How to use Perioeci in a sentence
In classical times it was a community of perioeci, politically dependent on Sparta, though doubtless with a municipal life of its own.
Lysander as ephor proposed on behalf of Agis that all debts sbould be cancelled and that Laconia should be divided into 19,500 lots, of which 4500 should be given to Spartiates, whose number was to be recruited from the best of the perioeci and foreigners, and the remaining 15,000 to perioeci who could bear arms. The Agiad king Leonidas having prevailed on the council to reject this measure, though by a majority of only one, was deposed in favour of his son-in-law Cleombrotus, who assisted Agis in bearing down opposition by the threat of force.
Though organized on similar lines, with a citizen population divided into three Dorian tribes (and one containing other elements), with a class of Perioeci (neighbouring dependents) and of serfs, the Argives had no more constant foe than their Lacedaemonian kinsmen.
The term, however, came to denote not a nationality but a political status, and though the main body of the perioeci may have been Achaean in origin, yet they afterwards included Arcadians on the northern frontier of Laconia, Dorians, especially in Cythera and in Messenia, and Ionians in Cynuria.
This last burden grew heavier as time went on; 5000 Spartiates and s000 perioec hoplites fought at Plataea in 479 B.C., but the steady decrease in the number of the Spartiates necessitated the increasing employment of the perioeci.Advertisement
Perioeci might serve as petty officers or even rise to divisional commands, especially in the fleet, but seemingly they were never set over Spartiates.
The reason of this was that, though the land which they cultivated was very unproductive, yet the prohibition which shut out every Spartiate from manufacture and commerce left the industry and trade of Laconia entirely in the hands of the perioeci.
His social reforms included a redistribution of land, the remission of debts, the restoration of the old system of training (6,ycoy17) and the admission of picked perioeci into the citizen body.
An attempt to throw off the yoke resulted in a second war, conducted by the Messenian hero Aristomenes; but Spartan tenacity broke down the resistance of the insurgents, and Messenia was made Spartan territory, just as Laconia had been, its inhabitants being reduced to the status of helots, save those who, as perioeci, inhabited the towns on the sea-coast and a few settlements inland.
This is true,whether we look on the 7rEpiouKot as Achaeans or as Dorians, or as belonging some to one race and some to the other (see Perioeci).Advertisement
Subsequently he invaded and ravaged Elis, forcing the Eleans to acknowledge the freedom of their perioeci and to allow Spartans to take part in the Olympic games and sacrifices.
The Stoic philosophers, especially Crates of Mallus, arguing from the love of nature for life, placed an oekumene in each quarter of the sphere, the three unknown worldislands being those of the Antoeci, Perioeci and Antipodes.