Peru Sentence Examples
The Andine sub-region extends from Peru to the Argentine and follows roughly the watershed of the Amazon.
Melastomaceae, copiously represented in tropical America, are more feebly so in Peru and wholly wanting in Chile.
In the year 1519 Panama was founded by Pedrarias; and the conquest of Peru by Pizarro followed a few years afterwards.
The exploring enterprise of the Spanish nation did not wane after the conquest of Peru and Mexico, and the acquisition of the vast empire of the Indies.
The voyage of Drake across the Pacific was preceded by that of Alvaro de Mendana, who was despatched from Peru in 1567 to discover the great Antarctic continent which was believed to extend far northward into the South sea, the search In Pacific. for which now became one of the leading motives of Pacific. exploration.Advertisement
In June 1595 Mendana sailed from the coast of Peru in command of a second expedition to colonize the Solomon Islands.
The viceroys of Peru still persevered in their attempts to plant a colony in the hypothetical southern continent.
On the 6th of May 1615 Spilbergen entered the Pacific Ocean, and touched at several places on the coast of Chile and Peru, defeating the Spanish fleet in a naval engagement off Chilca.
In the 16th century the city was the strongest Spanish fortress in the New World, excepting Cartagena, and gold and silver were brought hither by ship from Peru and were carried across the Isthmus to Chagres, but as Spain's fleets even in the Pacific were more and more often attacked in the 17th century, Panama became less important, though it was still the chief Spanish port on the Pacific. In 1671 the city was destroyed by Henry Morgan, the buccaneer; it was rebuilt in 1673 by Alfonzo Mercado de Villacorta about five miles west of the old site and nearer the roadstead.
It was only a step from the conquest of Mexico to that of Peru, and scarcely three months elapsed before he began to break ground on the latter subject.Advertisement
The Conquest of Peru was completed in November 1846 and published in March following.
Although during the composition of the Ferdinand and Isabella it had been of very intermittent service to him, it had so far improved that he could read with a certain amount of regularity during the writing of the Conquest of Mexico, and also, though in a less degree, during the years devoted to the Conquest of Peru.
In Mexico and Peru they fell under the ban of the Inquisition.
There are also Jews in Curacoa, Surinam, Luxemburg, Norway, Peru, Crete and Venezuela; but in none of these does the Jewish population much exceed woo.
It has been the scene of many notable events in the history of Peru.Advertisement
He was admitted a Jesuit in 1612, and afterwards sent on mission work to Chile and Peru, where he became rector of the college of Cuenca.
The journey lasted ten months; and on the explorer's arrival in Peru, Acuna prepared his narrative, while awaiting a ship for Europe.
A powerful stimulus was thus given to the growth of cotton in all directions; a degree of activity and enterprise never witnessed before was seen in India, Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Africa, the West Indies, Queensland, New South Wales, Peru, Brazil, and in short wherever cotton could be produced; and there seemed no room to doubt that in a short time there would be abundant supplies independently of America.
Coal is found in the province of Hualgayoc at the southern extremity of the department, which is also one of the rich silver-mining districts of Peru.
Auricula is confined to the East Indies and Peru.Advertisement
The captaincy-general of Cuba was not originally, however, by any means so broad in powers as the viceroyalties of Mexico and Peru; and by the creation in 1765 of the office of intendant - the delegate of the national treasury - his faculties were very greatly curtailed.
A university, founded in 1825, three colleges, one of them dating from colonial times, a medical school, and a public library, founded in 1821, are distinguishing features of the city, which has always taken high rank in Peru for its learning and liberalism, as well as for its political restlessness.
It was captured by the Chileans in 1883, near the close of the war between Chile and Peru.
In the latter year was created the Real Audiencia de la Plata y Charcas, a royal court of justice having jurisdiction over Upper Peru and the La Plata provinces of that time.
Some few are also found in southern Peru.Advertisement
Thus in 1857 he went to Peru in order to determine the magnetic equator; in1861-1862and 1864, he studied telluric absorption in the solar spectrum in Italy and Switzerland; in 1867 he carried out optical and magnetic experiments at the Azores; he successfully observed both transits of Venus, that of 1874 in Japan, that of 1882 at Oran in Algeria; and he took part in a long series of solar eclipse-expeditions, e.g.
Copiapo was founded in 1742 by Jose de Manso (afterwards Conde de Superunda, viceroy of Peru) and took its name from the Copayapu Indians who occupied that region.
It was primarily a military station and transport post on the road to Peru, but after the discovery of the rich silver deposits near Chanarcillo by Juan Godoy in 1832 it became an important mining centre.
The whole of this line, however, was subject to future adjustments, Peru claiming all that part of the Amazon valley extending eastward to the Madeira and lying between the Beni and the east and west boundary line agreed upon by Spain and Portugal in 1750 and 1777, which is near the 7th parallel.
With regard to the section between the Amazon and the Apaporis river, already settled between Brazil and Peru, the territory has been in protracted dispute between Peru, Ecuador and Colombia; but a treaty of limits between Brazil and Ecuador was signed in 1901 and promulgated in 1905.
Behind them the Spaniards, who had an establishment at Asuncion, had penetrated almost to the sources of the waters of Paraguay, and had succeeded in establishing communication with Peru.
Orellana, on the other hand, setting out from Peru, had crossed the mountains and sailed down the Amazon.
It was occupied by the Chileans in 1879 in the war between Chile and Peru, and was ceded to Chile by the treaty of the 10th of October 1883.
As in Chile, Peru and Colombia, the ruling classes and the Church have taken little interest in the education of the Indians and mestizos.
Its anchorage was used by Lord Cochrane in 1820 during his attacks on Callao; it was the landing-place of an invading Chilean army in 1838; it was bombarded by the Chileans in 1880; and in 1883 it was the meeting-place of the Chilean and Peruvian commissioners who drew up the treaty of Ancon, which ended the war between Chile and Peru.
Balsam of Tolu, produced by Myroxylon toluiferum, a native of Venezuela and New Granada; balsam of Peru, derived from Myroxylon Pereirae, a native of San Salvador in Central America; Mexican and Brazilian elemi, produced by various species of Icica or "incense trees," and the liquid exudation of an American species of Liquidambar, are all used as incense in America.
In Cuba, Martinique, Peru and elsewhere the old-fashioned double-bottomed defecator is used, into which the juice is run direct, and there limed and heated.
The leaves and young shoots are chewed; they have stimulating properties, comparable with those of the coca of Peru.
Leaving Hampton Roads on the 18th of August 1838, it Mopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Paumotu group of the Low Archipelago, the Samoan islands and New South Wales; from Sydney sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny islands; visited the Fiji and the Hawaiian islands in 1840, explored the west coast of the United States, including the Columbia river, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento river, in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippine islands, the Sulu archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on the 10th of June 1842.
After arbitration by the king of Spain had been agreed upon, the question was considered by two Spanish commissions, and modifications favouring Peru were recommended.
These became known prematurely, and in May 1910 war was threatened between Peru and Ecuador in spite of an offer of mediation by the United States, Brazil and Argentina under the Hague Convention.
This line has been twice modified by treaties between Bolivia and Brazil, but without the consent of Peru, which claimed all the territory eastward to the Madeira between the above-mentioned line and the Beni-Madidi rivers, the line of demarcation following the Pablo-bamba, a small tributary of the Madidi, to its source, and thence in a straight line to the village of Conima, on Lake Titicaca.
This decision at first gave offence to the Bolivians, but friendly overtures from Peru led to its acceptance by both parties with the understanding that modifications would be made in locating the line wherever actual settlements had been made by either party on territory awarded to the other.
Peru is divided longitudinally into three well-defined regions, the coast, the sierra and the montana.
The coast of Peru has few protected anchorages, and the headlands are generally abrupt and lofty.
The Maritime Cordillera of Peru has no connexion with the coast ranges of Chile, but is a continuation of the Cordillera Occidental of Chile, which under various local names forms the eastern margin of the coastal desert belt from Atacama northward into Peru.
It then continues northward, separating the basins of the Maranon and Huallaga; and at the northern frontier of Peru it is at length broken through by the Maranon flowing eastward.
The Eastern Andes is a magnificent range in the southern part of Peru, of Silurian formation, with talcose and clay slates, many quartz veins and eruptions of granitic rocks.
The eastern range is cut through by six rivers in Peru, namely, the Maranon and Huallaga, the Perene, Mantaro, Apurimac, Vilcamayu and Paucartambo, the last five being tributaries of the Ucayali.
The range of the Andes in south Peru has a high plateau to the west and the vast plains of the Amazonian basin to the east.
But throughout the length of Peru the three ranges are clearly defined.
For purposes of description the sierra of Peru may be divided into four sections, each embracing portions of all three ranges.
The lake in Peru which is third in size is that of Parinacochas on the coast watershed, near the foot of the snowy peak of Sarasara.
The third division of Peru is the region of the tropical forests, at the base of the Andes, and within the basin of the Amazon.
The most valuable species, called C. Calisaya, is found in the forests of Caravaya in south Peru and in those of Bolivia.
The population of Peru is mixed, including whites, Indians, Africans, Asiatics, and their mixtures and sub-mixtures.
Universities and colleges were founded in Peru soon after the conquest, and Lima, Cuzco, Arequipa and Chuquisaca (now the Bolivian town of Sucre) became centres of considerable intellectual activity.
Towards the end of the 18th century scientific studies began tc receive attention in Peru.
An ephemeris and guide to Peru was begun by the learned geographer Dr Cosme Bueno, and continued by Dr Unanue, who brought out his guides at Lima from 1 793 to 1798.
Baleato also constructed a map of Peru.
The topographical labours of Cosme Bueno and Unanue were ably continued at Lima by Admiral Don Eduardo Carrasco, who compiled annual guides of Peru from 1826.
But the most eminent Peruvian geographer is Dr Don Mariano Felipe Paz Soldan (1821-1886), whose Geografia del Peru appeared in 1861.
His still more important work, the Diccionario geografico estadistico del Peru (1877), is a gazetteer on a most complete scale.
In 1868 appeared his first volume of the Historia del Peru independiente, and two others have since been published.
But the most valuable and important historical work by a modern Peruvian is General Mendiburu's (1805-1885) Diccionario historico-biografico del Peru, a monument of patient and conscientious research, combined with critical discernment of a high order.
As laborious historical students, Don Jose Toribio Polo, the author of an ecclesiastical history of Peruvian dioceses, and Don Enrique Torres Saldamando, the historian of the Jesuits in Peru, have great merit.
The leading Peruvian authors on constitutional and legal subjects are Dr Jose Santistevan, who has published volumes on civil and criminal law; Luis Felipe Villaran (subsequently rector of the university at Lima), author of a work on constitutional right; Dr Francisco Garcia Calderon (once president of Peru), author of a dictionary of Peruvian legislation, in two volumes; Dr Francisco Xavier Mariategui, one of the fathers of Peruvian independence; and Dr Francisco de Paula Vigil (1792-1875), orator and statesman as well as author, whose work, Defensa de los gobiernos, is a noble and enlightened statement of the case for civil governments against the pretensions of the court of Rome.
Perhaps the most important work on Peru of modern times is that of the Italian savant Antonio Raimondi (1825-1890), who spent the greater part of his life in studying the topography and natural resources of the country.
Pedro Paz Soldan was a classical scholar who published three volumes of poems. Carlos Augusto Salaverry is known as one of Peru's best lyrical poets, and Luis Benjamin Cisneros for his two novels, Julia and Edgardo.
In his youth Ricardo Palma published three books of poems, entitled Armonias, Verbos y Gerundios and Pasionarias, and then, since 1870, devoted his great literary talents to writing the historical traditions of Peru, of which six volumes were published.
The society receives a government subsidy, and its rooms in the national library in Lima are the principal centre of scientific study in Peru.
The historical institute of Peru, also at Lima, is charged by the government, from which it receives a liberal subsidy, with the work of collecting, preparing and publishing documents relating to Peruvian history, and of preserving objects of archaeological and historic character.
In 1569 the governor, Lope Garcia de Castro, divided Peru into corregimientos under officers named corregidors, of whom there were 77, each in direct communication with the government at Lima.
An important administrative reform was made in 1784, when Peru was divided into 7 intendencias, each under an officer called an intendente.
Peru is divided into 18 departments, 2 littoral provinces, and what is called the constituticnal province of Callao.
Railway construction in Peru began in 1848 with a short line from Callao to Lima, but the building of railway lines across the desert to the inland towns of the fertile river valleys and the Andean foot-hills did not begin until twenty years later.
Peru belongs to the international postal union, and had in 1906 a money order and parcels exchange with seven foreign states.
The largest share in Peru's foreign trade is taken by Great Britain, Chile ranking second and the United States third.
Although her mining industries have been the longest and most widely known, the principal source of Peru's wealth is agriculture.
It is a universal article of food in Peru, and the output is consumed in the country.
Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a product peculiar to the eastern Andean slopes of Bolivia and Peru, where it has long been cultivated for its leaves.
Fruits in great variety are grown everywhere in Peru, but beyond local market demands their commercial production is limited to grapes and olives.
The alpaca and vicuña are smaller and weaker and have never been used for this service, but their fine, glossy fleeces were used by the Indians in the manufacture of clothing and are still an important commercial asset of the elevated table-lands of Peru and Bolivia.
The natural products of Peru include rubber, cabinet woods in great variety, cinchona or Peruvian bark and other medicinal products, various fibres, and guano.
The best bark comes from the Carabaya district in southeastern Peru, but it is found in many localities on the eastern slopes of the Andes.
The forests of eastern Peru are rich in fine cabinet woods, but their inaccessibility renders them of no great value.
Many of the forest 'trees of the upper Amazon valley of Brazil are likewise found in Peru.
Mining was the chief industry of Peru under Spanish rule.
Practically the whole Andean region of Peru is mineral-bearinga region 1500 m.
The gold ores of Peru are usually found in ferruginous quartz.
Peru has been known chiefly for its silver mines, some of which have been marvellously productive.
The manufacturing industries of Peru are confined chiefly to the treatment of agricultural and mineral products - the manufacture of sugar and rum from sugar cane, textiles from cotton and wool, wine and spirits from grapes, cigars and cigarettes from tobacco, chocolate from cacao, kerosene and benzine from crude petroleum, cocaine from coca, and refined metals from their ores.
Peru is a centralized republic, whose supreme law is the constitution of 1860.
The financial record of Peru, notwithstanding her enormous natural resources, has been one of disaster and discredit.
In 1876 interest payments on account of this debt were suspended and in1879-1882the war with Chile deprived Peru of her principal sources of income - the guano deposits and the Tarapaca nitrates.
This contract relieved Peru of its crushing burden of foreign indebtedness, and turned an apparently heavy loss to the bondholders into a possible profit.
The single gold standard has been in force in Peru since 1897 and 1898, silver and copper being used for subsidiary coinage.
Previous to the adoption of the single gold standard in 1897 the monetary history of Peru had been unfortunate.
Remains of a similar character are found at Huaraz in the north of Peru, and at Cuzco, 011antay-tambo and Huinaque between Huaraz and Tiahuanaco.
It is probable, however, that the settlement of the Cuzco valley and district by the Incas or " people of the sun " took place some 300 years before Pizarro landed in Peru.
In 1527 Pizarro, after enduring fearful hardships, first reached the coast of Peru at Tumbez.
In the following year he went to Spain, and on the 26th of July 1529 the capitulation with the Crown for the conquest of Peru was executed.
Meanwhile Vaca de Castro had been sent out as governor of Peru by Charles V., and on hearing of the murder of Pizarro he assumed the government of the country.
Blasco Nunez de Vela was sent out, as first viceroy of Peru, to enforce the " New Laws."
The " New Laws " were weakly revoked, and Pedro de la Gasca, as first president of the Audiencia (court of justice) of Peru, was sent out to restore order.
La Gasca made a redistribution of " encomiendas " to the loyal conquerors, which caused great discontent, and left Peru before his scheme was made public in January 1550.
Don Andres Hurtado de Mendoza, marquis of Canete, entered Lima as third viceroy of Peru on the 6th of July 1555, and ruled with an iron hand for six years.
After a minute personal inspection of every province in Peru, he, with the experienced aid of the learned Polo de Ondegardo and the judge of Matienza, established the system under which the native population of Peru was ruled for the two succeeding centuries.
Peru was the centre of Spanish power, and the viceroy had his military strength concentrated at Lima.
Consequently the insurrections in the more distant provinces, such as Chile and Buenos Aires, were the first to declare Peru Inpende themselves independent, in 18x6 and 1817.
It convoyed an army of Argentine troops, with some Chileans, under the command of the Argentine general, San Martin, which landed on the coast of Peru in September 1820.
San Martin was enthusiastically received, and the independence of Peru was proclaimed at Lima after the viceroy had withdrawn (July 28, 1821).
After a short period of government by a committee of three, the congress elected Don Jose de la Riva Aguero to be first president of Peru on the 28th of February 1823.
The viceroy and all his officers were taken prisoners, and the Spanish power in Peru came to an end.
General Bolivar ruled Peru with dictatorial powers for more than a year, and though there were cabals against him there can be little doubt of his popularity.
General Jose de Lamar, who commanded the Peruvians at Ayacucho, was elected president of Peru on the 24th of August 1827, but was deposed, after waging a brief but Early disastrous war with Colombia on the 7th of June Presidents.
For fifteen years, from 1829 to 1844, Peru was painfully feeling her way to a right use of independence.
Feeling strongly the necessity that Peru had for repose, and the guilt of civil dissension, he wrote patriotic poems which became very popular.
But the strong-handed intervention of Chile on the ground of assistance rendered to rebels, but really through jealousy of the confederation, ended in the defeat and overthrow of Santa Cruz, and the separation of Bolivia from Peru.
An exception must be made of the administration of General Ramon Castilla, who restored peace to Peru, and showed himself to be an honest and very capable ruler.
From December 1856 to March 1858 he had to contend with and subdue a local insurrection headed by General Agostino Vivanco, but, with these two exceptions, there was peace in Peru from 1844 to 1879, a period of thirty-five years.
The military events of the war, calamitous for Peru, are dealt with in the article Chile Peruvian War.
General Iglesias was nominated to the office of president of the republic, and in October 1883 a treaty of peace, known as the treaty of Ancon, between Peru and Chile was signed.
The principal conditions imposed by Chile were the absolute cession by Peru of the province of Tarapaca, and the occupation for a period of ten years of the territories of Tacna and Arica, the ownership of these districts to be decided by a popular vote of the inhabitants of Tacna and Arica at the expiration of the period named.
Armed resistance to the authority of Borgono was immediately organized in the south of Peru, the movement being supported by Senores Nicolas de Pierola, Billinghurst, Durand and a number of influential Peruvians.
The principal political problem before the government of Peru was the ownership of the territories of Tacna and Arica.
At that date the peace of Peru was so seriously disturbed by internal troubles that the government was quite unable to take active steps to bring about any solution of the matter.
An agreement was proposed between Peru and Ecuador in connexion with the limits of the respective republics, but difficulties were created to prevent this proposal from becoming an accomplished fact by the pretensions put forward by Colombia.
Peruvian.--In Peru, as in Egypt, the sun-god obtained universal homage.
After taking part in a scientific expedition in the Levant (1731), he became a member with Louis Godin and Pierre Bouguer of the expedition sent to Peru in 1735 to determine the length of a degree of the meridian in the neighbourhood of the equator.
The product of Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador amounted in 1900 to £2,481,000 and to £2,046,000 in 1905.
The Spaniards, though expelled from Colombia, still held possession of the neighbouring provinces of Ecuador and Peru; and Bolivar determined to complete the liberation of the whole country.
Owing, however, to the intrigues of the republican factions in Peru he was forced to withdraw to Truxillo, leaving the capital to the mercy of the Spaniards under Canterac, by whom it was immediately occupied.
The possessions of the Spaniards in Peru were now confined to the castles of Callao, which Rodil maintained for upwards of a year, in spite of all the means that could be employed for their reduction.
In June 1825 Bolivar visited Upper Peru, which, having detached itself from the government of Buenos Aires, was formed into a separate state, called Bolivia, in honour of the liberator.
Its most extraordinary feature consisted in the provision for lodging the executive authority in the hands of a president for life, without responsibility and with power to nominate his successor, a proposal which alarmed the friends of liberty, and excited lively apprehensions amongst the republicans of Buenos Aires and Chile; whilst in Peru, Bolivar was accused of a design to unite into one state Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, and to render himself perpetual dictator of the confederacy.
His arrival was accelerated by the occurrence of events in Peru and the southern departments which struck at the very foundation of his power.
Not long after his departure from Lima, the Bolivian code had been adopted as the constitution of Peru, and Bolivar had been declared president for life on the 9th of December 1826, the anniversary of the battle of Ayacucho.
Bolivar spent nine-tenths of a splendid patrimony in the service of his country; and although he had for a considerable period unlimited control over the revenues of three countries - Colombia, Peru and Bolivia - he died without a shilling of public money in his possession.
The Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the war between Chile and Peru in 1882, and that between Greece and Turkey in 1897, are instances of wars brought to a close through the mediation of neutral powers.
There are, however, several striking exceptions, as for instance in the anthracite from Peru, given in Table I., which contains more than io% of sulphur, and yields but a very small percentage of a white ash.
In South America coal is known in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, northern Chile, Brazil (chiefly in the south), and Argentina (Parana, the extreme south of Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego), but in no country are the workings extensive.
Born at Palencia, he was educated for the church, but about 1545 he embarked for Peru, where he served in the royal army under Alonzo de Alvarado.
Andres Hurtado de Mendoza, marquess of Canete, who became viceroy of Peru in 1655, bestowed on Fernandez the office of chronicler of Peru; and in this capacity he wrote a narrative of the insurrection of Francisco Hernandez Giron, of the rebellion of Gonzalo Pizarro, and of the administration of Pedro de la Gasca.
Between 1524 and 1535 Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro had completed the conquest of Peru, which was followed, however, by a long period of strife among the Spaniards, and of rebellions.
The country between Peru and Panama was subdued before 1537 by the conquest of Quito by Sebastian de Benalcazar 'and of New Granada by Jimenez de Quesada.
From Peru the Spaniards advanced southwards to Chile, which was first unsuccessfully invaded (1535-37) by Diego de Almagro, and afterwards occupied (1540-53) by Pedro de Valdivia.
After the preliminary period of conquest the whole of the Spanish possessions were divided into the two "kingdoms" of New Spain, - consisting of Venezuela and the Spanish possessions north of the isthmus - and of New Castile, a title soon changed to Peru, which included the Central American isthmus and all of South America except Venezuela and Brazil.
As the Spanish dominions became more settled, the viceroyalty of Peru was found to be unwieldy.
The organization of the French colonies, though industrially ruinous, gave them Illustrations representative of the primitive cultures of Central America, Mexico and Peru (q.q.v.) selected and arranged by Dr Walter Lehmann of the Royal Ethnographical Museum, Norwich.
A revolt of the Indians in Peru in 1780, which was savagely suppressed, forced the government to take note of the abuses of its colonial administration.
For the details of the struggle the reader must refer to the articles Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela.
For these reasons there was not, outside of southern Mexico, northern Central America and Peru, a dense population.
In Mexico, Colombia and Peru the cutting of friable stone with tough volcanic hammers and chisels, as well as rude metallurgy, obtained, but the evidences of smelting are not convincing.
In Arizona, Mexico and Peru, reservoirs and aqueducts prove that hydrotechny was understood.
Irrigation and terrace culture were practised at several points on the Pacific slope from Arizona to Peru.
The efflorescence of aboriginal pottery is to be found in the Pueblo region of south-westernUnited States, in Mexico, Central America,Caribbean Islands, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and restricted areas of eastern Brazil.
This composite art reached its climax in Peru, the llama wool affording the finest staple on the whole hemisphere.
One of the most interesting topics of study is the trails along which the seasonal and annual migrations of tribes occurred, becoming in Peru the paved road, with suspension bridges and wayside inns, or tambos.
In Mexico, and in Peru especially, the human back was utilized to its utmost extent, and in most parts of America harness adapted for carrying was made and frequently decorated with the best art.
As for the marvels of Peru, the walls of the temple of the sun in Cuzco, with their circular form and curve inward, from the ground upward, are most imposing.
Otto Stoll's studies in Guatemala, Berendt's in Central America, Ernst's in Venezuela, Im Thurn's in Guiana, those of Ehrenreich, von den Steinen, Meyer in Brazil, or of Bandelier, Bastian, Briihl, Middendorf, von Tschudi in Peru, afford the historian of comparative sociology ample groundwork for a comprehensive grasp of South American tribes.
According to Brinton the social organization of ancient Peru was a government by a council of the gentes.
Beyond Colombia are Ecuador and Peru, where, in the widening of the continent, architecture, stone-working, pottery, metallurgy, textiles are again exalted.
About 1530 he appears to have revisited the Spanish court, but on what precise errand is not known; the confusion concerning this period of his life extends to the time when, after visits to Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Guatemala, he undertook an expedition in 1537 into Tuzulutlan, the inhabitants of which were, chiefly through his tact, peaceably converted to Christianity, mass being celebrated for the first time amongst them in the newly founded town of Rabinal in 1538.
The opening of the Amazon to navigation, and the subsequent arrival of foreign ocean-going vessels at Iquitos, added immensely to the importance of the city, and made it the commercial entrepot of eastern Peru.
In 1861 he published his great atlas of the republic of Peru, and in 1868 the first volume of his history of Peru after the acquisition of her independence.
In 1870 he was minister of justice and worship under President Balta, but shortly afterwards retired from public life to devote himself to his great geographical dictionary of Peru, which was published in 1877.
He also wrote Notes on the Mineralogy, Government and Condition of the British West India Islands (1851), and a Narrative of Services in the Liberation of Chili, Peru and Brazil (1858).
Alvaro Mendana de Neyra, after crossing a vast extent of ocean from Peru and sighting only one island, probably in the Ellice group, reached the Solomon Islands.
With Professor Pickering's usual comprehensiveness, the inquiry was so arranged as to cover the whole sky; and with four telescopes - two at Cambridge for the northern hemisphere, and two at Arequipa in Peru for the southern - to which a fine 24-in.
The explorations made by Dr Lehmann in 1909 in the famous ruins of Teotihuacan, near Mexico city throw new light upon certain chronological problems. Like the excavations made by Dr Max Uhle in Peru, they tend to determine the relative antiquity of the different periods of the ancient civilization.
New Spain was one of four great viceroyalties, the other three being New Granada, Buenos Aires and Peru.
The tribes of Peru are said to have adored great snakes in the pre-Inca days; and in Chile the Araucanians made a serpent figure in their deluge myth.
Arica was captured, looted and burned by the Chileans in 1880, and in accordance with the terms of the treaty of Ancon (1883) should have been returned to Peru in 1894, but this was not done.
In 1540 he was nominated to the sees of Canaria and of Cusco, Peru, but declined both.
They include several species widely distributed throughout South America, extending even to the straits of Magellan, from one of which (C. cutleri of Peru) the guinea-pig is derived.
On his return to Peru, Mendana endeavoured to organize another expedition to colonize the islands, but it was not before June 1595 that he, with Pedro Quiros as second in command, was able to set sail for this purpose.
The third Pan-American Conference was held in the months of July and August 1906, and was attended by the United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador and Uruguay.
He joined the Jesuits in 1551, and in 1571 was sent as a missionary to Peru; he acted as provincial of his order from 1576 to 1581, was appointed theological adviser to the council of Lima in 1582, and in 1583 published a catechism in Quichua and Aymara - the first book printed in Peru.
But the zeal of the Portuguese took too often a one-sided direction, repressing the Syrian Christians on the Malabar coast, and interfering with the Abyssinian Church,3 while the fanatic temper of the Spaniard consigned, in Mexico and Peru, multitudes who would not renounce their heathen errors to indiscriminate massacre or abject slavery.'
It was not till 1620 that Paraguay proper and Rio de la Plata or Buenos Aires were separated as distinct governments, and they were both dependent on the vice-royalty of Peru till 1776, when Buenos Aires was erected into a viceroyalty, and Paraguay placed under its jurisdiction.
Peru 65%% ad val.
After the battle of Chacabuco O'Higgins was entrusted with the administration of Chile, and he ruled the country firmly and well, maintaining the close connexion with the Argentine, co-operating loyally with San Martin in the preparation of the force for the invasion of Peru, and seeking, as far as the confusion and embarrassments of the time allowed, to improve the welfare of the people.
After the overthrow of the Spanish supremacy in Peru had freed the Chileans from fear of attack, an agitation set in for constitutional government.
He retired to Peru, where he was granted an estate and lived quietly till his death on the 24th of October 1842.
In 1875 he surveyed Lake Titicaca, Peru, examined the copper mines of Peru and Chile, and made a collection of Peruvian antiquities for that museum, of which he was curator from 1874 to 1885.
Its boundary lines with Colombia and Peru were in 1909 still unsettled, large areas of territory being claimed by all three republics.
On the 5th of November 1904, Colombia and Ecuador agreed to submit their dispute to the German emperor, and a convention of the 12th of September 1905 between Colombia and Peru established a modus vivendi for the settlement of their conflicting claims, in which Ecuador is likewise interested.
The maps of Ecuador, which are very defective, usually describe its territory as extending eastward to the Brazilian frontier, but as Peru is in actual occupation of the region east of Huiririma-chico, on the Napo river, 31 degrees west of that frontier, those maps cannot be considered correct.
The eastern part of this territory is also claimed by Peru, which would have the effect, if allowed, of restricting Ecuador to a comparatively small area covered by the Andes and western Cordillera and the narrow plain on the Pacific coast.
A small district in the valley of the Chira is claimed by Peru.
The Trans-Andine region is similar to the neighbouring territories of the upper Amazon basin occupied by Colombia, Brazil and Peru - a great forest-covered plain descending gently toward the east, broken on its western margin by short spurs from the Andes enclosing highly fertile valleys, and by low, isolated ranges between the larger river courses, and traversed by large rivers flowing into the Napo and Maranon.
According to Alexander Garland (Peru in 1906), the rivers of eastern Ecuador are navigable at low water for steamers of 2 to 4 ft.
Puna island is celebrated for its connexion with Pizarro's invasion of Peru in 1531.
In the intra-andine depression, between the East and West Cordilleras, recent deposits with plant remains occur near Loja, and to the north-east of Cuenca is a sandstone containing mercury ores, somewhat similar to that of Peru.
It is to be noted that the Gulf of Guayaquil separates the humid, forestcovered coastal plain of Ecuador from the arid, barren coast of Peru, the two regions being widely dissimilar.
The principal tribes are the Quijos or Canelos, who are settled about the headwaters of the Napo, on the eastern slopes of the Andes, and are in great part grouped about the missions; the Jivaros who inhabit the valley of the Pastaza; the Zaparos who occupy the forest region between the Pastaza and Napo; the Piojes of the middle Napo, and eastward to the Putumayo; and the Iquitos and Mazanes of the lower Napo and Tigre, chiefly in territory occupied by Peru.
Minerals.-The mineral resources are much inferior to those of Colombia and Peru.
In 1460, during the reign of the fourteenth Caran Shyri, or king of the Cara nation, Hualcopo Duchisela, the conquest of Quito was undertaken by Tupac Yupanqui, the Inca of Peru; and his ambitious schemes were, not long after his death, successfully carried out by his son Huayna-Capac, who inflicted a decisive defeat on the Quitonians in the battle of Hatuntaqui, and secured his position by marrying Pacha, the daughter of the late Shyri.
As soon as the confusions and rivalries of the first occupation were suppressed, the recent kingdom of Quito was made a presidency of the Spanish viceroyalty of Peru, and no change of importance took place till 1710.
In that year it was attached to the viceroyalty of Santa Fe; but it was restored to Peru in 1722.
A disagreement with Peru in 1828 resulted in the invasion of Ecuador and the temporary occupation of Cuenca and Guayaquil by Peruvian forces; but peace was restored in the following year after the Ecuadorian victory at Tarqui.
He abdicated in 1859 and left the country, after refusing to ratify the treaty with Peru, by which the defender of Guayaquil had obtained the raising of the siege.
His power was first restricted to Guayaquil and Esmeraldas, and finally General Rinaldo Flores drove him from Guayaquil, and Veintemilla fled (July 1883) to Peru.
The other two provinces (Tacna and Arica) were held for indemnity by Chile after the war of1879-1883with the understanding (treaty of Ancon, March 8, 1884) that at the expiration of ten years a plebiscite should be taken in the two provinces to determine whether they should remain with Chile, or return to Peru - the country to which they should be annexed to pay the other Io,000,000 pesos.
Peru is served by the Chicago Cincinnati & Louisville, the Lake Erie & Western and the Wabash railways (each of which maintains shops here), and by electric lines to Indianapolis, Warsaw and other cities.
Peru is an important grain and produce market, and has various manufactures.
Peru was settled in 1834 and was chartered as a city in 1867.
Small grains of an unknown variety have been found in the ancient tombs of Peru, and Darwin found heads of maize embedded on the shore in Peru at 85 ft.
At the close of the war between Chile and Peru (1879-1883), the terms of the treaty of Ancon (signed by representatives of the two countries on the 10th of October 1883) were practically dictated by Chile, and by one of the provisions the Peruvian provinces of Tacna and Arica were to be occupied and exploited by Chile for a period of ten years, when a plebiscite should be taken of their inhabitants to determine whether they would remain with Chile or return to Peru, the country acquiring the two provinces in this manner to pay the other $10,000,000.
At the termination of the period Peru wished the plebiscite to be left to the original population, while Chile wanted it to include the large number of Chilean labourers sent into the province.
It is thus the largest sheet of fresh water between Lake Michigan and Lake Titicaca on the borders of Bolivia and Peru.
On the island of Peru, in the Gilbert group, in 1869 there was still the remnants of a large proah which, from the description given, appears to have been like those used in the Indian Archipelago.
Three other smaller species of the genus are known, and each is more widely distributed than those just mentioned, but the home of all is in the more northern parts of the earth, though in winter two of them go very far south, and, crossing the equator, show themselves on the seas that wash the Cape of Good Hope, Australia, New Zealand and Peru.
The voyages of Columbus and Vespucci of to America, the rounding of the Cape by Diaz and the discovery of the sea road to India by Vasco da Gama, Cortes's conquest of Mexico and Pizarro's conquest of Peru, marked a new era for the human race and inaugurated the modern age more decisively than any other series of events has done.
Atacamite occurs chiefly in Chile and Peru.
The same author tells us that, according to Garcilaso, when fowls were first introduced into Peru they were not fertile, whereas now they are as much so as in Europe.
The military adventurers, who have often risen to high or even supreme rank in Peru, have not seldom been of mixed race, and fear or favour has often availed to procure them an alliance with the oldest and purest-blooded families.
Alpacas are kept in large flocks which graze on the level heights of the Andes of southern Peru and northern Bolivia, at an elevation of from 14,000 to 16,000 ft.
Undoubtedly the Indians of Peru employed this fibre in the manufacture of many styles of fabrics for centuries before its introduction into Europe as a commercial product.
Unsuccessful attempts were made to acclimatize the alpaca goat in England, on the European continent and in Australia, and even to cross certain English breeds of sheep 1 Grown in Peru but shipped from Valparaiso.
He went to America in 1531, and after serving his order zealously in Peru, Guatemala and Mexico, was chosen to explore the country north of Sonora, whose wealth was pictured in the hearsay stories of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca.
The war of 1879-81 with Peru and Bolivia gave to Chile 73,993 sq.
Under the treaty of Ancon (20th October 1883) Chile was to retain possession of the provinces of Tacna and Arica belonging to the Peruvian department of Moquegua for a period of ten years, and then submit " to popular vote whether those territories are to belong to Chile or Peru."
At the southern frontier of Bolivia the main chain, which has served as the boundary line between Argentina and Chile, divides into two great ranges, the principal one continuing almost due north along the eastern side of the great Bolivian alto-planicie, and the other forming its western rim, where it is known as the Cordillera Silillica, and then following the trend of the coast north-westward into Peru becomes the Cordillera Occidental.
The principal rivers of this region are Sama (which forms the provisional boundary line with Peru), Tacna, Camarones, Loa, Copiapo, Huasco, Elqui, Limari and Choapa.
The ancient rocks which form the most characteristic feature of the former do indeed occur upon the coast of Peru, but in the north of Chile they are found only in isolated masses standing close to the shore or, as at Mejillones, projecting into the sea.
The Chilean Andes correspond with the Western Cordillera of Bolivia and Peru, and consist almost entirely of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds, together with the products of the Tertiary eruptions.
During the years which have elapsed since the War of Independence the territory south of the Bio-Bio has been effectively occupied and divided into six provinces, Chiloe and the neighbouring islands and mainland to the east became a province, and four provinces in the northern deserts were acquired from Bolivia and Peru.
It should be remembered that many of these railway enterprises of the desert region originated at a time when the territory belonged to Bolivia and Peru.
There is one large refinery at Villa del Mar, however, which imports raw cane sugar from Peru for refining.
Among the non-metallic minerals are nitrate of soda, borate of lime, coal, salt and sulphur, together with various products derived from these minerals, such as iodine, sulphuric acid, &c. Guano is classed among the mineral products and still figures as an export, though the richest Chilean deposits were exhausted long before the war with Peru.
Those of the firstnamed province have been discovered since the war between Chile and Peru, and have greatly extended the prospective life of the industry.
The former owes its existence very largely to the war with Peru, the civil war of 1891, and the financial troubles of 1898.
The land was originally inhabited by tribes of Indians, who, though not mere savages, were far below the level of civilization distinguishing the races of Mexico and Peru.
The difference was no doubt due to the invasion and conquest of northern Chile in the 15th century by Yupanqui, Inca of Peru, grandfather of Atahualpa, ruler of Peru at the time of its conquest by Pizarro.
The first Spanish invasion of Chile took place in 1535, when Diego de Almagro, the companion and rival of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru, marched into Chile in search of gold.
Disappointed in his quest, and meeting with obstinate resistance from the southern tribes, he returned to Peru with his whole force in 1538.
Till the 18th century ships were not allowed to sail round Cape Horn, so that the Chileans had to trade indirectly through Peru and the Argentine.
Agriculture was the one resource of the colony, and wheat was grown for export to Peru, but the land was concentrated in the hands of a few big landowners, and the cultivation of the vine and olive was forbidden.
In 1809 risings took place in Venezuela, in Ecuador, in Upper Peru and in the Argentine; the revolutionary fever spread to Chile, and on the 18th of September 1810 the cabildo of Santiago secured the resignation of the governor and vested his powers in an elected Junta (board) of seven members.
Owing to the apathy of the people and the enmities existing among the leaders, the Spanish forces, sent by the viceroy of Peru to crush the revolutionary movement, succeeded after two years' indecisive fighting in completely defeating the patriots at Rancagua in 1814.
O'Higgins was named director-general of Chile, while San Martin, realizing that the independence of each colony depended on the Spanish being expelled from the whole of South America, set about preparing an invasion of Peru.
The next few years witnessed the expulsion of the royalists from the south of Chile, the equipment of a small fleet, placed under the command of Manuel Blanco Encalada and Lord Cochrane (earl of Dundonald), and the invasion of Peru by San Martin with the help of the fleet, ending in the proclamation of Peruvian independence in 1821; though the Spanish power was not finally broken until Bolivar's victory at Ayacucho in 1824.
In 1836 Chile also became involved in a war with a confederation of Peru and Bolivia, which ended in the victory of Chile and the dissolution of the confederation.
During this period there was desultory fighting with the Indians; there was a long boundary dispute with the Argentine, settled in 1880; and in 1865 Chilean sympathy with Peru in a quarrel with Spain led to a foolish war with Spain.
The blockade of their ports and the bombardment of Valparaiso by a Spanish squadron impressed the Chileans with the necessity of possessing an adequate fleet to defend their long coast-line; and it was under President Errazuriz that the ships were obtained and the officers trained that did such good service in the great war with Peru.
With a population of over two millions, a rapidly increasing revenue, ruled by a government that was firm and progressive and that enjoyed the confidence of all classes, Chile was well equipped for the struggle with Peru that began in 1879.
The war of 1879-82 between Chile and Peru is the subject of a separate article (see Chile-Peruvian War).
A portion of the Chilean forces was shortly afterwards withdrawn from Peru, and the army of occupation remaining in the conquered country was in charge of Admiral Patricio Lynch, an officer who had been specially promoted for distinguished services during the war.
President Anibal Pinto of Chile now set about to find means to conclude a treaty of peace with Peru, but his efforts in this direction were frustrated by the armed resistance offered in the country districts to the Chilean authorities by the remainder of the Peruvian forces under command of General Caceres.
The name of Pinto will always occupy a prominent place in the annals of Chilean history, not only because the war with Peru took place during his term of office, but also on account of the fact that it was largely due to the intelligent direction of all details by the president during the struggle that the Chilean arms proved so absolutely successful by land and sea.
The principal task confronting President Santa Maria on assuming the presidency was to negotiate a treaty of peace with Peru and provide for the evacuation of the Chilean army of occupation.
The presence of the Peruvian general Caceres and his forces in the interior of Peru prevented for some two years the formation of any Peruvian national administration in Lima with which the Chilean authorities could deal.
By the terms of this treaty Peru ceded to Chile unconditionally the province of Tarapaca, and the provinces of Tacna and Arica were placed under Chilean authority for the term of ten years, the inhabitants having then to decide by a general vote whether they remained a part of Chile or elected to belong once more to Peru.
In the event of the decision being favourable to Peru a sum of io,000,000 dollars was to be paid by Peru to Chile.
The problems to be solved were the frontier difficulty with Argentina, the question of the possession of Tacna and Arica with Peru, and the necessity of fulfilling the obligation contracted with Bolivia to give that country a seaport on the Pacific coast.
In these circumstances no final settlement with Peru and Bolivia was possible, the authorities of those republics holding back to see the issue of the Chile-Argentine dispute, and Chile being in no position at the time to insist on any terms being arranged.
The Argentine difficulty was ended, but Chile still had to find a settlement with Peru and Bolivia.
The treaty made with the former country in 1893 was not ratified, as it was thought to concede too much to Peru, and the subsequent ad referendum treaty was rejected on account of Peru claiming that only Peruvians, and not all residents, should have the right to vote in the plebiscite to be taken by the terms of the treaty of 1883 for the possession of Tacna and Arica.
Vitor, a landing-place a little to the south of Arica, was offered by the Chilean government to Bolivia, but refused as not complying with the conditions stated in the protocol of 1895; the Bolivians furthermore preferred to wait and see if Arica was finally ceded by Peru to Chile, and if so to claim the fulfilment of the terms of the protocol.
In the vicinity of Huaraz are megalithic ruins similar to those of Tiahunaco and Cuzco, showing that the aboriginal empire preceding the Incas extended into northern Peru.
In 1528 he explored the coast of Guatemala and Yucatan, and in 1532 he led 300 volunteers to reinforce Pizarro in Peru.
In the Cronica de Peru of Pedro Ciega (Seville, 1553), as well as in other Spanish books of about the same date, the potato is mentioned under the name "battata" or "papa."
Hieronymus Cardan, a monk, is supposed to have been the first to introduce it from Peru into Spain, from which country it passed into Italy and thence into Belgium.
It consists of the females of Coccus cacti, an insect of the family Coccidae of the order Hemiptera, which feeds upon various species of the Cactaceae, more especially the nopal plant, Opuntia coccinellifera, a native of Mexico and Peru.
Cochineal is now furnished not only by Mexico and Peru, but also by Algiers and southern Spain.
Sarsaparilla must have come into extensive use soon afterwards, for John Gerard, about the close of the century, states that it was imported into England from Peru in great abundance.
Chuncho has also been used to describe one of three aboriginal stocks of Peru, the others being Quichua and Aymara.
Provisions were made in 1895 for the cession of the port of Mejillones del Norte and a right of way across the province of Tarapaca, but Peru protested, and negotiations followed for the cession of Cobija, in the province of Antofagasta.
From this point the line follows the summits of the Cordillera Silillica north to the Cerro Paquiza, on the Tacna frontier, and to the Nevado Pomarape, near the frontier of Peru.
The western range, the Cordillera Occidental, a part of the boundary between Bolivia and the northern provinces of Chile, closely follows the coast outline and forms the western rampart of the great Bolivian tableland or alta-planicie, which extends from the Vilcanota knot in Peru, south to the Serrania de Lipez on the Argentine frontier, is 500 m.
The eastern rampart of this great plateau is formed by the Cordillera Oriental, which extends north-west into Peru under the name of Carabaya, and south to the frontier in broken ranges, one of which trends southeast in the vicinity of Sucre.
The lake belongs to both Bolivia and Peru, and is navigated by steamers running between Bolivian ports and the Peruvian railway port of Puno.
The indigenous fauna of Bolivia corresponds closely to that of the neighbouring districts of Argentina, Brazil and Peru.
The guanaco is supposed to be the original type, is the largest of the four, and has the greatest range from Peru to Tierra del Fuego.
The llama is used as a pack animal in Bolivia and Peru, and its coarse wool is used in the making of garments for the natives.
The large cities are connected with one another by telegraph lines and are in communication with the outside world through Argentina, Chile and Peru.
Special agreements have been made, also, with Argentina, Chile and Peru for the transmission of the Bolivian foreign mails.
These figures, however, do not correctly represent the aggregates of Bolivian trade, as her imports and exports passing through Antofagasta, Arica and Mollendo are to a large extent credited to Chile and Peru.
The national territory adjacent to Brazil and Peru is governed by two delegados nacionales, appointees of the president.
After the conquest of Peru by the Spaniards in the 16th century the natives were subjected to much tyranny and oppression, though it must in fairness be said that much of it was carried out in defiance of the efforts and the wishes of the Spanish home government, whose legislative efforts to protect the Indians from serfdom and ill-usage met with scant respect at the hands of the distant settlers and mine-owners, who bid defiance to the humane and protective regulations of the council of the Indies, and treated the unhappy natives little better than beasts of burden.
We are only concerned here with the War of Independence so far as it affected Upper Peru, the Bolivia of later days.
When the patriots of Buenos Aires had succeeded in liberating War of from the dominion of Spain the interior provinces of Independ- the Rio de la Plata, they turned their arms against their enemies who held Upper Peru.
The first movement of the war was the successful invasion of Upper Peru by the army of Buenos Aires, under General Balcarce, which, after twice defeating the Spanish troops, was able to celebrate the first anniversary of independence near Lake Titicaca, in May 1811.
To this succeeded a revolt of the Indians of the southern provinces of Peru, and the object being the independence of the whole country, it was joined by numerous Creoles.
In 1816 the Spanish general Laserna, having been appointed commander-inchief of Upper Peru, made an attempt to invade the Argentine provinces, intending to march on Buenos Aires, but he was completely foiled in this by the activity of the irregular gaucho troops of Salta and Jujuy, and was forced to retire.
During this time and in the six succeeding years a guerrilla warfare was maintained by the patriots of Upper Peru, who had taken refuge in the mountains, chiefly of the province of Yungas, and who frequently harassed the royalist troops.
In June 1823 the expedition of General Santa Cruz, prepared with great zeal and activity at Lima, marched in two divisions upon Upper Peru, and in the following months of July and August the whole country between La Paz and Oruro was occupied by his forces; but later, the indecision and want of judgment displayed by Santa Cruz allowed a retreat to be made before a smaller royalist army, and a severe storm converted their retreat into a precipitate flight, only a remnant of the expedition again reaching Lima.
In 1824, after the great battle of Ayacucho in Lower Peru, General Sucre, whose valour had contributed so much to the patriot success of that day, marched with a part of the victorious army into Upper Peru.
General Sucre was now invested with the supreme command in Upper Peru, until the requisite measures could be taken to establish in that country a regular and constitutional government.
In August 1825 they decided this question, declaring it to be the national will that Upper Peru should in future constitute a distinct and inde- a nation.
Quiet being again restored in 1831, Santa Cruz promulgated the code of laws which bore his name, and brought the financial affairs of the country into some order; he also concluded a treaty of commerce with Peru, and for several years Bolivia remained in peace.
In 1835, when a struggle for the chief power had made two factions in the neighbouring republic of Peru, Santa Cruz was induced to take a part in the contest; he marched into that country, and after defeating General Gamarra, the leader of one of the opposing parties, completed the pacification of Peru in the spring of 1836, named himself its protector, and had in view a confederation of the two countries.
At this juncture the government of Chile interfered actively, and espousing the cause of Gamarra, sent troops into Peru.
Three years of fighting ensued till in a battle at Jungay in June 1839 Santa Cruz was defeated and exiled, Gamarra became president of Peru, and General Velasco provisional chief in Bolivia.
The Bolivian general was now in turn to invade Peru, when Chile again interfered to prevent him.
Under this president Bolivia entered upon a secret agreement with Peru which was destined to have grave consequences for both countries.
The great wealth which was passing into Chilean hands owing to these compacts created no little discontent in Bolivia, nor was Peru any better pleased with the hold that Chilean capital was establishing in the rich district of Tarapaca.
On 6th February 1873 Bolivia entered upon a secret agreement with Peru, the ostensible object of which was the preservation of their territorial integrity and their mutual defence against exterior aggression.
Upon the death of Adolfo Ballivian, immediately after the conclusion of this treaty with Peru, Dr Tomas Frias succeeded to the presidency.
An offer on the part of Peru to act as mediator met with no favour from Chile.
The existence of the secret treaty, well known to the Chilean government, rendered the intervention of Peru more than questionable, and the law passed by the latter in 1875, which practically created a monopoly of the Tarapaca nitrate beds to the serious prejudice of Chilean enterprise, offered no guarantee of her good faith.
Both demands being refused, she declared war upon Peru.
The Bolivian ports were already in Chilean hands, and a sea attack upon Pisagua surprised and routed the troops under the Peruvian general Buendia and opened the way into the southern territory of Peru.
Meanwhile a double revolution took place in Peru and Bolivia.
During 1880 the war was chiefly maintained at sea between Chile and Peru, Bolivia taking little or no part in the struggle.
They were followed almost immediately by the surrender of Lima and Callao, which left the Chileans practically masters of Peru.
By this treaty Chile declared that if, in consequence of the plebiscite (to take place under the treaty of Ancon with Peru), or by virtue of direct arrangement, she should " acquire dominion and permanent sovereignty over the territories of Tacna and Arica, she undertakes to transfer them to Bolivia in the same form and to the same extent as she may acquire them "; the republic of Bolivia paying as an indemnity for that transfer $5,000,000 silver.
It is also found in other silver mines, especially those of Mexico, Peru and Chile; in the Lake Superior copper mining region it occurs in association with native copper.
America has furnished European supplies since the discovery of the Potosi mines of Peru in 1 533; Bolivia and Chile are also notable producers.
The Bronze Age had its most important place among ancient nations of Asia and Europe, and among them was only succeeded after many centuries by the Iron Age; while in other districts, such as Polynesia and Central and South Africa, and America (except Mexico and Peru), the native tribes were moved directly from the Stone to the Iron Age without passing through the Bronze Age at all.
As we proceed southwards from the northern United States, deer of the white-tailed type decrease steadily in size, till in Central America, Peru and Guiana they are represented by animals not larger that a roebuck.
Until 1867 English manufacturers of quinine were entirely dependent upon South America for their supplies of cinchona bark, which were obtained exclusively from uncultivated trees, growing chiefly in Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador, the principal species which were used for the purpose being Cinchona Calisaya; C. officinalis; C. macrocalyx, var.
In a large public park there is a bronze monument in memory of the soldiers of Peru who died in the Civil War.
Peru was first settled about 1827, was incorporated in 1845, and re-incorporated in 1890.
The republic is very irregular in outline and has an extreme length from north to south of 1050 m., exclusive of territory occupied by Peru on the north bank of the upper Amazon, and an extreme width of 860 m.
With Ecuador and Peru the boundary disputes are extremely complicated, certain parts of the disputed territory being claimed by all three republics.
They lived in settled communities, cultivated the soil to some extent, and ascribed their progress toward civilization to a legendary cause remarkably similar to those of the Aztecs of Mexico and the Incas of Peru.
The Pacific, hitherto free from their intrusion, showed many sail of merchant vessels, while on land opposition south of the Bay of Panama was of little avail, since few were acquainted with the use of fire-arms. Coxon and seventy men returned as they had gone, but the others, under Sawkins, Sharp and Watling, roamed north and south on islands and mainland, and remained for long ravaging the coast of Peru.
This increased body of men required an enlarged measure of adventure, and this in a few months was supplied by the viceroy of Peru.
This is the case for Austria, Spain, Portugal, Bavaria, the Prussian Rhine provinces, Alsace, Belgium, and, in America, Peru.
He returned in 1639 with the Jesuit fathers Acuna and Artieda, delegated by the viceroy of Peru to accompany him.
The former accepted the name Maranon in Peru, and as the missionaries penetrated the valley they extended the name until they reached the mouth of the Ucayali; while, as the Portuguese ascended the Amazon, they carried this name to the extent of their explorations.
The Javary, the boundary line between Brazil and Peru, is another Amazon tributary of importance.
Peru has fitted out many costly and ably-conducted expeditions to explore it.
Guanaco are found throughout the southern half of South America, from Peru in the north to Cape Horn in the south, but occur in greatest abundance in Patagonia.
In 1871 Fish presided at the Peace Conference at Washington between Spain and the allied republics of Peru, Chile, Ecuador and Bolivia, which resulted in the formulation (April 12) of a general truce between those countries, to last indefinitely and not to be broken by any one of them without three years' notice given through the United States; and it was chiefly due to his restraint and moderation that a satisfactory settlement of the "Virginius Affair" was reached by the United States and Spain (1873).