Persians and Arabs told the 1 Nativitas et victoriae Alexandri magni regis was the original title.
The Acropolis had been dismantled as a fortress after the expulsion of Hippias; its defenders against the Persians found it necessary to erect a wooden barricade at its entrance.
At the present day, however, Persians exhibit nearly all the colour and pattern types of the short-haired breeds, the "orange Persian" representing the erythristic phase.
But the national feeling of the Persians remained strong.
classical Persians, after whose departure the existing north period: its wall was erected in the time of Themistocles; many fortifica- columns, metopes and other fragments from the tions and area.
The various approaches to the citadel on the northern side - the rock-cut flight of steps north-east of the Erechtheum, the stairs leading to the well Clepsydra, and the intermediate passage supposed to have furnished access to the Persians - are all to be attributed to the primitive epoch.
The well-known passage of Lucian (Piscator, 47) cannot be regarded as decisive for any of the theories advanced, as any portion of the old enceinte dismantled by the Persians may have retained the name in later times.
681 seq.) may be taken as indicating its military importance for an attack on the Acropolis; the Persians used it as a point d'appui for their assault.
Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
The fact that in tabby Persians the body-markings are never so strong as in the short-haired breeds is in some degree confirmatory of this, as suggesting descent from a nearly wholecoloured type.
He won a signal victory over the Persians in 53 0, and successfully conducted a campaign against them, until forced, by the rashness of his soldiers, to join battle and suffer defeat in the following year.
After a severe struggle the Persians were defeated by the emperor Heraclius, who entered Jerusalem in triumph in 62 9 bringing with him the holy cross, which had been carried off by Chosroes.
The modern Persians call this place Nakshi Rustam (" the picture of Rustam ") from the Sassanian reliefs beneath the opening, which they take to be a representation of the mythical hero Rustam.
Ctesias mentions further, with regard to a number of Persians kings, either that their remains were brought " to the Persians," or that they died there.'
Now we know that Cyrus was buried at Pasargadae and if there is any truth in the statement that the body of Cambyses was brought home " to the Persians " his burying-place must be sought somewhere beside that of his father.
He consented to pay an increased tribute to the Avars and allowed the Persians, who had declared war in 604 under Chosroes II., to overrun the Asiatic provinces and to penetrate to the Bosporus.
In the Jewish speculations of the middle ages may be found curious forms of the doctrine of emanations uniting the Biblical idea of creation with elements drawn from the Persians and the Greeks.
The Persians are not mentioned in history before the time of Cyrus; the attempt to identify them with the Parsua, a district in the Zagros chains south of Lake Urmia, often mentioned by the Assyrians, is not tenable.
The Persians of Cyrus were a vigorous race of husbandmen, living in a healthy climate, accustomed to hardship, brave and upright.
As Pasargadae was named after the tribe in whose district it lay, so the new capital is by the Persians and Greeks simply called "the Persians"; later authors call it Persepolis (q.v.), "the Persian city."
Here he set fire to the cedar roof of the palace of Xerxes as a symbol that the Greek war of revenge against the Persians had come to an end.
An insurrection of the Persians against Seleucus (II.) is mentioned in two stratagems of Polyaenus (vii.
Epiphanes, who at the end of his reign restored once more the authority of the empire in Babylonia, Susiana and Persis; perhaps a battle, in which the satrap Numenius of Mesene (southern Babylonia) defeated the Persians on the shore of Carmania on sea and land (Plin.
Immediately bordering on the Persians were the Amardians or Mardians, as well as the people of Khapirti (Khatamti, according to Scheil), the name given to Susiana in the Neo-Susian texts.
This ancient system of canalization was inherited from the Persians (who, in turn, inherited it from their predecessors), by the Arabs, who long maintained it in working order, and the astonishing fertility and consequent prosperity of the country watered by the Euphrates, its tributaries and its canals, is noticed by all ancient writers.
It possessed a good harbour; and the neighbourhood was famous for its wine, so that, having fallen into the hands of the Persians during the Ionian revolt, it was assigned by Artaxerxes I.
To him are ascribed also the original Parthenon on the Acropolis, afterwards burned by the Persians, and replaced by the Parthenon of Pericles.
Ockley's book on the Saracens " first opened his eyes " to the striking career of Mahomet and his hordes; and with his characteristic ardour of literary research, after exhausting all that could be learned in English of the Arabs and Persians, the Tatars and Turks, he forthwith plunged into the French of D'Herbelot, and the Latin of Pocock's version of Abulfaragius, sometimes understanding them, but oftener only guessing their meaning.
From 1509 it was in the possession of the Persians.
The Chinese came from the west, though how far west is unknown: the Hindus and Persians from the north-west: the Burmese and Siamese from the north.
- The Persians, with whom are often coupled the Medes, appear to be pure Aryans in origin, and the earliest form of their language and religion offers remarkable analogies to the Vedas.
The achievements of the Persians in art, literature and religion are by no means contemptible, but somewhat mixed and cosmopolitan.
The Roman empire kept back the Persians and Parthians, but could not prevent a series of incursions by Avars, Huns, Bulgarians, and later by Mongols and Turks.
From then he calls himself "king of the Persians."
At the same time, the rule of Cyrus and the Persians is legitimated by his family connexion with Astyages.
In the autumn of 546 Sardis was taken and the Lydian kingdom became a province of the Persians.
He destroyed no town nor did he put the captive kings to death; in Babylonia he behaved like a constitutional monarch; by the Persians his memory was cherished as "the father of the people" (Herod.
The left wing of the Persians under Tissaphernes avoided a serious conflict with the Greeks; Cyrus in the centre threw himself upon Artaxerxes, but was slain in a desperate struggle.
Russian aggression began somewhat early in the r8th century, when Peter the Great, establishing his base at Astrakhan on the Volga, and using the Caspian for bringing up supplies and munitions of war, captured Derbent from the Persians in 1722, and Baku in the following year.
The grandeur and antiquity of the empire and the vicissitudes through which it passed, their long series of wars and the magnificent monuments erected by their ancient sovereigns, could not fail to leave numerous traces in the memory of so imaginative a people as the Persians.
The fact of his having devoted his life and talents to chronicling the renown of fire-worshipping Persians was, however, somewhat of a crime in the orthodox caliph's eyes; in order therefore to recover his prestige, Firdousi composed another poem of 9000 couplets on the theme borrowed from the Koran of the loves of Joseph and Potiphar's wife - Yusuf and Zuleikha (edited by H.
Here Arsaces and his brother Tiridates are derived from the royal house of the Achaemenids, probably from Artaxerxes II.; the young Tiridates is insulted by the prefect Agathocles or Pherecles; in revenge the brothers with five companions (corresponding to the seven Persians of Darius) slay him, and Arsaces becomes king.
Therefore their language and writing are called by the later Persians " Pehlevi," i.e.
He subsequently served for nineteen years under Ardaburius and Aspar, and took part in the wars against the Persians and Vandals.
Owing to the despotic rule of Cambyses and his long absence in Egypt, "the whole people, Persians, Medes and all the other nations," acknowledged the usurper, especially as he granted a remission of taxes for three years (Herod.
There are also sprinklings of Jews and Persians.
The Persians were not quit of the Ephthalites until 557 when Chosroes Anushirwan destroyed their power with the assistance of the Turks, who now make their first appearance in western Asia.
Skandagupta repelled an invasion in 455, but the defeat of the Persians in 484 probably stimulated their activity, and at the end of the 5th century their chief Toromana penetrated to Malwa in central India and succeeded in holding it for some time.
The Persians swept victoriously over Asia Minor and North Syria; not however without resistance on the part of Odenathus, who inflicted considerable losses on the bands returning home from the pillage of Antioch.
These, however, in spite of more than one revolt, continued to supply fleets to the Persians down to the time of the Macedonia invasion (332 B.C.), and inland Syria remained comparatively peaceful first under its own local governors, and, after Darius, as a satrapy, till its subjugation by Alexander.
While modern research has added considerably to our knowledge of prehistoric Athens, a still greater light has been thrown on the architecture and topography of the city in the earlier historic or " archaic " era, the subsequent age of Athenian greatness, and the period of decadence which set in with the Macedonian conquest; the first extends from the dawn of history to 480-479 B.C., when the city was destroyed by the Persians; the second, or classical, age closes in 322 B.C., when Athens lost its political independence after the Lamian War; the third, or Hellenistic, in 146 B.C., when the state fell under Roman protection.
The great deposits of sculpture and pottery now unearthed, representing all that escaped from the ravages of the Persians and the burning of the ancient shrines, afford a startling revelation of the development of Greek art in the 7th and 6th centuries.
The conclusion that the foundations are those of an old temple burnt by the Persians has been generally accepted, but other portions of Dorpfeld's theory - more especially his assumption that the temple was restored after the Persian War - have provoked much controversy.
After the departure of the Persians the first necessity was the reconstruction of the defences of the city and the citadel.
The frieze, running round the entire building, represents on its eastern side a number of deities, on its northern and southern sides Greeks fighting with Persians, and on its western side Greeks fighting with Greeks.
The reconstruction of the city after its demolition by the Persians was not carried out on the lines of a definite plan like that of the Peiraeus.
buildings destroyed by the Persians were built into it, possibly owing to haste, as in the case of the city walls, but more probably with the design of commemorating the great historic catastrophe, as the wall was visible from the Agora.
In Egypt and in Babylon he appeared as the restorer of the native religions to honour after the unsympathetic rule of the Persians.
The Persians, on the other hand, had a different conception of the godhead, and we have no proof that from them Alexander either required or received divine honours.
The charts in use of the medieval navigators of the Indian Ocean - Arabs, Persians or Dravidas - were equal in value if not superior to the charts of the Mediterranean.
During his reign the emperor Carus attacked the Persians and conquered Ctesiphon (283), but died by the plague.
Dio Chrysostom, Plutarch's contemporary, declares that neither Homer nor Hesiod sang of the chariot and horses of Zeus so worthily as Zoroaster, of whom the Persians tell that, out of love to wisdom and righteousness, he withdrew himself from men, and lived in solitude upon a mountain.
"The Persians," he adds, "say that Zoroaster lived under Hystaspes, but do not make it clear whether by this name they mean the father of Darius or another Hystaspes.
After an arduous march and in spite of the mutinous behaviour of his troops, Selim, crushed the Persians at Chaldiran (1515) and became master of the whole of Kurdistan.
During the Hungarian campaign the Shia sectaries had been encouraged to revolt, and the Persians had overrun Azerbaijan and recaptured Tabriz.
In the spring of 1553 the victories of the Persians called for the sultan's presence in the East; a truce for six months was now concluded between the envoys of Ferdinand and the pasha of Budapest, and Austrian ambassadors were sent to Constantinople to arrange a peace.
Profiting by the and mutiny of the army, the Persians invaded Turkey, Murad IV., capturing Bagdad; at Constantinople and in the 1623-1640.
In 1638 he marched in person against the Persians and succeeded in recapturing Bagdad.
Next to them in enterprise and prosperity are the Persians.
From that time it continued for a long period an object of contention between the Turks and the Persians.
The chief events of his reign were the destruction of the kingdom of Ahmadnagar (1636), the loss of Kandahar to the Persians (1653), and a second war against the Deccan princes (1655).
About this time the Tekke Turkomans, then living on the Heri-rud, were forced by the Persians to migrate northward.
Pop. (1897), 8727, including Russians, Armenians, Turkomans, Persians and Jews.
That the Persians do not appear as enemies of Yahweh and his people is perfectly natural.
- The cult goes back to a period before the separation of the Persians from the Hindus, as is shown by references in the literatures of both stocks, the Avesta and the Vedas.
His worship spread with the empire of the Persians throughout Asia Minor, and Babylon was an important centre.
The scorpion, attacking the genitals of the bull, is sent by Ahriman from the lower world to defeat the purpose of the sacrifice; the dog, springing towards the wound in the bull's side, was venerated by the Persians as the companion of Mithras; the serpent is the symbol of the earth being made fertile by drinking the blood of the sacrificial bull; the raven, towards which Mithras turns his face as if for direction, is the herald of the Sun-god, whose bust is near by, and who has ordered the sacrifice; various plants near the bull, and heads of wheat springing from his tail, symbolize the result of the sacrifice; the cypress is perhaps the tree of immortality.
388, Theopompp. III), shortened into a-a-rpairns], in ancient history, the name given by the Persians to the governors of the provinces.
He was assisted by a council of Persians, to which also provincials were admitted; and was controlled by a royal secretary and by emissaries of the king (esp. the " eye of the king ").
The satrapic administration was retained by Alexander and his successors, especially in the Seleucid empire, where the satrap generally is designated as strategus; but their provinces were much smaller than under the Persians.
They were probably of Iranian race: among the Persians Herodotus describes a similar mixture of nomadic and settled tribes.
Even Josephus does not say that the Persians tried to interfere with the Jews in the exercise of their religion; and nothing less than this would satisfy the language of Ps.
" With the 7th century," as Wright remarks, " begins the slow decay of the native literature of the Syrians, to which the frightful sufferings of the people during the great war with the Persians in its first quarter largely contributed."
As trousers were distinctively Persian - though the Persians had the reputation for borrowing Median and foreign dress (Herod.
Gloves (XECpCbEs) were worn by the Persians, but apparently never by the Greeks unless to protect the hands when working (Odyssey, xxiv.
The Chinese used also to employ it largely, and the Persians and Spaniards still mix it with their rice.
Five times a day the priests of the Persians (Zoroastrians) burnt incense on their sacred fire altars.
Darius, in fact, entered Babylon as a conqueror; after the murder of the Magian it had recovered its independence under Nidinta-Bel, who took the name of Nebuchadrezzar III., and reigned from October 521 B.C. to August 520 B.C., when the Persians took it by storm.
A few years later, probably 514 B.C., Babylon again revolted under the Armenian Arakha; on this occasion, after its capture by the Persians, the walls were partly destroyed.
At last, in 562, a peace was concluded for 50 years, in which the Persians left Lazistan to the Romans, and promised not to persecute the Christians, if they did not attempt to make proselytes among the Zarathustrians; on the other hand, the Romans had again to pay subsidies to Persia.
Maurice made no use of his advantage; he merely restored the former frontier and abolished the subsidies which had formerly been paid to the Persians.
Five years later the Persians, who had been called in by the opponents of Christianity, succeeded in taking over the rule and in appointing governors over Yemen.
K They seem to have stood in much the same relation to the rulers of Yemen, as the people of Hira to the Persians and the Ghassanids to Rome.
In Oman the Arabs, who were chiefly engaged in fishing and seafaring, were Azdites mixed with Persians.
No Persian officials are mentioned in this country; whether Persians exercised authority over it is doubtful.
The successful reduction of the rebels in Arabia enabled him in his first year to send his great general Khalid with his Arab warriors first against Persians, then against Romans.
Under the second caliph Omar (634-644) the Persians were defeated at Kadesiya (Kadessia), and Irak was completely subdued and the new cities of Kuf a and Basra were ',For the general history of the succeeding period see Caliphate; Egypt: History, §" Mahommedan."
The victory at Nehavend in 641 over the Persians, the flight of the last Sassanid king and the capture of Rei or Rai (class.
From the beginning the `Abbasids depended for help on Persians and Turks, and the chief offices of state were frequently filled with foreigners.
In goo `Abu Said al-Jannabi, who had been sent to Bahrein by Haman, had secured a large part of this province and had won the city of Katif (Ketif) which contained many Jews and Persians.
During this time the country was twice invaded by Persians.
But we have still an important point to notice in the 2nd century; for in it learned Persians began to take part in the creation of Arabic historical literature.
It became the seat of the Ayyubite sultan Saladin in 1184; was bequeathed in 1233 to the caliphs of Bagdad; was plundered by the Mongols in 1236 and in 1393 by Timur, and was taken in 1732 by the Persians under Nadir Shah.
The population, 2500 in 1881, when the Russians seized it, was 19,428 in 1897, onethird Persians, many of them belonging to the Babi sect.
The name is pronounced Boosheer, and not Bew-shire, or Bus-hire; modern Persians write it Bushehr and, yet more incorrectly, Abushehr, and translate it as "father of the city," but it is most probably a contraction of Bokht-ardashir, the name given to the place by the first Sassanian monarch in the 3rd century.
It is, however, more probable that Sardis was not the original capital of the Maeonians, but that it became so amid the changes which produced the powerful Lydian empire of the 8th century B.C. The city was captured by the Cimmerians in the 7th century, by the Persians and by the Athenians in the 6th, and by Antiochus the Great at the end of the 3rd century.
He was educated at Edessa, perhaps in the famous "school of the Persians," which was afterwards (in 489) expelled from Edessa 2 on account of its connexion with the Nestorian heresy.
During his first expedition (622) he failed to secure a footing in Armenia, whence he had hoped to take the Persians in flank, but by his unwearied energy he restored the discipline and efficiency of the army.
After a short stay at Constantinople, which his son Constantine had successfully defended against renewed incursions by the Avars, Heraclius resumed his attacks upon the Persians (627).
DELIAN LEAGUE, or Confederacy Of Delos, the name given to a confederation of Greek states under the leadership of Athens, with its headquarters at Delos, founded in 478 B.C. shortly after the final repulse of the expedition of the Persians under Xerxes I.
The Athenian contingent which was sent to aid Pausanias in the task of driving the Persians finally out of the Thraceward towns was under the command of the Athenians, Aristides and Cimon, men of tact and probity.
It is not, therefore, surprising that when Pausanias was recalled to Sparta on the charge of treasonable overtures to the Persians, the Ionian allies appealed to the Athenians on the grounds of kinship and urgent necessity, and that when Sparta sent out Dorcis to supersede Pausanias he found Aristides in unquestioned command of the allied fleet.
The Ionians were naturally averse from prolonged warfare, and in the prosperity which must have followed the final rout of the Persians and the freeing of the Aegean from the pirates (a very important feature in the league's policy) a money contribution was only a trifling burden.
The result was that, in the cases of Naxos and Thasos, for instance, the league's resources were employed not against the Persians but against recalcitrant Greek islands, and that the Greek ideal of separate autonomy was outraged.
Having driven the Persians out of Greek towns in Lycia and Caria, he met and routed the Persians on land and sea at the mouth of the Eurymedon in Pamphylia.
A raid on Delphi attempted by the Persians in 480 B.C. was said to have been frustrated by the god himself, by means of a storm or earthquake which hurled rocks down on the invaders; a similar tale is told of the raid of the Gauls in 279 B.C. But the sacrilege thus escaped at the hands of foreign invaders was inflicted by the Phocian defenders of Delphi during the Sacred War, 356-346 B.C., when many of the precious votive offerings were melted down.
Bestowing the title of Caesar upon his sons Carinus and Numerianus, he left Carinus in charge of the western portion of the empire, and took Numerianus with him on the expedition against the Persians which had been contemplated by Probus.
In 1735 he again commanded against the Persians, but fell at the disastrous battle of Bagaverd, thus emulating his father's heroic death at Selankamen.
Fortunately it chanced that another people, the Persians, had adopted the Assyrian wedge-shaped stroke as the foundation of a written character, but making that analysis of which the Assyrians had fallen short, had borrowed only so many characters as were necessary to represent the alphabetical sounds.
Here the trenches dug by the Persians during the last siege were still in a fair state of preservation; they were within a stone's-throw of the walls.
In 448 the war with Athens was terminated by the treaty concluded by Callias (but see Callias and Cimon), by which the Athenians left Cyprus and Egypt to the Persians, while Persia gave up nothing of her rights, but promised not to make use of them against the Greek cities on the Asiatic coast, which had gained their liberty (Ed.
But his whole reign is a time of continuous decay; the original force of the Persians had been exhausted in luxury and intrigues, and the king, though personally brave and good-natured, was quite dependent upon his favourites and his harem, and especially upon his mother Parysatis.
5.65) tells us that the Persians knew of no images of the gods until Artaxerxes II.
we are comparatively well informed from Greek sources; for the earlier part of his reign from Ctesias and Xenophon (Anabasis), for the later times from Dinon of Ephesus, the historian of the Persians (from whom the account of Justin is derived), from Ephorus (whose account is quoted by Diodorus) and others.
vii., stratagems of the barbarians (Medes, Persians, Egyptians, Thracians, Scythians, Celts); bk.
This writer states that when at the papal court in 1145 he met with the bishop of Gabala (Jibal in Syria), who related how "not many years before one John, king and priest (rex et sacerdos), who dwelt in the extreme Orient beyond Persia and Armenia, and was, with his people, a Christian but a Nestorian, had made war against the brother kings of the Persians and Medes, who were called Samiards (or Sanjards), and captured Ecbatana their capital.
The greater part of the population consists of Shadillu Kurds, the remainder being Zafranlu Kurds, Garaili Turks, Goklan Turkomans and Persians.
This was copied from the Persians and given the Persian name, "divan."
The Persians took over the realm of their predecessors, and Gaza grew in importance as a seat of international commerce.
5), and when Alexander marched upon Egypt, Gaza with its army of Arabs and Persians offered a strenuous resistance.
m.; its population at 1 z to 2 millions, comprising various races, as Persians proper, Turks, Kurds, Syrians, Armenians, &c. The country is superior in fertility to most provinces of Persia, and consists of a regular succession of undulating eminences, partially cultivated and opening into extensive plains.
The Lurs are thought to be aboriginal Persians with a mixture of Semitic blood.
HERODOTUS (c. 484-425 B.C.), Greek historian, called the Father of History, was born at Halicarnassus in Asia Minor, then dependent upon the Persians, in or about the year 484 B.C. Herodotus was thus born a Persian subject, and such he continued until he was thirty or five-and-thirty years of age.
in Egypt must, on the other hand, have been subsequent to 460 B.C., since he saw the skulls of the Persians slain by Inarus in that year.
The population of Kerbela, necessarily fluctuating, is estimated at something over 60,000, of whom the principal part are Shiites, chiefly Persians, with a goodly mixture of British Indians.
He held the office of secretary (magister memoriae) at Constantinople, accompanied Julian on his expedition against the Persians (363), and was alive during the reign of Valens (364-378), to whom he dedicates his history.
Obalva80s, Palm, nris= "little ear"), the Latinized form of Odainath, the name of a famous prince of Palmyra, in the second half of the 3rd century A.D., who succeeded in recovering the Roman East from the Persians and restoring it to the Empire.
260) left the eastern provinces largely at the mercy of the Persians; the prospect of Persian supremacy was not one which Palmyra or its prince had any reason to desire.
He fell upon the victorious Persians returning home after the sack of Antioch, and before they could cross the Euphrates inflicted upon them a considerable defeat.
The Persians occupied Mosul for a short time in 1623, until it was, soon afterwards, recovered by sultan Murad IV.
Through his generals Ardoburius and Aspar he waged two fairly successful wars against the Persians (421 and 441), and after the failure of one expedition (431) by means of a gigantic fleet put an end to the piracies of the Vandal Genseric. A Hunnish invasion in 408 was skilfully repelled, but from 441 the Balkan country was repeatedly overrun by the armies of Attila, whose incursions Theodosius feebly attempted to buy off with everincreasing payments of tribute.
It was adopted by Turks, Tatars and Persians, and forms part of the astronomical paraphernalia of the Bundahish.
Stand by me in putting down the heretics and I will stand by thee in putting down the Persians."
This excited the suspicions of the Persians, and Darius compelled them to surrender their ships and pull down their walls.
Besides these there are Afghans, Persians, Jews, Arabs and Armenians.
The population belongs almost entirely to the Kartvelian or Georgian group, and is distributed as follows: Imeretians, 41.2%; Mingrelians and Lazes, 2 2.5%; Gurians, 7.3%; Ajars, 5.8%; Svanetians, 1.3%; of other nationalities there are 6% of Abkhasians, 2.6% of Turks, 2.3% of Armenians, besides Russians, Jews, Greeks, Persians, Kurds, Ossetes and Germans.
18-25), as did the Persians (Cyrus at the battle of Thymbra), Greeks and Romans.
Near the north-east extremity of the island, and almost facing the entrance of the Gulf of Pagasae, is the promontory of Artemisium, celebrated for the great naval victory gained by the Greeks over the Persians, 480 B.C. Towards the centre, to the N.E.
He first subjugated the Persians, and then a great many other peoples of Asia, till at last he attacked the Assyrians, but was defeated and killed in a battle, after a reign of twenty-two years (about 646-625 B.C.; but perhaps, as G.
It Has Been Stated By Scaliger, Weidler, Montucla, And Others, That The Modern Persians Actually Follow This Method, And Intercalate Eight Days In Thirty Three Years.
With the rise of the Medici came a rapid increase of prosperity; Cosmo, Francis and Ferdinand erected fortifications and harbour works, warehouses and churches, with equal liberality, and the last especially gave a stimulus to trade by inviting "men of the East and the West, Spanish and Portuguese, Greeks, Germans, Italians, Hebrews, Turks, Moors, Armenians, Persians and others," to settle and traffic in the city, as it became in 1606.
Robertson asserts (Historical Disquisition concerning Ancient India, p. 227) that the Arabs, Turks and Persians have no original name for the compass, it being called by them Bossola, the Italian name, which shows that the thing signified is foreign to them as well as the word.
As they gradually adopted settled life in various parts of the country the use of Aramaic spread more and more (see below, § "Persians").
Carrhae were retaken by the Persians in the reign of Maximin.
in 242 Mesopotamia was entered by a great Roman army which recovered Carrhae and Nisibis, and defeated the Persians at Rhesaena; but when Gordian, after a difficult march down the Khabur, was murdered at Zaitha below Circesium, Philip the Arabian (244) made the best terms he could with Shapur I.
The inroad of the Persians in the 17th century was confined to the south.
In 2 B.C. Augustus, at the dedication of the temple of Mars Ultor, exhibited a naumachia between Athenians and Persians, in a basin probably in the horti Caesaris, where subsequently Titus gave a representation of a sea-fight between Corinth and Corcyra.
After the retaking of Jerusalem and recovery of the Cross from the Persians in the eighteenth year of his reign, Heraclius called a mixed council at Karin (Theodosiopolis) of Greeks and Armenians under Ezr (Esdras), catholicus, at which the preceding council of Dvin was cursed, its reforms repudiated and the confession of Chalcedon adopted.
In the later wars between the Persians and Romans it more than once changed hands.
502) was once more taken by the Persians, when 80,000 of its inhabitants were slain.
It was taken c. 638 by the Arabs, and afterwards passed into the hands of the Seljuks and Persians, from whom it was finally captured by Selim I.
The latter is said to have derived its name from a colony of Hyrcanians, transported thither by the Persians.
Phoenicia passed from the Chaldaeans to the Persians (538), and at the same time Amasis (Ahmosi) II.
Under the Persians a federal bond was formed comprising Sidon, Tyre and Aradus, whose duty it was to contribute 300 triremes to the Persian fleet (Herod.
A new revolt of Sidon against the Persians took place under King Tennes owing to the insults offered to the Sidonians at the federal diet in Tripolis.
3 tells a story about Tyre during this period: the city, after being worn out though not defeated in long wars with the Persians, was so enfeebled that it was seized by the slaves, who rose and massacred their masters; one Straton alone escaped and was afterwards made king.
Meyer points out, the war between the Greeks and the Persians was mainly a contest between the sea-powers of Greece and Phoenicia.
The town has a population of about 43,000, including about 0,000 Armenians, 2000 Persians and a few Jews.
It stood originally on the isthmus connecting the mainland with the peninsula on which Erythrae stood; but the inhabitants, alarmed by the encroachments of the Persians, removed to one of the small islands of the bay, and there established their city.
33), but was sacked by the Persians, and the temple remained in a ruined state.
He delighted in showing that words, fables, customs, &c., which the Arabs believed to be peculiarly their own, were derived from the Persians.
However, it is practically certain, both from the etymology of the word Purim and from the resemblance of the festivals, that the feast, as represented in the Book of Esther, was borrowed from the Persians, who themselves appeared to have adapted it from the Babylonians.
Lazistan) who led the revolt, was due to the fact that it was the only remaining bar which held the Persians, already masters of Iberia, from the Black Sea.
It deals chiefly with the struggles of the Byzantine army, under the command of the eunuch Narses, against the Goths, Vandals, Franks and Persians.
Jovian at once continued the retreat begun by Julian, and succeeded, continually harassed by the Persians, in reaching the banks of the Tigris, where a humiliating treaty was concluded with the Persian king, Shapur II.
The Romans also gave up all their interests in the kingdom of Armenia, and abandoned its Christian prince Arsaces to the Persians.
Astrachan, Shiraz and Bokharan lambs, size 22 by 9 in., are of a coarser, looser curl, and chiefly used for coat linings, while the Persians are used for outside of garments, collars, cuffs, stoles, muffs, hats and trimmings and gloves.
URMIA (the name as written by the Persians is Urumieh and Urmieh; the inhabitants of the place say Urmi), a town in the province of Azerbaijan in Persia, situated at an elevation of 4400 ft., in an extremely.
Probably every king that included Thebes in his realm, except the Assyrians and the Persians, left his memorial there in chapels erected or sculptures added.
Of the Persians, however, not even Darius is traceable at Thebes; on the other hand, there is no support for the tradition that Cambyses destroyed its monuments.
Baber's son, Humayun, agreed to cede Kandahar to Persia, but failed to keep his word, and the Persians besieged the place unsuccessfully.
penetrated to Bithynia, although the Persians did not reach that till 608.
He was also the author of rhetorical exercises on hackneyed sophistical themes; of a Quadrivium (Arithmetic, Music, Geometry, Astronomy), valuable for the history of music and astronomy in the middle ages; a general sketch of Aristotelian philosophy; a paraphrase of the speeches and letters of Dionysius Areopagita; poems, including an autobiography; and a description of the Augusteum, the column erected by Justinian in the church of St Sophia to commemorate his victories over the Persians.
While the Persians threatened old Greece, Carthage threatened the Greeks of Sicily.
External history there could be none in the central island, with no frontier open to Germans or Persians.
He became a lawyer, probably at Constantinople, and was in 527 appointed secretary and legal adviser to Belisarius, who was proceeding to command the imperial army in the war against the Persians (De bello persico i.
It is no wonder that the godless Korrishites thought these stories of the Koran not nearly so entertaining as those of Rostam and Ispandiar, related by Nadr the son of Harith, who had learned in the course of his trade journeys on the Euphrates the heroic mythology of the Persians.
(" The Romans are overcome in the nearest neighbouring land ") refers to the defeat of the Byzantines by the Persians, not far from Damascus, about the spring of 614, it would follow that the third group, to which this passage belongs, covers the greater part of the Meccan period.
Syrians and Levantines are numerous, and there is a colony of Persians.
The Persians kept up Egyptian monuments.
A few months after his death, 525 B.C., the invading host of the Persians led by Cambyses reached Egypt and dethroned his son Psammetichus III.
The Persians, however, succeeded in causing his recall and in gaining the services of his fellow-countryman Iphicrates.
Among the Persians, again, and more remarkably among the ancient Britons, there was a class of chariot having the wheels mounted with sharp, sickle-shaped blades, which cut to pieces whatever came in their way.
This was probably an invention of the Persians; Cyrus the younger employed these chariots in large numbers.
The resources of the state, which might better have been spent in defending the northern frontier against Sla y s and Huns and the eastern frontier against Persians, were consumed in the conquest of two countries which had suffered too much to be of any substantial value, and which, separated by language as well as by intervening seas, could not be permanently retained.
The campaign of Jena and the battle of Eylau followed; and Napoleon, though still intent on the Russian alliance, stirred up Poles, Turks and Persians to break the obstinacy of the tsar.
To this point the united forces of the northern Greeks - Athenians, Phocians, Boeotians and Aetolians - had fallen back; and here the Greeks a second time held their foreign invaders in check for many days, and a second time had their rear turned, owing to the treachery of some of the natives, by the same path which had been discovered to the Persians two hundred years before.
266 the town was suddenly raided by the Persians, who slew many in the theatre.
5 When the Persians conquered Lydia they retained, at least for a time, this route, which they found in existence.
Under the Persians Great Phrygia extended on the east to the Halys and the Salt Desert;.
The name originally belonged to one of the tribes of the Persians, which included the clan of the Achaemenidae, from which sprang the royal family of Cyrus and Darius (Herod.
45, 2), the last battle of Cyrus against Astyages, in which the Persians were incited to a desperate struggle by their women, was fought here.
The river Cyrus is the Kur of the Persians, now generally named Bandamir; the historians of Alexander call it Araxes, and give to its tributary, the modern Pulwar, which passes by the ruins of Murghab and Persepolis, the name Medos (Strabo xv.
In the third century, the period of Aurelianus and Gallienus, with its wild warfare of Romans and Persians, and of Roman pretenders one with another, seems especially to have aroused the spirit of prophecy.
The inhabitants of this tract are Persians or Arabs who by domicile and intermarriage with Persians have lost nearly all their racial and most of their social characteristics, but retain a dialect of Arabic as their mother tongue.
After the Phoenicians, Babylonians, and Arabs came the Persians; though they never aspired to command of the seas and are indeed not a maritime race, the Persian Gulf was no obstacle to them, and at one time or another they occupied Muscat and parts of Oman and Bahrein, and penetrated into the greater part of Arabia.
In 1622 the Portuguese were expelled from Ormuz by joint efforts of the British by sea and of the Persians by land; in 1650 they finally left Muscat.
On the other hand, a steady and increasing market was gained for the products of the British Empire, and in particular for those of India; the ports of the Gulf were made safe, not so much for the British as for the Indian trader; nearly 75% of the trade of the Gulf ports was in 1921 with India, and an even greater proportion in the hands of Indians, Persians and Arabs.
On board the fleet which in 1626 conveyed Sir Dodmore Cotton, a British ambassador, with his staff, from Surat to Bandar `Abbas, there were more than 300 slaves bought of Persians in India, and the only remark which this circumstance suggested to Sir T.
In his solitude he had ample leisure for forming schemes of missionary enterprise among Persians and Goths, and by his correspondence with the different churches he at once baffled his enemies and gave greater energy to his friends.
Here a colossal statue of him was set up in bronze by the Greeks after their victory over the Persians.
There are few residents in the country from the more eastern parts of Asia - if we except the Turkoman settlements in the Jaulan, a number of Persians, and a fairly large Afghan colony that since 1905 has established itself in Jaffa.
Cyrus meanwhile was rising to lead the Persians against Media.
3 This age, which comes midway between the second Egyptian dynasty (c. 3000 B.C.) and the present day, connects the decline of the old Oriental empires with the rise of the Persians, Greeks and Romans.
Delicate pierced vessels of gilt brass, enriched by tooling and inlay of gold and silver, were among the chief specialties of the Persians.
Under the latter it had remained from 1642 till 1708, when in the reign of Husain, the last of them, the Ghilzais, provoked by the oppressive Persian governor Shahnawaz Khan (a Georgian prince of the Bagratid house), revolted under Mir Wais, and expelled the Persians.
After 1849, when the annexation of the Punjab had carried the Indian northwestern frontier up to the skirts of the Afghan highlands, the corresponding advance of the Russians south-eastward along the Oxus river became of closer interest to the British, particularly when, in 1856, the Persians again attempted to take possession of Herat.
The pure Mahommedans may again be subdivided into f our sections: Moguls, or the descendants of the last conquering race, including Persians; Afghans or Pathans, who from their proximity to the frontier are much more strongly represented, chiefly in the Punjab and in the Rohilkhand division of the United Provinces; Sayads, who claim to be lineally descended from the Prophet; and Sheikhs, which is a name often adopted by converts.
Meanwhile the war was also carried on against the Persians in Irak, unsuccessfully at first, until the tide turned at the battle of Kadisiya (Kadessia, Qadisiya) (end of 637).
In consequence of the defeat which they here sustained, the Persians were forced to abandon the western portion of their empire and limit themselves to Iran proper.
But the Persians were not so ready as the Greeks to give up the contest; they did not rest until the Moslems had subjugated the whole of the Sassanid empire.
The largest and strongest group of these were the Persians, who, before the conquest of Irak by the Moslems, were the ruling class of that country, so that Persian was the dominant language.
Among the Persians, stages are erected on that day in public places, and plays are acted, representing the misfortunes of the family of Ali.'
Meanwhile Mokhtar (son of that Abu `Obaid the Thaqifite who had commanded the Arabs against the Persians in the unfortunate battle of the Bridge), a man of great talents and still greater ambition, after having supported Ibn Zobair in the siege of Mecca, had gone to Kufa, where he joined the Shiites, mostly Persians, and acquired great power.
Omar's system not only diminished the actual revenue, but largely increased in the cities the numbers of the maula's (clients), mainly Persians, who were weary of their dependency on their Arabic lords, and demanded equal rights for themselves.
The Abbasids, on the contrary, were a Persian dynasty, under which the Arab tribal system, as regulated by Omar, fell to pieces; the Persians of Khorasan were the real rulers, and the government became despotic as in the days of Chrosroes."
PARSEES, or Parsis, the followers in India of Zoroaster (Zarathustra), being the descendants of the ancient Persians who emigrated to India on the conquest of their country by the Arabs in the 8th century.
Lombards, Heruli, Huns, Gepidae and even Persians followed the standard of Narses, men equal in physical strength and valour to the Goths, and inspired by the liberal pay which they received, and by the hope of plunder.
Mahommedans who do not acknowledge the spiritual authority of the Ottoman sultan, such as the Persians and Moors, look to their own rulers for the proclamation of a jihad; there has been in fact no universal warfare by Moslems on unbelievers since the early days of Mahommedanism.
At all events, though the Persians were checked for the time, the conduct of the Roman army showed an extraordinary lack of discipline.
Browne, A Year amongst the Persians, p. 391 f.).
An attempt of the Greeks to regain their freedom was crushed, 500-494 B.C., but later the tide turned and the cities were combined with European Greeks into a league for defence against the Persians.
The victories of Heraclius forced Chosroes to retire; but the Persians were followed by the Arabs, who, advancing with equal ease, laid siege to Constantinople, A.D.
On the death of his father, whom he accompanied on his expedition against the Persians, he was proclaimed emperor (December, A.D.
In the 6th century B.C. Van passed into the hands of the Persians, and shortly before it fell to Alexander the Great it was rebuilt, according to Armenian historians, by a native prince called Van.
After having formed part of the possessions of the Seljuks, Mongols, Tatars and Persians, Van passed in 1514, after the defeat of Shah Ismail by Selim I.
In 1636 it was taken by the Persians, but soon recovered.
The name "Hindu" itself is of foreign origin, being derived from the Persians, by whom the river Sindhu was called Hindhu, a name subsequently applied to the inhabitants of that frontier district, and gradually extended over the upper and middle reaches of the Gangetic valley, whence this whole tract of country between the Himalaya and the Vindhya mountains, west of Bengal, came to be called by the foreign conquerors "Hindustan," or the abode of the Hindus; whilst the native writers called it "Aryavarta," or the abode of the Aryas.
The occasion of the siege of Idalium by Persians (which is commemorated in an important Cypriote inscription) is unknown."' Throughout this period, however, Athens and other Greek states maintained a brisk trade in copper, sending vases and other manufactures in return, and bringing Cyprus at last into full contact with Hellenism.
In 476 he led an army to Thessaly to punish the Aleuadae of Larisa for the aid they had rendered to the Persians and to strengthen Spartan influence in northern Greece.
At his hands Ephraim seems to have received baptism at the age of 18 or of 28 (the two recensions differ on this point), and remained at Nisibis till its surrender to the Persians by Jovian in 363.
in 337, in the course of which Nisibis was thrice unsuccessfully besieged by the Persians (in 33 8, 34 6 and 350).
The surrender of the city in 363 to the Persians resulted in a general exodus of the Christians, and Ephraim left with the rest.
The early Christian Fathers recorded many a valuable observation of the Gentile faiths around them from varying points of view, sympathetic or hostile; and Eusebius and Epiphanius, in the 4th century A.D., attributed to the librarian of Ptolemy Philad.elphus the design of collecting the sacred books of the Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Elamites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Romans, Phoenicians, Syrians and Greeks.
Thomas Hyde (1636-1703) studied the religion of the ancient Persians; John Spencer (1630-1693) analysed the laws of the Hebrews; and Lord Herbert of Cherbury (De Religione Gentilium, 1645) endeavoured to trace all religions back to five " truly Catholic truths " of primitive faith, the first being the existence of God.
Anthropomorphic polytheism (religions of the Vedic Indians,the ancient Persians, the later Babylonians and Assyrians,the advanced Semites, the Kelts, Germans, Hellenes, Greeks and Romans).
Mexicans and Peruvians, Arcadians, Chinese, Egyptians,: Hindus, Persians, Germans, Romans, with the Greek religion in the highest rank; (3) Religions of Redemption (Judaism forming the transition from the second group), Buddhism in the sense of world negation, and, positively, Christianity.
Strabo refers to the city as once a rendezvous for the Persians in their expeditions against Egypt.
The Persians have no special names for the great ranges.
from Azerhaijan in the west to Khorasan in the east, stands with the Persians only for the 60 or 70 m.
Persians say that the females exceed the males by so to 20%, but wherever the present writer has been able to obtain trustworthy information he found the excess to be less than 2%.
Persians are very kind to their servants; a master will often be addressed by his servant as his father, and the servant will protect his masters property as he would his own.
To the poor, Persians are unostentatiously generous; most of the rich have regular pensioners, old servants, or poor relations who live on their bounty; and though there are no workhouses, there are in ordinary times no deaths from starvation; and charity, though not organized, is general..
Procrastination is the attribute of all Persians, to-morrow being ever the answer to any proposition, and the to-morrow means indefinite delay.
Persians are clean in their persons, washing themselves and their garments frequently.
All Persians are fond of animals, and do not treat them badly when their own property.
Costume.The costume of the Persians may be shortly described as fitted to their active habits.
At forty a man generally lets his beard grow its full length, and cherishes it much; part of a Persians religious exercises is the combing of his beard.
Blacking is unknown to Persians generally.
The NamePersia, in the strict significance of the word, denotes the country inhabited by the people designated as Persians, i.e.
~&u), enemies, robbers; by the Persians as Sacae; and by the Greeks generally as Scythians.
With other Iranian tribes the Assyrians never came in contact: for the oft-repeated assertion, that the Parsua, so prominent in their annals, were the Persians or the Parthians, is quite untenable.
None the less, the Assyrian statements with regard to the Medes demonstrate that the Iranians must have reached the west of Iran before 900 B.C. It is probable that at this period the Persians also were domiciled in their later home, even though we have no direct evidence to adduce.
125) as a subordinate nomad clan of the Persians.
Side by side with this name we find Turn and Turanian a designation applied both by the later Persians and by modern writers to this region.
Herodotus relates that the Persians distinguished all the Scythians i.e.
In the West, among the Medes and Persians, the guardianship Th and ministry of Zoroastrianism is vested in an exclusive e priesthoodthe Magians.
101) includes the Magians in his list of Median tribes; and it is probable that they and their teaching reached the Persians from Media.
To the east, the Median Empire extended far over Iran, even the Persians owning its sway.
Cyrus and hi~ Persians paid little heed to the treaties which the Median kink had concluded with the other powers; and the result was I great coalition against him, embracing Nabonidus of Babylon Amasis of Egypt, Croesus of Lydia, and the Spartans, whosi highly efficient army seemed to the Oriental states of great value In the spiing of 546 B.C., Croesus opened the attack.
The chief weapon of the Persians, as of all Iranians, was the bow, which accordingly the king himself holds in his portraits, e.g.
In addition to the bow, the Persians carried short lances and short daggers.
In his time the Persians were a strong manly peasantry, domiciled in a healthy climate and habituated to all hardshipsa point repeatedly emphasized, in the tales preserved by Herodotus, as the cause of their successes (eg.
135) that the Persians were of all mankind the readiest to adopt foreign customs, good or bad, a sentence which is equally applicable to the Romans, and which in the case of both nations goes far to explain, not merely their successes, but also the character of their empires.
And far removed as the Persians are from disavowing their proud sense of nationality (a Persian, the son of a Persian, an Aryan of Aryan stock says Darius of himself in the inscription on his tomb) yet equally vivid is the feeling that they rule the whole civilized world, that their task is to reduce it to unity, and that by the will of Ahuramazda they are pledged to govern it aright.
In contrast with the Assyrians and the Romans the Persians invariably conducted their wars with great ~ bJ~ humanity.
Darius in his inscriptions always names them immediately after the Persians.
They were the predecessors of the Persians in the empire and the more civilized people.
In relation to his Persians, he is always the peoples king.
The Persians swear allegiance to him and pray to Ahuramazda for his life and the welfare of the people, while he vows to protect them against every attack, and to judge and govern them as did his fathers before him (Herod.
The Greeks class them and the king together., under the name of the seven Persians.
Besides these, however, numbers of other Persians were despatched to the provinces, settled there, and endowed with lands.
They composed, moreover, the Persian council, and vice-regal household of the Satraps, exactly as the Persians of the home-country composed that of the king.
We find their representatives, ~iide by side with the Persians, occupying every sort of position in the regal and vice-regal courts.
530, Dittenberger, Sylloge 2~ SO, also, on co,ins)a clear proof that the Persians had already begun to recognize the independent and important position of Greek civilization.i Darius I.
The satrap is held in his position as a subjec.t by the controlling machinery of the empire, especially the Eye of the King; by the council of Persians in his province with whom he is bound to debate all matters of importance; and by the army: while in the hands of the messengers (Pers.
Besides these, however, vast districts were either converted into royal domains ~rctp~&io-ot) with great parks and hunting grounds under royal supervision, or else bestowed by the king on Persians or deserving members of the subject-races (the benefactors) as their personal property.
It is readily intelligible that their character should have proved practically incomprehensible to the Persians, with whom they came into perpetual collision.
With all the Greek oracleseven those in the mother-country the Persians were on the best of terms. And since these might reasonably expect an enormous extension of their influence from the establishment of a Persian dominion, we find them all zealously medizing during the expedition of Xer~es.
The Persian kingsnone more so than Darius, whose religious convictions are enshrined in his inscriptions and, with the kings, their people, were ardent professors of the pure doctrine of Zoroaster; and the Persians settled in the provinces diffused his creed throughout the whole empire.
The superiority of the Greek~ was so pronounced that the Persians never found courage ti repeat their attack.
of Salamis and Plataea definitely shattered the offensive powe of the empire; that the centre of gravity in the worlds history had shifted from Susa and Babylon to the Aegean Sea; and that the Persians were conscious that in spite of all their courage they were henceforward in the presence of an enemy, superior in arms as well as in intellect, whom they could not hope to subdue by their own strength.
True, the Persians continued State of the to produce brave and honorable men.
In the Persians particularly he sought a second pillar for his world-empire.
Therefore, as early as 330 B.C., he drafted 30,000 young Persians, educated them in Greek customs, and trained them to war on the Macedonian model.
The Macedonian veterans were then disbanded, and the Persians taken into his army.
Peucestas, the governor of Persis, there played the role of Alexander and won the Persians completely to his side; for which he was dismissed by Antigonus in 315 (Diod.
Hydarnids held its ground; and to these must be added, in the east of Asia Minor, the kingdoms of Pontus and Cappadocia, founded c. 301, by the Persians Mithradates I.
They were forced, however, to ackOowledge the suzerainty of Parthia, to which they stood in the same position as the Persians of Cyrus and his forefathers to the Median Empire (cf Strabo xv.
The infantry, in contrast with its earlier status under the Persians, was wholly neglected.
Nevertheless, the armies of Alexander Severus, supported by the king of Armenia, succeeded in repelling the Persians, though the Romans sustained severe losses (231 233).
(who was certainly an able general) by Ballista and Odenathus of Palmyra, or the later victories of Carus, J ulian and others, demonstrated how far the Persians were from being on an equality with the Romans.
That Babylonia permanently remained a Sassanian province was due merely to the geographical conditions and to the political situation of the Roman Empire, not to the strength of the Persians.
In Armenia the Persians Conquest of immediately removed the last kings of the house of Armenia.
Maurice made no attempt to turn the opportunity to Roman advantage, and in the peace then concluded he even abandoned Nisibis to the Persians.
This done, however, he took the field in 623, ani- repaid the Persians with interest.
Ndldeke, Aufsatze zur persischen ceschichte (1887, Medes, Persians and Sassanids), and, i.
the Persians (who were mostly Shiites) under a Moslem officer named Mokhtar (Mukhtar), whom they regarded as their mahdi, vainly attempted to assert, their independence in Kuf a, but were soon defeated.
Omar II., however, extended to non-Arabic Moslems immunity from all taxes except the zakat (poor-rate), with the result that a large number of Persians, who still smarted under their defeat, under Mokhtar, embraced Islam and drifted into the towns to form a nucleus of sedition under the Shiite preachers.
They had gained their success largely by the aid of the Persians, who began, thenceforward to recover their lost sense of nationality; according to the Spanish author Ibn.
Mohtadi, the fourteenth Abbasid caliph, endeavoured vainly to replace them by Persians (the Abna).
His kingdom was distracted by intestine divisions and rebellion, and the foe i Creasy says that Suliman led his armies against the Persians in several campaigns (1533, 1534, 1535, 1548, 1553, 1554), during which the Turks often suffered severely through the difficult nature of the countries traversed, as well as through the bravery and activity af the enemy.
A stipulation was included in the treaty to the effect that Persians were not to curse any longer the first three caliphs, a sort of privilege previously enjoyed by Shiites as part and parcel of their religious faith.
Fifteen thousand Persians remained dead on the field.
Ismail, Tahmasp and Abbas, whatever their faults and failings, were Persian and peculiar to Persians.
This functionary, alarmed at th near approach of the Persians, fled to Peshawar.
Among the more notable occurrences which followed were a three days battle, fought near Echmiadzin, between the crown prince, Abbas Mirza, and General Zizianov, in which the Persians suffered much from the enemys artillery, but would not admit they were defeated; unsuccessful attempts on the part of the Russian commander to get possession of Erivan; and a surprise, in camp, of the shahs forces, which caused them to disperse, and necessitated the kings own presence with reinforcements.
He brought with him Captains Lindsay and Christie to assist the Persians in the war, and presented the shah with some serviceable fieldpieces; but there was little occasion for the exercise of his diplomatic ability save in his non-official intercourse with the people, and here he availed himself of it to the great advantage of himself and his country.i He was welcomed by the shah in camp at Ujani, and took leave a month afterwards to return via Bagdad and Basra to India.
The Persians attacked at five points, at one of which they would in all likelihood have been successful had not the Afghans been aided by Eldred Pottinger, a young Englishman, who with the science of an artillery officer combined a courage and determination which inevitably influenced his subordinates.
A massacre of Persians at Kerbela might have seriously complicated the dispute, but, after a first burst of indignation and call for vengeance, an expression of the regret of the Ottoman government was accepted as a sufficient apology for the occurrence.
The Persians claimed that the boundary was the old bed of the river, the Afghans that it was the new bed; and in accordance with the treaty of 1857 both parties asked the British government to arbitrate.
Benjamin, Persia and the Persians (3rd ed., London, 1891); C. H.
Zend is the language of the so-called Ayes/a,3 the holy book of the Persians, containing the oldest documents of the religion of Zoroaster.
f Name of the supreme, god of the Persians.
The Avesta is divided into three parts: (I) Yasna, with an appendix, Visparad, a collection of prayers and forms for divine service; (2) Vendidad, containing directions for purification and the penal code of the ancient Persians; (3) Khordah-Avesta, or the Small Avesta, containing the Yasht, the contents of which are for the most part mythological, with shorter prayers for private devotion.
Old Persian.This is the language of the ancient Persians operly so-called,3 in all probability the mother-tongue of Middle rsian of the Pahiavi texts, and of New Persian.
The Medes and Persians were two ~ely-connected races.
ghazal or ode (a love-ditty, wine-song or religious hymn), the rubai or quatrain (our epigram, for which the Persians invented a new metre in addition to those adopted from the Arabs), and the mathnawi or double-rhymed poem (the legitimate form for epic and didactic poetry).
A still greater impulse was given, both to thepatriotic feelings and the national poetry of the Persians, by Man~rs son arid suecessor.
Like the Greek drama and the mysteries of the European middle ages, it is the offspringof purely religious ceremony, which for centuries has been performed annually during the first ten days of the month Muharramthe recital of mournful lamentations in memory of the tragic fate of the house of the caliph All, the hero of the Shiitic Persians.
The population consists of Persians, who now speak Turkish, and of Turkish Sarts.
But these works, while proving Scaliger's right to the foremost place among his contemporaries as Latin scholar and critic, did not go beyond mere scholarship. It was reserved for his edition of Manilius (1579), and his De emendatione temporum (1583), to revolutionize all the received ideas of ancient chronology - to show that ancient history is not confined to that of the Greeks and Romans, but also comprises that of the Persians, the Babylonians and the Egyptians, hitherto neglected as absolutely worthless, and that of the Jews, hitherto treated as a thing apart, and that the historical narratives and fragments of each of these, and their several systems of chronology, must be critically compared, if any true and general conclusions are to be reached.
The great natural strength of the site protected it against petty assailants; but, like other towns in that region, it has known many masters - Lydians, Persians, the kings of Pergamum, Romans and Ottoman Turks.
The Empire was then engaged in the great struggle with the Avars and Persians, and, now that the Gothic kings were Catholic, the great objection to their rule on the part of the Roman inhabitants was taken away.
The Persians proper have always represented the settled, industrial and trading elements, and to them the Kurds and the Arabs have become largely assimilated.
Finding, however, that he had nothing to fear from the Persians, he again joined Cotys, on whose murder he was appointed guardian to his youthful son Cersobleptes.
The islands afterwards became an object of contention between the Persians and Arabs, and at last the Arabian tribe of the Athubis made themselves masters of them in 1784.
In the year 1867 the Persians threatened Bahrein, and in 1875 the Turks laid their hands on it.
He gathered all his knowledge of the ancient world, not simply for itself, but to mass it around the story of the war between the east and west, the Greeks and the Persians.
According to the Arab historian, Tabari, these were written on 12,000 cowhides, a statement confirmed by Masudi, who writes: Zartusht gave to the Persians the book called Avesta.
The Hindus, Medes,Persians, Greeks, Romans, Germans, Celts and Sla y s make their appearance at more or less remote dates as nations separate in language as in history.
Furthermore, it is now very generally admitted that the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, which is advanced for the first time in the Old Testament in Daniel, also originated among the Persians, 8 and could only have been engrafted on the Jewish mind after a long period of intercourse with the Zoroastrian religion, which came into contact with the Jewish thinkers considerably after the time of Nebuchadrezzar.
It fell under the repeated attacks of the barbarian hordes who crossed over after having ravaged Byzantium, and furnished an encampment to the Persians under Chosroes, c. 616-626.
On the capture of the island of Hormuz (Ormus) in 1622 by the English and Persians, a large portion of its trade was transferred to Bander Abbasi.
In 1852 the Persians expelled the Muscat authorities from Bander Abbasi and its district, but retired when Muscat agreed to pay an increased rent.
The treaty was to have been in force for twenty years, but in 1866 the Persians took advantage of the assassination of Seyed Thuweni, the sultan of Muscat, to instal as governor of Bander Abbasi and district a nominee of their own who agreed to pay a rent of 20,000 tomans per annum.
In 1702, 1718 and 1767, it suffered severely from fires; in 1719 was plundered by the Persians; and in 1830 the cholera swept away a large number of its people.
Laid waste by the Persians in the 4th century, Nakhichevan sank into comparative insignificance, but by the 10th century had recovered its prosperity.
It afterwards suffered frequently during the wars between the Persians, Armenians and Turks, and it finally passed into Russian possession by the peace of Turkman-chai in 1828.
He accompanied this emperor, for whom he expresses enthusiastic admiration, in his campaigns against the Alamanni and the Persians; after his death he took part in the retreat of Jovian as far as Antioch, where he was residing when the conspiracy of Theodorus (371) was discovered and cruelly put down.
The island was subsequently punished with great rigour by the Persians.
After the overthrow of Babylonia by the Persians, Cyrus gave the Jews permission to return to their native land (537 B.C.), and more then forty thousand are said to have availed themselves of the privilege.
560 D, this tradition is corrected by the Persians: Cambyses wants to marry a daughter of Amasis, who sends him a daughter of Apries instead of his own daughter, and by her Cambyses is induced to begin the war.) His great crime is the killing of the Apis, for which he is punished by madness, in which he commits many other crimes, kills his brother and his sister, and at last loses his empire and dies from a wound in the hip, at the same place where he had wounded the sacred animal.
betrayed Egypt to the Persians.
But this hope failed; the Cyprian towns and the tyrant Polycrates of Samos, who possessed a large fleet, now preferred to join the Persians, and the commander of the Greek troops, Phanes of Halicarnassus, went over to them.
But what, in the opinion of most modern Moslems, and especially the Persians, confers the greatest sanctity on the day of Ashoora is the fact of its being that on which El-Hoseyn, the prophet's grandson, was slain a martyr at the battle of the plain of Karbala."
He gained his first poetical victory in 511 B.C. His famous play, the Capture of Miletus, was probably composed shortly after the conquest of that city by the Persians.
The Persians of Aeschylus (472) was an imitation of the Phoenissae.
The Uzbegs, who played a predominant political part in Turkestan before the Russian conquest, are of Turko-Tatar origin and speak a pure Jagatai (Turkish) dialect; but they are mixed to a great extent with Persians, Kirghiz and Mongols.
The other representatives of Aryan race in Turkestan are a few (8000) Persians, mostly liberated slaves; Indians (300), who carry on trade and usury in the cities; a few Gipsies (Soo), and the Russians.
In Soo B.C. he persuaded the Persians to join him in an attack upon Naxos, but he quarrelled with Megabates, the Persian commander, who warned the inhabitants of the island, and the expedition failed.
It is a heterogeneous mixture of all the nations and religions of the East - Turks, Arabs, Persians, Indians, Armenians, Chaldaeans and Jews.
It was taken in 1777 after a siege of eight months by the Persians under Sadik Khan.
In 1722 Peter the Great of Russia wrested the town from the Persians, but in 1736 the supremacy of Nadir Shah was again recognized.
They make good or bad seasons, and control the vast animals who, among ancient Persians and Aryans of India, as among Zulus and Iroquois, are supposed to grant or withhold the rain, and to thunder with their enormous wings in the region of the clouds.
The tract in which Andkhui stands is fertile, but proverbially unhealthy; the Persians account it "a hell upon earth" by reason of its scorching sands, brackish water, flies and scorpions.
On the death of Ahmad Shah in 1773 the country became a recognized bone of contention, not so much between Persians and Afghans as between Herat and Kandahar; but eventually the internal dissensions of Afghanistan gave Persia the desired opportunity; and by a steady course of intrigue and encroachment she managed to get within her grasp the better lands on the left bank of the lower Helmund and something on the right bank besides.
Towards the end of 274, he started on an expedition against the Persians, halting in Thrace by the way.
Convinced that it was impossible to meet Alexander in a pitched battle, his plan was to lay waste the country and retire into the interior, meanwhile organizing resistance on sea (where the Persians were far superior to the Macedonians) and carrying the war into Greece.
Under the Medes and Persians Armenia was a satrapy governed by a member of the reigning family; and after the battle of Arbela, 331 B.C., it was ruled by Persian governors appointed by Alexander and his successors.
Armenia was invaded by the Persians in 1575, and again in 1604, when Shah Abbas transplanted many thousand Armenians from Julfa to his new capital Isfahan.
987), which is to the following effect: "The ancient Persians were the first to invent tales and make books of them, and some of their tales were put in the mouths of animals.
The victories of the Greeks during the great Persian war had the effect of enfranchizing their kinsmen on the other side of the Aegean; and the battle of Mycale (479 B.C.), in which the defeat of the Persians was in great measure owing to the Ionians, secured their emancipation.
The Arabs only forbade plastic art in the 9th century, nor were their essentially Semitic scruples ever shared by the Persians.
In 260 the city was besieged by the Persians under Shapur I., and Valerian was defeated and made prisoner by its gates.
267), however, wrested Mesopotamia from the Persians; but Aurelian defeated his successor Zenobia at Emesa (273), and Carus, who died in 283 in an expedition against the Persians, and Galerius (297) carried the frontier again to the Tigris.
When, however, Zeno's edict (489) ordered the closing of the school of the Persians at Edessa, East and West drifted apart more and more; the ecclesiastical writer Narsai, " the Harp of the Holy Spirit," fled to Nisibis about 489.
He admitted the difficulties of this enterprise, but thought that a force of picked French troops, aided by Persians and Afghans, might under favourable conditions penetrate into India by way of Kandahar, or through Sind, especially if the British were distracted by maritime attacks from Mauritius.
In Hellenic times Soli had little political importance, though it stood a five months' siege from the Persians soon after 50o B.C.; its copper mines, however, were famous, and have left copious slag heaps and traces of small scattered settlements.
The first Persians to engage were the mounted archers, who rained arrows on the Spartans.
colonists sent by the Persians pushed out the people who had settled there in the meantime.
depicted wearing the robes of wealthy Persians of that period.
Al-Azmeh also shows the syncretism of the process, seen in the incorporation of " the political sagacity of the Persians.
Yet the drain on the country's strength was severe, and when news arrived in 453 that the whole of the Egyptian armament, together with a reserve fleet, had been destroyed by the Persians, a reaction set in, and Cimon, who was recalled on Pericles' motion (but see Cimon), was empowered to make peace with Sparta on the basis of the status quo.
(Codomannus), who is one of those whose bodies are said to have been brought " to the Persians "2 (see Architecture, fig.
The vast ruins, however, of Takhti Jamshid, and the terrace constructed with so much labour, can hardly be anything else than the ruins of palaces; as for temples, the Persians had no such thing, at least in the time of Darius and Xerxes.
The Persians of Cyrus (see Persia: Ancient History) were a vigorous race of husbandmen, living in' a healthy climate, accustomed to hardship, brave and upright; many stories in Herodotus (especially ix.
48); nor did Seleucus, to whom the dominion of the east ultimately passed (from 311 onwards), disdain the aid Of the Persians; he is the only one among the Diadochi who retained his Persian wife, Apame,.
Entirely consistent with this is the information given by the Acta Archelai that Basilides, before he came to Alexandria, had appeared publicly among the Persians (fuit praedicator aped Persas); and the allusion to his have appealed to prophets with oriental names, Barkabbas and Barkoph (Agrippa in Eusebius Hist.
AGROTERAS THUSIA, an annual festival held at Agrae near Athens, in honour of Artemis Agrotera, in fulfilment of a vow made by the city, before the battle of Marathon, to offer in sacrifice a number of goats equal to that of the Persians slain in the conflict.
The Greek sculptors of the school of Pheidias conceived of the battle of the Lapithae and Centaurs as a struggle between mankind and mischievous monsters, and symbolical of the great conflict between the Greeks and Persians.
Papyri from Elephantine in Upper Egypt, of the same age, proceed from Jewish families who carry on a flourishing business, live among Egyptians and Persians, and take their oaths in courts of law in the name of the god " Yahu," the " God of Heaven," whose temple dated from the last Egyptian kings.
With the capital, the Babylonian provinces in Syria fell to the Persians; in 538 Cyrus granted to the Jews, whom Nebuchadrezzar had transported to Babylonia, the return to Palestine and the rebuilding of Jerusalem and its temple (see JEws, § 19).
The population in this region consists principally of Armenians, Tatars, Turks, Kurds, Ossetes, Greeks, with Persians, Tates and a few Russians (see particulars below).
In the peace made by Jovian, however, it passed into the hands of the Persians, who established a strong colony there (A.D.
" When, in 241, Aurelian, who was then only a tribune, had just defeated some Franks in the neighbourhood of Mainz and was marching against the Persians, his troops sang the following refrain: Mille Sarmatas, mille Francos, semel et semel occidimus; Mille Persas, quaerimus.
Zancle was first founded, no doubt on the site of an earlier settlement, by pirates from Cumae, and again more regularly settled, after an unknown interval, by settlers from Cumae under Perieres, and from Chalcis under Crataemenes, in the first quarter of the 8th century B.C. Mylae must have been occupied as an outpost very soon afterwards, but the first regular colony of Zancle was Himera, founded in 648 B.C. After the capture of Miletus by the Persians in 494 B.C. Skythes, king of Zancle, invited the Ionians to come and settle at KaXrt 'AKT), then in the occupation of the Sicels (the modern Marina di Caronia, 25 m.
At the same time, however, the Athenian expedition against the Persians in Egypt ended in a disastrous defeat, and for a time the Athenians returned to a philo-Laconian policy, perhaps under the direction of Cimon (see Cimon and Pericles).
"Authorities," II.) the treacherous raising of the shield as a signal to the Persians at Marathon, but, whatever the truth of this may be, there can be little doubt that they were not the only one of the great Athenian families to make treasonable overtures to Persia.
The office of vizier, which spread from the Arabs to the Persians, Turks, Mongols, and other Oriental peoples, arose under the first Abbasid caliphs (see Mahommedan Institutions, and Caliphate, C § I) and took shape during its tenure by the Barmecides.
It was in consequence of the aid which the people of Miletus lent to the Eretrians on this occasion that Eretria sent five ships to aid the Ionians in their revolt against the Persians (see IoNiA); and owing to this, that city was the first place in Greece proper to be attacked by Datis and Artaphernes in 490 B.C. It was utterly ruined on that occasion, and its inhabitants were transported to Persia.
The surrender of Nisibis, which had been in the possession of Rome for so many generations, caused consternation among the Christians, and Ephraem (q.v.) moved to Edessa, where his "school of the Persians" soon became famous (see Edessa).
The interference of Eretria in the Ionian revolt (498) brought upon it the vengeance of the Persians, who captured and destroyed it shortly before the battle of Marathon (490).
Though ceded by Jovian to the Persians it again became annexed to the Roman empire, and in the reign of Anastasius (A.D.
The reference to the Persians is obviously incorrect; the story, if it can be taken seriously at all, must refer to one of the sieges by the Assyrians or Chaldaeans, and, as Meyer suggests (Ency.
In the Persian War Paros sided with the Persians and sent a trireme to Marathon to support them.
This style continued in use under the Persians, under whose rule the Phrygians passed when Cyrus defeated Croesus in 546, and lasted till the Roman period.
Long afterwards, at the battle of Marathon (490 B.C.), many of the Athenians fancied they saw the phantom of Theseus, in full armour, charging at their head against the Persians.
This madman caused the church of the Holy Sepulchre to be entirely destroyed: and giving himself out to be the incarnation of Deity, his cult was founded by two Persians, Darazi and Hamza ibn Ali, in the Lebanon; where among the Druses it still persists (see Druses).
Perhaps the most important of early Greek works in cast bronze, both from its size and great historical interest, is the bronze pillar (now in the Hippodrome at Constantinople) which was erected to commemorate the victory of the allied Greek states over the Persians at Plataea in 479 B.C. (see Newton's Travels in the Levant).
Delicate pierced vessels of gilt brass, enriched by tooling and inlay of gold and silver, were among the chief specialties of the Persians (see fig.
His original home was Arcadia; his cult was introduced into Athens at the time of the battle of Marathon, when he promised his assistance against the Persians if the Athenians in return would worship him.
But inasmuch as Hira was subject to the Persians, and Eastern Palestine to the Greeks, the annexation of the Arabians involved the extension of the war beyond the limits of Arabia to a struggle with the two great powers (see further Arabia: History).
The synod (see Delian League) of the "allies" soon degenerated into a mere form; of comprehensive united policy there was none, at all events after the League had achieved its original purpose of expelling the Persians from Europe.
The only question which concerns us here is which of the two alphabets was the earlier in use, and after 1 A species of cryptography exactly like this, based upon the " abjad order of the Arabic letters, is still in use among the Eastern Persians (E.
The Turks, consequently, hold his memory in abhorrence; whereas the Persians, who are generally Shi'as, venerate him as second only to the prophet, call him the "Lion of God" (Sher-i-Khuda), and celebrate the anniversary of his martyrdom.
Most Persians wear a shah kulah, or night hat, a loose baggy cap of shawl or quilted material, often embroidered by the ladies.
The Persians (Parsa) in the south (see PERSIS).
Otherwise, the name is only found among the Phrygians, who, according to Hesychius, called the Heaven-god (Zeus) Bagaeus; there, however, it may have been borrowed from the Persians.
None the less, till Marathon the Persians were successful in discomfiting every enemy before he could close, whether that enemy consisted of similarly accoutred bowmen (as the Medes), of cavalry armed with the lance (as the Lydians), or of heavily armoured warriors (as the Babylonians, Egyptians and Greeks).
724) that some extended the name to the Persians, Medes, Bactrians and Sogdians, as they all spoke the same language with small dialectic variations (cf.
The top of Pentelicus commands a view over the plain of Marathon, and from it the Athenian traitors gave the signal to the Persians by a flashing shield on the day of the battle.
His thesis (seldom defended now) was that Purim corresponds to Furdigan, the name of the old Persian New Year's and All Souls' festival held in spring, on which the Persians were wont to exchange presents (cf.
In the north-east corner is the little plain of Marathon, the scene of the battle against the Persians (490 B.C.).
The advent of the Persians, bringing with them a conception of religion of a far higher order than Babylonian-Assyrian polytheism (see Zoroaster), must also have acted as a disintegrating factor in leading to the decline of the old faith in the Euphrates Valley, and we thus have the interesting though not entirely exceptional phenomenon of a great civilization bequeathing as a legacy to posterity a superstition instead of a real achievement.
In any event, King Croesus had it in his mind to wage war against the Persians, so he asked the oracle: "Should I attack the Persians?"
Al-Azmeh also shows the syncretism of the process, seen in the incorporation of the political sagacity of the Persians.
For the Persians are wont to honor those who show themselves valiant in fight more highly than any nation that I know.