In Persia we do not have such feasts.
In Persia, when Cyrus the Great was king, boys were taught to tell the truth.
When Cyrus became a man, he succeeded his father as king of Persia; he also succeeded his grandfather Astyages as king of Media.
In continuance of Cimon's policy, 200 ships were sent to support the Egyptian insurgents against Persia (459),' while detachments operated against Cyprus and Phoenicia.
The foreign missionary work of the General Assembly had been carried on after 1812 through the (Congregational) American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (organized in 1810) until the separation of 1837, when the Old School Assembly established its own board of foreign missions; the New School continued to work through the American board; after the union of 1869 the separate board was perpetuated and the American board transferred to it, with the contributions made to the American board by the New School churches, the missions in Africa (1833), in Syria (1822), and in Persia (1835).
Evagoras was allowed to remain nominally king of Salamis, but in reality a vassal of Persia, to which he was to pay a yearly tribute.
When the king of Persia, Shapur, captured Mazaca-Caesarea, the Cappadocian capital, Samuel refused to mourn for the 12,000 Jews who lost their livesin its defence.
Naisabur), the capital of the province of Nishapur, Persia, situated at an elevation of 3920 ft., in 36° 12' N., and 58° 40' E., about 49 m.
Selim determined on war with Persia, where the heresy was the prevalent religion, and in order that the Shiites in Turkey should give no trouble during the war, "measures were taken," as the Turkish historian states, which may be explained as the reader desires, and which proved fully efficacious.
In 614 Chosroes II., the king of Persia, captured Jerusalem, devastated many of the buildings, and massacred a great number of the inhabitants.
In 1561 Anthony Jenkinson arrived in Persia with a letter from Queen Elizabeth to the shah.
Markham, General Sketch of the History of Persia (London, 1874).
After Cimon's death he renounced the war against Persia, and the collapse of 447-445 had the effect of completing his change ' The general impression in Greece was that this decree was the proximate cause of the war.
Its importance is due to its command of the point where the chief trade route from Persia and Central Asia to Europe, over the table-land of Armenia by Bayezid and Erzerum, descends to the sea.
In the East all such traits are exaggerated, a result perhaps rather of the statecraft than of the religions of Egypt and Persia.
It produces much grain and cotton, and is considered one of the most fertile districts of Persia.
Abbas I of Persia >>
The railway by Batoum to Baku by way of Tiflis has tended greatly to turn the channel of commerce from Trebizond into Russian territory, since it helps to open the route to Erivan, Tabriz and the whole of Persia.
B.) Laristan, a sub-province of the province of Fars in Persia, bounded E.
The people of the interior are mostly of the old Iranian stock, and there are also a few nomads of the Turkish Baharlu tribe which came to Persia in the lath century when the province was subdued by a Turkish chief.
12 f.) is nonProphetic, and that the drawing-up of a new constitution soon after the destruction of the city and the mention of Noah, Daniel, Job and Persia are improbable.
These events shook the whole Persian empire; Babylon and other subject states rose in revolt, and to the Jews it seemed that Persia was tottering and that the Messianic era was nigh.
Having at last got into trouble with the authorities he fled from Sicily, and visited in succession Greece, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Rhodes - where he took lessons in alchemy and the cognate sciences from the Greek Althotas - and Malta.
The manufacture is chiefly carried out in India, Persia and the Balkans; the last named supplying the bulk of the European demand.
In 491 B.C. Aegina was one of the states which gave the symbols of submission ("earth and water") to Persia.
Commerce was the source of Aegina's greatness, and her trade, which appears to have been principally with the Levant, must have suffered seriously from the war with Persia.
PERSEPOLIS, an ancient city of Persia, situated some 40 m.
2) of Persia proper.
See also Darius; Persia: Ancient History; and Caliphate.
He used for the decoration of his own city the money furnished by the Athenian allies for defence against Persia: it is very fortunate that after the time of Xerxes Persia made no deliberate attempt against Greece.
But at the same time, the Persian dynast Ardashir had already begun his conquests in Persia and Carmania.
See further Persia: History, § ancient, and works there quoted.
After the decline of the power of Rome, the dominant force in Asiatic commerce and navigation was Persia, and from that time onward, until the arrival of the Portuguese upon the scene early in the 16th century the spice trade, whose chief emporia were in or near the Malay Peninsula, was in Persian or Arab hands.
America), the four-day week of the Chibchas, the five-day week of Persia, Malaysia, Java, Celebes, New Guinea and Mexico; in ancient Scandinavia a five-day period was in use, but markets were probably unknown.
His father Anak, head of the Parthian clan of Suren, was bribed about the time of his birth (c. 257) by the Sassanid king of Persia to assassinate the Armenian king, Chosroes, who was of the old Arsacid dynasty, and father of Tiridates or Trdat, first Christian king of Armenia.
His kingdom was honeycombed with Christianity, and he wished to draw closer to the West, where he foresaw the victory of the new faith, in order to fortify his realm against the Sassanids of Persia.
NATANZ, a minor province of Persia, situated in the hilly district between Isfahan and Kashan, and held in fief by the family of the Hissam es Saltaneh (Sultan Murad Mirza, d.
Though it joined in the Ionian revolt against Persia in 500 it was able to send only three ships to the combined fleet which fought at Lade.
Spain, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Valens the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia.
Between Kuhsan and Zulfikar it forms the boundary between Afghanistan and Persia, and from Zulfikar to Sarakhs between Russia and Persia.
Taken by storm on New Year's day 1813 by the Russians, Lenkoran was in the same year formally surrendered by Persia to Russia by the treaty of Gulistan, along with the khanate of Talysh, of which it was the capital.
When, in 553, Cyrus, king of Anshan, rebelled against Astyages, the Maraphians and Maspians joined with the Pasargadae; after his victory over Astyages all the Persian tribes acknowledged him, and he took the title of "king of Persia."
When Alexander had won the victory of Arbela, and occupied Babylon and Susa, he met (in the spring of 330) with strong resistance in Persia, where the satrap Ariobarzanes tried to stop his progress at the "Persian gates," the pass leading up to Persepolis.
The legends are in Aramaic characters and Persian (Pahlavi) language; among them occur Artaxerxes, Darius (from a dynast of this name the town Darabjird, "town of Darius," in eastern Persia seems to derive its name), Narses, Tiridates, Manocihr and others; the name Vahuburz seems to be identical with Oborzos, mentioned by Polyaenus vii.
In Asia they held Asia Minor and Syria, had sent expeditions into Arabia, and were acquainted with the more distant countries formerly invaded by Alexander, including Persia, Scythia, Bactria and India.
After exploring Persia, and again residing for some time at Mecca, he made a voyage down the Red sea to Yemen, and travelled through that country to Aden.
Among them was Nicolo Conti, who passed through Persia, sailed along the coast of Malabar, visited Sumatra, Java and the south of China, returned by the Red sea, and got home to Venice in 1444 after an absence of twenty-five years.
In 1579 Christopher Burroughs built a ship at Nizhniy Novgorod and traded across the Caspian to Baku; and in 1598 Sir Anthony and Robert Shirley arrived in Persia, and Robert was afterwards sent by the shah to Europe as his ambassador.
He left Holland in 1718, went by land through Persia to India, and eventually made his way to Lhasa, where he resided for a long time.
From Persia much new information was supplied by Jean Chardin, Jean Tavernier, Charles Hamilton, Jean de Thevenot and Father Jude Krusinski, and by English traders on the Caspian.
He then made a journey through Persia and Syria to Constantinople, returning to Copenhagen in 1767.
Sabzevar, Persia (District) >>
ELAM, the name given in the Bible to the province of Persia called Susiana by the classical geographers, from Susa or Shushan its capital.
3.12, &c.) makes Susiana a part of Persia proper, but a comparison of his account with those of Ptolemy (vi.
13.3, 6), quoting from Nearchus, seems to include the Susians under the Elymaeans, whom he associates with the Uxii, and places on the frontiers of Persia and Susa; but Pliny more correctly makes the Eulaeus the boundary between Susiana and Elymais (N.H.
In the midst of general anarchy in Persia, he was proclaimed ruler of Khorasan, and obtained possession of the Persian throne in 1586.
MESHED (properly Mash-had, " the place of martyrdom"), capital of the province of Khorasan in Persia, situated in a plain watered by the Kashaf-rud (Tortoise river), a tributary of the Hari-rud (river from Herat, which after its junction with the Kashaf is called Tejen), 460 m.
The shrine of Imam Reza is the most venerated spot in Persia, and yearly visited by more than 100,000 pilgrims. Eastwick thus describes it (Journal of a Diplomat's Three Years' Residence in Persia, London, 1864) "The quadrangle of the shrine seemed to be about 150 paces square.
Without the pilgrims who come to visit it, Meshed would be a poor place, but lying on the eastern confines of Persia, close to Afghanistan, Russian Central Asia and Transcaspia, at the point where a number of trade routes converge, it is very important politically, and the British and Russian governments have maintained consulates-general there since 1889.
In 1894 the Russian government enforced new customs regulations, by which a heavy duty is levied on Anglo-Indian manufactures and produce, excepting pepper, ginger and drugs, imported into Russian Asia by way of Persia; and the importation of green teas is altogether prohibited except by way of Batum, Baku, Uzunada and the Transcaspian railway.
Meshed has telegraph (since 1876) and post (since 1879) offices, and the Imperial Bank of Persia opened a branch here in 1891.
He received considerable aid from Shah Ismael of Persia, and in 1511 made a triumphal entry into Samarkand.
Persia); the time of Zoroaster and Vishtaspa may therefore be put at c. rood B.C.
Here it is joined by the Sharian Su from the west, and the two valleys form, a great trough through which the caravan road from Erzerum to Persia runs.
It was the theoretical eastern limit of the Jewish kingdom; for a long time it separated Assyria from the Khita or Hittites; it divided the eastern from the western satrapies of Persia (Ezra iv.
The left bank of the river from this point belongs to Persia.
In neither department did any Saracen, strictly speaking, invent anything; but they learned much both from Constantinople and from Persia, and what they learned they largely developed and improved.
Prince Mikhail Dmitrievich (1795-1861), brother of the last named, entered the Russian army in 1807 and took part in the campaigns against Persia in 1810, and in 1812-1815 against France.
It is probable, however, that he did occasionally intervene in the affairs of the city at the period when the rule of Persia had given place to autonomy; it is said that he compelled the usurper Melancomas to abdicate.
As the Caspian is virtually a Russian sea, Persia may be said to form the next link in the S.
Some of them wished to gain him as an ally against their rivals, whilst others hoped to obtain from him commercial privileges and permission to trade directly with Persia.
2 9 a of Alexander II.'s reign her domination had been firmly established throughout nearly the whole of the vast expanse of territory lying between Siberia on the north and Persia and Afghanistan on the south, and stretching without interruption from the eastern coast of the Caspian to the Chinese frontier.
FARS (the name Farsistan is not used), one of the five mam- likats (great provinces) of Persia, extending along the northern shore of the Persian Gulf and bounded on the west by Arabistan, on the north by Isfahan and on the east by Kerman.
Much tobacco of excellent quality, principally for consumption in Persia, is also grown (especially in Fessa, Darab and Jahrom) and a considerable quantity of opium, much of it for export to China, is produced.
It will be observed that Belgium leads all the countries of the world in what may be called its railway density, with the United Kingdom a far-distant second in the list, and Persia last.
In railway mileage per io,000 inhabitants, however, Queensland, in the Australian group, reports a figure much greater than any other country; while at the other end of the list Persia holds the record for isolation.
2.3 1.6 Persia 0.005 0.04 Asia Minor, Syria, Arabia, Cyprus 0.5 1.5 Portuguese Indies.
MAIMAND, a town in the province of Fars, Persia, a few miles east of Firuzabad and about 70 m.
It has a population of about 5000, almost wholly occupied with the manufacture and sale of rose-water, which is largely exported to many parts of Persia as well as to Arabia, India and Java.
The name Arsaces of Persia is also borne by some kings of Armenia, who were of Parthian origin.
and 352 B.C., Citium led the side loyal to Persia and was besieged by an Athenian force in 449 B.C.; its extensive necropolis proves that it remained a considerable city even after the Greek cause triumphed with Alexander.
In Herat, where he spent the greater part of his life, he gained the favour of that famous patron of letters, Mir `Alishir (1440-1501), who served his old schoolfellow, the reigning sultan Husain (who as the last of the Timurides in Persia ascended the throne of Herat in 1468), first as keeper of the seal, afterwards as governor of Jurjan.
Besides the lithographed editions of the whole work in folio (Bombay, 1853, and Teheran, 1852-1856) and a Turkish version (Constantinople, 1842), the following portions of Mirkhond's history have been published by European Orientalists: Early Kings of Persia, by D.
by the same; Histoire des Sultans du Kharezm, in Persian, by Defremery (Paris, 1842); History of the Atabeks of Syria and Persia, in Persian, by W.
In Constantinople he seems to have early won the notice of Justinian, one of the main objects of whose policy was the consolidation of Eastern Christianity as a bulwark against the heathen power of Persia.
2 On the place of Palestine in Persian history see Persia: History, ancient, especially § 5 ii.; also Artaxerxes; Cambyses; Cyrus; Darius, &C.
Although Palestine had not been depopulated, and many of the exiled Jews remained in Persia, the standpoint is that of those who returned from Babylon.
It was insinuated that Nehemiah had his prophets to proclaim that Judah had again its own king; it was even suggested that he was intending to rebel against Persia!
In Egypt, moreover, in Babylon and in Persia individual Jews had responded to the influences of their environment and won the respect of the aliens whom they despised.
Mahommedan Babylonia (Persia) was the home of the gaonate, the central authority of religious Judaism, whose power transcended that of the secular exilarchate, for it influenced the synagogue far and wide, while the exilarchate was local.
In Persia Jews are often the victims of popular outbursts as well as of official extortion, but there are fairly prosperous communities at Bushire, Isfahan, Teheran and Kashan (in Shiraz they are in low estate).
Others of the more important totals are: France 95,000 (besides Algeria 63,000 and Tunis 62,000); Italy 52,000; Persia 49,000; Egypt 39,000; Bulgaria 36,000; Argentine Republic 30,000; Tripoli 19,000; Turkestan and Afghanistan 14,000; Switzerland and Belgium each 12,000; Mexico 90oO; Greece 8000; Servia 6000; Sweden and Cuba each 4000; Denmark 3500; Brazil and Abyssinia (Falashas) each 3000; Spain and Portugal 2500; China and Japan 2000.
BARFURUSH, a town of Persia, in the province of Mazandaran in 36° 32' N., and 52° 42' E., and on the left bank of the river Bawul [Babul], which is here crossed by a bridge of eight arches,.
NIRIZ, or NAIRIZ, a district and town in the province of Fars, Persia.
Sufism (q.v.) appears in the 9th century among the Mahommedans of Persia as a kind of reaction against the rigid monotheism and formalism of Islam.
Owing to its excellent harbour Baku is a chief depot for merchandise coming from Persia and Transcaspia - raw cotton, silk, rice, wine, fish, dried fruit and timber - and for Russian manufactured goods.
'ASHREF, a town of Persia in the province of Mazandaran, about 50 m.
A great circle, drawn through East Cape and the southern point of Arabia, passes nearly along the coast-line of the Arctic Ocean, over the Ural Mountains, through the western part of the Caspian, and nearly along the boundary between Persia and Asiatic Turkey.
m.1 The lakes of Asia are innumerable, and vary in size from an inland sea (such as Lakes Baikal and Balkash) to a highland loch, or the indefinitely extended swamps of Persia.
Such lakes (in common with all the plateau hamuns of south-west Baluchistan and Persia) change their form and extent from season to season, and many of them are impregnated with saline deposits from the underlying strata.
Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Iran or Persia, Armenia and the provinces of Asia Minor occupy this high region, with which they are nearly conterminous.
Viewed as a whole, the eastern half of this region, comprising Persia, Afghanistan and Baluchistan, is poor and unproductive.
of Persia and Baluchistan.
They reach through Extension Afghanistan and Baluchistan to the eastern districts of o ofge: Persia, and along the coast of Makran to that of Arabia.
The Afghan war of 1878-80; the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884-1885; the occupation of Gilgit and Chitral; the extension of boundaries east and north of Afghanistan, and again, between Baluchistan and Persia - these, added to the opportunities afforded by the systematic survey of Baluchistan which has been steadily progressing since 1880 - combined to produce a series of geographical maps which extend from the Oxus to the Indus, and from the Indus to the Euphrates.
Sykes in Persia, and by Sir George Robertson and Cockerill in Kafiristan and the Hindu Kush.
In western Asia we have learned the exact value of the mountain barrier which lies between Mery and Herat, and have mapped Indian its connexion with the Elburz of Persia.
Although within the limits of western Asiatic states, still under Asiatic government and beyond the active influence of European Persia.
The steady advance of scientific inquiry into every corner of Persia, backed by the unceasing efforts of a new school of geographical explorers, has left nothing unexamined that can be subjected to superficial observation.
Persia has assumed a comprehensible position as a factor in future Eastern politics.
Russia, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, India and China have all revised their borders, and with the revision the political relations between these countries have acquired a new and more assured basis.
We are not here concerned with understandings as to " spheres of influence," or with arrangements such as the AngloRussian Convention of 1907 concerning Persia.
'This belt includes Asia Minor, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, the Himalayas, the Tian-shan, and, although they are very different in direction, the Burmese ranges.
The greater part of western Asia, including the basin of the Obi, the drainage area of the Aral Sea, together with Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Persia and Arabia, was covered by the sea during the later stages of the Cretaceous period; but a considerable part 3f this region was probably dry land in Jurassic times.
In the southern region of unfolded beds are found the lavas of the " harras " of Arabia, and in India the extensive flows of the Deccan Trap. In the central folded belt lie the great volcanoes, now mostly extinct, of Asia Minor, Armenia, Persia and Baluchistan.
In Afghanistan, Persia, Asia Minor and Syria, winter and spring appear to be the chief seasons of condensation.
This belt, which embraces Asia Minor, northern Persia, Afghanistan, and the southern slopes of the Himalaya, from its elevation has a temperate climate, and throughout it the rainfall is sufficient to maintain a vigorous vegetation, while the summers, though hot, and the winters, though severe, are not extreme.
The extremely dry and hot tracts which constitute an almost unbroken desert from Arabia, through south Persia and Baluchistan, to Sind, are characterized by considerable uniformity in the types of life, which closely approach to those of the neighbouring hot and dry regions of Africa.
It includes the peninsula of Arabia, the shores of the Persian Gulf, south Persia, and Afghanistan and Baluchistan.
Among the more mountainous regions of the south-western part of Arabia, known as Arabia Felix, the summits of which rise to 6000 or 7000 ft., the rainfall is sufficient to develop a more luxuriant vegetation, and the valleys have a flora like that of similarly situated parts of southern Persia, and the less elevated parts of Afghanistan and Baluchistan, partaking of the characters of that of the hotter Mediterranean region.
Quercus Ilex, the evergreen oak of southern Europe, is found in forests as far east as the Sutlej, accompanied with other European forms. In the higher parts of Afghanistan and Persia Boraginaceae and thistles abound; gigantic Umbelliferae, such as Ferula, Galbanum, Dorema, Bubon, Peucedanum, Prangos, and others, also characterize the same districts, and some of them extend into Tibet.
The flora of Asia Minor and northern Persia differs but little from that of the southern parts of Europe.
The extreme south-west part of the continent constitutes a separate zoological district, comprising Arabia, Palestine and southern Persia, and reaching, like the hot desert botanical tract, to Baluchistan and Sind; it belongs to what Dr Sclater calls the Ethiopian region, which extends over Africa, south of the Atlas.
The Ethiopian fauna plays but a subordinate part in Asia, intruding only into the south-western corner, and occupying the desert districts of Arabia and Syria, although some of the characteristic species reach still farther into Persia and Sind, and even into western India.
Next in numerical importance to the Mongolians are the races which have been called by Professor Huxley Melanochroic and Xanthochroic. The former includes the dark-haired people of southern Europe, and extends over North Africa, Asia Minor, Syria to south-western Asia, and through Arabia and Persia to India.
The Turks are Mahommedans; their tribes extend up the Oxus to the borders of Afghanistan and Persia, and to the Caspian, and under the name of Kirghiz into Russia, and their language is spoken over a large part of western Asia.
Their letters are those of Persia.
The name of Aryan has been given to the races speaking languages derived from, or akin to, the ancient form of Sanskrit, who now occupy the temperate zone extending from the Mediterranean, across the highlands of Asia Minor, Persia and Afghanistan, to India.
Persia, including Syria and Arabia, besides extending into North Africa.
These Tajiks (as they are usually called) form the underlying population of Persia, Baluchistan, Afghanistan and Badakshan, and their language (in the central districts of Asia) is found to contain words of Aryan or Sanskrit derivation which are not known in Persian.
Islam is paramount in Turkey, Persia, Arabia and Afghanistan.
To these may be added numerous lesser invasions of India, China and Persia.
After 1707 it began to decline: the governors became independent: a powerful Mahratta confederacy arose in central India; Nadir Shah of Persia sacked Delhi; and Ahmed Shah made repeated invasions.
Even the great dynasties have left few traces, and it is with difficulty that the patient historian disinters the minor kingdoms from obscurity, but Indian religion, literature and art have influenced all Asia from Persia to Japan.
During the greater part of the Mahommedan period Persia has been ruled by troubled and short-lived dynasties.
It is perhaps on account of this intermediate flavour that the literature of Persia - for instance the adaptations of Omar Khayyam - is more appreciated in Europe than that of other Oriental nations.
On the other hand, the wars between Persia and Greece were recognized both at the time and afterwards as a struggle between Europe and Asia; the fact that both combatants were Aryans was not felt, and has no importance compared to the difference of continent.
The conquest of Siberia and central Asia presented no real difficulties: Persia and Constantinople were left on one side, and Russia was defeated as soon as she was opposed by a vigorous power in the Far East.
R.G.S., 1898; Ten Thousand Miles in Persia (1902); Kronshin, " Old Beds of the Oxus," Jour.
He flies to Persia, evades the pursuers whom Astyages sends after him, and begins the rebellion.
(See also PERSIA: Ancient History.) (ED.
south-eastwards to the Kara-dagh and Salavat mountains in north Persia, and the latter link them on to the Elburz mountains that skirt the southern end of the Caspian Sea.
The annual average value maybe put at not quite £2,000,000, machinery and tin-plate being a long way the most important items. There is further a small transit trade through Transcaucasia from Persia to the value of less than half a million sterling annually, and chiefly in carpets, cocoons and silk, wool, rice and boxwood; and further a sea-borne trade between Persia and Caucasian.
The Erivan line is being continued into Persia, namely, to Tabriz via Julfa on the Aras.
But these conquests, with others made at the expense of Persia, were restored to the latter power after Peter's death, a dozen years later.
By the peace of Gulistan in 1813 Persia ceded to Russia several districts in eastern Caucasia, from Lenkoran northwards to Derbent.
After acquiring the northern edge of the Armenian plateau, partly from Persia in 1828 and partly from Turkey in 1829, Russia crushed a rising which had broken out in the Caspian coast districts of Daghestan on the north of the Caucasus.
ASTARABAD, a province of Persia bounded N.
Astarabad, Persia >>
Abu '1 Kasim Mansur (or Hasan), who took the nom de plume of Firdousi, author of the epic poem the Shahnama, or "Book of Kings," a complete history of Persia in nearly 60,000 verses, was born at Shadab, a suburb of Tus, about the year 329 of the Hegira (941 A.D.), or earlier.
His father belonged to the class of Dihkans (the old native country families and landed proprietors of Persia, who had preserved their influence and status under the A ab rule), and possessed an estate in the neighbourhood of Cus (in Khorasan).
Browne's Literary History of Persia, i., ii.
An expedition against India had recently occupied his thoughts, as may be seen by the instructions which he issued on the 10th of May 1807 to General Gardane for his mission to Persia.
For the later history of the Parthian empire reference should be made to Persia: Ancient History, and biographical articles on the kings.
His death was annually celebrated in Persia by a feast called "the killing of the magian," at which no magian was allowed to show himself (Herod.
In the next year, another pseudo-Smerdis, named Vahyazdata, rose against Darius in eastern Persia and met with great success.
See DARIUS (I.) and PERSIA, Ancient History.
Their route led them through Persia, along the southern and eastern shores of the Caspian (whose inland character, unconnected with the outer ocean, their journey helped to demonstrate), and probably through Talas, north-east of Tashkent.
Persia, and, though nominally provincial governors under the suzerainty of the caliphs of Bagdad, succeeded in a very short time in establishing an almost independent rule over Transoxiana and the greater part of Persia.
p. 113; also articles Caliphate and Persia: History, section B, and for the later period Mahmud, Seljuks, Mongols.
This many-named and enigmatical tribe was of considerable importance in the history of India and Persia in the 5th and 6th centuries, and was known to the Byzantine writers, who call them 'E40aXiroL, Ei)Owytroi, NecbOaAtroc or 'A(3b€Xoi.
they began to move westwards, for about 420 we find them in Transoxiana, and for the next 130 years they were a menace to Persia, which they continually and successfully invaded, though they never held it as a conquest.
(Kobad), being driven out of Persia, took refuge with the Ephthalites, and recovered his throne with the assistance of their khan, whose daughter he had married, but subsequently he engaged in prolonged hostilities with them.
The Huns who invaded India appear to have belonged to the same stock as those who molested Persia.
Their invasions shook Indian society and institutions to the foundations, but, unlike the earlier Kushans, they do not seem to have introduced new ideas into India or have acted as other than a destructive force, although they may perhaps have kept up some communication between India and Persia.
Greek writers give a more flattering account of the Ephthalites, which may perhaps be due to the fact that they were useful to the East Roman empire as enemies of Persia and also not dangerously near.
Persia, Syria, Egypt, Greece, Austria, Germany and Switzerland, reached America in 1846.
ALP ARSLAN, or [[Axan, Mahommed Ben Da'Ud]] (1029-1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty, was born in the year A.D.
He succeeded his father Da'ud as ruler of Khorasan in 1059, and his uncle Togrul Bey as sultan of Oran in 1063, and thus became sole monarch of Persia from the river Oxus to the Tigris.
' For the general history of the Period see Persia: History, A.
According to the Liverpool Cotton Gazette, Asiatic Turkey produced in 1906 about ioo,000 bales, and Persia about 47,000 bales.
484-488, was the brother and successor of Peroz, who had died in a battle against the Hephthalites (White Huns) who invaded Persia from the east.
France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.
Holland, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Westphalia, Brunswick, Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, (German) Silesia, Poland, Kutais, Uralsk, Turkestan, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Tunis, Egypt, West Africa, British Columbia, Alberta, Assiniboia, Athabasca, Manitoba, New Jersey, South Dakota, Washington, Montana, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, California, New Mexico, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mexico, Hayti, Trinidad, Colombia, Argentina [?], New Zealand.
Yorkshire, Somerset, Buckingham, France, Switzer land, Spain, Italy, Lower Austria, Baden, Elsass, Hesse, Hanover, Brunswick, Sizran, Tiflis, Siberia, Persia, Madagascar, Alaska, Wyoming, Colorado, Mexico, Argentina.
sent a Franciscan friar, Joannes de Piano Carpini, to the Mongols of southern Russia, and despatched a Dominican mission to Persia.
In that year Hulagu, the khan of Persia, invaded Syria and captured Damascus.
A great field for missionary enterprise opened itself in the Mongol empire, in which, as has already been mentioned, there were many Christians to be found; and by 1350 this field had been so well worked that Christian missions and Christian bishops were established from Persia to Peking, and from the Dnieper to Tibet itself.
PHOENICIA; PALESTINE; LEBANON; HITTITES; CRUSADES; TURKEY; PERSIA: Ancient History.
A bolder stroke followed in 500, when a force was sent to support the Ionians in revolt against Persia and took part in the sack of Sardis.
In 493 the imminent prospect of a Persian invasion brought into power men like Themistocles and Miltiades (qq.v.), to whose firmness and insight the Athenians largely owed their triumph in the great campaign of 490 against Persia.
But so long as Cimon's influence prevailed the ideal of " peace at home and the complete humiliation of Persia " was steadily unheld.
Under the guidance of Pericles the Athenians renounced the unprofitable rivalry with Sparta and Persia, and devoted themselves to the consolidation and judicious extension of their maritime influence.
Philip and Alexander, who sincerely admired Athenian culture and courted a zealous co-operation against Persia, treated the conquered city with marked favour.
Although the conquest of Persia by the Arabs took place in A.D.
The climax of Mahommedan work in India is reached in that of the Mogul emperors at Agra, Delhi and Fatehpur-Sikri, in which there is a very close resemblance in design to the mosques of Syria, Egypt, and Persia; the four-centred arch, which is in the Mogul style, finds general acceptance, and was probably derived from Persian sources.
Husain albalkhi, better known as Maulana Jalal-uddin Rumi (or simply Jalal-uddin, or Jelal-eddin), the greatest Sufic poet of Persia, was born on the 30th of September 1207 (604 A.H.
l5 Baron Oppenheim's excavations at Tell Halaf have resulted in the recovery of reliefs of barbaric style, simulating the Syro-Hittite, from the palace of a local king, Kapara, of about the same period as Sinjirli and Sakchegozii (Toth-9th centuries B.C.), and pottery of all ages, going back to the chalcolithic period.ls The neolithic and chalcolithic pottery of Mesopotamia and Persia is one of the chief archaeological discoveries of late years in the Near East, and attention has recently been directed to it again by the important finds at Abu Shahrein (the ancient Eridu) and Tell el `Obeid, near Ur.
C. Thompson in 1918 17 and by Hall in 1919, and at El `Obeid by Hall in the latter year," have shown us that the painted ware of Susa and Musyan, discovered by de Morgan was not confined to Persia, but was the ordinary pottery of Babylonia in the prehistoric (chalcolithic) period.
Persia (which, it must not be forgotten, may have been an importation from Babylonia and not local art at all), seems to think a northern origin as probable as any other.
MACEDONIAN EMPIRE, the name generally given to the empire founded by Alexander the Great of Macedon in the countries now represented by Greece and European Turkey, Asia Minor, Egypt, Syria, Persia and eastwards as far as northern India.'
The attack on Persia was delayed by the assassination of Philip in 336, and it needed some fighting before the young Alexander had made his position secure in Macedonia and Greece.
In Persia, the native aristocracy retained their power, and the Macedonian governor adopted Persian dress and manners (Diod.
trans., p. 72) and in Persia (Spiegel.
It was customary, as in Persia and in old Macedonia, for the great men of the realm to send their children to court to be brought up with the children of the royal house.
Trade with Persia and India, as also with the Khazars and the Russians, and undoubtedly with Biarmia (Urals), was, however, their chief occupation, their main riches being furs, leather, wool, nuts, wax and so on.
Thus Pizigano's map of 1367 extends as far east as the Gulf of Persia, whilst the Medicean map of 1356 (at Florence) is remarkable on account of a fairly correct delineation of the Caspian, the Shari river in Africa, and the correct direction given to the west coast of India, which had already been pointed out in a letter of the friar Giovanni da Montecorvino of 1252.
Kiepert's Asia Minor (1:400,000; 1904-1908), a map of eastern Turkey in Asia, Syria and western Persia (1:2,000,000; 1910), published by the Royal Geographical Society, or a Russian general map (1:630,000, published 1880-1885).
In the case of Persia and Afghanistan we are still dependent upon compilations such as a Russian staff map (1:840,000, published in 1886), Colonel Sir T.
Holdich's map of Persia (1:1,014,000, Simla, 1897-1899), or a smaller map (1:2,028,000 and 1:4,056,000), published by the geographical division of the general staff.
After ten years of fighting, Humayun was driven out of India and compelled to flee to Persia through the desert of Sind, where his famous son, Akbar the Great, was born in the petty fort of Umarkot (1542).
He used his influence with the emperor of Russia, as also with the emperors of China and Japan and with the shah of Persia, to secure the free practice of their religion for Roman Catholics within their respective dominions.
It was in the Roman state that military action - in Greece often purposeless and, except in the resistance to Persia, on the whole fruitless - worked out the social mission which formed its true justification.
The principal centres from which the supply was furnished to Egypt, Turkey, Arabia, and Persia were three in number.
It was believed in 1862 that about 19,000 passed every year from the Nyasa regions to Zanzibar, whence large supplies were drawn for the markets of Arabia and Persia up to 1873.
The complete control of the seaboard by European powers has rendered the smuggling of slaves to Arabia and Persia a difficult and dangerous occupation.
In 616 it was taken by Chosroes, king of Persia; and in 6 4 o by the Arabians, under `Amr, after a siege that lasted fourteen months, during which Heraclius, the emperor of Constantinople, did not send a single ship to its assistance.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to the history of Persia
Ancient Persia) is justified in maintaining that the Zoroastrian religion must even then have been predominant in Media.
Meyer in the article Persia: History, § Ancient).
In Persia itself only a few followers of Zoroaster are now found (in Kerman and Yezd).
Ragozin, The Story of Media, Babylon and Persia (New York, 1888); Dosabhai Framji Karaka, History of the Parsis (2 vols., London, 1884).
by Persia and Transcaucasia, and on the S.
Asiatic Turkey is conterminous on the east with Russia and Persia; in the southwest it encloses on the west, north and north-east the independent part of Arabia.
Meanwhile in Asia also the Ottoman Empire had been consolidated and extended; but from 1501 onwards the ambitious designs of the youthful Shah Ismail in Persia grew more and more threatening to its security; and though Bayezid, intent on peace, winked at his violations of Ottoman territory and exchanged friendly embassies with him, a breach was sooner or later inevitable.
When he had ruthlessly quelled the resistance offered to his accession by his brothers, who both fell in the struggle for the throne, Selim undertook his campaign in Persia, having first extirpated the Shia heresy, prevalent 5 e 12 m, g P Y, P 1512152.0.
sect of Persia, in his dominions, where it threatened to extend.
Friendly relations had subsisted between Suleiman and Ferdinand during the expedition to Persia; but on the death of Zapolya in 1539 Ferdinand claimed Hungary and besieged Budapest with a large force.
Suleiman was now free to resume operations against Persia.
But the Persian War dragged on, with varying fortune, for years, till after Suleiman had ravaged Persia it was concluded by the treaty - the first between shah and sultan - signed at Amasia on the 29th of May 1555.
At the time of his death the Turkish Empire extended from near the frontiers of Germany to the frontiers of Persia.
The Black Sea was practically a Turkish lake, only the Circassians on the east coast retaining their independence; and as a result of the wars with Persia the whole Euphrates valley, with Bagdad, had fallen into the sultan's power, now established on the Persian Gulf.
Driven, with the remnant of his ships, into the Indian Ocean, he landed with fifty companions on the coast of India and travelled back to Turkey by way of Sind, Baluchistan, Khorassan and Persia.
Thus it was against his advice that, at the beginning of 1578, advantage was taken of the disorders arising on the death of Shah Tahmasp of Persia to attack 1 It was ten years before a formal truce was signed with Spain (1584); two hundred years passed before the signature of a definitive treaty of peace and commerce (Sept.
for thus weakening the neighbouring Mussulman states such as Persia and Daghestan, thereby facilitating Russia's future expansion at their cost.
In Constantinople, early in 1603, there was, moreover, a serious rising of the spahis; and, finally, in September Shah Abbas of Persia took advantage of what is known in Turkish history as " the year of insurrections " to declare war and reconquer Tabriz.
Mustafa 1., The war in Persia was terminated by the renewal 1617-1618 in 1618 of the treaty of 1611, whereby all the con- and quests effected by Murad III.
But, though the questions at issue between Russia and Turkey in Poland and the northern littoral of the Black Sea were thus for the time settled, the aggressive designs of Russia in the Caucasus and in Persia soon caused a renewal of anxiety at Constantinople.
Again war all but broke out; but, through the intervention of France, a treaty of partition was signed at Constantinople on the 23rd of June 1724, whereby the shores of the Caspian from the junction of the Kur and the Arras (Araxes) northwards should belong to Russia, while the western provinces of Persia should fall to the share of Turkey.
These provinces had not yet been conquered by Turkey; and, when a part of them had been taken, a treaty was concluded with the Afghan Ashraf Shah, who had risen to supreme power in Persia, by" which Turkey should retain them on condition of recognizing him as shah (Oct.
With difficulty the rebellion was suppressed; in 1733 the war with Persia was resumed, and after three years of fighting Nadir succeeded in 1736 in inducing Turkey to recognize him as shah of Persia and to restore the territory captured since the reign of Murad IV.
Scarcely two years after the signature of the treaty of Belgrade sinister rumours reached Constantinople from Persia, where Nadir Shah, on his return from India, was planning an attack on Mesopotamia.
In the war of the Austrian Succession, which followed the accession of Maria Theresa to the Habsburg throne, Turkey, in spite of the urgency of France, would take no share, and she maintained the same attitude in the disorders in Persia following the death of Nadir Shah.
Turkey was at this time the only neutral state in Europe; it was of vital im- Treaty of portance that she should not be absorbed into the Napoleonic system, as in that case Russia would have been exposed to a simultaneous attack from France, Austria, Turkey and Persia.
In the course of the war with Persia Russia had received permission from the Ottoman government to use, for a limited time, the easy road from the Black Sea to Tiflis by way of the valley of the Rion (Phasis) for the transport of troops and supplies, and this permission had been several times renewed.
In all literary matters the Ottoman Turks have shown themselves a singularly uninventive people, the two great schools, the old and the new, into which we may divide their literature, being closely modelled, the one after the classics of Persia, the other after those of modern Europe, and more especially of France.
Some two centuries before the arrival of the Turks in Asia Minor the Seljuks, then a mere horde of savages, had overrun Persia, where they settled and adopted the civilization of the people they had subdued.
Hence the vast majority of the people whom we are accustomed to think of as Ottomans are so only by adoption, being really the descendants of Seljuks or Seljukian subjects, who had derived from Persia whatever they possessed of civilization or of literary taste.
This prolific author copied, and so imported into Ottoman literature, a didactic style of ghazel-writing which was then being introduced in Persia by the poet Sa'ib; but so closely did the pupil follow in the footsteps of his master that it is not always easy to know that his lines are intended to be Turkish.
Bagdad also lies on a natural line of communication between Persia and the west, the ancient caravan route from Khorasan debouching from the mountains at this point, while another natural caravan route led up the Euphrates to Syria and the Mediterranean and still another up the Tigris to Armenia and the Black Sea.
It was its situation at the centre of the lines of communication between India and Persia and the west, both by land and water, which gave the city its great importance in early times.
The trade of Persia with the west now passes either through the ports of the Persian Gulf or northward over Trebizond, while India communicates with the west directly through the Suez Canal.
It is still, however, the centre of distribution for a very large, if scantily populated, country, and it also derives much profit from pilgrims, lying as it does on the route which Shiite pilgrims from Persia must take on their way to the sacred cities.
He and his descendants reigned in Bagdad until Shah Ismail I., the founder of the Safawid royal house of Persia, made himself master of the place (c. 1502 or 1508).
Since that period it has remained nominally a part of the Turkish empire; but with the decline of Turkish power, and the general disintegration of the empire, in the first half of the 18th century, a then governor-general, Ahmed Pasha, made it an independent pashalic. Nadir Shah, the able and energetic usurper of the Persian throne, attempting to annex the province once more to Persia, besieged the city, but Ahmed defended it with such courage that the invader was compelled to raise the siege, after suffering great loss.
Porter, Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia and Ancient Babylonia (1821-1822); J.
Thus the botanical evidence seems to indicate that the wild almond is the source of cultivated almonds, peaches and nectarines, and consequently that the peach was introduced from Asia Minor or Persia, whence the name Persica given to the peach; and Aitchison's discovery in Afghanistan of a form which reminded him of a wild peach lends additional force to this view.
According to his view, the seeds of the peach, cultivated for ages in China, might have been carried by the Chinese into Kashmir, Bokhara, and Persia between the period of the Sanskrit emigration and the Graeco-Persian period.
Hara-bere-zaiti, the "High Mountain"), a great chain of mountains in northern Persia, separating the Caspian depression from the Persian highlands, and extending without any break for 650 m.
South of Resht this section is broken through at almost a right angle by the Safid Rud (White river),and along it runs the principal commercial road between the Caspian and inner Persia, Resht-Kazvin-Teheran.
The higher ranges of the Elburz are snow-capped for the greater part of the year, and some, which are not exposed to the refracted heat from the arid districts of inner Persia, are rarely without snow.
sent in 1247 to the Mongols of Armenia and Persia.
Browne, Literary History of Persia, ii.
Persia and Russia.
Astarabad, Persia (Province) >>
FIRUZABAD), Sassanid king of Persia, A.D.
The Ephthalites invaded and plundered Persia for two years, till at last a noble Persian from the old family of Karen, Zarmihr (or Sokhra), restored some degree of order.
Thus they make Mer y a sort of watch tower over the entrance into Afghanistan on the north-west and at the same time create a stepping-stone or etape between north-east Persia and the states of Bokhara and Samarkand.
In 1040 the Seljuk Turks crossed the Oxus from the north, and having defeated Masud, sultan of Ghazni, raised Toghrul Beg, grandson of Seljuk, to the throne of Persia, founding the Seljukian dynasty, with its capital at Nishapur.
In 1505 the city was occupied by the Uzbegs, who five years later were expelled by Ismail Khan, the founder of the Safawid dynasty of Persia.
Mer y remained in the hands of Persia until 1787, when it was captured by the emir of Bokhara.
From the Scandinavian peninsula and the British Islands the range of the fox extends eastwards across Europe and central and northern Asia to Japan, while to the south it embraces northern Africa and Arabia, Persia, Baluchistan, and the northwestern districts of India and the Himalaya.
alopex leucopus) of Persia, N.W.
famelicus), whose range extends apparently from Egypt and Somaliland through Palestine and Persia into Afghanistan, seems to form a connecting link between the more typical foxes and the small African species properly known as fennecs.
AHVAZ, a town of Persia, in the province of Arabistan, on the left bank of the river Karun, 48 m.
As a god who gave victory, he was prominent in the official cult of Persia, the seventh month and the sixteenth day of other months being sacred to him.
Its popularity remained unimpaired after the fall of Persia, and it was during the ferment following the conquests of Alexander that the characteristics which mark it during the Roman period were firmly fixed.
Bocskay, to save the independence of Transylvania, assisted the Turks; and in 1605, as a reward for his part in driving Basta out of Transylvania, the Hungarian diet, assembled at Modgyes, elected him prince (1605), on which occasion the Ottoman sultan sent a special embassy to congratulate him and a splendid jewelled crown made in Persia.
See further under Persia: Ancient History, from the Achaemenid period onwards, and works there quoted (especially section v.
Poland was restrained by his alliances with the Teutonic Knights and the tsardom of Muscovy, and his envoys appeared in Persia and in Egypt to combat the diplomacy of the Porte.
Just the same form of short sword was used in Persia and is shown on the sculptures at Persepolis.
But there is no evidence that the Jews were involved in these; for the account which Josephus gives of Bagoses' oppression of the Jews represents the trouble as having arisen originally from internal dissensions, and does not hint at anything of the nature of a rebellion against Persia.
There is nothing even to connect these Jews with Palestine; they may have formed a part of the very considerable Jewish community which we know to have been settled in Egypt as early as the 5th century B.C. On the other hand, it is extremely improbable that the Jews of Judaea, whom Nehemiah had entirely detached from their immediate neighbours, would have taken part in any general rising against Persia.
On the side of Persia too, where the decisive battle of Shurur (1502) had raised to power Ismail, the first of the modern line of shahs, danger threatened the sultan, and the latter years of his reign were troubled by the spread, under the influence of the new Persian power, of the Shiite doctrine in Kurdistan and Asia Minor.
3 The adoption of Christianity by Constantine as the official religion of the Roman Empire had an unfortunate effect on the position of the Christians in Persia.
One result of this and later persecutions of the same kind has been to enrich Syriac literature with a long series of Acts of Persian Martyrs, which, although in their existing form intermixed with much legendary matter, nevertheless throw valuable light on the history and geography of western Persia under Sasanian rule.
catholicus) of Seleucia from about 326 to 341 in succession to Papa, who in the face of opposition from other bishops had organized the church of Persia under the primacy of Seleucia.
10 The 5th century was a time of storm and conflict in the churches of Mesopotamia and Persia, as in other parts of the Christian world.
To the Nestorian movement in Persia he rendered useful service by his letter to Mari of Beth Hardasher, in which he maintained the tenets of Diodore and Theodore, while allowing that Nestorius had erred.
by violence, in attaching to Nestorianism nearly all the Christian communities of Persia, with the exception of Taghrith, which was always strongly Monophysite.
The Wand who accompanied them and became bishop of Rewardasher in Persia was not, as Barhebraeus supposed, the catholicus of Seleucia who held office in 420, but a much younger man.
The same process of decay was greatly promoted by the Arab conquest of Persia, achieved through the victory of Kadisiya in 636-637.
It has long been cultivated in Persia and Kashmir, and is supposed to have been introduced into China by the Mongol invasion.
Saffron is chiefly cultivated in Spain, France, Sicily, on the lower spurs of the Apennines and in Persia and Kashmir.
925-926), a native of Rai in the province of Dailam (Persia), who practised with distinction at Bagdad; he followed the doctrines of Galen, but learnt much from Hippocrates.
The monuments of Persepolis and the coins of the Sassanians show that the religious use of incense was as common in ancient Persia as in Babylonia and Assyria.
21) mentions the gift of a Ouµaari pcov by the contemporary Chosroes of Persia to the church of Jerusalem; and all the Oriental liturgies of this period provide special prayers for the thurification of the eucharistic elements.
KHUNSAR, a town of Persia, sometimes belonging to the province of Isfahan, at others to Irak, 9 6 m.
At the present day bottles and drinkingvessels are made in Persia which in texture and quality differ little from ordinary Venetian glass of the 16th or 17th centuries, while in form they exactly resemble those which may be seen in the engravings in Chardin's Travels.
Browne, A Literary History of Persia (London, 1902), pp. 387 f.
The army of Astyages betrayed him to his enemy, and Cyrus established himself at Ecbatana, thus putting an end to the empire of the Scythians, ' For the events leading up to the conquests of Cyrus, see Persia: Ancient History, § v.
Three years later we find that Cyrus has become king of Persia and is engaged in a campaign in the north of Mesopotamia.
Khosrau (1004-1088), whose nom de plume was Hujjat, the first great didactic poet of Persia, was born, according to his own statement, A.H.
After this we trace the friar in northern Persia, in Millestorte, once famous as the Land of the Assassins in the Elburz highlands.
The cultivation of the cane in the West spread from Khuzistan in Persia.
Ordinary Saltpetre or Potassium Nitrate, KN03, occurs, mingled with other nitrates, on the surface and in the superficial layers of the soil in many countries, especially in certain parts of India, Persia, Arabia and Spain.
Kerman, Persia (Province) >>
After wandering for many months, chiefly in Persia, and having abandoned his intention of proceeding to Ceylon, he returned in 1842 to Constantinople, where he made the acquaintance of Sir Stratford Canning, the British ambassador, who employed him in various unofficial diplomatic missions in European Turkey.
In 1887 he published, from notes taken at the time, a record of his first journey to the East, entitled Early Adventures in Persia, Susiana and Babylonia.
At last, in 562, a peace was concluded for 50 years, in which the Persians left Lazistan to the Romans, and promised not to persecute the Christians, if they did not attempt to make proselytes among the Zarathustrians; on the other hand, the Romans had again to pay subsidies to Persia.
From that time till the conquests of Mahomet, Yemen was dependent on Persia, and a Persian governor resided here.
When Justinian in 529 closed the university of Athens, the last seat of paganism in the Roman empire, the last seven teachers of Neoplatonism emigrated to Persia.
See PERSIA: AncientHistory.
Akhdar is wonderful and is in striking contrast to the barrenness of so much of the coast; water issues in perennial springs from many rocky clefts, and is carefully husbanded by the ingenuity of the people; underground channels, known here as faluj, precisely similar to the kanat or karez of Persia and Afghanistan, are also largely used.
The kingdom of Hira was never really independent, but always stood in a relation of dependence on Persia, probably receiving pay from it and employing Persian soldiers.
Some passed under the sway of Persia, others preserved their freedom at the expense of their neighbours.
of Arabia for the Arabians could only be realized by summoning the great kings of the surrounding nations to recognize Islam; otherwise Abyssinia, Persia and Rome (Byzantium) would continue their former endeavours to influence and control the affairs of the peninsula.
Tradition tells that a few years before his death he did actually send letters to the emperor Heraclius, to the negus of Abyssinia, the king of Persia, and Cyrus, patriarch of Alexandria, the " Mukaukis " of Egypt, summoning them to accept Islam and threatening them with punishment in case of refusal.
Rhagae) in 643 meant the entire subjugation of Persia and crowned the conquests of Omar's caliphate.
From very early times story-tellers and singers found their subjects in the doughty deeds of the tribe on its forays, and sometimes in contests with foreign powers and in the impression produced by the wealth and might of the sovereigns of Persia and Constantinople: The appearance of the Prophet with the great changes that ensued, the conquests that made the Arabs lords of half the civilized world, supplied a vast store of new matter for relations which men were never weary of hearing and recounting.
In Persia their numbers and their zeal stimulated the old churches into vigour and led to the founding of new ones.
The Nestorian Church in Eastern Syria and Persia was under the jurisdiction of an archbishop (catholikos), who in 498 assumed the title "Patriarch of the East" and had his seat at SeleuciaCtesiphon on the Tigris, a busy trading city and a fitting centre for the great area over which the evangelizing activity of the Nestorians now extended.
In 608 Magian influence was so strong in Persia that the Christians were persecuted and the office of catholicus was vacant for 20 years, being filled again by Jesu-Jabus, during whose patriarchate the Mahommedan invasion overran Persia.
They showed a zeal for evangelization which resulted in the establishment of their influence throughout Asia, as is seen from the bishoprics founded not only in Syria, Armenia, Arabia and Persia, but at Halavan in Media, Mer y in Khorasan, Herat, Tashkent, Samarkand, Baluk, Kashgar, and even at Kambaluk (Pekin) and Singan fu Hsi`en fu in China, and Kaljana and Kranganore in India.
The theology of the Indian Syrian Christians is of a Nestorian type, and Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century) puts us on the right track when he says that the Christians whom he found in Ceylon and Malabar had come from Persia (probably as refugees from persecution, like the Huguenots in England and the Pilgrim Fathers in America).
Other reinforcements came from Persia in 822, but the Malabar church never developed any intellectual vigour or missionary zeal.
- The Nestorians or East Syrians (Surayi) of Turkey and Persia now inhabit a district bounded by Lake Urmia, or Urumia, on the east, stretching westwards into Kurdistan, to Mosul on the south, and nearly as far as Van on the north.
- In Turkey these consist of the Dominican mission, established at Mosul during the 18th century, and in Persia of the French Lazarist mission, which sprang out of some schools established by a French layman and scientific traveller, Eugene Bore, in 1838.
Bore's entreaty the Propaganda sent the first Lazarist father to Persia in 1840.
The American Presbyterian Mission, established in Persia in1834-1835by the Rev. Justin Perkins and Dr A.Grant, comprises large buildings near Urmia, a college and a hospital.
The original aim was to influence the old Nestorian Church rather than to set up a new religious body, but the wide difference between Presbyterians and an Oriental Church rendered the attempt abortive, and the result of the labours of the Americans has been the establishment since 1862 of a Syrian Protestant community in Persia, with some adherents in Turkey.
KUM, a small province in Persia, between Teheran on the N.
In the epic of Firdousi Khazar is the representative name for all the northern foes of Persia, and legendary invasions long before the Christian era are vaguely attributed to them.
They were the Venetians of the Caspian and the Euxine, the organizers of the transit between the two basins, the universal carriers between East and West; and Itil was the meeting-place of the commerce of Persia, Byzantium, Armenia, Russia and the Bulgarians of the middle Volga.
The southern boundary never greatly altered; it did at times reach the Kur and the Aras, but on that side the Khazars were confronted by Byzantium and Persia, and were for the most part restrained within the passes of the Caucasus by the fortifications of Dariel.
During the 4th century however, the growing power of Persia culminated in the annexation of eastern Armenia.
The Khazars, endangered by so powerful a neighbour, passed from under Persian influence into that remote alliance with Byzantium which thenceforth characterized their policy, and they aided Julian in his invasion of Persia (363).
Simultaneously with the approach of Persia to the Caucasus the terrible empire of the Huns sprang up among the Ugrians of the northern steppes.
Simultaneously, and no doubt in concert, with the Byzantine campaign against Persia (589), the Khazars had reappeared in Armenia, though it was not till 625 that they appear as Khazars in the Byzantine annals.
Slowly he restored the national prestige, for he asserted loyalty to France as the first principle of policy and brought about the Anglo-Russian agreement in Persia of Aug.
BAYAZID, or Bajazet, a border fortress of Asiatic Turkey, chief town of a sanjak of the Erzerum vilayet, situated close to the frontiers of Russia and Persia, and looking across a marshy plain to the great cone of Ararat, at a general altitude of 6000 ft.
Persia crosses the frontier at Kizil Dize a few miles to the south and does not enter the town.
The present writer believes that the date palm was really indigenous to this district of the Jerid, as it is to countries of similar description in southern Morocco, southern Algeria, parts of the Tripolitaine, Egypt, Mesopotamia, southern Persia and north-western India; but that north of the latitude of the Jerid the date did not grow naturally in Mauretania, just as it was foreign to all parts of Europe, in which, as in true North Africa, its presence is due to the hand of man.
It certainly maintained strong Phoenician sympathies, for it was its refusal to join the phil-Hellene league of Onesilas of Salamis which provoked the revolt of Cyprus from Persia in 500-494 B.C. (Herod.
Amongst the best known of his works, besides those alluded to, are Wanderings and Adventures in Persia (1867); Sketches of Central Asia (1868); History of Bokhara (1873); Manners in Oriental Countries (1876); Primitive Civilization of the Turko-Tatar People (1879) Origin of the Magyars (1882); The Turkish People (1885); and Western Culture in Eastern Lands (1906) .
From the Cilician port of Lajazzo he started on the great high road to Tabriz in north Persia.
RESHT, the capital of the province of Gilan in Persia, in 37° 17' N., and 49° 36' E., on the left bank of the Siah-rud (Black river), which is a branch of the Sefid-rud (White river), and flows into the Murdab, lagoon of Enzeli.
There are telegraph and post offices and branches of the Imperial Bank of Persia and Banque d'Escompte.
(1219-1236) the city was thronged with artists, poets, historians, jurists and dervishes, driven westwards from Persia and Bokhara by the advance of the Mongols, and there was a brief period of great splendour.
See PERSIA: Ancient History.
BUSHIRE, or Bander Bushire, a town of Persia, on the northern shore of the Persian Gulf, in 28° 59' N., 50° 49' E.
In the first half of the 18th century, when Bushire was an unimportant fishing village, it was selected by Nadir Shah as the southern port of Persia and dockyard of the navy which he aspired to create in the Persian Gulf, and the British commercial factory of the East India Company, established at Gombrun, the modern Bander Abbasi, was transferred to it in 1759.
During the war with Persia (1856-57), Bushire surrendered to a British force and remained in British occupation for some months.
KHORREMABAD, a town of Persia, capital of the province of Luristan, in 33° 32' N., 48° 15' E., and at an elevation of 4250 ft.
AGA KHAN I., HIS HIGHNESS THE (1800-1881), the title accorded by general consent to Hasan Ali Shah (born in Persia, 1800), when, in early life, he first settled in Bombay under the protection of the British government.
Ali's son, Hosain, having married a daughter of one of the rulers of Persia before the time of Mahomet, the Aga Khan traced his descent from the royal house of Persia from the most remote, almost prehistoric, times.
Before the Aga Khan emigrated from Persia, he was appointed by the emperor Fateh Ali Shah to be governor-general of the extensive and important province of Kerman.
He fled from Persia and sought protection in British territory, preferring to settle down eventually in India, making Bombay his headquarters.
At that period the first Afghan War was at its height, and in crossing over from Persia through Afghanistan the Aga Khan found opportunities of rendering valuable services to the British army, and thus cast in his lot for ever with the British.
From that time until his death in 1881 the Aga Khan, while leading the life of a peaceful and peacemaking citizen, under the protection of British rule, continued to discharge his sacerdotal functions, not only among his followers in India, but towards the more numerous communities which acknowledged his religious sway in distant countries, such as Afghanistan, Khorasan, Persia, Arabia, Central Asia, and even distant Syria and Morocco.
He was thus by birth a subject of Persia, but all his active life of which we have any record was passed in the territory of the Greek Empire.
Greece, Persia and probably Babylon, knew of four such ages. ?
In all these biographies there is internal evidence of confusion; many of the incidents related are elsewhere told of other persons, and certain of them are quite irreconcilable with his character, so far as it can be judged of from his writings and from the opinions expressed of him by his contemporaries; we may safely reject, for instance, the legends that he set fire to the library of the Temple of Health at Cnidos, in order to destroy the evidence of plagiarism, and that he refused to visit Persia at the request of Artaxerxes Longimanus, during a pestilential epidemic, on the ground that he would in so doing be assisting an enemy.
During the ensuing years, apart from a brief return to the Cimonian policy, the resources of the league, or, as it has now become, the Athenian empire, were directed not so much against Persia as against Sparta, Corinth, Aegina and Boeotia.
At all events, it is significant of the success of the main object of the Delian League, the Athenians resigning Cyprus and Egypt, while Persia recognized the freedom of the maritime Greeks of Asia Minor.
The peace of Antalcidas or the King's Peace (see ANTALcIDAS; Sparta) in 386 was a blow to Athens in the interests of Persia and Sparta.
With the support of Persia an agreement was made by a congress at Sparta on the basis of the autonomy of the cities, Amphipolis and the Chersonese being granted to Athens.
In 367 Athens and Thebes sent rival ambassadors to Persia, with the result that Athens was actually ordered to abandon her claim to Amphipolis, and to remove her navy from the high seas.
The claim to Amphipolis was subsequently affirmed, but the Greek states declined to obey the order of Persia.
Timotheus was sent in 366-365 to make a demonstration against Persia.
Pan-Hellenic enthusiasts already saw Philip as the destined captain-general of a national crusade against Persia (Isocrates, Philippus, about 345).
His death was variously attributed to disease, the effects of lightning, or a wound received in a campaign against the Huns; but it seems more probable that he was murdered by the soldiers, who were averse from further campaigns against Persia, at the instigation of Arrius Aper, prefect of the praetorian guard.
Maragha, a town of Persia in the province of Azerbaijan, on the Safi River; in 37° 23' N., 46° 16' E., 80 m.
The marble, which is known throughout Persia as Maragha marble, is a travertine obtained at the village of Dashkesen (Turkish for stone-breakers " (about 30 m.
sent through Russia to Persia in 1683.
He reached Persia by way of Moscow, Kazan and Astrakhan, landing at Nizabad in Daghestan after a voyage in the Caspian; from Shemakha in Shirvan he made an expedition to the Baku peninsula, being perhaps the first modern scientist to visit these fields of "eternal fire."
(Lemgo, 1712), a selection from his papers giving results of his invaluable observations in Georgia, Persia and Japan.
It chanced that there existed on the polished surface of a cliff at Behistun in western Persia a tri-lingual inscription which, according to Diodorus, had been made by Queen Semiramis of Nineveh, but which, as is now known, was really the work of King Darius.
Even in so important a matter as the great conflict between Persia and Greece it has been suggested more than once that we should be able to gain a much truer view were Persian as well as Greek accounts accessible.
and Sennacherib, kings of Assyria, of Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon, and of Cyrus, king of Persia, all contain direct references to Hebrew history.
to the throne of Persia, on the 16th of June in the year of our era 632.
This era was at one period universally adopted in Persia, and it still continues to be followed by the Parsees of India.
Southward lies Seistan (200 m.), and eastward Kabul (550 m.); while on the west four routes lead into Persia by Turbet to Meshed (215 m.), and by Birjend to Kerman (400 m.), to Yezd (500 m.), or to Isfahan (boo m.).
Persia indeed for many years showed a strong disposition to reassert the supremacy over Herat which was exercised by the Safawid kings, but great Britain, disapproving of the advance of Persia towards the Indian frontier, steadily resisted the encroachment; and, indeed, after helping the Heratis to beat off the attack of the Persian army in 1838, the British at length compelled the shah in 1857 at the close of his war with them to sign a treaty recognizing the further independence of the place, and pledging Persia against any further interference with the Afghans.
The date of these events is placed between 175 and 140 B.C. They then attacked another tribe known as Sakas, and drove them to Persia and India.
The Yue-Chi were probably the principal means of disseminating it in India, though all movements 'which kept open the communications between Bactria and Persia and India must have contributed, and the first introduction was' due to the short-lived Graeco-Bactrian conquest (180-130 B.C.).
It was borne by three kings of the Achaemenian dynasty of ancient Persia; though, so long as its meaning was understood, it can have been adopted by the kings only after their accession to the throne.
In 448 the war with Athens was terminated by the treaty concluded by Callias (but see Callias and Cimon), by which the Athenians left Cyprus and Egypt to the Persians, while Persia gave up nothing of her rights, but promised not to make use of them against the Greek cities on the Asiatic coast, which had gained their liberty (Ed.
When in 399 war broke out between Sparta and Persia, the Persian troops in Asia Minor were quite unable to resist the Spartan armies.
This victory enabled the Greek allies of Persia (Thebes, Athens, Argos, Corinth) to carry on the Corinthian war against Sparta, and the Spartans had to give up the war in Asia Minor.
By the peace of Antalcidas the Persian supremacy was proclaimed over Greece; and in the following wars all parties, Spartans, Athenians, Thebans, Argives continually applied to Persia for a decision in their favour.
After the battle of Leuctra, when the power of Thebes was founded by Epaminondas, Pelopidas went to Susa (367) and restored the old alliance between Persia and Thebes.
Then the king attempted to subjugate Egypt, but two expeditions were unsuccessful, and, in consequence, Sidon and the other Phoenician towns, and the princes of Cyprus, rebelled against Persia and defeated the Persian generals.
For bibliographical references see PERSIA: Ancient History.
22), and the use of the term "king of Persia," as a distinctive title after the fall of that empire (33 2 B.C.), are enough to show that, as a whole, they belong to the same age as the book of Chronicles.
The Irak of Persia was overcome by Khalid in a single campaign, and there was also a successful expedition into Syria.
This writer states that when at the papal court in 1145 he met with the bishop of Gabala (Jibal in Syria), who related how "not many years before one John, king and priest (rex et sacerdos), who dwelt in the extreme Orient beyond Persia and Armenia, and was, with his people, a Christian but a Nestorian, had made war against the brother kings of the Persians and Medes, who were called Samiards (or Sanjards), and captured Ecbatana their capital.
In 1141 the assistance of this Khitaian prince was invoked by the shah of Kharezm against Sanjar, the Seljuk sovereign of Persia, who had expelled the shah from his kingdom and killed his son.
Though the Gur Khan himself is not described as having extended his conquests into Persia, the shah of Kharezm followed up the victory by invading Khorasan and plundering the cities and treasuries of Sanjar.
In this event - the defeat of Sanjar, whose brother's son, Mas'ud, reigned over western Persia - occurring four years before the story of the Eastern conqueror was told at Rome to Bishop Otto, we seem to have the destruction of the Samiardi fratres or Sanjar brothers, which was the germ of the story of Prester John.
Goldfink l), the Fringilla carduelis of Linnaeus and the Carduelis elegans of later authors, an extremely well-known bird found over the greater parts of Europe and North Africa, and eastwards to Persia and Turkestan.
Bujnurd, a town of Persia, in the province of Khorasan, in a fertile plain encompassed by hills, in 37° 29' N., 57° 21' E., at an elevation of 3600 ft.
Anushirvan, king of Persia.
BALUCHISTAN, a province of Persia consisting of the western part of Baluchistan in a wider sense.
It is more probable that the breach of the compact was due to Polycrates, for when Cambyses of Persia invaded Egypt (525) the Samian tyrant offered to support him with a naval contingent.
The mysticism which took hold on Persia in the middle ages spread:also to Bokhara, and later, when the Mongol invasions of the 13th century laid waste Samarkand and other Moslem cities, Bokhara, remaining independent, continued to be a chief seat of Islamitic learning.
23 f., speaks of the coming of ships from the West, to attack Assur and "Eber" it may refer to the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great.
AZERBAIJAN (also spelt ADERBIJAN; the Azerbadegan of medieval writers, the Athropatakan and Atropatene of the ancients), the north-western and most important province of Persia.
m.; its population at 1 z to 2 millions, comprising various races, as Persians proper, Turks, Kurds, Syrians, Armenians, &c. The country is superior in fertility to most provinces of Persia, and consists of a regular succession of undulating eminences, partially cultivated and opening into extensive plains.
Azerbaijan is one of the most productive provinces of Persia.
The province is divided into a number of administrative sub-provinces or districts, each with a hakim, governor or sub-governor, under the governor-general, who under the Kajar dynasty has always been the heir-apparent to the throne of Persia, assisted by a responsible minister appointed by the shah.
In view of this general demoralization not even the victorious outcome of the campaigns in Georgia, the Crimea, Daghestan, Yemen and Persia (1578-1590) could prevent the decay of the Ottoman power; indeed, by weakening the Mussulman states, they hastened the process, since they facilitated the advance of Russia to the Black Sea and the Caspian.
LURISTAN, in the wider sense (as its name implies) the "Land of the Lurs," namely that part of western Persia which is bounded by Turkish territory on the west and extends for about 400 m.
and more, and in it are the sources of Persia's most important rivers, as the Zayendeh-rud, Jarahi, Karun, Diz, Abi, Kerkheh.
It has been called "a universal history," "a history of the wars between the Greeks and the barbarians," and "a history of the struggle between Greece and Persia."
Nor does it even seem to have been his object to give an account of the entire struggle between Greece and Persia.
In tracing the growth of Persia from a petty subject kingdom to a vast dominant empire, he has occasion to set out the histories of Lydia, Media, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Scythia, Thrace, and to describe the countries and the peoples inhabiting them, their natural productions, climate, geographical position, monuments, &c.; while, in noting the contemporaneous changes in Greece, he is led to tell of the various migrations of the Greek race, their colonies, commerce, progress in the arts, revolutions, internal struggles, wars with one another, legislation, religious tenets and the like.
This originated in the East, and was in early use in India, Persia and Arabia, and was introduced into Europe by the Arabs, who had perfected it - perhaps as early as A.D.
The art of coining was introduced by the Greeks into Italy and other countries bordering on the Mediterranean and into Persia and India.
The enormous influx of pilgrims naturally creates a brisk trade in Kerbela and the towns along the route from Persia to that place and beyond to Nejef.
127-129), he crossed the Euphrates and relieved Edessa, recovered Nisibis and Carrhae, and even took the offensive against the power of Persia, and twice invested Ctesiphon itself, the capital; probably also he brought back Armenia into the Empire.
DAMGHAN, a town of Persia in the province of Semnan va Damghan, 216 m.
The type must have been introduced either from Persia or from Phoenicia (Gaza).
That the compiler wrote after the fall of the Persian monarchy has been argued by Ewald and others from the use of the title king of Persia (2 Chron.
Mosul is the meetingpoint of roads from Aleppo, Diarbekr, Bitlis, north and west Persia and Bagdad; and it is on the projected line of railway from Constantinople to the Persian Gulf.
Raba founded a new school at Mahuza, which eventually became so long as Raba lived the only academy in Babylonia (Persia).
enabled Raba to secure a relaxation of the oppressive laws enacted against the Jews of Persia.
Long before his return he had made his reputation as an author by his Account of the Kingdom of Cabul and its Dependencies in Persia and India (1815).
BIRJEND, the capital of Kahn, a sub-province of Khorasan in Persia, in 32° 53' N.
At the age of eighteen he entered the service of the Eastern department of the ministry of foreign affairs, and spent more than twenty years in subordinate posts, chiefly in south-eastern Europe, until he was promoted in 1863 to the post of minister plenipotentiary in Persia.
J.) Malayir, a small province of Persia, situated between Hamadan and Burujird.
of Persia, the N.
In the broad orographical disposition of the ranges there is considerable similarity between north Tibet and west Persia, in that in both cases the ranges are crowded together in the west, but spread out wider as they advance towards the east.
Meanwhile already before the beginning of the 3rd century it went beyond the confines of the Empire in Asia, and by the end of our period was strong in Armenia, Persia, Arabia and even farther east.
It is true that from the 4th century onwards it expanded beyond the borders of that empire to east and west, north and south; but the infant churches which gradually arose in Persia and Abyssinia, among some of the scattered Teutonic races, and among the Celts of Ireland, were at first not co-operating factors in the development of Christendom: they received without giving in return.
GULPAIGAN (Jerbddegdn of the Arab geographers), a district and city in Central Persia, situated N.W.