The crust of the earth, so far as it is permeable and above the sea-level, receives from rainfall its supply of fresh water.
On the upheaval of such rocks above the sea-level, fresh water from rainfall began to flow over their exposed surfaces, and, so far as the strata were permeable, to lie in their interstices upon the salt water.
Jacquerod and Perrot have found that quartz-glass is freely permeable to helium below a red-heat (Comet.
The conception of a semi-permeable membrane, permeable to the solvent only, was used by van't Hoff as a means of applying the principles of thermodynamics to the theory of solution.
The conceptions of osmotic pressure and ideal semi-permeable membranes enable us to deduce other thermodynamic relations between the different properties of solutions.
Solvent may be supposed to be squeezed out from the solution which has become more dilute through a semi-permeable wall, and through another such wall allowed to mix with the solution which in the electrical operation had become more concentrated.
Artificial membranes are seldom or never perfectly semi-permeable - some leakage of solute nearly always occurs, but the imperfections of actual membranes need no more prevent our use of the ideal conception than the faults of real engines invalidate the theory of ideal thermodynamics founded on the conception of a perfect, reversible, frictionless, heat engine.
The importance of these experiments from the point of view of the theory of solution, lay in the fact that they suggested the conception of a perfect or ideal semi-permeable partition, and that of an equilibrium pressure representing the excess of hydrostatic pressure required to keep a solution in equilibrium with its pure solvent through such a partition.
Another relation becomes evident if we use as a semi-permeable partition a "vapour sieve" as suggested by G.
The osmotic pressures of strong sugar solutions were measured successfully by a direct method with semi-permeable membranes of copper ferrocyanide by Lord Berkeley and E.
The famous Venetian pozzi, or wells for storing rain-water from the roofs and streets, consisted of a closed basin with a water-tight stratum of clay at the bottom, upon which a slab of stone was laid; a brick shaft of radiating bricks laid in a permeable jointing material of clay and sand was then built.
As sodium chloride is one of the most permeable of crystalloids it seems strange that damage to the renal tissue should impede its excretion.
But other relations between the different properties of solutions have been investigated by another series of conceptions which we shall proceed to develop. Some botanical experiments made about 1870 suggested the idea of semi-permeable membranes, i.e.
Let us suppose that we possess a partition such as that described above, which is permeable to the solvent but not to the solute when dissolved in it, and let us connect the solution and solvent of fig.
This result would be contrary to all experience of the impossibility of "perpetual motion," and hence we may conclude that through such a semi-permeable wall, the solvent and the solution at the foot of the column would FIG.
The osmotic pressure (defined as the difference in the hydrostatic pressures of the solution and solvent when their vapour pressures are equal and they are consequently in equilibrium through a perfect semi-permeable membrane) may also depend on the absolute values of the hydrostatic pressures, as may the vapour pressure of the liquids.
From this equation the osmotic pressure Po required to keep a solution in equilibrium as regards its vapour and through a semi-permeable membrane with its solvent, when that solvent is under its own vapour pressure, may be calculated from the results of observations on vapour pressure of solvent and solution at ordinary low hydrostatic pressures.
13 required for osmotic equilibrium through a semi-permeable wall below is now very great, since the osmotic pressure of strong solutions may reach many hundred atmospheres.
As an example, let us take the following investigation: An engine cylinder may be imagined to possess a semi-permeable bottom and to work without friction.
If the pores of the water face are thus rendered extremely fine, the surface water, carrying more or less fine detritus and organic matter, will soon close them entirely and assist in making that face the least permeable portion of the structure.
By evaporation and condensation, then, the solvent can pass through this perforated partition, which thus acts as a perfect semi-permeable membrane.
Then let us heat both ice and solution through the infinitesimal temperature range dT to the freezing point T of the solvent, melt the ice by the application of an amount of heat L, which measures its latent heat of fusion, and allow the solvent so formed to enter the solution reversibly through a semi-permeable wall into an engine cylinder, doing an amount of work Pdv.
They merely show that, in the conditions of the particular experiments, the thermodynamic equilibrium value of the osmotic pressure cannot be reached - the thermodynamic or theoretical osmotic pressure (which must be independent of the nature of the membrane provided it is truly semi-permeable) is a different thing from the equilibrium pressure actually reached in a given experiment, which measures the balance of ingress and egress of solvent through an imperfect semi-permeable membrane.
Wide, which ran, not at the bottom of the valleys, where there were sometimes streams already, and where, in any case, erosion would have broken through their roofs, but along their slopes, through the less permeable tufa, their object being to drain the hills on each side of the valleys.
As the drainage by cuniculi removed the moisture in the subsoil, so the drainage of the lakes by emissaria, outlet channels at a low level, prevented the permeable strata below the tufa from becoming impregnated with moisture which they would otherwise have derived from the lakes of the Alban Hills.
The vapourmolecules of the solvent are free to pass through the semi-permeable membrane, and will continue to condense in the solution until the hydrostatic pressure is so raised as to produce equality of vapour-pressure.
The positions of springs are determined by permeable depressions in the surface of the ground below the general level of saturation, and frequently also by the holding up of that level locally by comparatively impermeable strata, sometimes combined with a fault or a synclinal fold of the strata, forming the more permeable portion into an underground basin or channel lying within comparatively impermeable boundaries.
Although such uniformly permeable sand is rarely met with in great masses, it is useful to consider in greater detail so simple a case.
The condition, therefore, that there shall be no tension is important as an element of design; but when we come to construction, we must be careful also that no part of the wall shall be less permeable than the water face.
For similar reasons care must be taken to ensure that the structure of the water face of the dam shall be the least permeable of any part.
Most of the streams maintain a good flow of water in the driest seasons, and in case of heavy rains many of them " underflow " the adjacent bottom lands, saturating the permeable substratum of the country with the surplus water, which in time drains out and feeds the subsiding streams. This feature is particularly true of the Saline, Solomon and Smoky Hill rivers.
The actual coal measure strata, consisting mainly of shales and clays, are generally impervious to water, but when strata of a permeable character are sunk through, such as the magnesian limestone of the north of England, the Permian sandstones of the central counties, or the chalk and greensand in the north of France and Westphalia, special methods are required in order to pass the water-bearing beds, and to protect the shaft and workings from the influx of water subsequently.
Although even good membranes of copper ferrocyanide are rarely perfectly semi-permeable, and in other membranes such as indiarubber, &c., which have been used, the defects from the theoretical values of the equilibrium pressure are very great, yet, in the light of the exact verification of theory given by the experiments described above, it is evident that such failures to reach the limiting value in no wise invalidate the theory of osmotic equilibrium.
At the lower lips or at the most permeable parts of these basins or channels such rainfall as does not flow over the surface, or is not evaporated or absorbed by vegetation, and does not, while still below ground reach the level of the sea, issues as springs, and is the cause of the continued flow of rivers and streams during prolonged droughts.
The Upper and Middle Chalk are permeable almost through their mass.
With the exception of the Red Marls forming the upper part of the Keuper, most of the New Red Sandstone is permeable, and some parts contain, when saturated, even more water than solid chalk; but, just as in the case of the chalk, a well or borehole in the sandstone yields very little water unless it strikes a fissure; hence, in New Red Sandstone, also, it is a common thing to form underground chambers or adits in search of additional fissures, and sometimes to sink many vertical boreholes with the same object in view.
The formation is probably more or less permeable throughout; it consists largely of loose sand and takes the general south-easterly dip of British strata.
Precisely the same thing happens in the actual crust of the earth, except that, in the formations usually met with, the strata are so irregularly permeable that no such uniform percolation occurs, and most of the water, instead of oozing out near the sea-level, meets with obstructions which cause it to issue, sometimes below the sea-level and sometimes above it, in the form of concentrated springs.
In the New Red Sandstone, the Greensand and the upper Chalk, we find the opposite extremes; while the igneous rocks are for the most part only permeable in virtue of the open fissures they contain.
5 be the section of a circular island a mile and a quarter in diameter, of uniformly permeable sand.
Thus natural or artificial surfaces which are completely permeable to rainfall may become almost impermeable when protected by surface water from drought and frost, and from earth-worms, vegetation and artificial disturbance.
But it is never advisable to rely upon this action, where, as in the case of a reservoir for water supply, large portions of naturally permeable bottom are liable to be uncovered and exposed to the weather.
Dams Any well-made earthen embankment of moderate height, and of such thickness and uniformity of construction as to ensure freedom from excessive percolation at any point, will in the course of time become almost impermeable to surface water standing against it; and when permeable rocks are covered with many feet of soil, the leakage through such soil from standing water newly placed above it generally diminishes rapidly, and in process of time often ceases entirely.
They may be quite permeable, but to prevent undue settlement and distortion they must, like the puddle, be well consolidated.
Thus the permeable vein grows vertically rather than horizontally, and ultimately assumes the form of a thin vertical sheet traversing the puddle wall, often diagonally in plan, and having a thickness which has varied in different cases from a few inches to a couple of feet or more, of almost clean sand rising to an observed height of 30 or 40 ft., and only arrested in its upward growth by the necessary lowering of the reservoir water to avoid serious danger.
On permeable soils, especially those of the terrace lands along the valleys, the soluble salts commonly known as alkali were gradually leached out and carried by the percolating waters towards the lower lands, where, reaching the surface, the alkali was left as a glistening crust or as pools of inky blackness.
P. Pfeffer (Osmotische Untersuchungen, Leipzig, 1877) was the first to obtain satisfactory measurements of osmotic pressures of cane-sugar solutions up to nearly I atmosphere by means of semi-permeable membranes of copper ferrocyanide.
In order to prevent a tendency to slip, due to sudden and partial changes of satura tion, the outer embankment should always be permeable, and well drained at the base except close to the puddle.
The less permeable materials should be confined to the inner parts of the embankments; this is especially important in the case of the inner embankment in order that, when the water level falls, they may remain moist without becoming liable to slip. The inner slope should be protected from the action of waves by so-called " hand-pitching," consisting of roughlysquared stonework, bedded upon a layer of broken stone to prevent local disturbance of the embankment by action of the water between the joints of the larger stones.
The subsoil too is differently formed: the surface consists of very absorbent materials, then comes a stratum of less permeable tufa or peperino (sometimes clay is present), and below that again more permeable materials.