# How to use *Perpendicular* in a sentence

The old woodwork is fine, part being

**Perpendicular**, but the greater portion dates from 1621.The church of St Andrew retains some ornate Norman work, but is mainly a

**Perpendicular**reconstruction.A massive collection of sinister looking implements was growingâ€”tools of their trade, all apparently necessary in order to remain aloft when maneuvering up or down

**perpendicular**columns of frozen water.The church of St Luke is

**Perpendicular**, enlarged in modern times.The smaller church of St Nicholas is

**Perpendicular**in appearance, though parts of the fabric are older.AdvertisementThe church of St Nicholas is a cruciform

**Perpendicular**structure with a beautiful central tower, and some portions of earlier date.At a further stage of their growth the particles disperse in the

**perpendicular**direction a light which is no longer fully polarized.The church of St Peter is

**Perpendicular**, with a lofty tower and spire.In the early stages of the precipitation the polarization is complete in a

**perpendicular**direction, and incomplete in oblique directions.The average

**perpendicular**distance between the two lines, which are roughly parallel, is 2.8 m.AdvertisementIt is beautifully placed near the river, and is a fine cruciform structure, partly Early English and partly

**Perpendicular**, with a central tower and lofty octagonal spire.The main assimilating tissue, on the other hand, is under the upper epidermis, where it is well illuminated, and consists of oblong cells densely packed with chloroplasts and with their long axes

**perpendicular**to the surface (palisade tissue).St Michael's, the parish church, has a striking

**Perpendicular**tower, an arch of carved oak dividing its nave and chancel, a magnificent rood-loft, and a 13th-century monument doubtfully described as the tomb of Bracton, the famous lawyer, whose birthplace, according to local tradition, was Bratton Court in the vicinity.This is the moment to examine whether there is a more complete polarization in a direction somewhat oblique; and it is found that with 0 positive there is, in fact, a direction of more complete polarization, while with 0 negative the polarization is more imperfect than in the

**perpendicular**direction itself.In the old town of Bridlington the church of St Mary and St Nicholas consists of the fine Decorated and

**Perpendicular**nave, with Early English portions, of the priory church of an Augustinian foundation of the time of Henry I.AdvertisementOver the surface of the plate and between it and the indicator there was passed, at a regularly uniform speed, in a direction

**perpendicular**to the line of motion of the indicator, a material capable of being acted on physically by the sparks, through either their chemical action, their heat, or their perforating force.The north-west tower has a

**Perpendicular**upper portion, but the south-west tower is destroyed.The cruciform church of St Mary, with a central tower and short spire, is in great part Early English, with

**Perpendicular**additions; but considerable traces of a Norman building were revealed during a modern restoration.The church of St John the Baptist, though largely altered by modern restoration, retains Early English to

**Perpendicular**portions, and some early monuments and brasses.So long as the precipitated particles are very fine, the light dispersed in a

**perpendicular**direction is sky-blue and fully polarized.AdvertisementA picturesque avenue leads to the church of St Mary, principally Early English and

**Perpendicular**, with remains of Norman work, having a lofty tower surmounted by a spire, and containing several fine monuments, tombs and brasses.N.N.E., on the opposite side of the Pulwar, rises a

**perpendicular**wall of rock, in which four similar tombs are cut, at a considerable height from the bottom of the valley.The body of the church, which has five aisles, is principally

**Perpendicular**.The almshouse known as the hospital of St John the Baptist and St John the Evangelist was founded in 1437 on the site of an earlier establishment, and retains a

**Perpendicular**chapel, hall and other portions.The church of St George has Norman portions, but the building is in the main

**Perpendicular**.AdvertisementIn addition to these remarkable inland mountains, Formosa's eastern shores show magnificent cliff scenery, the bases of the hills on the seaside taking the form of almost

**perpendicular**walls as high as from 150o to 2 500 ft.The church of St Gwendoline, restored in 1873, is in

**Perpendicular**style, with an embattled tower restored in 1898.In 1361 Archbishop Thoresby (1352-73) began the lady chapel and presbytery, both in the Early

**Perpendicular**style.It lies on a gentle eminence in the flat fen country, and the fine

**Perpendicular**tower and spire of the church of St Mary are a landmark from far.The church of St Helen is a fine

**Perpendicular**building, restored and enlarged (1880); it contains monuments of the Huntingdon family, and an old finger-pillory for the punishment of misbehaviour in church.AdvertisementOver the ellipsoid, p denoting the length of the

**perpendicular**from the centre on a tangent plane, px _ pv _ _ pz 1= a2+X' b +A' n c2+A p2x2 + p2y2 p2z2 I (a2 - + X)2 (b 2 +x)2 + (0+X)2, p 2 = (a2+A)12+(b2+X)m2+(c2+X)n2, = a 2 1 2 +b 2 m 2 +c 2 n 2 +X, 2p d = ds; (8) Thence d?Consider the two faces

**perpendicular**to the x-axis.Let the bob be a sphere, and from the centre of that sphere draw BH=y

**perpendicular**to OA.Then its motion may be analysed into (I) a translation of its centre of gravity; and (2) a rotation about an axis through its centre of gravity

**perpendicular**to its plane of motion.The slope dropped at a precarious angle, impossible to maneuver unsecured, only a few degrees from the

**perpendicular**.AdvertisementAfter an interval the polarization begins to be incomplete in the

**perpendicular**direction, the light which reaches the eye when the nicol is set to minimum transmission being of a beautiful blue, much richer than anything that can be seen in the earlier stages.There remains also the

**Perpendicular**gateway, serving as the town-hall.The church of the Holy Trinity, mainly

**Perpendicular**, was also partly demolished during the Civil War, but was restored by the countess of Pembroke.The church of St Margaret is Decorated and

**Perpendicular**.The large parish church of St Teilo has a low embattled

**Perpendicular**tower.AdvertisementThe church of St John the Baptist, founded in 1050, contains some portions of Norman architecture, the remainder being Decorated and

**Perpendicular**.The church of St Nicholas (

**Perpendicular**with Early English portions, but much restored) has a tomb of the Walsingham family, who had a lease of the manor from Elizabeth; Sir Francis Walsingham, the statesman, being born here in 1536.The church of St Mary is

**Perpendicular**and has been enlarged in modern times.The church of St Leonard, founded before 1451, was frequently altered before it was rebuilt in1866-1868in the

**Perpendicular**style.The church of St Peter and St Paul is

**Perpendicular**(largely restored) with a lofty tower.AdvertisementYork also possesses a large number of churches of special architectural interest, including All Saints, North Street, Early English, Decorated and

**Perpendicular**, with a spire 120 ft.The guild-hall, with a fine old room in

**Perpendicular**style erected in 1446, contains a number of stained-glass windows.The church of St Michael is a fine

**Perpendicular**and Decorated building of black flint, surmounted by a tower 96 ft.Considerable additions of later date, in the Decorated and

**Perpendicular**styles, are due to the Despensers and to Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, while the present residential part is of various dates ranging from the 15th century down to the last half of the r 9th, when a thorough restoration, including the addition of a superbly ornamented clock-tower, was carried out.The only other building of historic interest is the church of St John the Baptist, which is in the

**Perpendicular**style, its fine tower having been built about 1443 by Hart, who also built the towers of Wrexham and St Stephen's, Bristol.AdvertisementSt Mary's church is principally

**Perpendicular**, but has Norman and Decorated portions; the church of St Andrew is also Decorated and**Perpendicular**.The church of All Saints has Early English and

**Perpendicular**remains.The plane of the optic axes may be either

**perpendicular**or parallel to the plane of symmetry of the crystal, and according to its position two classes of mica are distinguished.To the first class, with the optic axial plane

**perpendicular**to the plane of symmetry, belong muscovite, lepidolite, paragonite, and a rare variety of biotite called anomite; the second class includes zinnwaldite, phlogopite, lepidomelane and most biotites.Close by are the remains of St Mary's Priory, which comprise a large

**Perpendicular**gatehouse, refectory, precinct wall, abbot's gate and still-house.The

**Perpendicular**church of St Mary contains a number of interesting tombs and effigies dating from the 15th century onwards, and much excellent carved work.Every other concomitant is a rational integral function of these four forms. The linear covariant, obviously the Jacobian of a x and x x is the line

**perpendicular**to x and the vanishing of the quadrinvariant a x is the condition that a x passes through one of the circular points at infinity.It has a fine

**Perpendicular**church dedicated to St Mary, with a lofty, well-proportioned tower and many interesting monuments.Among many places of worship may be mentioned the restored parish church of Holy Trinity, which dates from the 12th century and contains some interesting monuments and brasses; and the

**Perpendicular**Hermitage or Tory chapel, with a 15th or 16th century chantry-house.The moment, M, M or V, of a uniformly and longitudinally magnetized bar-magnet is the product of its length into the strength of one of its poles; it is the moment of the couple acting on the magnet when placed in a field of unit intensity with its axis

**perpendicular**to the direction of the field.The body (or each element of it) will tend to set itself with its axis of greatest susceptibility parallel to the lines of force, while, if the field is not uniform, each volume-element will also tend to move towards places of greater or smaller force (according as the substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic), the tendency being a maximum when the axis of greatest susceptibility is parallel to the field, and a minimum when it is

**perpendicular**to it.One pole has a V-shaped notch for the rod to rest in; the surface of the other is slightly rounded, forming a portion of a cylinder, the axis of which is

**perpendicular**to the direction of the length of the rod.A small coil of fine wire, connected in series with a ballistic galvanometer, is placed in the field, with its windings

**perpendicular**to the lines of force, and then suddenly reversed or withdrawn from the field, the integral electromotive force being twice as great in the first case as in the second.It can be shown that if a current i circulates in a small plane circuit of area S, the magnetic action of the circuit for distant points is equivalent to that of a short magnet whose axis is

**perpendicular**to the plane of the circuit and whose moment is iS, the direction of the magnetization being related to that of the circulating current as the thrust of a right-handed screw to its rotation.For those orbits whose projection upon a plane

**perpendicular**to the field is righthanded, the period of revolution will be accelerated by the field (since the electron current is negative), and the magnetic moment consequently increased; for those which are left-handed, the period will be retarded and the moment diminished.Tong church, of fine early

**Perpendicular**work, contains a remarkable series of ornate tombs, mainly of the 15th and 16th centuries, to members of the Vernon and Stanley families, former owners of the castle.The Golden Chapel on the south side is rich late

**Perpendicular**, with a roof of fan-tracery, showing signs of the original decoration in colours.Adjoining the town hall is the Anglican cathedral of St Andrew, in the

**Perpendicular**style; it has two towers at the west end and a low central tower above the intersection of the nave and transepts, with a very handsome chapter house.It continues to the foot of the Drakensberg range, the mountains rising towards the S.W., with almost

**perpendicular**sides, 6000 to 7000 ft.There is but one cactus indigenous to Natal; it is found hanging from

**perpendicular**rocks in the midlands.An admissible error of phase of 4X will correspond to an error of IX in a reflecting and 2X in a (glass) refracting surface, the incidence in both cases being

**perpendicular**.We have seen that in

**perpendicular**reflection a surface error not exceeding IX may be admissible.In different gratings the lengths of the spectra and their distances from the axis were inversely proportional to the grating interval, while with a given grating the distances of the various spectra from the axis were as i, 2, 3, &c. To Fraunhofer we owe the first accurate measurements of wave-lengths, and the method of separating the overlapping spectra by a prism dispersing in the

**perpendicular**direction.In order that a large part of the field of view may be in focus at once, it is desirable that the locus of the focused spectrum should be nearly

**perpendicular**to the line of vision.In theoretical investigations these problems are usually treated as of two dimensions only, everything being referred to the plane passing through the luminous point and

**perpendicular**to the diffracting edges, supposed to be straight and parallel.When, in order to apply Huygens's principle, the wave is supposed to be broken up, the phase is the same at every element of the surface of resolution which lies upon a line

**perpendicular**to the plane of reference, and thus the effect of the whole line, or rather infinitesimal strip, is related in a constant manner to that of the element which lies O in the plane of reference, and may be considered to be represented thereby.Then the displacement at 0 will take place in a direction

**perpendicular**to 0 1 0, and lying in the plane Z0 1 0; and, if 1' be the displacement at 0, reckoned positive in the direction nearest to that in which the incident vibrations are reckoned positive, = 4?y (1 +cos 0) sin 4 f' (bt - r).For a disturbing force of given integral magnitude it is seen to be everywhere about an axis

**perpendicular**to r and the direction of the force, and in magnitude dependent only upon the angle (43) between these two directions and upon the distance (r).This displacement, which we may denote by; is in the plane containing z and r, and

**perpendicular**to the latter.There are remains of a Norman west tower; the

**Perpendicular**tower stands on the north side.The parish church of St Mary is

**Perpendicular**, with a fine carved roof of the 17th century.The west boundary of Achradina is marked farther south by a

**perpendicular**cutting in the rock, on the top of which a wall must have run (see above).These oscillations of opinion arP frequent, if not universal, and it is only after more than one or two swings that the pendulum remains at the

**perpendicular**.The church of St Peter and St Paul is a spacious building in various styles of architecture, but principally

**Perpendicular**.Rahere's tomb remains in the church; the canopy is

**Perpendicular**work, but the effigy is believed to be original.Among other ancient churches within the City, that of All Hallows Barking, near the Tower of London, is principally

**Perpendicular**and contains some fine brasses.St Giles, Cripplegate, was founded c. 1090, but the existing church is late

**Perpendicular**.There are occasional outcrops of rock and low

**perpendicular**cliffs.The modern Roman Catholic cathedral is

**Perpendicular**in style and cruciform in plan.Take any two arbitrary directions in the plane of the paper, and draw a small isosceles triangle abc, whose sides are

**perpendicular**to the two directions, and consider the equilibrium of a small triangular prism of fluid, of which the triangle is the cross section.This is proved by taking any two points A and B at the same level, and considering the equilibrium of a thin prism of liquid AB, bounded by planes at A and B

**perpendicular**to AB.The resultant horizontal thrust in any direction is obtained by drawing parallel horizontal lines round the boundary, and intersecting a plane

**perpendicular**to their direction in a plane curve; and then investigating the thrust on this plane area, which will be the same as on the curved surface.Suppose the ship turns about an axis through F in the water-line area,

**perpendicular**to the plane of the paper; denoting by y the distance of an element dA if the water-line area from the axis of rotation, the change of displacement is EydA tan 8, so that there is no change of displacement if EydA = o, that is, if the axis passes through the C.G.Taking the axis of x for an instant in the normal through a point on the surface H = constant, this makes u = o, = o; and in steady motion the equations reduce to dH/dv=2q-2wn = 2gco sin e, (4) where B is the angle between the stream line and vortex line; and this holds for their projection on any plane to which dv is drawn

**perpendicular**.A single vortex will remain at rest, and cause a velocity at any point inversely as the distance from the axis and

**perpendicular**to its direction; analogous to the magnetic field of a straight electric current.As before in Â§ 31, the rotation may be resolved into a shear-pair, in planes

**perpendicular**to Ox and Oy.In operation the coulter makes a

**perpendicular**cut separating the furrow-slice which is divided from the "sole" of the furrow Crested Furrow.The church of St John the Baptist, principally

**Perpendicular**, - has in its tower three bells presented by Charles Both this town and the adjacent urban district of Radstock (pop. 3355) have a considerable trade in coal, which is mined in the vicinity.The church of St Mary the Virgin stands high, and is surmounted by a lofty spire; it shows good Decorated and

**Perpendicular**work.The church of St Mary is of good

**Perpendicular**work, with Early English tower and Decorated spire.The rest of the church is Decorated and

**Perpendicular**.The church of St Mary is fine Early English with

**Perpendicular**clerestory.Thus if a lacquer box in the form of a parallelogram is the object, Japanese artists will not divide it in two equal parts by a

**perpendicular**line, but by a diagonal, as offering a more pleasing line and division.The church of St Nicholas is a fine

**Perpendicular**structure exhibiting the flint-work common to the district, and possessing a beautiful south porch and the ruin of a massive western tower which partly collapsed early in the 18th century.It was restored to use in 1882 by a French Benedictine community, the fine

**Perpendicular**abbot's tower remaining, while other parts have been rebuilt on the original lines.This mass is equal to 47rabcp,u; therefore Q = A47rabcp s and b =pp, where p is the length of the

**perpendicular**let fall from the centre of the ellipsoid on the tangent plane.We may describe, through all the points in an electric field which have the same potential, surfaces called equipotential surfaces, and these will be everywhere

**perpendicular**or orthogonal to the lines of electric force.But the force

**perpendicular**to the curved surface of this cylinder is everywhere zero.Then since the generating lines of the tube are lines of force, the component of the electric force

**perpendicular**to the curved surface of the tube is everywhere zero.St Peter's church, a

**Perpendicular**building, is said to have been the scene of the ordination of Cardinal Wolsey in 1498.The church of St Edmund is mainly

**Perpendicular**, but there are Transitional Norman and Early English portions.The church of All Saints is good

**Perpendicular**, though considerably restored.Exceptions occur in the case of the satellites of Uranus, which are nearly

**perpendicular**to the plane of the orbit.In a direction

**perpendicular**to that axis it must be so placed that when it is moved by rotation of the axis bb the separation of the images shall be parallel to that motion.All deep-sea measurements are subject to uncertainty because the sounding machine merely measures the length of wire which runs out before the lead touches bottom, and this agrees with the depth only when the wire is

**perpendicular**throughout its run.Freezing takes place by the formation of pure ice in flat crystalline plates of the hexagonal system, which form in

**perpendicular**planes and unite in bundles to form grains so that a thick covering of ice exhibits a fibrous structure.Ekman shows further that in a pure drift current the mean direction of the whole mass of the current is

**perpendicular**to the direction of the wind which sets it in motion.Sometimes, but rarely, it happens that it is necessary to cut vertical grooves in the face to determine the limit of the fall, such limits being usually dependent upon the cleet or divisional planes in the coal, especially when the work is carried

**perpendicular**to them or on the end.The church of St Mary and All Saints, originally collegiate, is

**Perpendicular**, and only the nave with aisles, and the tower surmounted by an octagon, remain; but the building is in the best style of its period.The church of St Mary is Decorated and

**Perpendicular**.It is mainly Early English, and a fine example of the style; but some of the windows including the nave clerestory, and the beautiful carved wooden roof, are

**Perpendicular**.If the scale is only slightly out of the

**perpendicular**, a few taps of the hammer will modify any trifling error."The parish church of St Mary is Early English and

**Perpendicular**, with a small octagonal tower, but has been largely restored in modern times.The church of St John the Baptist, with a lofty spire, is a good example of Decorated work, with

**Perpendicular**additions.The church of St Nicholas is a modern reconstruction with the exception of the

**Perpendicular**tower.If a connected point belongs to a turning piece, the direction of its motion at a given instant is

**perpendicular**to the plane containing the axis and crank-arm of the piece.If a connected point belongs to a shifting piece, the direction of its motion at any instant is given, and a plane can be drawn

**perpendicular**to that direction.The line of intersection of the planes

**perpendicular**to the paths of the two connected points at a given instant is the instantaneous axis of the link at that instant; and the velocities of the connected points are directly as their distances from that axis.Draw BE

**perpendicular**to CB, cutting CD produced in E, then E is the instantaneous axis of the bar ADB; and the direction of motion of A is at every instant**perpendicular**to EAthat is, along the straight line ACa.If a force be applied to a turning piece in a line pot passing through its axis, the axis will press against its bearings with an equal and parallel force, and the equal and opposite reaction of the bearings will constitute, together with the first-mentioned force, a couple whose arm is the

**perpendicular**distance from the axis to the line of action of the first force.The total pressure exerted between the rubbing surfaces is the resultant of the normal pressure and of the friction, and its obliquity, or inclination to the common

**perpendicular**of the surfaces, is the angle of repose formerly mentioned in 14, whose tangent is the coefficient of friction.The plane through 0 to which the shaft is

**perpendicular**is called the reference plane, because all the transferred forces act in that plane at the point 0.According to the principles of statics, the resultant of the force P, applied at G

**perpendicular**to the plane OG, and the couple M is a force equal and parallel to P, but applied at a distance GC from G, in the prolongation of the**perpendicular**OG, whose value is GC = M/P = R2/OG.As the chief authority of their tenets, the Nimavats recognize the Bhagavata-purana; though several works, ascribed to Nimbarka - partly of a devotional character and partly expository of Vedanta topics - are still extant, Adherents of this sect are fairly numerous in northern India, their frontal mark consisting of the usual two

**perpendicular**white lines, with, however, a circular black spot between them.The sectarial mark of the adherents consists of two red

**perpendicular**lines, meeting in a semicircle at the root of the nose, and having a round red spot painted between them.St Peter's church, originally consecrated as a chapel by Leofric, bishop of Exeter, in 1073, is a beautiful

**Perpendicular**building.Further great alterations took place in the 15th century, and the general effect of the building as it stands is

**Perpendicular**.The church of All Saints, late

**Perpendicular**, consisting of chancel with aisles and two chapels, was restored in 1630 and in modern times.The church of St Andrew here has interesting details from Early English to

**Perpendicular**date, and in the neighbouring woods is a ruined chapel of St Mary.This platen had a

**perpendicular**motion, being guided in grooves and worked by a connecting rod fixed to a cross beam and crank, which acquired its motion from the main shaft.This type was fixed, both in vertical and in

**perpendicular**positions, upon a cylinder, round which rotated other cylinders, which held and compressed the sheets against the larger one, which also revolved and carried the printing surface.The church of St Michael, standing high above the valley, is a fine embattled

**Perpendicular**building with western tower and spire.The church of St Nicholas and St Faith has an early Norman tower, and part of the fabric is considered to date from before the Conquest; but there was much alteration in the Decorated and

**Perpendicular**periods.If the object point be infinitely distant, all rays received by the first member of the system are parallel, and their intersections, after traversing the system, vary according to their "

**perpendicular**height of incidence," i.e.If the object point 0 be infinitely distant, u, and u 2 are to be replaced by h l and h 2, the

**perpendicular**heights of incidence; the " sine condition " then becomes sin u',/h 1 = sin u' 2 /h 2 .The heart and pericardial chamber in the oyster lie along the anterior face of the adductor muscle, almost

**perpendicular**to the direction of the gills, with which in Anodon they are parallel.The church of SS Peter and Paul, mainly

**Perpendicular**, has a lofty and ornate tower and spire.The chief buildings, apart from the abbey, are the church of St John Baptist,

**Perpendicular**in style, with a fine tower and some 15th-century monuments; St Benedict's, dating from 1493-1524; St John's hospital, founded 1246; and the George Inn, built in the time of Henry VII.The church of St Dionysius is Decorated and

**Perpendicular**, with a fine tower and spire.The town has a

**Perpendicular**church (St Andrew), a corn exchange and some agricultural trade.The church of St Andrew ranges in date from Early English to

**Perpendicular**.In the members of the typical genus Potorous (formerly known as Hypsiprymnus) the head is long and slender, with the auditory bullae somewhat swollen; while the ridges on the first two premolars are few and

**perpendicular**, and there are large vacuities on the palate.The church of St Mildred is Early English and later, and its tall, massive

**Perpendicular**tower is well known for the legend connecting it with Goodwin Sands.The ascription to Wykeham of the invention of the

**Perpendicular**style of medieval architecture is now an abandoned theory.Also, since the axis is a tangent to the rolling curve, the ordinate PR is the

**perpendicular**from the tracing point P on the tangent.Hence the relation between the radius vector and the

**perpendicular**on the tangent of the rolling curve must be identical with the relation between the normal PN and the ordinate PR of the traced curve.Electricity, as has long been known, has an extraordinary influence upon the appearance of a fine jet of water ascending in a nearly

**perpendicular**direction.Division planes always

**perpendicular**to the long axis.There is a fine

**Perpendicular**tomb in the choir.On the 19th of September 1 9 01 trilithon 56 was successfully raised to a

**perpendicular**position.Of the ancient Benedictine abbey, the only remains are a part of a gateway, a lodge (a beautiful

**Perpendicular**relic) and some buttresses, while some broken stone arches and walls remain of the conventual buildings.The body of the church of St Mary was rebuilt in brick after its collapse in 1713, but the

**Perpendicular**tower remains.The

**Perpendicular**church of St Martin, with a tower of earlier date, having a Norman arch, is one of the largest ecclesiastical buildings in the county.The church of St Edmund's is a

**Perpendicular**flint structure.The church of St Mary is a fine building, mainly Decorated and

**Perpendicular**, wherein are preserved relics of John Wycliffe, who was rector here from 1374 until his death in 1384.The church of St Nicholas is

**Perpendicular**, greatly restored.It consists of a

**perpendicular**chalk cliff 532 ft.He, in fact, endeavours to prove that a bird wedges itself forward upon the air by the

**perpendicular**vibration of its wings, the wings during their action forming a wedge, the base of which (c b e) is directed towards the head of the bird, the apex (a f) being directed towards the tail (d).In the 1 96th proposition of his work (De motu animalium, Leiden, 1685) he states that " If the expanded wings of a bird suspended in the air shall strike the undisturbed air beneath it with a motion

**perpendicular**to the horizon, the bird will fly with a transverse motion in a plane parallel with the horizon."Draw any line DE

**perpendicular**to AB and meeting the circle in E, and take a point P on DE such that the line DP =arc BE; then the locus of P is the companion to the cycloid.It is mainly decorated, with

**perpendicular**additions, but retains some Early English details.The church of St Mary, entirely

**Perpendicular**, with parvise, chancel, nave, aisles, porch, and tower 80 ft.The church of St Wendreda, in Early English and later styles, is remarkable for a magnificent

**Perpendicular**timber roof, beautifully carved.One result of the action of the water has been the formation of numerous isolated flat-topped hills or small plateaus, known as ambas, with nearly

**perpendicular**sides.The church of St Michael and All Angels is a fine specimen of a late

**Perpendicular**building (principally of the time of Henry VIII.).The Royal Exchange (1872) in Boar Lane is an excellent

**Perpendicular**building.The church of St Bartholomew, however, is a fine

**Perpendicular**building, standing high.The parish church of St James is a fine

**Perpendicular**building, with a lofty spire, and a beautiful open-work roof over the nave.It was founded in or soon after the time of the Confessor, but the present building is

**Perpendicular**, of greater beauty within than without.The architect was Sir Charles Barry, and the style is late

**Perpendicular**.Its church of All Saints has a beautiful

**Perpendicular**tower with rich vaulting within.In mineral veins and lodes crystallized quartz is usually the most abundant gangue mineral; the crystals are often arranged

**perpendicular**to the walls of the lode, giving rise to a "comby" structure.The neighbouring church of St Breock is Decorated and

**Perpendicular**, with a fine font of the earlier period.The church of St Mary is

**Perpendicular**, but extensively restored.But as the result of a controversy with Montalembert, Carnot abandoned the official, or Vauban, theories of the art of fortification, and went over to the "

**perpendicular**" school of Montalembert.The church of All Saints is

**Perpendicular**, with an Early English tower, and contains some interesting monuments.The church of St Mary Magdalen and St Denis is a large

**Perpendicular**building.The church of St Mary is cruciform and mainly

**Perpendicular**.The rectangle, for instance, has so far been regarded as a plane figure bounded by one pair of parallel straight lines and another pair at right angles to them, so that the conception of " rectangularity " has had reference to boundary rather than to content; analytically, the rectangle must be regarded as the figure generated by an ordinate of constant length moving parallel to itself with one extremity on a straight line

**perpendicular**to it.Volume =height X area of end =length of edge X area of cross-section; the " height " being the

**perpendicular**distance between the two ends.If R and S are the ends of a prismoid, A and B their areas, h the

**perpendicular**distance between them, and C the area of a section by a plane parallel to R and S and midway between them, the volume of the prismoid is *h(A+4C+B).In the case of a plane area or a plane continuous line the moment with regard to a straight line in the plane is the same as the moment with regard to a

**perpendicular**plane through this line; it is the sum of the products of each element of area or length by its distance from the straight line.The church of St Peter is a fine building with Early English, Decorated and

**Perpendicular**porticos, with a western tower and lofty spire.The church of All Saints has a fine

**Perpendicular**tower, left uninjured when the nave and chancel were burned down in 1842.The church of All Saints is mainly

**Perpendicular**, and contains some fine woodwork, mostly of the 17th century, and some good memorial tombs.If we take one of these spheres a distance from the source very great as compared with a single wave-length, and draw a radius to a point on the sphere, then for some little way round that point the sphere may be regarded as a plane

**perpendicular**to the radius or the line of propagation.Every particle in the plane will have the same displacement and the same velocity, and these will be

**perpendicular**to the plane and parallel to the line of propagation.Let ON(= OP cos 0) be the

**perpendicular**on PQ.Thus, for instance, sound is refracted towards the

**perpendicular**when passing into air from water, 0 or into carbonic acid gas from air; the converse is the case when the passage takes place the opposite way.This second plate is capable of rotation about an axis

**perpendicular**to its plane and passing through its centre.Since the conditions in the region PQ remain always the same, the momentum

**perpendicular**to AB entering the region at Q is equal to the momentum**perpendicular**to AB leaving the region at P. But, since the motion at Q is along AB, there is no momentum there**perpendicular**to AB.The component of T

**perpendicular**to the axis is Tdy/ds=Tdy/dx.The church of St Peter and St Paul shows fine

**Perpendicular**work, especially in the ornate interior of the nave.The extremities of the diameter

**perpendicular**to a small circle are called the "poles" of that circle, and the distance from the pole to the circle, measured by the arc of the great circle through the pole, is the "polar distance" of the small circle.Let s be the

**perpendicular**from 0, the join of C and T on the direction of S; t the**perpendicular**from A, the join of C and S on the direction of T; and c the**perpendicular**from B, the join of S and T on the direction of C. Taking moments about 0, Rx - W 1 (x+a) - W 2 (x+2a) =Ss; taking moments about A, R3a-W 1 2a-W 2 a =Tt; and taking moments about B, Rea-W I a = Cc.**Perpendicular**churches, though numerous, are less remarkable, but the fine glass of this period in Nettlestead church may be noticed.Its foundations were the first to be laid of the present church (which is on the site of an earlier one), but the construction was arrested until the

**Perpendicular**period, of the work of which it is a magnificent example.Besides the parish church of St Mary Magdalene, a fine and massive

**Perpendicular**building with an ancient pulpit of carved stone, there are a guildhall and market house.The church of St Andrew is cruciform and had formerly a central tower; the existing western tower is of fine and ornate

**Perpendicular**work.The inland slope is gradual, but on the northern shore the range terminates in abrupt and almost

**perpendicular**declivities, and here, consequently, some of the finest coast scenery in the island is found, widely differing, with its unbroken lines of cliffs, from the indented coast-line of the west.The most remarkable cliffs are those formed of

**perpendicular**basaltic columns, extending for many miles, and most strikingly displayed in Fair Head and the celebrated Giant's Causeway.The parish church of St Mary, Hornsey, retains its

**Perpendicular**tower (c. 1500) and a number of interesting monuments.The church of St Lawrence is a good Early English, Decorated and

**Perpendicular**building, with a fine western**Perpendicular**tower.Those faces which were

**perpendicular**to the pressure would grow slowly, as the great pressure would promote solution, and inhibit deposition; the edges or sides, on the other hand, being less exposed to the pressure would receive fresh deposits.The crumpled bands mark the bedding, and the fine

**perpendicular**striae in front are the cleavage planes; the fine lines on the darkened side merely represent shadow, and must not be taken for planes of division in the rock.In passing from a slate to a grit the direction of the cleavage changes so that it tends to be more nearly

**perpendicular**to the bedding planes.Such veins often attain a thickness of several feet, and sometimes possess a columnar structure

**perpendicular**to the enclosing walls; they are met with in the crystalline limestones and other Laurentian rocks of New York and Canada, in the gneisses of the Austrian Alps and the granulites of Ceylon.The parish church of All Saints, occupying the site of a building dating from Anglo-Saxon times, was erected in the reign of Edward IV., and is among the best specimens of

**Perpendicular**in the north of England.**Perpendicular**insertions are insignificant.The Public Walks forms a pleasant promenade parallel to the wall, and in the centre of it stands a picturesque octagonal Chapel of the Red Mount, exhibiting ornate

**Perpendicular**work, and once frequented by pilgrims. The church of St Margaret, formerly the priory church, is a fine building with two towers at the west end, one of which was formerly surmounted by a spire, blown down in 1741.Norman or transitional work appears in the base of both towers, of which the southern also shows Early English and Decorated work, while the northern is chiefly

**Perpendicular**.There is a fine

**Perpendicular**east window of circular form.St Nicholas chapel, at the north end of the town, is also of rich

**Perpendicular**workmanship, with a tower of earlier date.Of a Franciscan friary there remains the

**Perpendicular**Grey Friars' Steeple, and the doorway remains of a priests' college founded in 1502.The nave is of ornate Norman work, with a massive triforium, surmounted by a

**Perpendicular**clerestory and a beautiful wooden roof.It comprises the university buildings proper, the medical school, the natural history museum, the Wilson Hall, a magnificent building in the

**Perpendicular**style, and the three affiliated colleges, Trinity College (Anglican), Ormond College (Presbyterian) and Queen's College (Wesleyan).The church, chiefly late

**Perpendicular**, contains a large number of monuments of the Sidney family and an effigy of Sir Stephen de Penchester, Warden of the Cinque Ports in the time of Edward I.The parish church of St Peter is

**Perpendicular**, dating from 1485, and occupies the site of a Norman church.The church of St John the Baptist is a

**perpendicular**cruciform structure, consisting of chancel, nave of seven bays, aisles, transepts and lofty western tower.The church of St John, built in 1744, and enlarged in 1879, was supplemented, in 1880, by St Crass Church, in

**Perpendicular**style.The equation x 2 +y 2 =o denotes a pair of

**perpendicular**imaginary lines; it follows, therefore, that circles always intersect in two imaginary points at infinity along these lines, and since the terms x 2 +y 2 occur in the equation of every circle, it is seen that all circles pass through two fixed points at infinity.Take AB equal to one-fourth of the given line; on AB describe a square ABCD; join AC; in AC produced find, by a known process, a point C 1 such that, when C 1 B 1 is drawn

**perpendicular**to AB produced and C 1 D 1**perpendicular**to BC produced, the rectangle BC,.Hinge pliodont, that is to say, it has numerous teeth on either side of the umbones and the teeth are

**perpendicular**to the edge.The church of St Peter and St Paul is cruciform, and as a whole

**Perpendicular**in appearance, but retains a nave arcade and ornate tower-arches of the Early English period.Consisting of a chancel, clerestoried nave, and aisles, it is Early English and

**Perpendicular**in style, and contains a beautiful 13th-century oak roof of 350 panels, each with a different design; a 15th-century pulpit of carved stone; and some interesting old monuments of the Strode, Mallet and Gournay families.The church of St John is mainly

**Perpendicular**, 'What the Fihrist (p. 13 seq.) has about various forms of Persian writing certainly refers in part at least to the species of Pahlavi.The church of St Peter and St Paul, mainly

**Perpendicular**, retains a Norman font and other remains of an earlier building.These spurs are covered with luxuriant vegetation, excepting their

**perpendicular**faces and the slopes occupied by the suburbs.The nave is

**Perpendicular**, a fine example of the style.The church of All Saints is a large cruciform structure, Norman, Early English and

**Perpendicular**, with a central tower 80 ft.Every star, therefore, describes an apparent orbit, which, if the line joining the sun and the star be

**perpendicular**to the plane Abcd, will be exactly similar to that of the earth, i.e.The face is

**perpendicular**and where the rock is naturally less precipitous it has been scarped.The church of St Petrock, with a massive roodstone in the churchyard, is mainly

**Perpendicular**, with an Early English.The church of St Mary is

**Perpendicular**.The nave, portions of the central tower, and two bays of the choir are

**Perpendicular**,'having been rebuilt towards the close of the 15th century.The church of St Andrew is mainly

**Perpendicular**, but has Early English portions; it contains several ancient monuments and brasses, and flanks the market-place, with its modern cross.The church of St Michael and All Angels is mainly

**Perpendicular**, but the tower (formerly central) and the portion west of it are Norman.The principle of the method consists in deflecting the compass needle by means of a horizontal magnet supported vertically over the compass card, the axis of the deflecting magnet being always

**perpendicular**to the axis of the magnet attached to the card.This is a beautiful specimen of

**Perpendicular**work, embattled, flanked by spired turrets, and covered with panel work.The church of St Mary is a handsome cruciform

**Perpendicular**building.It surrendered at once, whereas Myrina, with its very strong citadel built on a

**perpendicular**rock, sustained a siege.While in early times a mere

**perpendicular**shaft led to these excavations, at a later date stairs were constructed down to the chambers.The church of St Mary, founded in 1111, retains the south door of the original building in the Transition style, but the greater portion of the structure is

**Perpendicular**, of the time of Henry VIII.A horizontal incision is made in the bark quite down to the wood, and from this a

**perpendicular**slit is drawn upwards to the extent of perhaps an inch, so that the slit has a resemblance to the letter T, as at a.The bark on each side of the

**perpendicular**slit being then cautiously opened, as at b, with the handle of the knife, the bud and shield are inserted as shown at c. The upper tip of the shield is cut off horizontally, and brought to fit the bark of the stock at the transverse incision.In the vicinity, Monk Bretton Priory, a Cluniac foundation of 1157, retains a

**Perpendicular**gatehouse, some Decorated domestic remains, and fragments of the church.The church of St Lawrence is of

**Perpendicular**and earlier date, largely restored; it contains fine woodwork and some interesting monuments.The church of the Holy Trinity, Early English and Late

**Perpendicular**, enlarged in 1879, contains a fine Norman font and the tomb of Bishop Vesey.The church of St George was built in 1866 on the site of an ancient

**Perpendicular**church.The minster, dedicated to St Mary the Virgin, illustrates every style of architecture from Norman to

**Perpendicular**.The main street leads up a slope from the river to the fine

**Perpendicular**church of All Saints.Close to this an archway crosses the road, bearing a

**Perpendicular**building known as the hanging chapel.Not far distant is the church of Huish Episcopi, with one of the finest of the

**Perpendicular**towers for which Somersetshire is noted.The church of St John the Baptist is

**Perpendicular**.The upper plate is bored through the centre and carries a conical pillar, which rotates freely in it and supports a horizontal plate, to the extreme ends of which are attached, by means of capstan screws or otherwise, two vertical supports, on which the telescope, which is constructed to be

**perpendicular**to the vertical axis of the instrument, rests and rotates with it.The church or minster of St Cuthberga is a fine cruciform structure of various styles from Early Norman to

**Perpendicular**, and consists of a central lantern tower, nave and choir with aisles, transepts without aisles, western or bell tower, north and south porches, crypt and vestry or sacristy, with the library over it.It retains

**Perpendicular**portions, a south porch of brick of the 16th century and numerous ancient monuments and brasses.The parish church of All Saints, well placed above the river, is a fine Early English and Decorated building, with

**Perpendicular**additions.No sooner is the object of alarm scented or seen than each one seeks safety in the most inaccessible situations, which are often reached by a series of astounding leaps over crevasses, up the faces of seemingly

**perpendicular**rocks, or down the sides of equally precipitous chasms. The chamois will not hesitate, it is said, thus to leap down 20 or even 30 ft., and this it effects with apparent ease by throwing itself forward diagonally and striking its feet several times in its descent against the face of the rock.The church of St Just is

**Perpendicular**, with portions of the fabric of earlier date.Remnants of a mansion of the 14th century, Damory Court, are seen in a farmhouse, and an adjoining

**Perpendicular**chapel is used as a barn.The church of St John is a fine building,

**Perpendicular**and earlier in date, picturesquely placed on an elevation above the town, with a lofty tower and spire.The " rate of transmission of heat " is here understood to mean the quantity of heat transferred in unit time through unit area of cross-section of the substance, the unit area being taken

**perpendicular**to the lines of flow.The ancient church of St Peter (restored in 1878) is principally

**Perpendicular**, but contains some Norman and Decorated portions.The church of St Augustine, Broxbourne, is a fine example of

**Perpendicular**work, and contains interesting monuments, including an altar tomb with enamelled brasses of 1473.The church of St Botolph is of Norman foundation, but the nave is principally Decorated and the chancel

**Perpendicular**, and the tower, having fallen down, was rebuilt in 1628.The church preserves some remnants of Norman work and a

**Perpendicular**south chapel of rare beauty.These rays are more or less

**perpendicular**to the arc or band; sometimes they are very approximately parallel to one another, on other occasions they converge towards a paint.The church of St Andrew is mainly

**Perpendicular**.The short streak of light thus obtained moves with Mirror, .l 4,Stindd Boom Balance Weight, j/?/?j?jj/ Masonry Column Lamp Br.mide Paper_ On- Need,Le o 0 the movement of the boom over a second slit

**perpendicular**to the first and made in the lid of a box containing clockwork driving a band of bromide paper.The glaciers front, with a

**perpendicular**ice-wall, a shore of debris on which a few low plants are found to grow - poppies, mosses and the like.The central tower is Norman, and there are good Decorated and

**Perpendicular**details in the body of the church.The abbey, cruciform, is in the Decorated and

**Perpendicular**styles, with pronounced French influence, due probably to the master mason John Morow, or Morreau, who, according to an inscription on the south transept wall, was born in Paris.It has a beautiful

**Perpendicular**church (St Mary's) and an agricultural trade, with flour mills.Parts of this castle date from the 11th century, but there are many additions such as the late Norman circular chapel, the Decorated state rooms, and details in

**Perpendicular**and Tudor styles.The parish church of St Lawrence is a cruciform

**Perpendicular**building, with a lofty central tower, and a noteworthy east window, its 15th-century glass showing the martyrdom of St Lawrence.Among these are a Roman slab, carved with figures of a horseman trampling upon an enemy, several fine tombs and stones of the 13th and 14th centuries, the frith or fridstool of stone, believed to be the original bishop's throne, and the fine

**Perpendicular**roodscreen of oak, retaining its loft.Westward again is Leigh-on-Sea (an urban district, pop. 3667); its lofty

**Perpendicular**church tower is visible from afar.Vast vertical walls of rock shoot up to a height of 600 ft., cut by their

**perpendicular**joints into quadrangular piers and projections, some of which stand out alone as cathedral-like islets in front of the main cliff.That which is inscribed with the name of "Midas the King" is the most remarkable example of one class, in which a large

**perpendicular**surface of rock is covered with a geometrical pattern of squares, crosses and maeanders, surmounted by a pediment supported in the centre by a pilaster in low relief.The church of St Mary the Virgin, a beautiful specimen of the

**Perpendicular**style, dating from the reign of Henry VII., but frequently repaired and restored, contains the tomb of Lord Audley, chancellor to Henry VIII.The monasteries stand on the summit of these pinnacles; they are accessible only by aid of rope and net worked by a windlass from the top, or by a series of almost

**perpendicular**ladders climbing the cliff.The line FL

**perpendicular**to the axis, G D and passing through the focus, is the semilatus rectum, the latus rectum being the focal chord parallel to the directrix.The mirror mm is attached to the framework pafe, the members of which are parallel to the incident and reflected rays SO, OR, and the diagonal pf is

**perpendicular**to the mirror.Among beautiful specimens of carved stalls may be mentioned the Early Decorated stalls in Winchester Cathedral, the Early

**Perpendicular**ones in Lincoln Minster, and the early 15th-century canopies in Norwich Cathedral.The only side from which the rock can be ascended is the east; the other sides being for the most part

**perpendicular**, and generally presenting lofty columnar forms, though not so regular as those of Staffa.St James's church is also a fine

**Perpendicular**building, with a modern chancel, and without a tower.The parish church of St Stephen is Early English, and later, with a

**Perpendicular**tower.The church of Holy Cross, formerly collegiate, is a noble

**Perpendicular**building with Early English and other early portions, and a fine central tower.Except when the line of sight is

**perpendicular**to the plane of the orbit, the revolution of the two bodies will result in a periodic variation of the motion in the line of sight.Thus the figure represents a section the (ideally simplified) uni verse cut

**perpendicular**to C P' D the planes AB and CD between which the stars are contained, 1 This number is the 3/2th power of the ratio of the brightness of stars differing by a unit magnitude.The church of St Mary, Carisbrooke, has a beautiful

**Perpendicular**tower, and contains transitional Norman portions.His constructions are based on the idea that the imaginaries d - 1 represent a unit line, and its reverse,

**perpendicular**to the line on which the real units 1 are measured.Also, if 0 be the angle between them, and x", y", z" the direction-cosines of a line

**perpendicular**to each of them, we have xx' +yy'+zz' =cos 0, yz' - zy" = x" sin 0, &c., so that the product of two unit lines is now expressed as - cos0+ (ix" +jy" +kz") sin 0.If it be

**perpendicular**to the factor lines, (a) shows that it must have simultaneously every such direction.But there is nothing to prevent its being represented by a directed line if, as further applications of (a) and (b) show we must do, we take it

**perpendicular**to each of the factor lines.Vq/Sq, and that of the foot of

**perpendicular**from centre on plane is Srg i.The site of the primitive city, which later became the citadel, is occupied by the modern town; it is situated at the end of a long plateau between two valleys, and protected by

**perpendicular**tufa cliffs some 60 ft.In the Eschenhagen pattern instrument, in which a single quartz fibre is used for the suspension, two magnets are placed in the vicinity of the suspended magnet and are so arranged that their field partly neutralizes the earth's field; thus the torsion required to hold the magnet with its axis

**perpendicular**to the earth's field is reduced, and the arrangement permits of the sensitiveness being altered by changing the position of the deflecting magnets.The church of St Nicholas is Early English and

**Perpendicular**.The town, with its

**Perpendicular**church and its picturesque market-cross, lies below the south-western face of the Mendip Hills, which rise sharply from 600 to Soo ft.Close to the church, but detached from it, stands a beautiful

**Perpendicular**building, the school-house, founded by Archbishop Chichele in 1422.The plain forming the plateau is well watered with numerous small lakes and streams. These several small streams, one of which, the San Francisco, passes through the city, unite near the south-western extremity of the plateau and form the Rio Funza, or Bogota, which finally plunges over the edge at Tequendama in a beautiful,

**perpendicular**fall of about 475 ft.It is Early English, Decorated and

**Perpendicular**, the tower being of the last period.Again it is necessary and sufficient for equilibrium that the sum of the projections of the forces on each of two

**perpendicular**directions should vanish, and (moreover) that the sum of the moments about some one point should be zero.Thus three forces acting

**perpendicular**FIG.If we project both polyhedra orthogonally on a plane

**perpendicular**to the axis of the paraboloid, we obtain two figures which are reciprocal, except that corresponding lines are orthogonal instead of parallel.Those planes in the body which are

**perpendicular**to this axis obviously remain parallel to their original positions.Successive halfturns about intersecting axes a, b are equivalent to a rotation about the common

**perpendicular**to a, b at their intersection, Of amount equal to twice the acute angle between them, in the direction from a to b.Successive half-turns about two skew axes a, b are equivalent to a twist about a screw whose axis is the common

**perpendicular**to a, b, the translation being double the shortest distance, and the angle of rotation being twice the acute angle between a, b, in the direction from a to b.In the first place, a cyhindroid can be constructed so as to have its axis coincident with the common

**perpendicular**to the axes of the two given screws and to satisfy thi-ee other conditions, for the position of the centre, the parameter, and the orientation about the axis are still at our disposal.Hence any three-dimensional system can be reduced to a single force R acting in a certain line, together with a couple G in a plane

**perpendicular**to the line.From the analogy of couples to translations which was pointed out in 7, we may infer that a couple is sufficiently represented by a free (or non-localized) vector

**perpendicular**to its plane.Thus, let the plane of the paper be

**perpendicular**to the planes of two couples, and therefore**perpendicular**to the line of intersection of these planes.The two forces at B will cancel, and we are left with a couple of moment P.AC in the plane AC. If we draw three vectors to represent these three couples, they will be

**perpendicular**and proportional to the respective sides of the triangle ABC; hence the third vector is the geometric sum of the other two.By properly choosing 0 we can make the plane of the couple

**perpendicular**to the resultant force.Since the given wrench can be replaced by a force acting through any assigned point P, and a couple, the locus of the null-lines through P is a plane, viz, a plane

**perpendicular**to the vector which represents the couple.Projecting orthogonally on a plane

**perpendicular**to the central axis we obtain two reciprocal figures.The work of a couple in any infinitely small rotation of a rigid body about an axis

**perpendicular**to the plane of the couple is equal to the product of the moment of the couple into the angle of rotation, proper conventions as to sign being observed.Draw JBA

**perpendicular**to the lines of action, and let e be the angle of rotation.In symbols, if v be the velocity and p the

**perpendicular**from 0 to the tangent to the path, pv=h, (1)If it, v be the component velocities at P along and

**perpendicular**to OP (in the direction of 0 increasipg), FIG.Again, the velocities parallel and

**perpendicular**to OP change in the time & from it, v to uvb0, v+ubG, ultimately.Now the moment of this localized vector with respect to any axis through G is zero, to the first order of &, since the

**perpendicular**distance of G from the tangent line at G is of the order (ot)2.A plane through G

**perpendicular**to this vector has a fixed direction in space, and is called the invariable plane; it may sometimes be conveniently used as a plane of reference.