The formaldehyde at once undergoes a process of condensation oi- polymerization by the protoplasm of the plastid, while the hydrogen peroxide is said to be decomposed into water and free oxygen by another agency in the cell, of the nature of one of the enzymes of which we shall speak later.
38, p. 1 434) has devised a method in which the oxidation is effected by sodium peroxide; the halogens,phosphorus and sulphur can be determined by one operation.
Soc., 18 9 0, 5, p. 59 o), by distilling arsenious oxide with nitric acid and cooling the distillate, obtained a green liquid which consisted of nitrogen trioxide and peroxide in varying proportions, and concluded that the trioxide could not be obtained pure.
The action proceeds in two stages; in the first hydrogen peroxide and potassium aurocyanide are formed, and in the second the hydrogen peroxide oxidizes a further quantity of gold and potassium cyanide to aurocyanide, thus (1) 2Au+4KCN +02+2H20=2KAu(CN)2+4KOH+H202;(2)2Au+4KCN+2H202= 2KAu(CN) 2 +4KOH.
It is also formed when ortho-aminodiphenylamine is distilled over lead peroxide (0.
In some cases, such as that of peroxide of lead, an increase of resistance takes place.
His researches on sebacic acid (1802) and on bile (1807), and his discovery of peroxide of hydrogen (1818) also deserve mention.
The peroxide, Ru04, is formed when a solution of potassium ruthenate is decomposed by chlorine, or by oxidizing ruthenium compounds with potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid, or with potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid.
The per-ruthenate, KRuO 4, formed by the action of chlorine on the ruthenate, or of alkalis on the peroxide at 50° C., is a black crystalline solid which is stable in dry air but decomposes when heated strongly.
Again, in nitrous oxide we have a compound of 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric oxide a compound of 16 or 8 X 2 parts of oxygen and 1 4 of nitrogen; in nitrous anhydride a compound of 24 or 8 X 3 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric peroxide a compound of 3 2 or 8 X 4 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; and lastly, in nitric anhydride a compound of 4 o or 8 X 5 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen.
Serullas and Roscoe; Davy and Stadion investigated chlorine peroxide, formed by treating potassium chlorate with sulphuric acid.
Normal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, N204, sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 21 silicon tetrachloride, SiC1 4, phosphorus chloride, PC1 3, phosphoryl chloride, POC1 31 nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, carbon disulphide, benzene, pyridine, ether, methyl propyl ketone; association characterized many hydroxylic compounds: for ethyl alcohol the factor of association was 2.74-2.43, for n-propyl alcohol 2.86-2.72, acetic acid 3.62 -2.77, acetone 1 .
Nitrogen peroxide, NO 2 or N204, may be obtained by mixing oxygen with nitric oxide and passing the red gas so obtained through a freezing mixture.
Nitrogen peroxide is also prepared by heating lead nitrate and passing the products of decomposition through a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture, when the gas liquefies.
Nitrogen peroxide is the most stable oxide of nitrogen.
When this compound is acted on by water, hydrogen peroxide and levulinic aldehyde are formed, the aldehyde being subsequently oxidized by the hydrogen peroxide, forming levulinic acid.
It is decomposed by heat into oxide, nitrogen peroxide and oxygen; and is used for the manufacture of fusees and other deflagrating compounds, and also for preparing mordants in the dyeing and calico-printing industries.
In a similar manner, formic acid and dicyanophenylhydrazine yields a phenyl-triazole carboxylic acid, in which the phenyl group may be nitrated, the nitro group reduced to the amino group, and the product oxidized to a triazole carboxylic acid, which, by elimination of carbon dioxide, yields the free triazole: HO 2 C C=N H02C C =N, NPh-> N :CH N :CH They also result when the acidylthiosemicarbazides are strongly heated, the mercapto-triazoles so formed being converted into triazoles on oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (M.
Potassium, for example, yields peroxide, K202 or K204; sodium gives Na202; the barium-group metals, as well as magnesium, cadmium, zinc, lead, copper, are converted into their monoxides MeO.
Hydrogen peroxide and a trace of a ferrous salt: C 4 H 9 O 4 (CH OH) CHO-->C 4 H 9 O 4 (CH OH) C02H->C4H904 CHO Hexose -> Acid -* Pentose.
The salt fuses at 316°; at higher temperatures it loses oxygen (more readily than the corresponding potassium salt) with the formation of nitrite which, at very high temperatures, is reduced ultimately to a mixture of peroxide, Na202, and oxide, Na 2 0.
Titanium trioxide, T103, is obtained as a yellow precipitate by dropping the chloride into alcohol, adding hydrogen peroxide, and finally ammonium carbonate or potash.
When shaken with potash and air it undergoes autoxidation, hydrogen peroxide being formed first, which converts the trioxide into the dioxide and possibly pertitanic acid.
With dry ammonia at 60° the metal forms strontium ammonium, which slowly decomposes in a vacuum at 20° giving Sr(NH 3) 2; with carbon monoxide it gives Sr(CO) 2; with oxygen it forms the monoxide and peroxide, and with nitric oxide it gives the hyponitrite (Roederer, Bull.
Ai a, blood), or native peroxide of iron, is also sometimes called "bloodstone."
It is also obtained by the action of hydrogen peroxide on hydrocyanic acid, or of manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid on potassium cyanide.
ZH 2 O, which is formed when hydrogen peroxide is added to a solution of potassium hexatantalate.
In another form of apparatus advantage is taken of the property possessed by sodium-potassium peroxide of giving off oxygen when damped; the residue of caustic soda and potash yielded by the reaction is used to absorb the carbonic acid of the expired air.
Ammonium nitrite, NH 4 NO 2, is formed by oxidizing ammonia with ozone or hydrogen peroxide; by precipitating barium or lead nitrites with ammonium sulphate, or silver nitrite with ammonium chloride.
When dissolved in water it yields some NaOH and H202; on crystallizing a cold 'solution Na202.8H20 separates as large tabular hexagonal crystals, which on drying over sulphuric acid give Na 2 0 2.2H 2 0; the former is also obtained by precipitating a mixture of caustic soda and hydrogen peroxide solutions with alcohol.
Acids yield a sodium salt and free oxygen or hydrogen peroxide; with carbon dioxide it gives sodium carbonate and free oxygen; carbon monoxide gives the carbonate; whilst nitrous and nitric oxides give the nitrate.
A solution in hydrochloric acid, consisting of the chloride and hydrogen peroxide, is used for bleaching straw under the name of soda-bleach; with calcium or magnesium chlorides this solution gives a solid product which, when dissolved in water, is used for the same purpose (Castner, Journ.
Sodyl hydroxide, NaHO 2, exists in two forms: one, Na O.OH, obtained from hydrogen peroxide and sodium ethylate; the other, 0 :Na OH, from absolute alcohol and sodium peroxide at 0 °.
Chemie, 1867, 3, p. 39), ascribes to the molecule a peroxide configuration which accounts for its oxidizing powers but not for the fact that each oxygen atom is capable of replacement by one atom of chlorine.
The peroxide, K204, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard, is obtained by heating the metal in an excess of slightly moist air or oxygen.
Exposed to moist air it loses oxygen, possibly giving the dioxide, K 2 0 2; water reacts with it, evolving much heat and giving caustic potash, hydrogen peroxide and oxygen; whilst carbon monoxide gives potassium carbonate and oxygen at temperatures below loo°.
Dr. Goldschmidt obtained ignition of a cold mixture by means of a barium-peroxide fuse, which was set off by a storm match.
As an alternative method it may be decomposed by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solution and the amount of evolved oxygen measured: 2K 3 Fe(NC) 5 + 2KHO + H 2 O 2 = 2K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + 2H,0 + 02.
On oxidation with chromic or nitric acids, or potassium permanganate, it yields nicotinic acid or (3-pyridine carboxylic acid, C 5 H 4 N CO 2 H; alkaline potassium ferricyanide gives nicotyrine, C10H10N2, and hydrogen peroxide oxynicotine, C10H14N20.
Its materials are pebbles, clays and sands of various' colours from white to deep red, tinged with peroxide of iron, which sometimes cements the pebbles and sands into compact rocks.
An oxide of composition Ru 4 0 9 is obtained as a black hydrated powder when the peroxide is heated with water for some time.
For example take the oxides of nitrogen, N 2 0, NO, N 2 0 3, NO 2, N 2 0 5; these are known respectively as nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen trioxide, nitrogen peroxide and nitrogen pentoxide.
When nitric peroxide, N204, is converted into gas, it decomposes, and at about 180° C. its vapour entirely consists of molecules of the composition N02; while at temperatures between this and o C. it consists of a mixture in different proportions of the two kinds of molecules, N 2 O 4 and N02.
If nitrogen be present, a boat containing dry lead peroxide and heated to 320° is inserted, the oxide decomposing any nitrogen peroxide which may be formed.
Nitrous oxide, N 2 0, nitric oxide, NO, nitrogen trioxide, N203, nitrogen peroxide, N02, and nitrogen pentoxide, N205, whilst three oxyacids of nitrogen are known: hyponitrous acid, H2N202, nitrous acid, HN02, and nitric acid, HNO 3 (q.v.).
Priestley, who obtained it by reducing nitrogen peroxide with iron, may be prepared by heating ammonium nitrate at 170-260° C., or by reducing a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid with zinc. It is a colourless gas, which is practically odourless, but possesses a sweetish taste.
When strongly heated they decompose, forming fatty acids, nitrogen peroxide and nitrogen.
A hydrated dioxide, approximating in composition to SrO 2.8H 2 O, is formed as a crystalline precipitate when hydrogen peroxide is added to an aqueous solution of strontium hydroxide.
We may here notice the "percarbonates" obtained by Wolffenstein and Peltner (Ber., 1908, 41, pp. 2 75, 280) on acting with gaseous or solid carbon dioxide on Na202, Na203 and NaHO 2 at low temperatures; the same authors obtained a perborate by adding sodium metaborate solution to a 50% solution of sodium peroxide previously saturated with carbon dioxide.
The peroxide, Pr 4 O 7, forms a dark brown powder, and is obtained by ignition of the oxalate or nitrate.
And is readily soluble in water, but the solution is unstable and decomposes on standing, giving amorphous insoluble substances, and ammonium formate, oxalic acid, &c. An aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide converts it into oxamide, (CONH 2) 2, and reduction by zinc and hydrochloric acid gives methylamine.
However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the radical C 14 H 1Q, which he named " picramyl " (from 7rucp6s, bitter, and &uvyalk, almond), the peroxide being anhydrous benzoic acid; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a suboxide of ethyl, (C2H5)20, which was analogous to K 2 0, while alcohol was an oxide of a radical C 2 H 6; thus annihilating any relation between these two compounds.