She wanted a permanent relationship with him - marriage.
elders or bishops, are the highest permanent officers in the Church and are of equal rank; (3) that an outward and visible Church is one in the sense that a smaller part is controlled by a larger and all the parts by the whole.'9 Though Presbyterians are unanimous in adopting the general system of church polity as here outlined, and in claiming New 1 Phil.
Maybe he didn't want a permanent relationship.
Their bond felt permanent, and she had no idea what to do about it.
Woman, in her wasted life, in her hurried death, here stands appealing to the society that degrades her, with a combination of eloquence and poetry, of forms of art at once instantaneous and permanent, and with great metrical energy and variety.
There was no permanent damage to head or elbow but Dean was beginning to feel his years.
Without one, she had existed in a state of sentience without feeling, a world of permanent grey.
It has not acquired one permanent wrinkle after all its ripples.
To them, it's permanent like this tattoo.
She frowned at his tone, as if he considered her the newest, permanent member of his organization and not the guest she was.
"This is more permanent than marriage," Dusty said in a hushed tone.
She had to figure out what she was missing fast and how permanent it was to be an Immortal mate.
There was an old treadle sewing machine with carved drawers and even a grandfathers' clock, stating the permanent time of three p.m.
Deidre couldn't understand the relationship and how permanent he claimed it was.
We're going to have permanent custody!
He tried to appease the Norfolk detective by saying no permanent harm had been done and even Mrs. Byrne seemed to have made it through the ordeal.
Dan's going to move you somewhere safe today to one of our permanent sites.
An energy crop could be a permanent forest of trees that convert sunlight to liquid fuel and deliver the fuel directly through their roots to a network of underground pipelines.
Evelyn made it sound permanent, as though Kiera would just pick up and leave for another country.
It's part of their permanent collection and I wasn't supposed to even take it out, but I'm sure if you explain about the book your brother is writing, they'll let you make a copy of it.
The alternative was irreparable and too permanent for my taste.
When I get married it will be because I'm ready to put the effort into a permanent relationship.
We both made the decision to adopt her and we told you it would be permanent, remember?
His dismissal felt permanent, and she hoped whatever business he had with her, it was now done.
He had a permanent partner now, and he thought these nights together were special.
That gave them time to make more permanent plans for the room that would become Jonathan's bedroom.
Having established his daughter Margaret as regent for Charles in the Netherlands, Maximilian met the diet at Constance in 1507, when the imperial chamber (Reichskammergericht) was revised and took a more permanent form, and help was granted for an expedition to Italy.
Far stronger than boys many years older than he was, he bent and lifted her, carrying her to her permanent resting place.
Dean spent the afternoon busying himself with the chores of Bird Song, partially out of guilt for having dumped the morning duties on Fred and in part to take his mind off the ever-present feeling he'd caused long term or, heaven forbid, permanent damage to his seven-month marriage.
But then, he wasn't looking for a permanent relationship, and Lori wouldn't be nudging him to get married.
Alarmed by emotions Dusty had warned her were permanent, she took a step away.
Above sea-level, the climate is hot, humid and unhealthy, and the conditions for permanent settlement are apparently unfavourable.
Changes undergone in the immortal world normally weren't permanent, once they returned to their world for twenty-four hours.
But the Christian states in Spain were becoming too well organized to be overrun by the Mahommedans, and the Muwahhadis made no permanent advance against them.
Tests revealed normal brain function, and there was no indication of any permanent damage.
The people led an ambulatory life, living in tents, with no permanent residence.
It is permanent in dry air, but in the finely divided state it rapidly combines with oxygen, the compact metal requiring a strong heating to bring about this combination.
The first permanent settlements in Matto Grosso seem to have been made in 1718 and 1719, in the first year at Forquilha and in the second at or near the site of Cuyaba, where rich placer mines had been found.
In the palace there are various permanent exhibitions, while special exhibitions are held from time to time, also concerts, winter pantomimes and other entertainments.
It has not, however, been possible to transform a typical top yeast into a permanent typical bottom yeast.
In his absence the administration was entrusted to a justiciar, a regent or lieutenant of the kingdom; and the convenience being once ascertained of having a minister who could in the whole kingdom represent the king, as the sheriff did in the shire, the justiciar became a permanent functionary."
Finding their comrades did not return, Irala and his companions determined to descend the river, and on their downward journey opposite the mouth of the river Pilcomayo, finding a suitable site for colonizing, they founded (1536) what proved to be the first permanent Spanish settlement in the interior of South America, the future city of Asuncion (15th August 1536).
The insurgents were defeated again and again; Chait Sing took to flight, and an augmented permanent tribute was imposed upon his successor.
The output is to-day relatively small in comparison with that of many other fields, but there are one or two permanent gold mines of great value working low-grade ore.
The leg wound from Shipton's flailing ice ax had been an eight-stitcher of no permanent consequence.
"I didn't know you were a football hero," said Harrigan through his permanent smile.
The commutation fund thus formed is a permanent memorial of a generous and disinterested act on the part of her ministry.
You're officially now detailed to the VP's staff; however, you'll remain a permanent member of my staff.
Permanent committees on the "Sabbath and family religion," the "Bible cause" and "evangelistic work" report to the General Assembly annually.
Five miles from Norfolk and with Norfolk as its headquarters was held from the 26th of April to the 30th of November 1907 the Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition, celebrating the first permanent English settlement in America at Jamestown, Virginia.
Though the permanent menu is short, only offering two appetizers, three entrees and two desserts, there is a fantastic "verbal" menu that changes nightly.
I won't let you think there's a chance this isn't real or permanent.
Maybe because it made her stay here feel more permanent.
Whatever she did sounded permanent.
When she signed the adoption papers she was told that it was permanent.
No one said it, but internet research indicated that a coma which lasted more than two weeks might become permanent.
At close to seven feet with eyes and hair blacker than night and a permanent scowl, he was what most expected Death to look like.
I have a feeling this will be permanent.
What they especially praise is the ethos or permanent moral level of his works as compared with those of the later "pathetic" school.
Katie looked around, unable to tell if her sister's empty closet was indicative of a weekend trip or something more permanent.
Ice seems a whole lot less permanent.
Dean often wondered to himself why their romantic attraction to one another never grew to something permanent.
But this felt permanent.
As with Darian, she sensed this change was permanent.
Allin glanced at the man beside him, whose frown seemed permanent.
She had the opportunity to make that change permanent.
In Italy the effects were more permanent.
Under it the cost of the necessary land was to be found as to one-third by the state and as to the residue locally, but this arrangement proved unworkable and was abandoned in 1845, when it was settled that the state should provide the land and construct the earthworks and stations, the various companies which obtained concessions being left to make the permanent way, provide rolling stock and work the lines for certain periods.
A permanent body (the commission permanente des valeurs) fixes the average prices of the Imporis.
The general council, when not sitting, is represented by a permanent delegation (commission departementale).
Procureurs-gnraux and avocats-gnraux are also attached to the parquet, or permanent official staff, of the courts of appeal.
The cours dassises are not separate and permanent tribunals.
Organization.The general organization of the French army at home is based on the system of permanent army corps, the headquarters of which are as follows: I.
In addition to these corps there are eight permanent cavalry divisions with headquarters at Paris, Lunyule, Meaux, Sedan, Reims, Lyons, Melun and Dole.
they had to furnish the crown with nearly all the ships and men that were needful for the state; and for a long time after they were required to give large assistance to the permanent fleet.
When Titus and his army withdrew from Jerusalem, the 10th legion was left as a permanent Roman garrison, and a fortified camp for their occupation was established on the western hill.
At the end of 1908 the strength of the naval forces under the Commonwealth defence department was: permanent, 217, naval militia, 1016; the estimated expenditure for 1908-1909 being £63,531.
The military establishment at the beginning of 1909 was represented by a small permanent force of about 1400 members.
31 a strength of the flocks, great improvements in the quality and weight of fleeces, this item is likely to show permanent advancement.
They nowhere built permanent dwellings, but contented themselves with mere hovels for temporary shelter.
This custom, which has been defined as the invasion of actual marriage by allotting permanent paramours, is confined to a special set of tribes.
The object of settlers, however, in a great many, perhaps in the majority of instances, is to dispose of their holdings as soon as possible after the requirements of the law have been complied with, and to avoid permanent settlement.
The great task of adjusting the financial business of the Commonwealth on a permanent basis was one of very great difficulty, as the apparent interests of the states and of the Commonwealth were opposed.
Modern mathematicians may find on reading this brilliant summary a good many dicta which they will call in question, but, whatever its defects may be, Peacock's report remains a work of permanent value.
In 880 the invaders took Nijmwegen, erected a permanent camp at Elsloo and pushed on to the Rhine.
Three years later, however, Godfrey was murdered, and although the raids of the Northmen did not entirely cease for upwards of another century, no further attempt was made to establish a permanent dynasty in the land.
Nowhere was the call responded to with greater zeal than in the Netherlands, and nowhere had the spirit of adventure and the stimulus to enterprise, which was one of the chief fruits of the crusades, more permanent effects for good.
Margaret was assisted by a permanent council of regency, and there was a special minister charged with the administration of the finances, sometimes under the name of superintendent of the finances, sometimes under the title of treasurer-general and controller-general.
The prince now took up his permanent residence at Delft, and a regular government was established, in which he exercised almost dictatorial authority.
Propositions to establish the judiciary on a more permanent tenure were also voted down in 1814, 1822, 1857 and 1870, and the state still elects its judges for two years' terms. On its own suggestion, the council of censors was abolished in 1870 and the present method of amending the constitution was adopted.
The revenues for educational purposes are derived mainly from a state tax of 8 on the general list, from local taxes, and from the interest on the permanent school fund, which (including the money paid to Vermont by the United States government when a portion of the treasury surplus was distributed among the states in 1837) amounted in 1908 to $1,120,218.
The first permanent white settlement was established by Massachusetts at Fort Dummer (near the present Dummer, in the south-eastern part of the present town of Brattleboro) in 1724.
Cromwell used his influence in restraining the more eager who wished to march on London immediately, and in avoiding the use of force by which nothing permanent could be effected, urging that" whatsoever we get by treaty will be firm and durable.
Cromwell's government seemed now established on the firmer footing of law and national approval, he himself obtaining the powers though not the title of a constitutional monarch, with a permanent revenue of £1,300,000 for the ordinary expenses of the administration, the command of the forces, the right to nominate his successor and, subject to the approval of parliament, the members of the council and of the new second chamber now established, while at the same time the freedom of parliament was guaranteed in its elections.
There is probably no other branch of art in which orthodox tradition is so entirely divorced from the historical sense, and the history, when studied at all, so little illuminated by the permanent artistic significance of its subjects.
Jib cranes can be subdivided into fixed cranes and portable cranes; in the former the central post or pivot is firmly fixed in a permanent position, while in the latter the whole crane is mounted on wheels, so that it may be transported from place to place.
It received from its estates, from tithes and other fixed dues, as well as from the sacrifices (a customary share) and other offerings of the faithful, vast amounts of all sorts of naturalia; besides money and permanent gifts.
A small permanent magnet is always liable to become demagnetized, or have its polarity reversed by the action of lightning.
This liability is overcome by making such movable parts as require to be magnetic of soft iron, and magnetizing them by the inducing action of a strong permanent magnet.
The needle (in the modern pattern) is of soft iron, and is kept magnetized in ductively by the action of two permanent steel magnets.
These tongues are magnetized by the inducing action of a strong horse-shoe permanent magnet, S N, which is made in a curved shape for the sake of compactness.
The electromagnet consists of two coils, each wound on a soft iron core fixed to the poles of a strong permanent horse-shoe magnet.
The armature of the electromagnet is normally attracted by the effect of the permanent magnet, but it is furnished with two antagonistic springs tending to throw it upwards.
The magnet between the poles of which the rectangular signal coil moves is built up of a number of thin flat horseshoe-shaped permanent magnets of a special quality of steel, and is provided with adjustable pole pieces.
In what is known as the " hybrid " form of recorder the permanent magnets are provided with windings of insulated copper wire; the object of these windings is to provide a means of " refreshing " the magnets by means of a strong current temporarily sent through the coils when required, as it has been found that, owing to magnetic leakage and other causes, the magnets tend to lose their power, especially in hot climates.
Early in 1898 permanent stations were established between Alum Bay and Bournemouth, a distance of 142 m., where successful results were obtained.
In order to produce electric oscillations in the system, the first or alternating current transformer must charge the condenser connected to its secondary terminals, but must not produce a permanent electric arc between the balls.
The metal is quite permanent in dry air, but in moist air it becomes coated with a superficial layer of the oxide; it burns on heating to redness, forming a brown coloured oxide; and is readily soluble in mineral acids with formation of the corresponding salts.
Much of the work is done by companies of peasants, who come down from the mountainous districts when required, permanent residence not being possible owing to the malaria.
Public charity is exercised through the permanent charitable foundations (opere pie), which are, however, very unequally distributed in the different provinces.
All the members of the suppressed communities received full exercise of all the ordinary political and civil rights of laymen; and annuities were granted to all those who had taken permanent religious vows prior to the 18th of January 1864.
In 1915 the field army should, including officers and permanent cadres, be about 1,012,000 strong.
And it was for military reasons that from mere cart-tracks they were developed into permanent highways (T.
It should also here be noticed that the changes introduced into the holding of the fiefs, whether by altering their boundaries or substituting Frankish for Lombard vassals, were chief among the causes why the feudal system took no permanent hold in Italy.
The conception of a permanent confederation, bound together in offensive and defensive alliance for common objects, has not occurred to these hard fighters and stubborn asserters of their civic privileges.
When the truce expired in 1183, a permanent peace was ratified at Constance.
In spite of repeated efforts on the part of the Ghibellines, in spite of King Roberts supine incapacity, the imperialists gained no permanent advantage.
in Egypt and the permanent establishment of an Anglo-French condominium to the detriment of Italian influence.
Gardiner calls the scheme "a permanent organization for making war against the king."
the entocodon, however developed, gives rise at first to a closed cavity, representing a closing over of the umbrella, temporary in the bud destined to be a free medusa, but usually permanent in the sessile gonophore.
The Franks, who had thrice previously sacked the city, gained permanent possession of it about 455.
These first unscientific ideas of a genesis of the permanent objects of nature took as their pattern the process of organic reproduction and development, and this, not only because these objects were regarded as personalities, but also because this particular mode of becoming would most impress these early observers.
Empedocles took an important step in the direction of modern conceptions of physical evolution by teaching that all things arise, not by transformations of some primitive form of matter, but by various combinations of a number of permanent elements.
Aristotle, Haller, Harvey, Kielmeyer, Autenrieth, and many others have either made this observation incidentally, or, especially the latter, have drawn particular attention to it, and drawn therefrom results of permanent importance for physiology."
It is not true, for example, that a fish is a reptile arrested in its development, or that a reptile was ever a fish; but it is true that the reptile embryo, at one stage of its development, is an organism which, if it had an independent existence, must be classified among fishes; and all the organs of the reptile pass, in the course of their development, through conditions which are closely analogous to those which are permanent in some fishes.
Few can doubt that, if not the whole cause, it is a very important factor in that operation; and that it must play a great part in the sorting out of varieties into those which are transitory and those which are permanent.
There was an alleged original jurisdiction of the pope, which he exercised sometimes by permanent legates, whom Gregory VII.
The parlements registered the - Sanction and the effect was permanent in France.
On the 18th of February 1843 a royal charter of incorporation was granted to the society, and a permanent status was thus acquired.
But all cells which are permanent tissue-elements of the plantbody possess, in addition, a more or less rigid limiting membrane or cell-wall, consisting primarily of cellulose or some allied substance.
a meristematic (cell-dividing) region occupying the whole of a certain transverse zone of the thallus, and cutting off new cells to add to the permanent tissue on both sides.
In the Fucaceae, on the other hand, there is a single prismatic apical cell situated at the bottom of a groove at the growing apex of the thallus, which cuts off cells from its sides to add to the peripheral, and from its base to add to the central permanent cells.
In many Laminariaceae the thallus also grows regularly in thickness by division of its surface layer, adding to the subjacent permanent tissue and thus forming a secondary meristem.
stems. But in nearly all perennial Dicotyledons, in all dicotyledonous and gymnospermous trees and shrubs and in fossil Pteridophytes belonging to all the great groups, certain layers of cells remain meristematic among the permanent tissues, or after passing through a resting stage reacquire menstematic properties, and give rise to secondary tissues.
This as, in nearly all cases, attended by a permanent change in form.
They then gradually lose the power of growth, the oldest ones or those facthest from the apex parting with it first, and they pass gradually over into the condition of the permanent tissues.
The root is continually growing and so the sensitive part is continually changing its composition, cells being formed, growing and becoming permanent tissue.
They are spherical, oval, fusiform, or rod-like, and are always found in the cytoplasm, never in the cell-sap. They appear to be permanent organs of the cell, and are transmitted from one cell to another by division.
plants do not appear to be permanent organs of the cell.
The furrowed surface of the earth gives the land-area a star-shaped figure, which may from time to time have varied in outline, but in the main has been permanent.
From the tenth voyage of the East India Company, commanded by Captain Best, who left England in 1612, dates the establishment of permanent British factories on the coast of India.
More mobile and more searching than ice or rock rubbish, the trickling drops are guided by the deepest lines of the hillside in their incipient flow, and as these lines converge, the stream, gaining strength, proceeds in River its torrential course to carve its channel deeper and en- t trench itself in permanent occupation.
Before full adjustment has been attained the river bed may be broken in places by waterfalls or interrupted by lakes; after adjustment the bed assumes a permanent outline, the slope diminishing more and more gradually, without a break in its symmetrical descent.
A similar zone surrounds the permanent snow on lofty mountains in all latitudes.
While steam has been said to make a ship independent of wind and tide, it is still true that a long voyage even by steam must be planned so as to encounter the least resistance possible from prevailing winds and permanent currents, and this involves the application of oceanographical and meteorological knowledge.
Beryllium and magnesium are permanent in dry air; calcium, strontium and barium, however, oxidize rapidly on exposure.
The first permanent settlement within the present limits of the city was established in 1797 on the west bank of the Scioto, was named Franklinton, and in 1803 was made the county-seat.
The first permanent settlement on the peninsula was.
The first permanent settlement was made by Duarte Coelho Pereira at Olinda in 1530, and four years later he was granted a capitania of 50 leagues extending from the mouth of the Sao Francisco northward to that of the Iguarassu.
After this short ministry he represented his country with dignity and effect at the Hague peace congress, and in 1903 was nominated a member of the permanent court of arbitration.
Following on this first experiment, the East India Company, in 1841, proposed to maintain a permanent flotilla on the Tigris and Euphrates, and set two vessels, the " Nitocris " and the " Nimrod," under the command of Captain Campbell of the Indian navy, to attempt the ascent of the latter river.
In spite of his inferior education, the contemporaries of Boniface trusted his prudence and moral character; yet when in financial straits he sold offices, and in 1399 transformed the annates into a permanent tax.
wide; and it is now the place of departure and arrival of the mail steamers of the Hamburg-American Steamship Company, who in 1901 transferred here a part of their permanent staff.
Its striated plumage also favours this view, as an evidence of permanent immaturity or generalization of form, since striped feathers are so often the earliest clothing of many of these birds, which only get rid of them at their first moult.
It was not till 1633 that the Dutch attempted to enter into alliance with the native princes, and their earliest permanent settlement at Port Badung only dates from 1845.
Since, however, the emperor has the power of proroguing or dissolving the Duma as often as he pleases, it is clear that these temporary ordinances might in effect be made permanent.
As late as 1571 Moscow was pillaged by a Tatar horde; but there was no longer any question of permanent political subjection to the Asiatics, and the Russian frontier was being gradually pushed forward at the expense of the nomads of the steppe by the constant advance of the agricultural population in quest of virgin soil.
supply, the value of land is in proportion to the number of permanent labourers settled on it, and the landed proprietors naturally try to attract to their estates as many peasants as possible; and in this competition the large proprietors have evidently an advantage over their humbler and weaker rivals.
Paul left no deep, permanent mark on Russian history.
He suspected Bismarck of harbouring hostile designs against Russia, and he came to recognize that the permanent weakening of France was not in accordance with Russian political interests.
i) was known as the plate-rail, tramway-plate or barrowway-plate - names which are preserved in the modern term " platelayer " applied to the men who lay and maintain the permanent way of a railway.
San Francisco spent more in new permanent structures than Philadelphia, and Seattle spent more than Pittsburg.
If the officer appointed by the Board of Trade should, after inspection of the railway, report to the department that in his opinion " the opening of the same would be attended with danger to the public using the same, by reason of the incompleteness of the works or permanent way, or the insufficiency of the establishment for working such railway," it is lawful for the department to direct the company to postpone the opening of the line for any period not exceeding one month at a time, the process being repeated from month to month as often as may be necessary.
The inspections made by the officers of the Board of Trade under this act are very complete: the permanent way, bridges, viaducts, tunnels and other works are carefully examined; all iron or steel girders are tested; stations, including platforms, stairways, waiting-rooms, &c., are inspected; and the signalling and " interlocking " are thoroughly overhauled.
As a natural result weak railway companies in the United States have frequently been declared insolvent by the courts, owing to their inability in periods of commercial depression to meet their acknowledged obligations, and in the reorganization which has followed the shareholders have usually had to accept a loss, temporary or permanent.
In rack railways a cog-wheel on the engine engages in a toothed rack which forms part of the permanent way.
- When the earth-works of a line have been completed and the tops of the embankments and the bottoms of the cuttings brought to the level decided upon, the next step is to lay the permanent way, so-called probably in distinction to the temporary way used during construction.
Its critics, however, accuse it of lack of stability, and assert that the use of large leading wheels as drivers results in rigidity and produces destructive strains on the machinery and permanent way.
gauge and the dimensions of the existing tunnels, arches, and other permanent works.
The cost of intra-urban railways depends not only on the type of construction, but more especially upon local conditions, such as the nature of the soil, the presence of subsurface structures, like sewers, water and gas mains, electric conduits, &c.; the necessity of permanent underpinning or temporary supporting of house foundations, the cost of acquiring land passed under or over when street lines are not followed, and, in the case of elevated railways, the cost of acquiring easements of light, air and access, which the courts have held are vested in the abutting property.
Their primary object being the development and peopling of the land, they have naturally been made as cheaply as possible; and as in such cases the cost of the land is inconsiderable, economy has been sought by the use of lighter and rougher permanent way, plant, rolling stock, &c. Such railways are not " light " in the technical sense of having been made under enactments intended to secure permanent lowness of cost as compared with standard lines.
As far as possible, these railways are laid beside roads, in preference to independent formation; the permanent way costs £977 per mile in the former as against £793 in the latter.
Permanent streams are rare.
there are many permanent lakes without outlet fed by the mountain streams; others, snow fed, occur among the Sierra Nevada; and some in the larger mountain masses of the middle region.
It was no easy task to establish Yahweh in permanent possession of the new lands conquered by the Hebrew settlers.
If Naaman was to be healed, it could only be in a Palestinian river, and :two mules' load of earth would be the only permanent guarantee of Yahweh's effective blessing on the Syrian general in his Syrian home.
The next notable contribution to the permanent growth of Hebrew prophetic religion was made about a century after the lifetime of Isaiah by Jeremiah and Ezekiel.
This was, however, but a subsidiary issue and possesses no permanent spiritual significance.
The external bases of Israel's religion had been swept away, and in exchange for these Jeremiah had led his countrymen to the more permanent internal grounds of a spiritual renewal.
The second path is that which is traced out by the priest-prophet Ezekiel, and is that of legalism, which was destined to secure a permanent place in the life and literature of the Jewish people.
There can be little 1 We shall have to note the emergence of the doctrine of the resurrection of the righteous in later Judaism, which is obviously a fresh contribution of permanent value to Hebrew doctrine.
In theology he was a Broad Churchman, seeking always to emphasize the permanent elements in religion, and ignoring technicalities.
He set himself in opposition to Novatian, a presbyter of Rome, who advocated their permanent exclusion from the church; and it was his influence which guided the tolerant measures of the Carthaginian synods on the subject.
The cordial and gentle manners of Mrs Gibbon, however, and her unremitting care for his happiness, won him from his first prejudices, and gave her a permanent place in his esteem and.
Plymouth was the first permanent white settlement in New England, and dates its founding from the landing here from the "Mayflower" shallop of an exploring party of twelve Pilgrims, including William Bradford, on the 21st of December (N.s.) 1620.
The foreign policy of this period brought about the complete isolation of Austria, and the ingratitude towards Russia, as shown during the period of the Crimean War, which has become proverbial, caused a permanent estrangement between the two great Eastern empires and the imperial families.
On the one hand, a sweeping invasion of all the tribes of Israel moved by a common zeal may, like the conquests of Islam, have produced permanent results.
We hear some ' One may recall, in this connexion, Caxton's very interesting prologue to Malory's Morte d'Arthur and his remarks on the permanent value of the " histories " of this British hero.
Although the light thrown upon ancient conditions of life and thought has destroyed much that sometimes seems vital for the Old Testament, it has brought into relief a more permanent and indisputable appreciation of its significance, and it is gradually dispelling that pseudo-scientific literalism which would fetter the greatest of ancient Oriental writings with an insistence upon the verity of historical facts.
But it has a value of its own inasmuch as it illustrates the permanent tendencies which mould the history of the Jews.
The oldest permanent settlements in the state are (New) Biloxi (c. 1712), situated across the bay from Old Biloxi and nearer to the Gulf, and Natchez or Fort Rosalie (1716).
The first steps were taken in that direction just after the close of the proprietary period in 1729, but the work was not completed until 1815.1 The first permanent English colony in North Carolina was established at Albemarle on the Chowan river about 1660 by people from Virginia.
The first sanction of independence by any body representing the whole province was given by the fourth Provincial Congress on the 12th of April 1776, and the same body immediately proceeded to the consideration of a new and permanent form of government.
These are the permanent outlines of what may be called the philosophy of mysticism in Christian times, and it is remarkable with how little variation they are repeated from age to age.
It was not unnatural that the king who had his palace built by Tyrian artists should have proposed to erect a permanent temple to Yahweh.
The structure, it is true, was not permanent.
The unit of knowledge is not an isolated impression but a judgment; and in such a judgment is contained, even initially, the reference both to a permanent subject and to a permanent world of thought, and, implied in these, such judgments, for example, as those of existence, substance, cause and effect.
Thus we do not start with "ideas," and afterwards refer them to objects; we are never restricted to our own minds, but are from the first immediately related to a permanent world.
Harrodsburg was founded on the 16th of June 1774 by James Harrod (1746-1793) and a few followers, and is the oldest permanent settlement in the state.
Rhynchelmis, which afterwards become by an enlargement and opening up of the funnel the permanent nephridia of the adult worm.
Hence the term is applied to states in which the supreme authority is vested in a single person, the monarch, who in his own right is the permanent head of the state.
This was on the 29th of December 1829, and after Senator Benton of Missouri had denounced the resolution as one inspired by hatred of the East for the West, Hayne, on the 19th of January 1830, made a vigorous attack on New England, and declared his opposition to a permanent revenue from the public lands or any other source on the ground that it would promote corruption and the consolidation of the government and "be fatal to the sovereignty and independence of the states."
Tampa Bay has permanent sea-coast defences.
The first permanent settlement was made about 1836, and Manitowoc was chartered as a city in 1870.
A large part of the Trent valley is under permanent pasture, being devoted to cattle-feeding and dairy-farming.
This industry has prospered greatly, and the area of permanent pasture encroaches continually upon that of arable land.
The first permanent settlement within the present limits of the city was made in 1609 in the district long known as Rockett's.
The history of agriculture is the history of man in his most primitive, and most permanent aspect.
Whilst much grass land has been laid down with the intention from the outset that it should be permanent, at the same time some considerable areas have through stress of circumstances been allowed to drift from the temporary or rotation grass area to the permanent list, and have thus still further diminished the area formerly under the dominion of the plough.
The column relating to permanent grass in Table IV.
In the period 18 751905 the extreme areas returned as " permanent pasture "-a term which, it should be clearly understood, does not include heath or mountain land, of which there are in Great Britain alone about 13 million acres used for grazing-were 23,772,602 acres in 1875, and 28,865,373 acres in 1905.
Comparing 1905 with 1875 the increase in permanent grass land amounted to over five million acres, or about 21%.
Under hay are included the produce of clover, sainfoin and rotation grasses, and also that of permanent meadow.
wheat 26ï¿½08 bushels, barley 2 9.3 o bushels, oats 38.14 bushels, beans 19.61 bushels, rotation hay 23.55 cwt., permanent hay 20.41 cwt.
The hay made from clover, sainfoin and grasses under rotation generally gives a bigger average yield than that from permanent grass land.
of hay from permanent grass.
Again, although from the richest old permanent meadow-lands very heavy crops of hay are taken season after season, the general average yield of permanent grass is about 3 cwt.
Another field experiment of singular interest is that relating to the mixed herbage of permanent meadow, for which seven acres of old grass land were set apart in Rothamsted Park in 1856.
At Lonsdale, William Blackstone (c.1595-1675), the first permanent white settler within the present limits of Rhode Island, built his residence, "Study Hall," about 1635.
It is evident that no permanent classification is possible of what is or is not of economic significance.
In the last generation all that has changed, and the change is of a permanent character.
We might assume that criticism and analysis had separated the wheat from the chaff in their writings, that everything of permanent value had probably been preserved and incorporated in the works of later economists.
The former causes maybe considered partly permanent, partly temporary; but those of a permanent character are likely to increase in force, and those of a temporary character will leave a deposit in the shape of an addition to the normal expenditure of the central government.
Dublin was saved by its inhabitants committing it to the flames, and, though nineteen victories were won, of which that at Slane in Louth by Robert was counted the chief, the success was too rapid to be permanent.
As in other Gastropoda Anisopleura, this shell-sac may abnormally develop a plug of chitinous matter, but normally it flattens out and disappears, whilst the cap-like rudiment of the permanent shell is shed out from the dome-like surface of the visceral hump, in the centre of which the shell-sac existed for a brief period.
In Clausilia, according to the observations of C. Gegenbaur, the primitive shell-sac does not flatten out and disappear, but takes the form of a flattened closed sac. Within this closed sac a plate of calcareous matter is developed, and after a time the upper wall of the sac disappears, and the calcareous plate continues to grow as the nucleus of the permanent shell.
In most other Mollusca (Anisopleurous Gastropods, Pteropods and Conchifera) there is a want of such continuity; the primitive shell-sac contributes no factor to the permanent shell, or only a very minute FIG.
the permanent shell pe, Pedal ganglion.
Keeping the electoral machinery almost unchanged (save that the lists of notables were to be permanent) Bonaparte entirely altered the upper parts of the constitutional pyramid reared by the philosopher.
A marriage between Napoleon and a Russian princess would have implied the permanent subjection of Austria.
He promoted the union of the Greek and Latin Churches as far as possible, but his efforts in this direction bore no permanent fruit.
MAYFLOWER, the vessel which carried from Southampton, England, to Plymouth, Massachusetts, the Pilgrims who established the first permanent colony in New England.
Permanent defences at Scapa were, however, abandoned in 1913, owing to the developments of submarine warfare, which rendered it very costly to protect the various entrances.
The system of Forbes was reconstructed after his death from notebook jottings, and neither Garrod nor Forbes have left any permanent mark on.
Commercially, barytes is used in the preparation of barium compounds, as a body for certain kinds of paper and cloth, and as a white pigment ("permanent white").
Portsmouth and Dover are the oldest permanent settlements in the state.
Yet the group of islands called Rialto, in mid-Venetian lagoon, were first the asylum and then the magnificent and permanent home of a race that took a prominent part in the medieval and Renaissance history of Europe.
Dentil mouldings, of which examples may still be seen in the remains of the palace of Blachernae at Constantinople, are characteristic of Venetian ornamentation at this period, and remain a permanent feature in Venetian architecture down to the 11th century.
The palace as we now see it was begun about 1300 by Doge Pietro Gradenigo, who soon after the closing of the great council gave its permanent form to the Venetian constitution.
Erected first as a temporary committee of public safety to hunt down the remnant of the conspirators and to keep a vigilant watch on Tiepolo's movements, it was finally made permanent in 1335.
This, with the exception of a brief tenure of Cremona (1499-1512), formed her permanent territory down to the fall of the republic. Her frontiers now ran from the seacoast near Monfalcone, following the line of the Carnic and Julian and Raetian Alps to the Adda, down the course of that river till it joins the Po, and thence along the line of the Po back to the sea.
The Ohio Company founded Marietta at the mouth of the Muskingum in 1788, and this is regarded as the oldest permanent settlement in the state.
m.; estimated income, £40,000; permanent land revenue, £9000.
In 1794, however, on the break-up of the Vizianagram estate, Chinna Ranga Rao was restored by the British, and in 1801 a permanent settlement was made with his son.
Castle Island has been fortified since the earliest days; Fort Independence, on this island, and Forts Winthrop and Warren on neighbouring islands, constitute permanent harbour defences.
It provided for municipal elections in January; for the election of a mayor for four years; for his recall at the end of two years if a majority of the registered voters so vote in the state election in November in the second year of his term; for the summary removal for cause by the mayor of any department head or other of his appointees; for a city council of one chamber of nine members, elected at large each for three years; for nomination by petition; for a permanent finance commission appointed by the governor; for the confirmation of the mayor's appointments by the state civil service commission; for the mayor's preparation of the annual budget (in which items may be reduced but not increased by the council), and for his absolute veto of appropriations except for school use.
A floating hospital for women and children in the summer months, with permanent and transient wards, has been maintained since 1894 (incorporated 1901).
In 1692 the first permanent and successful printing press was established; in 170 4 the first newspaper in America, the Boston News-Letter, which was published weekly until 1776.
If an aperture for ingress and egress, for purposes of feeding, were left in the wall of such a chamber, there would arise in a rudimentary form what is known as the tubular nest or web; and the next important step was possibly the adoption of such a nest as a permanent abode for the spider., Some spiders, like the Drassidae and Salticidae, have not advanced beyond this stage in architectural industry; but next to the cocoon this simple tubular retreat - whether spun in a crevice or burrow or simply attached to the lower side of a stone - is the most constant feature to be observed in the spinning habits of spiders.
As a rule terrestrial spiders guard the cocoon in the permanent burrow, as in the trap-door spiders, or in the silken retreat which acts as a temporary nursery, as in the Salticidae.
As a permanent home the spider makes beneath the surface a thimble-shaped web, with inverted mouth, anchoring it to the weeds.
" The distinction seems to be that if the destruction be permanent, though partial, the failure of the subject let will give relief by entitling the tenant to renounce the lease, unless a deduction shall be allowed, but that if it be merely temporary or occasional, it will not entitle the tenant to relief " (Bell's Prin.
A Crofters' Commission constituted under the acts has power to fix fair rents, and the crofter on renunciation of his tenancy or removal from his holding is entitled to compensation for permanent improvements.
In the following spring a permanent settlement was made.
Bourbon, New Orleans, Upland, Georgia, Sea Island, Pernambuco, Egyptian, &c., were tried but with little permanent success.
In 1916 he was delegate-atlarge from Ohio to the Republican National Convention, of which he was chosen permanent chairman.
He urged the need of adopting a permanent tariff policy, and on Dec. 5 1921 suggested a " flexible tariff " which might provide for the adjustment of rates to meet unusual and changing conditions.
So far as the Crusades led to permanent material results in the East, they did so in virtue of these two forces.
Theobald was followed (1240-1241) by Richard of Cornwall, the brother of Henry III., who, like his predecessor, had to sail in the teeth of papal prohibitions; but neither of the two achieved any permanent result, except the fortification of Ascalon.
with the Mongols, but achieving no permanent results.
Since these streams had in no case originally easy access to the sea, we naturally find lakes on their course, and several of them terminate in tracts of more or less permanent inundation.
He was one of the rare instances among the Kaffirs of a leader endowed with intellectual gifts which placed him on a level with Europeans, and his life-work has left a permanent mark on South African history.
In the construction of this soft-iron instrument it is essential that the fragment of iron should be as small and as well annealed as possible and not touched with tools after annealing; also it should be preferably not too elongated in shape so that it may not acquire permanent magnetization but that its magnetic condition may follow the changes of the current in the coil.
A much better form of electromagnetic ammeter can be constructed on a principle now extensively employed, which consists in pivoting in the strong field of a permanent magnet a small coil through which a part of the current to be measured is sent.
It is essential that the permanent magnet should be subjected to a process of ageing so that its field may not be liable to change subsequently with time.
The judicial council (consiliarii Augusti, later called consistorium), composed of persons of the highest rank (especially jurists), became a permanent body of advisers, although merely consultative.
Somewhere in that region he desired to make a permanent settlement, but he was abandoned by most of his followers and gave up his attempt in 1561.
absolute vanity), all' is vanity I "Life, says the author, has nothing of permanent value to offer.
If now the question be asked what purpose or aim a man can have, seeing that there is nothing of permanent value in human work, an answer is given which recurs, like a refrain, from the beginning to the end of the book, and appears to be from the hand of the original author: after every description of the vanity of things comes the injunction to enjoy such pleasures as may fall to one's lot (11.24, 25, 111.12, 13, 22, V.
It may be said that the author, while denying that wisdom (practical sagacity and level-headedness) can give permanent satisfaction, yet admits its practical value in the conduct of life.
Shaving soaps, which must obviously be free from alkali or any substance which irritates the skin, are characterized by readily forming a permanent lather.
The effect upon the permanent level of the lakes of the withdrawal of water through this artificial outlet is receiving much attention.
These new colonists became the permanent inhabitants of this district, and in spite of the hostility of the Avars on the east founded the kingdom of Great Moravia, which was considerably more extensive than the province now bearing the name.
The conqueror allowed his soldiers to loot, but inflicted no permanent punishment upon the people.
Another civic improvement was the plan that a permanent committee of citizens should be engaged in the solving of the housing problem, and that the chamber of commerce, cooperating with the state, should employ a director in charge of the Americanization programme in which the public schools and corporations cooperate.
In 1510 the king through Ovando's influence made this commission permanent.
Blow, he established in St Louis the first permanent public-school kindergarten in America.
In 1660 he was sent as plenipotentiary to a second congress, to convert the truce of 1658 into a permanent peace.
The victories of Gustavus Adolphus secured no permanent advantage, and his death at Liitzen was followed by that of the elector at Mainz on the 29th of November 1632.
The land, which fell into two main portions, upper Hesse round Marburg, and lower Hesse round Cassel, was twice divided between two members of the ruling family, but no permanent partition took place before the Reformation.
In 922, when they were converted to Islam, Ibn Foslan found them not quite nomadic, and already having some permanent settlements and houses in wood.
In 1903 there was established at Woodbrooke, an estate at Selly Oak on the outskirts of Birmingham, a permanent settlement for men and women, for the study of these questions on modern lines.
The permanent standing committee of the Society is known as the " Meeting for Sufferings " (established in 1675), which took its rise in the days when the persecution of many Friends demanded the Christian care and material help of those who were able to give it.
But these intruders seem to have been successively absorbed in the Somali stock; and the Arabs never succeeded in establishing permanent communities in this region.
It became a permanent French settlement in 1688, but did not rise to any importance till the time of Dupleix, during whose administration more than two thousand brick houses were erected in the town and a considerable maritime trade was carried on.
Cato, Varro and Columella all agree that slave labour was to be preferred to free except in unhealthy regions and for large occasional operations, which probably transcended the capacity of the permanent familia rustica.
Only in familiar letters, prolegomena, and prefaces do we find the man Ficino, and learn to know his thoughts and sentiments unclouded by a mist of citations; these minor compositions have therefore a certain permanent value, and will continually be studied for the light they throw upon the learned circle gathered round Lorenzo in the golden age of humanism.
Bundahish, 1, 4) encounter one another, their creative activity and at the same time their permanent conflict begin.
It comprises land in no fewer than ten districts, much of which is let on permanent leases to indigo-planters.
bharb, to eat), in botany, the name given to those plants whose stem or stalk dies entirely or down to the root each year, and does not become, as in shrubs or trees, woody or permanent, such plants are also called "herbaceous."
During the troubled period which culminated in the taking of the Bastille on the 14th of July 1789, he came prominently forward in public affairs, and was one of the seven members of the permanent Committee of Public Safety which sat at the hotel de ville.
He came to the conclusion that there could be no hope of peace and progress in South Africa while there remained the "permanent subjection of British to Dutch in one of the Republics."
"When we who call ourselves Imperialists talk of the British Empire we think of a group of states bound, not in an alliance - for affiances can be made and unmade - but in a permanent organic union.
He advocated the creation of a permanent deliberative imperial council, and favoured preferential trade relations between the United Kingdom and the other members of the empire; and in later years he took an active part in advocating the cause of tariff reform and colonial preference.
The sages may be regarded as the beginners of a universal religion: they felt the need of permanent principles of life, and were able to set aside to some extent the local features of the current creed.
In 1902 it was officially estimated that the public land available for permanent agrarian cultivation, including forest lands, was only 186,967 hectares (416,995 acres), almost wholly in the province of Oriente.
Both provinces and municipalities are forbidden by the constitution to contract debts without a coincident provision of permanent revenue for their settlement.
The principal event of his reign was the rebellion of the thakurs in 1883, owing to an attempt to increase the dues payable in lieu of military service; this led to the permanent location at Bikanir of a British political agent.
The general assembly of the state met at Fayetteville in 1787, 1788 and 1789 (Newbern, Tarboro, Hillsboro and Fayetteville all being rivals at this time for the honour of becoming the permanent capital); and in 1789 the Federal constitution was here ratified for North Carolina.
From the time of Eyubi Effendi until the end of the grand vizierate of Ibrahim Pasha (1730), the empire experienced periodical relief from excessive financial distress under the series of remarkable grand viziers who directed the affairs of state during that time, but the recovery was not permanent.
In permanent remuneration of certain services to be rendered to the state, the sovereign assigned to civil or military functionaries territorial regions for the purpose, and with the power, of collecting land taxes imposed by Mussulman and Imperial law, i.e.
But even this did not quite complete the distance, and the line was carried on for still another kilometre and there stopped, " with its pair of rails gauntly projecting from the permanent way " (Fraser, The Short Cut to India, 1909).
The bank acts as banker to the government, for which it has a fixed annual commission, and it is obliged to make a permanent statutory advance to the government of £T1,000,000, against the deposit by the government of marketable securities bearing interest at a rate agreed upon.
In 1534 Jean de La Foret, a knight of St John of Jerusalem, came to Constantinople as first permanent French ambassador to the Porte, and in February 1 535 were signed the first Capitulations (q.v.) with France.
1 In the following year permanent diplomatic relations were established by England with the Porte by the despatch of William Harebone as ambassador, Queen Elizabeth urging as her special claim to the sultan's friendship their common mission to fight " idolators."
Wishing to make this important privilege permanent, Russia by secret articles of the Treaty of Bucharest had secured the cession of this district, in return for an undertaking to destroy the forts of Kilia and Izmail on the Danube.
Greekce and Dardanelles confirmed, and the districts of first sultan who entered into regular relations with foreign powers, and employed permanent ambassadors; the practice was discontinued at the time of the Greek revolution and the consequent rupture with the powers.
The occupation of the country by Great Britain gradually took a more permanent form, and though negotiations were more than once entered into with Turkey with a view to its termination, these either proved abortive or were rendered so (as e.g.
The climate of the interior has been found to be of a continental character, with large ranges of temperature, and with an almost permanent anti-cyclonic region over the interior of the inland ice, from which the prevailing winds radiate towards the coasts.
It was visited by whalers, chiefly Dutch, but nothing in the form of permanent European settlements was established until the year 1721, when the first missionary, the Norwegian clergyman Hans Egede, landed, and established a settlement near Godthaab.
Near the upper Orkhon was the permanent camp of Karakorum, from the 8th century down to the end of the 13th the centre of the Mongol power, especially under the sway of Jenghiz Khan and his son Ogotai or Ogdai in the 12th and 13th centuries.
It is thus necessary to distinguish, in the work of the Convention, the temporary expedients from measures intended to be permanent.
Sometimes in exceptional circumstances the Convention declared itself in permanent session and sat for several days without interruption.
The schools are supported by a state tax, and by the proceeds of a permanent school fund amounting (in 1908) to $19,709,383; in the same year the total value of all public school property was $28,297,420.
But none of the French posts was permanent, and in 1763 French rule came to an end, the Treaty of November (1762) and the Treaty of Versailles (1763) transferring respectively the western portion of the state to Spain and that part east of the Mississippi river to Great Britain.
The very important activities of the Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration de la Mer were suspended during the war except in a few local seas.
Thus it is the permanent pledge of Yahweh's gracious presence; it guides the people on their journey and leads them to victory.
The foundation of the capital would pave the way for the belief that the national god had taken a permanent dwelling-place in the royal seat.
In 1887 Svante Arrhenius, professor of physics at Stockholm, put forward a new theory which supposed that the freedom of the opposite ions from each other was not a mere momentary freedom at the instants of molecular collision, but a more or less permanent freedom, the ions moving independently of each other through the liquid.
If, instead of using a single Daniell's cell, we employ some source of electromotive force which can be varied as we please, and gradually raise its intensity, we shall find that, when it exceeds a certain value, about 1.7 volt, a permanent current of considerable strength flows through the solution, and, after the initial period, shows no signs of decrease.
Only when the applied electromotive force exceeds this reverse force of polarization, will a permanent steady current pass through the liquid, and visible chemical decomposition proceed.
Although the cost of transport from the remote forest regions of some districts is a serious consideration, this is not likely to be operative in reducing production until there has been a considerable and permanent fall in price, by which time new areas in those countries in which planting is now taking place will probably have come into bearing.
The avifauna is very rich in migratory water and marsh fowl (Grallatores and Natatores), which come to breed in the coast region; but only five land birds - the ptarmigan (Lagopus alpinus), snow-bunting, Iceland falcon, snow-owl and raven - are permanent inhabitants of the region.
The Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society was founded at the same time at Irkutsk, and afterwards became a permanent centre for the exploration of Siberia; while the opening of the Amur and Sakhalin attracted Maack, Schmidt, Glehn, Radde and Schrenck, whose works on the flora, fauna and inhabitants of Siberia have become widely known.
(From Simroth.) not develop into a pseudoI, Protegulum; 2, permanent shell.
Thus the general taille, raised for the benefit of the king, became more and more frequent, and naturally tended to become permanent.
the heavy cavalry which the king from that time on maintained on a permanent footing.
Military expenses thus becoming permanent, it was natural that the taille, the tax which had long been devoted to meeting the expenses of the royal wars, should also become permanent.
The Bishnupur raj was one of the largest estates in Bengal in the end of the 18th century, but it was sold for arrears of revenue shortly after the conclusion of the permanent settlement in 1793.
Cardinal Siffrein, who is known as the Abbe Maury (1746-1817), resumed all the known artifices of sermon-style in a volume which has a permanent historical value, the well-known Essai sur l'eloquence de la chaire (1810); he was himself rather a fiery politician than a persuasive divine.
Thus it is used to translate the Platonic 'SEa, Et50s, the permanent reality which makes a thing what it is, in contrast with the particulars which are finite and subject to change.
Although he had advised the ratification of the Peace Treaty, he opposed the permanent acquisition of the Philippine Islands.
But on the 19th of May 1841 he preached at Boston a sermon on "the transient and permanent in Christianity," which presented in embryo the main principles and ideas of his final theological position, and the preaching of which determined his subsequent relations to the churches with which he was connected and to the whole ecclesiastical world.
A road also leads northward, by Sinjar, to Mosul, crossing the river on a stone bridge, built in 1897, the only permanent bridge over the Euphrates south of Asia Minor.
Reiske (1716-1774); and, though for many years the most famous teacher of Semitic languages in Europe, he had little of the higher philological faculty, and neither his grammatical nor his critical work has left a permanent mark, with the exception perhaps of his text-critical studies on the Peshitta.
The wire will in fact become temporarily magnetized by induction, that end of it which is nearest to the pole of the magnet acquiring opposite polarity, and behaving as if it were the pole of a permanent magnet.
Even a permanent magnet is susceptible of induction, its polarity becoming thereby strengthened, weakened, or possibly reversed.
At shorter distances the magnetism induced in the weaker magnet will be stronger than its permanent magnetism, and there will be attraction; two magnets with their like poles in actual contact will always cling together unless the like poles are of exactly equal strength.
According to this theory the molecules of any magnetizable substance are little permanent magnets the axes of which are, under ordinary conditions, disposed in all possible directions indifferently.
A well-known example of hysteresis is presented by the case of permanent magnets.
Steel, which is well suited for the construction of permanent magnets, is said to possess great " coercive force."
A metal which has great retentiveness may at the same time have small coercive force, and it is the latter quality which is of chief importance in permanent magnets.
Hence the difficulty of imparting any considerable permanent magnetization to a short thick bar not possessed of great coercive force.
Of the three methods which have been described, the first two are generally the most suitable for determining the moment or the magnetization of a permanent magnet, and the last for studying the changes which occur in the magnetization of a long rod or wire wl?E:n subjected to various external magnetic forces, or, in other words, for determining the relation of I to H.
The induction coil wound upon the ring is connected to the ballistic galvanometer G2 in series with a large permanent resistance R3.
On the other hand, the form of the third curve, with its large intercepts on the axes of H and B, denotes that the specimen to which it relates possesses both retentiveness and coercive force in a high degree; such a metal would be chosen for making good permanent magnets.
It is, of course, true for permanent magnets, where H = o, since then F = 27rI 2; but if the magnetization is due to electric currents, the formula is only applicable in the special case when the mutual action of the two magnets upon one another is supplemented by the electromagnetic attraction between separate magnetizing coils rigidly attached to them.2 The traction method was first employed by S.
The stress in question seems, however, to be quite unconnected with the " stress in the medium " contemplated by Maxwell, and its value is not exactly B 2 /87r except in the particular case of a permanent ring magnet, when H = O.
] being to diminish the magnetization; on the other hand, with very weak fields the maximum may not have been reached with the greatest load that the wire can support without permanent deformation.
Heydweiller, 2 which appeared to indicate a reversal in weak fields (corresponding to I= 5, or thereabouts), have been shown by Honda and Shimizu to be vitiated by the fact that his specimen was not initially in a magnetically neutral state; they found that when the applied field had the same direction as that of the permanent magnetization, Heydweiller's fallacious results were easily obtained; but if the field were applied in the direction opposite to that of the permanent magnetization, or if, as should rightly be the case, there were no permanent magnetization at all, then there was no indication of any Villari reversal.
The first immersion into liquid air generally produced a permanent decrease of magnetic moment, and there was sometimes a further decrease when the metal was warmed up again; but after a few alternations of temperature the changes of moment.
became definite and cyclic. When the permanent magnetic condition had been thus established, it was found that in the case of all the metals, except the two alloys containing large percentages of nickel, the magnetic moment was temporarily increased by cooling to - 186°.
It is suggested that a permanent magnet might conveniently be " aged " (or brought into a constant condition) by dipping it several times into liquid air.
Other experiments relating to the effect of temperature upon permanent magnets have been carried out by J.
These high values render hardened tungsten-steel particularly suitable for the manufacture of permanent magnets.
Soc. d'Encouragement, 1898, pp. 36-76), chiefly with the object of determining their suitability for the construction of permanent magnets.
For additional information regarding the composition and qualities of permanent magnet steels reference may be made 6 The marked effect of silicon in increasing the permeability of cast iron has also been noticed by F.
Weber's theory, the molecules of a ferromagnetic metal are small permanent magnets, the axes of which under ordinary conditions are turned indifferently in every direction, so that no magnetic polarity is exhibited by the metal as a whole; a magnetic force acting upon the metal tends to turn the axes of the little magnets in one direction, and thus the entire piece acquires the properties of a magnet.
Maxwell (Electricity and Magnetism, § 444), recognizing that the theory in this form gave no account of residual magnetization, made the further assumption that if the deflection of the axis of the molecule exceeded a certain angle, the axis would not return to its original position when the deflecting force was removed, but would retain a permanent set.
Soc., 1890, 48, 342) has demonstrated that it is quite unnecessary to assume either the directive force of Weber, the permanent set of Maxwell, or any kind of frictional resistance, the forces by which the molecular magnets are constrained being simply those due to their own mutual attractions and repulsions.
This corresponds to the second stage of magnetization, in which the susceptibility is large and permanent magnetization is set up. A still stronger magnetizing force has little effect except in causing the direction of the needles to approach still more nearly to that of the field; if the force were infinite, every member of the group ‘ would have exactly the same direction and the greatest possible resultant moment would be reached; this illustrates " magnetic saturation " - the condition approached in the third stage of magnetization.
According to Mommsen, although the institution was not intended to be permanent, in later times vacancies in the ranks were filled in this manner, with the result that service in the cavalry, with either a public or a private horse, became obligatory upon all Roman citizens possessed of a certain income.
In all the embryonic or permanent opening is on the coxa of the fifth pair of prosomatic limbs.
It is characteristic of the prophetic eschatology that images suggested by one prophet are adopted by his successors, and gradually become part of the permanent scenery of the last times; and it is a proof of the late date of Joel that almost his whole picture is made up of such features.
In 1466 it formed an alliance with the Swiss, and this became a permanent union in 1515.
The cases decided by the permanent tribunal at the Hague established in 1900 are not included in these tables.
The establishment of a permanent tribunal at the Hague, pursuant to the Peace convention of 1899, marks a momentous epoch in the history of international arbitration.
" The signatory powers consider it a duty in the event of an acute conflict threatening to break out between two or more of them to remind these latter that the permanent court is open to them.
Several of the powers nominated members of the permanent court pursuant to Art.
Merignhac, Traite de l'arbitrage international (Paris, 1895); Le Chevalier Descamps, Essai sur l'organisation de l'arbitrage international (Bruxelles, 1896); Feraud-Giraud, Des Traites d'arbitrage international general et permanent, Revue de droit international (Bruxelles, 1897); Pasicrisie International, by Senator H.
They formed a permanent council, and Hadrian's successors entrusted these comites with the administration of justice and finance, or placed them in military commands.
It was once cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul with some success, and it has been grown in Minas Geraes and Sao Paulo, but in no case have the returns been sufficient to give it a permanent standing among the productions of the country.
The botanical gardens of Brazil are developing into permanent exhibitions of the flora of the regions in which they are located.
In 1612 the French attempted to found a permanent colony in the island of Marajo, where they succeeded in maintaining themselves till 1618.
His object was to found a great empire; but this was a project at variance with the wishes of his employers - an association of merchants, who were dissatisfied because the wealth which they expected to see flowing into their coffers was expended in promoting the permanent interests of a distant country.
The writings of Leroux have no permanent significance in the history of thought.
In 1199 the institution of a foreign podestd (a form of government which became permanent in 1212) gave a severe blow to the consular magistracy, which was soon extinguished; and in 1233 the people again rose against the nobles in the hope of ousting them entirely from office.
By the partial readmission of the riformatori and exclusion of the twelve, the permanent balia was now composed of nine priors (three of the nine, three of the people, and three of the riformatori) and of a captain of the people to be chosen from each of the three monti in turn.
He was inaugurated on the 18th of February, was subsequently, after the adoption of the permanent constitution, regularly elected by popular vote, for a term of six years, and on the 2 2nd of February 1862 was again inaugurated.
The climate is cold, dry and healthy, despite the prevalence of the famous "Aleppo button," a swelling which appears either on the face or on the hands, and breaks into an ulcer which lasts a year and leaves a permanent scar.
Bird, The Annals of Natal, 1 495 to 1845 (2 vols., Maritzburg, 1888), a work of permanent value, consisting of official records, &c.; Shepstone, Historic Sketch of Natal (1864).
When the growth is at the cardiac end of the stomach, blocking the gullet and causing slow starvation, the abdomen may advisedly be opened, and, the stomach having been fixed to the surface-wound, a permanent opening may be arranged for the introduction of an adequate amount of food.
In the case of pyloric obstruction a permanent opening may be established between the stomach and a neighbouring piece of intestine, so that the food may find its way along the alimentary canal greatly to the relief of the symptoms of gastric dilatation.
Moreover, to promote their own convenience, they readily allowed the king to assess as well as to collect the taxes, which consequently tended to become regular and permanent, while Matthias' reform of the treasury, which was now administered by specialists with separate functions, was economically of great benefit to the state.
extra-parliamentary ministry, and on the 21st of June Baron Fejervary, an officer in the royal bodyguard, was nominated minister president with a cabinet consisting of little- Fejervary known permanent officials.
A people with an intense national sentiment, such as the Hungarians, do not as a rule incline towards permanent admiration of foreign-born or imported literary styles; and accordingly the work of this class of novelists has frequently met with very severe criticism on the part of various Magyar critics.
The enfranchisement of villeins granted by Richard at the Mile End conference was revoked by parliament in 1382, and no permanent results were obtained for the peasants by Wat.
The defence which Josephus puts forward has a permanent value and shows him at his best.
At the head of the permanent staff is a director of education.
The force, disciplined and organized by a permanent staff of officers and non-commissioned officers of the regular army, is about 6500 strong, and consists of a brigade of artillery, four mounted, three composite and four infantry corps, a cyclist corps, &c. There are also cadet companies some 3000 strong.
The first permanent white settlement north of the Vaal was made by a party under Potgieter's leadership. That commandant had in March 1838 gone to Natal, and had endeavoured to avenge the massacre of Piet Retief and his comrades by the Zulus.
In August a proclamation was promulgated formally threatening the Boer leaders who should not surrender with permanent banishment from South Africa, but this proclamation had very little effect.
Thereupon the Union ministry was urged by the British government to effect a permanent settlement acceptable to all parties.
A purple toga with embroidery (toga pieta) was worn together with a gold-embroidered tunic (tunica palmata) by generals while celebrating a triumph and by magistrates presiding at games; it represented the traditional dress of the kings and was adopted by Julius Caesar as a permanent costume.
His permanent position in literature is due, no doubt, to the art and genius of Menander, whose creations he has perpetuated, as a fine engraver may perpetuate the spirit of a great painter whose works have perished.
From atrophy of their roots, caused by the pressure of the growing permanent teeth, the " milk teeth " in children become loose and are cast off.
This resistance may be more or less permanent.
After five to seven days we find the connective tissue cells taking the principal part in the building up of the new permanent tissue, for at this stage there is an active proliferation of the fibroblasts.
It is from these cells the permanent fibrous tissue is formed.
The first Jesuit mission in Sonora, founded among the Mayos in 1613, seems to have been the first permanent settlement in the state, although Coronado passed through it and its coast had been visited by early navigators.
But, insensibly, the least valuable part of the Hippocratic work, the theory, was made permanent; the most valuable, the practical, neglected.
If we look at the work of the Alexandrian schools in medicine as a whole, we must admit that the progress made was great and permanent.
celebrated Institutions, could not have any great permanent value.
The work of Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771) had and still preserves a permanent importance beyond that of all the contemporary theorists.
Joseph Skoda (1805-1881) extended, and in some respects corrected, the art of auscultation as left by Laennec. Karl Rokitansky (1804-1878), by his colossal labours, placed the science of morbid anatomy on a permanent basis, and enriched it by numerous discoveries of detail.
The comparison of observations in various climates and peoples has had some weight; while in the better knowledge of their causes their treatment has found permanent advantage.
Before the introduction of railways there were no permanent bridges across the Rhine below Basel; but now trains cross it at about a dozen different points in Germany and Holland.
It is more in conformity with ancient credulity than with modern science to attribute a permanent tendency to derangement to the accidental administration of any drug, however potent.
Among permanent art collections the first place is taken by the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square.
Earlier in each year exhibitions of works by deceased British artists and by old masters are held, and the Gibson and Diploma Galleries are permanent exhibitions.
The well-known Egyptian Hall in Piccadilly was taken down in 1906, and the permanent conjuring entertainment for which (besides picture exhibitions) it was noted was removed elsewhere.
Besides the annual expenditure of the various authorities large sums have been borrowed to defray the cost of works of a permanent nature.
From this time there appears to have been a permanent Danish settlement in London, probably Aldwich, referred to below.
The circulation of air in any given division of the mine is further controlled and its course determined by temporary or permanent partitions, known as brattices, by the erection of stoppings, or by the insertion of doors in the mine passages and by the use of special airways.
In 1624 arrived eighteen families of Dutch Walloons, the first actual permanent settlers, as distinguished from traders.
In June 1754, in pursuance of a recommendation of the Lords of Trade, a convention of representatives of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland met here for the purpose of confirming and establishing a closer league of friendship with the Iroquois and of arranging for a permanent union of the colonies.
Albany became the permanent state capital in 1797.
Of the native regiments seven battalions are Burma regiments specially raised for permanent service in Burma by transformation from military police.
Silver oxide, mixed as a paint and spread on the surface of a piece of glass and heated, gives a permanent yellow stain.
The fire may well have caused the natron, an impure form of carbonate of soda, to combine with the surrounding sand to form silicate of soda, which, although not a permanent glass, is sufficiently glass-like to suggest the x11.4 FIG.
possibility of creating a permanent transparent material.
66) actually records the discovery which effected the conversion of deliquescent silicate of soda into permanent glass.
Magnesian limestone mixed and fused with sand and an alkaline carbonate produces a permanent glass.
Pliny has so accurately recorded the stages by which a permanent glass was developed that it may be assumed that he had good reason for claiming for Syria the discovery of glass.
If before this application of the molten glass the metallic leaf, whilst resting on the thin film of blown glass, was etched with a sharp point, patterns, emblems, inscriptions and pictures could be embedded and rendered permanent by the double coating of glass.
Don Sigismundo Brun is credited with the invention of permanent gilding fixed by heat.
Strains exceeding the "limit of elasticity" result in permanent deformation or (if sufficiently great) in rupture.
Column 3 shows the charge causing a permanent elongation of 0.05 mm.
The town and district form a small ethnographical island, having been peopled in the 18th century by a colony of Takruri from Darfur, who, finding the spot a convenient resting-place for their fellow-pilgrims on their way to Mecca and back, obtained permission from the negus of Abyssinia to make a permanent settlement.
Local tradition attributes the establishment of a permanent camp at this spot to Julius Caesar, but Louvain only became important in the nth century as a place of residence for the dukes of Brabant.
There are, however, no outward signs enabling us to distinguish conclusively between both categories of laws in the codes, nor is it possible to draw a line between permanent laws and personal ordinances of single sovereigns, as has been attempted in the case of Frankish legislation.
In the British army there are two kinds of chaplains, permanent and occasional.
The permanent chaplains may be Church of England, Roman Catholic, or Presbyterian; Wesleyans (if they prefer not to accept commissions) may be appointed Acting Chaplains.
But as this northern foe had failed to appear Ezekiel re-edited this prophecy in a new form as a final assault of Gog and his hosts on Jerusalem, and thus established a permanent dogma in Jewish apocalyptic, which in due course passed over into Christian.
In April 1480 a balia was formed, and its most important act was the creation at Lorenzo's instance of the Council of Seventy; it was constituted for five years, but it became permanent, and all its members were Lorenzo's friends.