct copy) at St Petersburg, Greg.
Corbeiensis (f or ff) of the 10th century at St Petersburg.
KULJA (Chinese, Ili-ho), a territory in north-west China; bounded, according to the treaty of St Petersburg of 1881, on the W.
Gertz first suggested the marriage between the duke of Holstein and the tsarevna Anne of Russia, and negotiations were begun in St Petersburg with that object.
vii.-viii., St Petersburg, 1897).
sanctioned plans for a Bible society, which was promptly inaugurated at St Petersburg under the presidency of Prince Galitzin.
In 1824, however, Prince Galitzin ceased to be procurator of the Holy Synod, and Seraphim, metropolitan of St Petersburg, became president of the Russian Bible Society.
In 1839 St Petersburg became the headquarters of an agency of the British and Foreign Bible Society, which enjoys special facilities in Russia, and now annually circulates about 600,000 copies of the Scriptures, in fifty different languages, within the Russian empire.
Russia, which had been their warmest patron, drove them from St Petersburg and Moscow in 1813, and from the whole empire in 1820, mainly on the plea of attempted proselytizing in the imperial army.
Funds were immediately raised by sympathizers for alleviating the sufferings of the starving victims. At the same time an appeal, written by Tolstoy and some of his friends, requesting the help of public opinion in favour of the oppressed Doukhobors, was circulated in St Petersburg and sent to the emperor and higher government officials.
He remained at Dorpat, occupied with researches on double stars and geodesy till 1839, when he removed to superintend the construction of the new central observatory at Pulkowa near St Petersburg, afterwards becoming director.
He died at St Petersburg on the 23rd of November 1864.
The places of the objects were at the same time determined with the Dorpat meridian circle (Stellarum fixarum imprimis duplicium et multiplicium positiones mediae, St Petersburg, 1852 seq.).
plates, 4to, St Petersburg, 1857-1860).
1819), having studied at the academy at St Petersburg, became assistant at Pulkowa in 1839, and director in 1862 on his father's resignation.
After attending the gymnasium of his native place, he went to study natural science at St Petersburg, where he graduated in chemistry in 1856, subsequently becoming privatdozent.
He died at St Petersburg on the 2nd of February 1907.
of St Petersburg, of which it is the chief port, in 59 0 59' 30" N.
in length by about 1 in breadth, with its base towards St Petersburg.
The island thus divides the seaward approach to St Petersburg into two channels; that on the northern side is obstructed by shoals which extend across it from Kotlin to Lisynos on the Finnish mainland, and is only passable by vessels drawing less than 15 ft.
In the Wilderness and Petersburg campaigns he was constantly employed as a divisional commander under Stuart, and, after Stuart's death, under General Wade Hampton.
Early in 1808 she accompanied the king from Memel to Konigsberg, whence, towards the end of the year, she visited St Petersburg, returning to Berlin on the 23rd of December 1809.
In February 1826, accordingly, the duke was sent to St Petersburg, ostensibly to congratulate the emperor Nicholas I.
He was, indeed, received in St Petersburg with all honour; but as a diplomatist the "Iron Duke" - whom Nicholas, writing to his brother Constantine, described as "old.
Desp. iii.) 7 An interesting account of Wellington's negotiations in St Petersburg, based on unpublished documents in the Russian archives, is given - in T.
concluded, on the 27th of July, the treaty of London, whereby France, England and Russia bound themselves to put an end to the conflict in the East and to enforce the conditions of the St Petersburg protocol upon the belligerents.
The most valuable public collections in Europe are at St Petersburg, London (British Museum) and Paris (Bibliotheque Nationale), where two or three very rare MSS.
- xii., St Petersburg, 1890-1900); also an excellent edition by Toumansky, with Russian translation, notes and introduction, of the Kitdb-i-Agdas (the most important of Baba's works), &c. (St Petersburg, 2899).
In the period of thirty years during which he was heir-apparent, the moral atmosphere of St Petersburg was very unfavourable to the development of any originality of thought or character.
The second occasion was during the Franco-German War of 1870-71, when the cabinet of St Petersburg boldly declared that it considered itself no longer bound by the Black Sea clause of the treaty of Paris.
When driving in one of the central streets of St Petersburg, near the Winter Palace, he was mortally wounded by the explosion of some small bombs and died a few hours afterwards.
of the Bizantiyskiy Vremennik (St Petersburg, 1904).
Petersburg to confer with the Tsar and his ministers about the Franco-Russian Alliance and the new developments of the Eastern question, a visit which countered the somewhat depressing effect in France of the meeting of the German and Russian Emperors at Baltic Port on July 4.
Newport News is served by the Chesapeake & Ohio railway, of which it is a terminus; by river boats to Richmond and Petersburg, Va.; by coastwise steamship lines to Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, Boston and Providence; by foreign steamship lines to London, Glasgow, Liverpool, Dublin, Belfast, Rotterdam, Hamburg and other ports; and by electric lines to Old Point Comfort, Norfolk and Portsmouth.
A convention for a similar union for telegraphs was signed in Paris in 1875 (revised at St Petersburg and replaced by another the same year).
St Petersburg (1907), p. 159.
Thereafter he rose rapidly, until, after a long period of service as vice-minister of foreign affairs, he was appointed to represent his country first in Peking, then in St Petersburg and finally in London, where he acted an important part in negotiating the first AngloJapanese Alliance, for which service he received the title of viscount.
Charles's "immersion in the Polish bog" (1702-1707), as Peter phrased it, enabled the tsar, not without considerable expense and trouble, to conquer Ingria and lay the foundations of St Petersburg.
From 1707 to 1709 the war on his part was purely defensive; Charles would not hear of peace till full restitution had been made and a war indemnity paid, while Peter was fully resolved to perish rather than surrender his "paradise," Petersburg.
A long and fatiguing tour of inspection over the latest of his great public works, the Ladoga Canal, during the autumn of 1724, brought back another attack of his paroxysms, and he reached Petersburg too ill to rally again, though he showed himself in public as late as the 16th of January 1725.
Letters and Papers of Peter the Great (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1887, &c.); S.
(St Petersburg, 1895, &c.); A.
Chistyakov, History of Peter the Great (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1903); S.
Solovev, Public Readings on Peter the Great (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1903); Documents relating to the Great Northern War (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1892, &c.).
The death of his mother in 1762 having deprived him of his means of support, he went in 1763 on the invitation of the pastor of the Lutheran community, Anton Friedrich Biisching, the founder of the modern historic statistical method of geography, to teach natural history in the Lutheran academy, St Petersburg.
In 1840 he obtained a post in the ministry of the interior at St Petersburg; but in consequence of having spoken too frankly about a death due to a police officer's violence, he was sent to Novgorod, where he led an official life, with the title of "state councillor," till 1842.
Recovery from these disasters was retarded by the permanent diversion of trade to new centres like Leipzig and St Petersburg, and by a state of unsettlement due to the government's disregard of its guarantees to its Protestant subjects.
At St Petersburg J.
Schiefner had begun at St Petersburg in 1849 his series of translations and researches.
Jaeschke from 1860 to 1867 made several important communications, chiefly with reference to the phonetics and the dialectical pronunciation, to the academies of Berlin and St Petersburg, and in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
462b St Petersburg) partly published by Jaeschke (Monatsber.
The Dalai Lama assented, and was even prepared to visit St Petersburg, but was checked by the Tsong-du (assembly).
His friends at Tubingen disapproved his new views, and in 1725, on Wolff's recommendation, he was invited by Peter the Great to lecture in St Petersburg, where he was well received.
During his ministry he developed the rapprochement of France with Russia - visiting St Petersburg with the president, Felix Faure - and sent expeditions to delimit the French colonies in Africa.
He drew up a form of constitution which Anne of Courland, the newly elected Russian empress, was forced to sign at Mittau before being permitted to proceed to St Petersburg.
On the following day she was formally betrothed, and was married to the archduke on the 21st of August 1745 at St Petersburg.
In July he committed the insane error of retiring with his Holsteiners to Oranienbaum, leaving his wife at St Petersburg.
(St Petersburg), begun in 1867; her private and official correspondence will be found in vols.
Though in 1815 he was invited to succeed Tychsen at Rostock, he preferred to go to St Petersburg, where he became director of the Asiatic museum and councillor of state.
He died at St Petersburg.
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu St Petersburg (1821); Numi cufici ex variis museis selecti (1823); Notice d'une centaine d'ouvrages arabes, &c., qui manquent en grande partie aux bidliotheques de l'Europe (1834); and Nova supplementa ad recensionem Num.
The principal buildings include the Greek Orthodox cathedral, finished in 1864 after the model of the church of St Isaac at St Petersburg; the Armenian church, in a mixed Gothic and Renaissance style, consecrated in 1875; a handsome new Jesuit church, and a new synagogue in Moorish style, built in 1877.
KOLPINO, one of the chief iron-works of the crown in Russia, in the government of St Petersburg, 16 m.
of the city of St Petersburg, on the railway to Moscow, and on the Izhora river.
Perhaps for ingenuity and the latest methods of manipulating skins in the manufacturing of furs the Americans lead the way, but as fur cutters are more or less of a roving and cosmopolitan character the larger fur businesses in London, Berlin, Vienna, St Petersburg, Paris and New York are guided by the same thorough and comparatively advanced principles.
He wrote a letter to Mr Garlike, secretary of the British embassy at St Petersburg, saying that he had come with a small squadron as the best way of paying "the very highest compliment" to the tsar.
One of his contemporaries was Edward Lee (c. 1482-1544) arch the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, bishop of York, famous for his attack on Erasmus, who replied to Cold Harbor and the long siege of Petersburg, in which, him in his Epistolae aliquot eruditorum virorum.
Dissertations sur les antiquites de Russie (St Petersburg, 1795), pl.
A line of great importance, connecting Vienna with St Petersburg, crosses the country from south-west to north-east, passing through the mining district and through Warsaw, and sending a short branch to Lodz.
The line from Berlin to St Petersburg traverses the north of Suwalki for 54 m.
ROGER ATKINSON PRYOR (1828-), American jurist and politician, was born near Petersburg, Virginia, on the 19th of July 1828.
This independence caused great wrath at St Petersburg, where Bernstorff was accused of disloyalty, and ultimately sacrificed to the resentment of the Russian government (13th of November 1780), the more readily as he already disagreed on many important points of domestic administration with the prime minister Haegh Guldberg.
Mushketov, Turkestan (St Petersburg, 1886), with bibliographical references; Ivashintsev, Hydrographic Exploration of the Caspian Sea (in Russian), with atlas (2 vols., 1866); Philippov, Marine Geography of the Caspian Basin (in Russian, 1877); Memoirs of the Aral-Caspian Expedition of 1876-1877 (2 vols., in Russian), edited by the St Petersburg Society of Naturalists; Andrusov, "A Sketch of the Development of the Caspian Sea and its Inhabitants," in Zapiski of Russ.
Later, as the god of ploughing, he is confounded with Osiris, and on a vase-painting at St Petersburg he is represented leaving Egypt in his dragon-drawn chariot on his journey round the world.
(pripisiw awschajasja Moiseju Chorenskomu) (St Petersburg, 1877, 8vo).
Grant, at the head of the Army of the Potomac, followed Lee to Richmond and Petersburg, and held him in siege to within a few days of final surrender.
Germany not only backed up Russian policy in the East, and at the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War took up towards her an attitude of more than benevolent neutrality, but the cabinets of Berlin and St Petersburg entered into an agreement under which political offenders against either government were to be treated as tr~aitors to both.
After graduating as a staff officer at St Petersburg he was sent to Turkestan in 1868 and, with the exception of an interval of two years, during which he was on the staff of the grand duke Michael in the Caucasus, remained in Central Asia until 1877.
He was at once recalled to St Petersburg.
In the Greek Church the rite survives notably at Moscow, St Petersburg and Constantinople.
Byelov, Russian History Previous to the Reforms of Peter the Great (Russ.), (Petersburg, 1895); E.
This was done in the teeth of the expressed wish of Russia; it roused the helpless resentment of Servia, whose economic dependence upon the Dual Monarchy was emphasized by the outcome of the war of tariffs into which she had plunged in 1906, and who saw in this scheme another link in the chain forged for her by the Habsburg empire; it 1 Alois, Count Lexa von Aerenthal, was born on the 27th of September 1854 at Gross-Skal in Bohemia, studied at Bonn and Prague, was attache at Paris (1877) and afterwards at St Petersburg, envoy extraordinary at Bucharest (1895) and ambassador at St Petersburg (1896).
At St Petersburg he met with a more cordial reception from Catherine II., and in 1787 he was permitted to return to France, though not to Paris.
Besides these the museums of Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester and Oxford are noteworthy in Great Britain for their Egyptian antiquities, as are those of St Petersburg, Vienna, Marseilles, Munich, Copenhagen, Palcrmo and Athens; there are also collections in most of the British colonies.
Wilberforce Clarke, London, 1881; compare also Erdmann, De expeditions Russorum Berdaam versus, Kasan, 1826, and Charmoy, Expedition d'Alexandre contre les Russes, St Petersburg, 1829); Iskandarnama-i-Bahri, second part, edited by Dr Sprenger (Calcutta, 1852 and 1869).
He used it, in the first instance, to remove " the geographical enemy " from the gates of St Petersburg by wresting Finland from the Swedes (1809); and he hoped by means of it to make the Danube the southern frontier of Russia.
(St Petersburg, 1869-1871, 6 vols.); Theodor Schiemann, Geschichte Russlands unter Kaiser Nikolaus I.
and die Ergebnisse seiner Lebensarbeit (Berl., 1904), a valuable study based upon much new material from the state archives of St Petersburg, Paris, Berlin and Vienna; A.
St Petersburg, 1885; German, Berlin, 1894).
He represented the United States at the court of St Petersburg in 1832-1833, and there negotiated an important commercial treaty.
20, 1864), in the siege operations about Petersburg, and in General W.
of St Petersburg by rail.
Poltava, and in 1716 summoned him to Petersburg.
Chistovitch, Theofan Prokopovich and his Times (Rus.; Petersburg, 1868); P. Morozov, Theophan Prokopovich as a Writer (Rus.; Petersburg, 1880).
This understanding was formally ratified during a visit to St Petersburg on which he accompanied the emperor in April 1897.
In 1853, after trying without success to bring about a political understanding between France and Russia, Jomini was called to St Petersburg to act as a military adviser to the:tsar during the Crimean War.
The standard of measurement most in use is the St Petersburg standard, which contains 165 cubic ft.
Petersburg, which further stated that " H.M.
In August 1796 his uncle the regent Charles, duke of Sudermania, visited St Petersburg for the purpose of arranging a marriage between the young king and Catherine II.'s grand- daughter, the grand-duchess Alexandra.
He arrived at St Petersburg at the psychological moment when the tsar had made up his mind to break with Napoleon.
On the outbreak of the war between the United States and England in 1812, he was still at St Petersburg.
He fought in the Cold Harbor and Petersburg operations in 1864-65, was brevetted major-general of volunteers for his conduct at Reams Station, and at the close of the war was in temporary command of an army corps.
In 1835 he served with great gallantry in the Caucasus, and on his return to St Petersburg was rewarded with a gold sword "for valour."
Longinov, True Anecdotes of Prince Repnin (Rus.) (Petersburg, 1865).
The majority of the nation and three-quarters of the nobility were on his side, while his uncle, the emperor Charles VI., through the imperial ambassador at St Petersburg, Rabutin, persistently urged his claims. The matter was arranged between Menshikov, Osterman and Rabutin; and on the 18th of May 1727 Peter II., according to the terms of the supposed last will of Catherine I., was proclaimed sovereign autocrat.
21, 1727); but Peter only fell into the hands of the equally unscrupulous Dolgoruki, who carried him away from Petersburg to Moscow.
NICHOLAS PAVLOVICH IGNATIEV, Count (1832-1908), Russian diplomatist, was born at St Petersburg on the 29th of January 1832.
He was finally made bishop of Montefiascone, and settled down in that little Italian town - but not for long, for in 1798 the French drove him from his retreat, and he sought refuge in Venice and St Petersburg.
Other investigators had shown that Cicero's clausulae are generally variations of some three or four forms in which the rhythm is trochaic. Dr Thaddaeus Zielinski of St Petersburg, after examining all the clausulae in Cicero's speeches, finds that they are governed by a law.
His relics, discovered in 1380, were in 1724 translated by Peter the Great from Vladimir to St Petersburg.
He introduced greater cordiality into the relations of France with Italy: at the same time he adhered firmly to the alliance with Russia, and in August 1899 made a visit to St Petersburg, which he repeated in April 1901.
Hoche, he became captain again, was colonel in the Army of the Rhine in 1799-1800, and after the peace of Luneville (1801) was sent to St Petersburg to negotiate an understanding between Russia and France.
Napoleon sent him in 1807 as ambassador to St Petersburg, where Caulaincourt tried to maintain the alliance of Tilsit, and although Napoleon's ambition made the task a difficult one, Caulaincourt succeeded in it for some years.
TSARSKOYE SELO, a town of north Russia, in the government of St Petersburg, and an imperial residence, 15 m.
The town stands on the Duderhof Hills and consists (i) of the town proper, surrounded by villages and a German colony, which are summer resorts for the inhabitants of St Petersburg; and (2) of the imperial parks and palaces.
The railway connecting the town with St Petersburg was the first (1838) to be constructed in Russia.
Thus the declaration of Paris, 1856 (to which, however, the United States, Venezuela and Bolivia have not yet formally acceded), prohibits the use of privateers and protects the commerce of neutrals; the Geneva conventions, 1864 and 1906, give protection to the wounded and to those in attendance upon them; the St Petersburg declaration, 1868, prohibits the employment of explosive bullets weighing less than 400 grammes; and the three Hague declarations of 1899 prohibit respectively (I) the launching of projectiles from balloons, (2) the use of projectiles for spreading harmful gases, and (3) the use of expanding bullets.
der Wissenschaften zu St Petersburg, 1895.
The Pechersky monastery, close by, is archaeologically interesting; it was built in the first half of the 16th century - instead of the old monastery founded in 1330 and destroyed by a land-slip in 1596 - and has several antiquities and a library which formerly contained very valuable MSS., now at St Petersburg.
From the Valley the cavalry rode through the enemy's country to join Grant before Petersburg, fighting the action of Waynesboro', destroying communications and material of war, and finally reporting to the general-in-chief on the 25th of March 1865.
The operations were conducted entirely by him and were brilliantly successful, leading to the retreat of Lee from the lines of Petersburg and the final catastrophe of Appomattox Court House.
The part played by the cavalry corps in the pursuit of Lee was most conspicuous, and Sheridan himself commanded the large forces of infantry and cavalry which cut off Lee's retreat and compelled the surrender of the famous Army of Northern Virginia (see American Civil War and Petersburg).
During the eight years following he was' T heard at all the principal centres - including London, Leipzig, Berlin, Copenhagen, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Constantinople, Lisbon and Madrid.
Petersburg and Richmond on the James are connected with regular steamship lines with Norfolk, Richmond's water trade being chiefly in coal, oil, logs and fertilizer.
The principal cities of the state are: Richmond (the capital), Norfolk, Petersburg, Roanoke, Newport News, Lynchburg, Portsmouth and Danville.
The Virginia Normal and Industrial Institute, at Petersburg, is governed by a board of visitors consisting of the superintendent of public instruction and four other members appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate for four years.
The principal battles were: the first Manassas, or Bull Run (July 21, 1861); those around Richmond (June 26-July 2, 1862); second Manassas (August 29-30); Fredericksburg (December 12, 1862); Mechanicsville (May 2 and 3, 186 3); the Wilderness (May 5 and 6); Spottsylvania (May 8); North Anna and Bethesda church (May 29-30); Cold Harbor (June 3); the battles around Petersburg (June 15, July 30 and November 1, 1864); and Five Forks (April 1) and Appomattox (April 8-9, 1865).
Tchebichev of St Petersburg.
800 and 1004, extracted from Caussin's translation of Ibn Junis, the eclipses and occultations of Bullialdus, Gassendi, and Hevelius, of the French astronomers at Paris and St Petersburg, and of Flamsteed at Greenwich, and deduced a secular acceleration of 8.8", agreeing well with the theoretical value.
1500; the oldest is of 1475 (St Petersburg, Library of Ecclesiastical History 9/1086).
P. Sakharov's (St Petersburg, 1849) is perhaps the best known (in Narratives of the Russian People, vol.
In 1876 he was transferred to St Petersburg with the rank of ambassador, in 1882 to London, and in 1885 to Vienna.
It touches at its south-eastern extremity the government of St Petersburg, includes the northern half of Lake Ladoga, and is separated from the Russian governments of Arkhangelsk and Olonets by a sinuous line which follows, roughly speaking, the water-parting between the rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea and the White Sea.
The first railway was opened in 1862, and the next, from Helsingfors to St Petersburg, in 1870 (cost only £4520 per mile).
The government of the country was practically carried on by the senate, which communicated with St Petersburg through a Finnish secretary attached to the Russian government.
It is connected by rail (186 m.) with Bologoye, on the line between St Petersburg and Moscow.
Aepinus which was explained and illustrated in his Tentamen theoriae electricitatis et magnetismi, published in St Petersburg in 1759.
Conti Rossini's Scriptores Aethiopici, vitae sanctorum (Paris, 1904 seq.); and for Georgian, Sabinin's Paradise of the Georgian Church (St Petersburg, 1882).
Koehne, Beitrdge zur Geschichte von Cherronesus in Taurien (St Petersburg, 1848); art.
Bobrinskoj, Chersonesus Taurica (St Petersburg, 1905) (Russian); V.
Reports of excavations appear in the Cornpte rendu of the Imperial Archaeological Commission of St Petersburg from 1888 and in its Bulletin.
By a system of canals which connect the upper Volga with the Neva, the commercial mouth of the Volga has been transferred, so to speak, from the Caspian to the Baltic, thus making St Petersburg, the capital and chief seaport of Russia, the chief port of the Volga basin as well.
The greater part of the traffic is up river, the amount of merchandise which reaches Astrakhan being nearly fifteen times less than that reaching St Petersburg by the Volga canals.
P. P. Semenov's Geographical and Statistical Dictionary (5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-85) contains a full bibliography of the Volga and tributaries.
Ragozin's Volga (3 vols., St Petersburg, 1880-81, with atlas; in Russian); N.
Dew-retting is the process by which all the Archangel flax and a large portion of that sent out from St Petersburg are prepared.
Riga and St Petersburg (including Cronstadt) are the principal ports, but flax is also exported from Revel, Windau, Pernau, Libau, Narva and Konigsberg.
The following names amongst others are given to the fibre: - Archangel, Bajetsky, Courish, Dorpat, Drogobusher, Dunaberg, Fabrichnoi, Fellin, Gjatsk, Glazoff, Griazourtz, Iwashkower, Jaransk, Janowitz, Jaropol, Jaroslav, Kama, Kashin, Konigsberg, Kostroma, Kotelnitch, Kowns, Krasnoholm, Kurland (Courland), Latischki, Livonian Crowns, Malmuish, Marienberg, Mochenetz, Mologin, Newel, Nikolsky, Nolinsk, Novgorod, Opotchka, Ostroff, Ostrow, Otbornoy, Ouglitch, Pernau, Pskoff, Revel, Riga, Rjeff, St Petersburg, Seretz, Slanitz, Slobodskoi, Smolensk, Sytcheffka, Taroslav, Tchesna, Totma, Twer, Ustjuga, Viatka, Vishni, Vologda, Werro, Wiasma, Witebsk.
Both dew-retted and water-retted flax are exported from St Petersburg, the dew-retted or Slanitz flax being marked 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Crown, also Zebrack No.
de Barante was appointed ambassador to Turin, and five years later to St Petersburg.
Solovev, History of Russia (Russ.), (Petersburg, 1895).
and the government of St Petersburg on the E.
The province is intersected by a railway running from St Petersburg to Reval, with branches from the latter city westwards to Baltic Port and southwards into Livonia, and from Taps south to Yuryev (Dorpat).
Altogether they number close upon one million, and are thus distributed: 3 6 5,959 in Esthonia (in 1897), 5 18, 594 in Livonia, 64,116 in the government of St Petersburg, 25,458 in that of Pskov, and 12,855 in other parts of Russia.
(St Petersburg, 1863); D.
Filippov, "Documents relating to the Cabinet Ministers of the Empress Anne" (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1898) in the collections of the Russ.
C. Finch, Diplomatic Despatches from Russia, 1740-1742 (St Petersburg, 1893-1894) in the collections of the Russ.
In 1707 Peter was ready to retrocede everything except St Petersburg and the line of the Neva, and again Charles preferred risking the whole to saving the greater part of his Baltic possessions (for details see Charles Xii.; Peter The Great).
Nothing else was done on either side for six months more; and then the Swedish generals made a " tacit truce " with the Russians through the mediation of the French ambassador at St Petersburg.
The Swedish government thereupon concluded a secret convention with Russia (treaty of Petersburg, April 5, 1812), undertaking to send 30,000 men to operate against Napoleon in Germany in return for a promise from Alexander guaranteeing to Sweden the possession of Norway.
See Tolstoy, Essai biographique et historique sur le feld-marechal Prince de Varsovie (Paris, 1835); Notice biographique sur le Marechal Paskevitch (Leipzig, 1856); and Prince Stcherbatov's Life (St Petersburg, 1888-1894).
C. Murray, De Filippi (1865), Home (1873), and Professor Strauch onsul.4 of St Petersburg.
de Bartholomaei, Collectio,i de monna-ies sassanides (2nd ed., St Petersburg, I875)~ For the inscriptions: Edward Thomas, Earl1 Sassanian Inscriptions, Journ.
To repair the evil consequences of this act a conciliatory embassy, consisting of a young son of the crown prince and some high officers of the state, was despatched to St Petersburg.
After a residence of a month at Contrexville, the shah proceeded (July 14) to St Petersburg, and thence to Paris (July 29), intending to go to London on the 8th of August.
Persia continued to increase; in December 1904 a special mission under Mirza Riza Khan was received in audience by the tsar; and in May 1905 Muzaffar-ud-Din Shah himself left Persia to visit the courts of Vienna and St Petersburg.
(Petersburg, 1875); on Farid uddin Attflr, S.
Petersburg, and from 1883 to 1888 he worked at the Foreign Office in Vienna under Kalnoky, with whom he formed close relations.
Petersburg, where he exercised considerable influence with the ambassador, Count Wolkenstein.
Petersburg, where he remained until his appointment as Foreign Minister in Oct.
Petersburg, in order to create a basis for a permanent friendly relation between Austria-Hungary and Russia.
He died at St Petersburg on the 6th of April 1799.
60-ioo (St Petersburg, 1870-1904); Nikolai Ivanovich Grigorovich, The Chancellor A.
Bezborodko in Connexion with the Events of His Time (Rus., St Petersburg, 1879-1881).
ALEXANDER PORFYRIEVICH BORODIN (1834-1887), Russian musical composer, natural son of a Russian prince, was born in St Petersburg on the 12th of November 1834.
He was brought up to the medical profession, and in 1862 was appointed assistant professor of chemistry at the St Petersburg academy of medicine.
He died suddenly at St Petersburg, on the 28th of February 1887.
(Russ.) (St Petersburg, 1884).
During these twenty-four years he exercised considerable influence on public opinion and even on the Government, by representing with great ability the moderately Conservative spirit of Moscow in opposition to the occasionally ultra-Liberal and always cosmopolitan spirit of St Petersburg.
At the urgent entreaty of the comte d'Artois in 1791 he quitted Paris for Coblenz, accompanied Artois to Vienna, and was sent to the court of St Petersburg the same year to enlist the sympathies of Catherine II.
Kurakin (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1890); A.
Bruckner, A Russian Tourist in Western Europe in the beginning of the X VIIIth Century (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1892).
PAVLOVSK, a town of Russia, in the government of St Petersburg 17 m.
In the vicinity are smaller imperial palaces and summer residences of St Petersburg families.
von Baer, Expedition a Novaia Zemlia et en Lapponie (St Petersburg, 1838, &c.); and among later works H.
(1754-1801), emperor of Russia, was born in the Summer Palace in St Petersburg on the 1st of October (N.s.) - the 10th of September by the Russian calendar-1754.
He died on the 2nd of May 1869 at St Petersburg.
von Helmersen, Reise nach dem Altai (St Petersburg, 1848); T.
He was in consequence called to St Petersburg and given an appointment in the academy there.
The Itinerary of a Chinese Traveller (1821), a series of documents in the military archives of St Petersburg purporting to be the travels of George Ludwig von, and a similar series obtained from him in the London foreign office, are all regarded as spurious.
This body now governs the Russian Church, and consists of a procurator representing the emperor, the metropolitans of Kiev, Moscow and St Petersburg, the exarch of Georgia and five or six other bishops appointed by the emperor.
At Rome she painted the portraits of Princesses Adelaide and Victoria, and at Naples the "Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante" now in the collection of Mr Tankerville Chamberlayne; and then journeyed to Vienna, Berlin and St Petersburg.
Deposed in 1805, he escaped to St Petersburg, and in 1806, at the head of some 20,000 Russians, returned to Bucharest, where he set to work on a fresh attempt to liberate Greece.
Alexander Ypsilanti (1792-1828), eldest son of Constantine Ypsilanti, accompanied his father in 1805 to St Petersburg, and in 1809 received a commission in the cavalry of the Imperial Guard.
of St Petersburg, the capital of the government of Livonia.
Having direct railway communication with the fertile parts of southern and south-eastern Russia, Riga has become the second port for foreign trade on the Baltic, ranking next after St Petersburg.
Riga consists of four parts - the old town and the St Petersburg and Moscow suburbs on the right bank of the Dvina, and the Mitau suburb on the left bank, the two sides being connected by a floating bridge, which is removed in winter, and by a viaduct, 820 ft.
The St Petersburg suburb is the seat of the German aristocracy and merchant community.
The towns have left hardly any architectural or sculptural remains, but the numerous barrows in their neighbourhood have yielded very beautiful objects now mostly preserved in the Hermitage in St Petersburg.
(St Petersburg, 1890); art.
(St Petersburg, 1901).
Koehne, Musee Kotschoubey (St Petersburg, 1855).
Excavations: Antiquites du Bosphore cimmerien (St Petersburg, 1854, repr.
Accordingly, when Lord Salisbury proposed energetic action to protect the Armenians, the cabinet of St Petersburg suddenly assumed the role of protector of the sultan and vetoed the proposal.
He was fellow or foreign corresponding member of the French Institute, the academies of Berlin, GÃ¶ttingen, St Petersburg, Milan, Rome, Leiden, Upsala and Hungary; and he was nominated an officer of the Legion of Honour by President Carnot.
(1) The Kazan Tatars, descendants of the Kipchaks settled on the Volga in the 13th century, where they mingled with survivors of the old Bulgarians and partly with Finnish stems. They number about half a million in the government of Kazan, about 100,000 in each of the governments of Ufa, Samara and Simbirsk, and about 300,000 in Vyatka, Saratov, Tambov, Penza, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Perm and Orenburg; some 15,000 belonging to the same stem have migrated to Ryazan, or have been settled as prisoners in the 16th and 17th centuries in Lithuania (Vilna, Grodno and Podolia); and there are some 2000 in St Petersburg, where they pursue the callings of coachmen and waiters in restaurants.
Besides the well-known works of Castren, which are a very rich source of information on the subject, Schiefner (St Petersburg academy of science), Donner, Ahlqvist and other explorers of the Ural-Altaians, as also those of the Russian historians Soloviev, Kostomarov, Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Schapov, and Ilovaiskiy, the following containing valuable information may be mentioned: the publications of the Russian Geographical Society and its branches; the Russian Etnographicheskiy Sbornik; the Izvestia of the Moscow society of the amateurs of natural science; the works of the Russian ethnographical congresses; Kostrov's researches on the Siberian Tatars in the memoirs of the Siberian branch of the geographical society; Radlov's Reise durch den Altai, Aus Sibirien; " Picturesque Russia" (Zhivopisnaya Rossiya); Semenov's and Potanin's "Supplements" to Ritter's Asien: Harkavi's report to the congress at Kazan; Hartakhai's "Hist.
On his return to St Petersburg he had to deal, as president of the first ministry under the new constitutional regime, with a very difficult political situation (see Russia: History); he was no longer able to obtain support, and early in 1906 he retired into private life.
Unfortunately Madame Kovalevsky did not live to reap the full reward of her labours, for she died just as she had attained the height of her fame and had won recognition even in her own country by election to membership of the St Petersburg Academy of Science.
LADOGA (formerly NEvo), a lake of northern Russia, between 59° 56' and 61° 46' N., and 29° 53' and 32° 50' E., surrounded by the governments of St Petersburg and Olonets, and of Viborg in Finland.
The granite and marble of Serdobol, and the sandstone of Putilovo, are much used for buildings at St Petersburg; copper and tin from the Pitkaranta mine are exported.
Steamers ply regularly in two directions from St Petersburg - to the monasteries of Konnevitz and Valamo, and to the mouth of the Svir, whence they go up that river to Lake Onega and Petrozavodsk; and small vessels transport timber, firewood, planks, iron, kaolin, granite, marble, fish, hay and various small wares from the northern shore to Schlusselburg, and thence to St Petersburg.
(St Petersburg, 1897).
But a very great amount of most valuable imformation about the Caucasus is preserved in articles in encyclopaedias and scientific periodicals, especially the Izvestia and Zapiski of the Russian and Caucasian geographical societies, in P. P. Semenov's Geographical Dictionary (in Russian, 5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-1884), and in the Russkiy encyklopedicheskiy slovar (1894), and in the Kavkazskiy kalendar (annually at Tiflis).
by rail from St Petersburg via Tavastehus, and is in regular steamer communication with St Petersburg, Vasa, Stockholm, Copenhagen and Hull.
A sheet of sketches drawn there in 1508 shows the beginning of a Madonna now lost except in the form of copies, one of which (known as the "Madonna Litta") is at St Petersburg, another in the Poldi-Pezzoli Museum at Milan.
In 17 4 8 he was appointed tutor in the family of the count de Lynars, who was then going as ambassador to St Petersburg.
In 1754 he removed to GÃ¶ttingen, where in 1757 he was appointed professor of philosophy; but in 1761 he accepted an invitation to the German congregation at St Petersburg.