Periods Sentence Examples
The buildings appear to have been erected at different periods.
The following were the countries sending the largest quantities of goods (special trade) to France (during the same periods as in previous table).
The following are the principal countries receiving the exports of France (special trade), with values for the same periods.
Shipping.The following table thhows the increase in tonnage of sailing and steam shipping engaged in foreign trade entered and cleared at the ports of France over quinquennial periods from 1890.
The Territorial Army and its reserve (members of which undergo two short periods of training) are, however, allocated to local service.Advertisement
The system of studies-reorganized in 1902embraces a full curriculum of seven years, which is divided into two periods.
The " mudfish " of Queensland (Ceratodus Forsteri) belongs to an ancient order of fishes - the Dipnoi, only a few species of which have survived from past geological periods.
Among the Greeks and Romans likewise it was the liver that continued throughout all periods to play the chief role in divination through the sacrificial animal.
The church of St Mary and St Nicholas is a cruciform building in red sandstone, of the Decorated and Perpendicular periods, with a central octagonal tower.
Under the empire Arvernia formed part of Prima Aquitania, and the district shared in the fortunes of Aquitaine during the Merovingian and Carolingian periods.Advertisement
Our task is simply to furnish the general reader with an account of the types of instrumentation prevalent at various musical periods, and their relation to other branches of the art.
This latter gives the ratio of the length of the working periods to the whole time; e.g.
Hence, by inserting a break-and-make key in the circuit of the battery, coil or dynamo, the uniform noise or hum in the telephone can be cut up into periods of long and short noises, which can be made to yield the signals of the Morse alphabet.
By the use of a key in the battery circuit as well as an interrupter or current reverser, signals can be given by breaking up the continuous hum in the telephone into long and short periods.
The signals were sent by cutting up the continuous hum in the telephone into long and short periods in accordance with the Morse code by manipulating the key in the primary circuit.Advertisement
It can be shown that if two circuits, both having capacity (C) and inductance (L), are coupled together inductively, then, when oscillations are set up in one circuit, oscillations of two periods are excited in the other differing in frequency from each other and from the natural frequency of the circuit.
A reduction has been made in the charges for trunk calls at night, and calls for single periods of three minutes are allowed at half the ordinary rates between 7 p.m.
The following account is therefore mainly concerned with the periods succeeding AD.
On the 12th of July 1871, Articles 268, 269 and 270 of the Italian Penal Code were so modified as to make ecclesiastics liable to imprisonment for periods varying from six months to five years, and to fines from 1000 to 3000 lire, for spoken or written attacks against the laws of the state, or for the fomentation of disorder.
The writers mentioned dealt with Roman history as a whole; some of the annalists, however, confined themselves to shorter periods.Advertisement
If the coenosteum of Millepora be broken across, each pore-canal (perhaps better termed a polypcanal) is seen to be interrupted by a series of transverse partitions, representing successive periods of growth with separation from the underlying dead portions.
Trier had had two periods of greatness, firstly as the favourite residence of Constantine the Great and his successors in the west, and secondly as the capital of a powerful spiritual electorate.
In the introduction to his work Von der Weltseele, however, he argues in favour of the possibility of a transmutation of species in periods incommensurable with ours.
Notwithstanding the origin of organs, it still for a certain time, by reason of its want of an internal bony skeleton, remains worm and mollusk, and only later enters into the series of the Vertebrata, although traces of the vertebral column even in the earliest periods testify its claim to a place in that series."
The works on religion and philosophy especially will be of as much service for the history of ideas in these later periods as the publication of the canonical books has already been for the earlier period to which they refer.Advertisement
Aurelius was thenceforth indisputed master of the empire, during one of the most troubled periods of its history.
During the religious confusion of the Reformation, the practice of fasting was generally relaxed and it was found necessary to reassert the obligation of keeping Lent and the other periods and days of abstinence by a series of proclamations and statutes.
Starch, indeed, wherever it appears in the plant seems to be a reserve store of carbohydrate material, deposited where it is found for longer or shorter periods till it is needed for consumption.
Assimilation goes on during the whole year, except during periods of frost or when the plants are buried by snow.
The Arctic-Alpine sub-region consists of races of plants belonging originally to the general flora, and recruited by subsequent additrons, which have been specialized in low stature and great capacity of endurance to survive long dormant periods, sometimes even unbroken in successive years by the transitory activity of the brief summer.
The conception of the development of the plan of the earth from the first of cooling of the surface of the planet throughout the long geological periods, the guiding power of environment on the circulation of water and of air, on the distribution of plants and animals, and finally on the movements of man, give to geography a philosophical dignity and a scientific completeness whici it never previously possessed.
The distribution of fossils frequently makes it possible to map out approximately the general features of land and sea in long-past geological periods, and so to enable the history of crustal relief to be traced.'
He was, however, the first to show clearly that the Ratitae are the retrograde descendants of flying ancestors, that the various groups of surviving Ratitae are, as such, a polyphyletic group, and he has gone fully into the interesting question of the development and subsequent loss of the power of flight, a loss which has taken place not only in different orders of birds but also at various geological periods, and is still taking place.
Not to speak of earlier periods, a great deal has been written concerning Mantegna of late years.
Of the many pretenders to this dignity known in all periods of Moslem history the most famous was the first caliph of the Fatimite dynasty in North Africa, `Obaidallah al-Mandi, who reigned 909-933.
Until the advent of the nomads from central Asia, and the devastation of Mesopotamia and the opposite Syrian shore of the river, there were many flourishing cities along its course, the ruins of which, representing all periods, still dot its banks.
In the Byzantine and early Romanesque periods it was an essential part of church furniture; but during the middle ages it was gradually superseded in the Western Church by the pulpit and lectern.
In Poland the rocks of these periods are met with in the Kielce Mountains, and in Podolia in the deeper ravines.
In 1893 an act was passed by parliament giving the Board power to interfere if or when representations are made to them by or on behalf of any servant or class of servants of a railway company that the hours of work are unduly long, or do not provide sufficient intervals of uninterrupted rest between the periods of duty, or sufficient relief in respect of Sunday duty.
As a natural result weak railway companies in the United States have frequently been declared insolvent by the courts, owing to their inability in periods of commercial depression to meet their acknowledged obligations, and in the reorganization which has followed the shareholders have usually had to accept a loss, temporary or permanent.
But the general tendency to regulate rates by authority of the state has apparently rendered unnecessary the old plan of rate regulation through competition, even if it had not been demonstrated often and again that this form of regulation is costly for all concerned and is effective only during rare periods of direct conflict between companies.
He could only use the eye which remained to him for brief and intermittent periods, and as travelling affected his sight prejudicially he could not anticipate any personal research amongst unpublished records and historic scenes.
During the periods above mentioned the extent and boundaries of the city varied considerably.
The cathedral, originally erected in the 12th century, was reconstructed in the 15th and 16th; the façade shows traces of both periods, the Renaissance work being complete only in the lower portion.
It seems, however, most likely that the periods of time required for such changes are immense and that the changes accomplished in only a century or two are absolutely inappreciable.
Thus one may note the reshaping of older material to agree with later thought, the building up of past periods from the records of other periods, and a frequent loss of perspective.
At an age when - on literary-critical grounds - the Old Testament writings were assuming their present form, it was possible to divide the immediately preceding centuries into three distinct periods.
Tradition, in fact, is concentrated upon the rise of the Judaean dynasty under David, but there are significant periods before the rise of both Jehoash and Uzziah upon which the historical records maintain a perplexing silence.
This is especially true of the history of the exilic and post-exilic periods, where the effort is made to preserve the continuity of Israel and the Israelite community (Chronicles - Ezra - Nehemiah).
There were Jews in the Byzantine empire, in Rome, in France and Spain at very early periods, but it is with the Arab conquest of Spain that the Jews of Europe began to rival in culture and importance their brethren of the Persian gaonate.
This monumental work seems to date from the close of the Middle Minoan age, but has been re-used for interments at successive periods (Evans, Archaeologic, 1906, p. 136 sqq.).
The Phaestian palace belongs to two distinct periods, and the earlier or " Middle Minoan " part is better preserved than at Cnossus.
Four different periods may be mentioned as connected with.
Educational interests were almost entirely neglected during the colonial and territorial periods.
Hamilton's Colonial Mobile (Boston and New York, 1898), and the Colonization of the South (Philadelphia, 1904) are standard authorities for the French and English periods (1699-1781).
For the colonial and revolutionary periods there are some excellent studies.
Little is known of the early geological history of Asia beyond the fact that a large part of the continent was covered by the sea during the Cambrian and Ordovician periods.
The history of Indian civilization in Indo-China and the Archipelago is still obscure, in spite of the existence of gigantic ruins, but it would appear that in some parts at least twa periods must be distinguished, first the introduction of Hinduism (or mixed Hinduism and Buddhism), perhaps under Indian princes, and secondly a later and more purely ecclesiastical.
The country was at most periods independent though nominally tributary to China.
Two periods may be distinguished, namely the Turki (120o-1526) and the Mogul empire.
Three periods can be traced in the history of the Asiatic Malays.
These highlands exhibit very considerable evidences of volcanic activity both in remote geological periods and also since the Tertiary epoch.
He managed also to hear Blackstone's lectures at Oxford, but says that he immediately detected the fallacies which underlay the rounded periods of the future judge.
The average results show that, under all conditions of manuring - excepting with farmyard manure - the produce was less over the later than over the earlier periods of the experiments, an effect partly due to the seasons.
The trend of the import trade in meat, live and dead (exclusive of rabbits), may be gathered from Table XVII., in which are given the annual average imports from the eight quinquennial periods embraced between 1866 and 1905.
For short historical periods, indeed, many phenomena are so remotely connected with the ordinary business of life that we may ignore them.
This condition cannot be realized without great difficulty, for " economic motives " are very different in different periods, nations and classes, and even for short periods of time in the same country are modified by the influence of other motives of an entirely different order.
They vary for different periods, and are not the same for all branches of economics.
But all three periods require to be kept in view to form a just estimate of Bruce.
Works dealing mainly with particular periods.
The American explorations of the Argive Heraeum, concluded in 1895, also failed to prove that site to have been important in the prehistoric time, though, as was to be expected from its neighbourhood to Mycenae itself, there were traces of occupation in the later Aegean periods.
Weapons, food, water, unguents and various trinkets were laid with the corpse at all periods.
On the whole, Aegean art, at its two great periods, in the middle of the 3rd and 2nd millennia respectively, will bear comparison with any contemporary arts.
We are now in the beginning of the Bronze Age, and the first of Evans's "Minoan" periods (see Crete).
Thereafter, by exact observation of stratification, eight more periods have been distinguished by the explorer of Cnossus, each marked by some important development in the universal and necessary products of the potter's art, the least destructible and therefore most generally used archaeological criterion.
These periods fill the whole Bronze Age, with whose close, by the introduction of the superior metal, iron, the Aegean Age is conventionally held to end.
About institutions we have less certain knowledge, there being but little evidence for the earlier periods; but in the documents relating to religion, the most significant of all, it can at least be said that there is no trace of sharp change.
There are, however, in certain respects at certain periods, evidences of such changes as might be due to the intrusion of small conquering castes, which adopted the superior civilization of the conquered people and became assimilated to the latter.
From the skullforms studied, it would appear, as we should expect, that the Aegean race was by no means pure even in the earlier Minoan periods.
He is usually dated about 1900 B.C. This brings us to the next and most certain synchronism, that of Minoan Periods III.
These serve to date, beyond all reasonable question, Periods III.
During the periods the cottons have been cultivated, selection, conscious or unconscious, has been carried on, resulting in the raising, from the same stock probably, in different places, of well-marked forms, which, in the absence of the history of their origin, might be regarded as different species.
By 1884, however, the advantages of " settlement terms " became so evident that they were adopted by the Cotton Association, at first for fortnightly periods, with the saving clause originally that they should not be compulsory.
Average Quantities of Raw Cotton imported Annually into the United Kingdom from the following Countries in the Periods 1896-1900 and 1901-1904.
It should be pointed out that the deposits which have been hitherto of chief commercial importance occur in the old rocks (Carboniferous to Silurian) on the one hand, and in the comparatively new Tertiary formations on the other, the intermediate periods yielding but little or at any rate far less abundantly.
The heat of summer (December-March, which is the rainy season) is tempered by cool breezes; winter (MaySeptember, inclusive) is dry, cold and bracing, and frost prevails for prolonged periods.
Both husband and wife were extreme examples of the licentious manners of the time, but they not unfrequently lived together for considerable periods, and nearly always on good terms. Later, however, Marguerite was established in the castle of Usson in Auvergne, and after the accession of Henry the marriage was dissolved by the pope.
In this neighbourhood were found a great number of tombs containing vases of all periods, which furnish a marvellous record of the development of Attic ceramic art.
While taking the title, the idea of division by periods and the subjects of most of the meditations from the older work, Ignatius skilfully adapted it to his own requirements.
Taken by the Spaniards in 1587 Zutphen was recovered by Maurice, prince of Orange, in 1591, and except for two short periods, one in 1672 and the other during the French Revolutionary Wars, it has since then remained a part of the United Netherlands.
Clevedon Court is a remarkable medieval mansion, dating originally from the early part of the 14th century, though much altered in the Elizabethan and other periods.
The chief exports are raw cotton, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, hides and lac. The exports of wheat are liable to extreme fluctuations, especially during famine periods.
Moreover, the work was intended to be in one act, and is now so performed at Bayreuth; and, although it is very long for a one-act opera, this is certainly the only form which does justice to Wagner's conception.1 Spohr's appreciation of Der fliegende Hollander is a remarkable point in musical history; and his criticism that Wagner's style (in Tannhauser) " lacked rounded periods " shows the best effect of that style on a well-disposed contemporary mind.
In Mesopotamia more than any other country literary results have been regarded as archaeology, owing to the enormous mass of the written material recovered, which has caused the study of the art and general civilization of different periods to be neglected in comparison with the same subjects in Egypt.
There are, however, a number of works, beautifully illustrated, which deal fully with particular periods of the subject.
At various periods in the history of the middle ages we encounter sudden outbreaks of millennarianism, sometimes as the tenet of a small sect, sometimes as a far-reaching movement.
It was in far later periods and in other countries that the appearance of the dogstar was regarded as the signal of insufferable heat or prevalent disease.
In the early periods of the history of other countries this seems to have been the case even where the dog was esteemed and valued, and had become the companion, the friend and the defender of man and his home; and in the and century of the Christian era Arrian wrote that "there is as much difference between a fair trial of speed in a good run, and ensnaring a poor animal without an effort, as between the secret piratical assaults of robbers at sea and the victorious naval engagements of the Athenians at Artemisium and at Salamis."
In the early periods of their history the Greeks depended too much on their nets to capture game, and it was not until later times that they pursued their prey with dogs, and then not with greyhounds, which run by sight, but with beagles, the dwarf hound which is still very popular.
Some of them imitated the Hebrew prophets in the performance of symbolic acts of denunciation, foretelling or warning, going barefoot, or in sackcloth or undress, and, in a few cases, for brief periods, altogether naked; even women in some cases distinguished themselves by extravagance of conduct.
There is no evidence to show that they were in any way connected with any of the plots of the Commonwealth or Restoration periods.
The penal laws under which Friends suffered may be divided chronologically into those of the Commonwealth and the Restoration periods.
The periods of silence are regarded as times of worship equally with those occupied with vocal service, inasmuch as Friends hold that robustness of spiritual life is best promoted by earnest striving on the part of each one to know the will of God for xI.
At certain periods this doctrine, pushed to an extreme, has led to a practical undervaluing of the Scriptures, but of late times it has enabled Friends to face fearlessly the conclusions.
During the past few years a new movement has been started in the shape of lecture schools, lasting for longer or shorter periods, for the purpose of studying Biblical,.
The Book of Discipline in its successive printed editions from 1783 to 1906 contains the working rules of the organization, and also a compilation of testimonies borne by the Society at different periods, to important points of Christian truth, and often called forth by the special circumstances of the time.
Though slaves were obtained by the early victories of Rome over her Italian neighbours, no large number was employed on the small holdings of those periods.
The nature of the engagements to go and work on the plantations was not fully explained to them, and they were hired for periods exceeding the legal term.
The popular accounts of the persecution for which he was responsible are no doubt exaggerated, and it sometimes ceased for considerable periods so far as capital punishments were concerned.
The building of Cairo in 969, and, above all, the discovery of the route to the East by the Cape of Good Hope in 1498, nearly ruined its commerce; the canal, which supplied it with Nile water, became blocked; and although it remained a principal Egyptian port, at which most European visitors in the Mameluke and Ottoman periods landed, we hear little of it until about the beginning of the 19th century.
As a scholar, he failed to recognize the distinctions between different periods of antiquity and various schools of thought.
The very large number of classical and other Greek papyri, of the Ptolemaic and later periods, which have been recovered in Egypt, are noticed in the article on Palaeography.
In some of the catacombs, however, there are larger halls and connected suites of chapels which may possibly have been constructed for the purpose of congregational worship during the dark periods when the public exercise of the Christian religion was made penal.
To these stormy periods we may safely assign the alterations which may be traced in the staircases, which a.re sometimes abruptly cut off, leaving a gap requiring a ladder, and the formation of secret passages communicating with the arenariae, and through them with the open country.
All the so-called " giant cities of Bashan " without exception are now known to be Greco-Roman, not earlier than the time of Herod, and, though in themselves of very high architectural and historical interest, have no connexion whatever with the more ancient periods.
Politically his rule was marked by the proclamation at Santiago in 1836, without his consent, of the Spanish constitution of 1834; he repressed the movement, and in 1837 the deputies of Cuba to the Cortes of Spain (to which they were admitted in the two earlier constitutional periods) were excluded from that body, and it was declared in the national constitution that Cuba (and Porto Rico) should be governed by " special laws."
Table A gives the produce of the revenues in 1881-1882, the last year of the administration of the " Galata Bankers," the average product of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth quinquennial periods since the public council was established, and of the year 1907-1908.
The cultivators, on the other hand, may not plant tobacco without permits from the regie, although the power of refusing a permit, except to known smugglers or persons of notoriously bad conduct, seems to be doubtful; nor may they sell to any purchaser, unless for export, except to the regie, while they are bound to deposit the whole of the tobacco crops which they raise in any one year in the entrepots of the regie before the month of August of the year following, [[Table A]].-Showing Revenues ceded to Ottoman Public Debt Administration at Various Periods to 1907-1908.
The Bulgarians, Bosnians and Servians had at different periods invaded and conquered the territories inhabited by them; the Albanians, original natives of their land, were governed by princes of their own.
Much valuable information is to into three periods, which may be termed respectively the pre-classical, the classical and the post-classical.
The works of the old school in all its periods are entirely Persian in tone, sentiment and form.
It is comparatively modern, built at different periods, a large and confused structure without proportion, beauty or strength.
Before the publication of Lavisse's great work, Dareste's general history of France was the best of its kind; it surpassed in accuracy the work of Henri Martin, especially in the ancient periods, just as Martin's in its turn was an improvement upon that of Sismondi.
The chief features of the museum are collections of the fossils, birds and flora of Wales and of obsolete Welsh domestic appliances, casts of the pre-Norman monuments of Wales, and reproductions of metal and ivory work illustrating various periods of art and civilization.
Such is this famous work, full of obscurities, redundancies and contradictions, in which the thread of the argument is sometimes lost in a labyrinth of reasonings and citations, both sacred and profane, but which nevertheless expresses, both in religion and politics, such audacious and novel ideas that it has been possible to trace in it, as it were, a rough sketch of the doctrines developed during the periods of the Reformation and of the French Revolution.
Given, then, that the variations in tide-generating force are big enough, the periods when the maxima occur will be critical with regard to oceanographical and meteorological phenomena.
There will be great outbursts of polar ice, but this will melt at higher latitudes than in the periods when the tide-generating force is minimal.
Interesting speculations as to the periods of origin of great coral reefs have been made by Wayland Vaughan, Andrews and Daly and Humphreys.
When the warmer interglacial periods recurred the polar and continental ice-caps melted and the sea-level became raised again - that is, there was submergence of the eroded plateaux formed as indicated above.
The antiquities found were of three main periods, all preceding the Mycenean age of Greece.
At various periods there were proselytes to Judaism.
Thus, at the age of three-and-thirty, this naturally indolent and self-indulgent woman, with little knowledge and no experience of affairs, suddenly found herself at the head of a great empire at one of the most critical periods of its existence.
These trenches have for successive geological periods been the drainage valleys of immense lakes (probably also of glaciers) which formerly extended over the plateau or fiords of the seas which surrounded it.
Finally, the laws of distribution of animals over Siberia cannot be made out until the changes undergone by its surface during the Glacial and Lacustrine periods are well established and the Post-Tertiary fauna is better known The remarkable finds of Quaternary mammals about Omsk and their importance for the history of the Equidae are merely a slight indication of what may be expected in this field.
These new invaders likewise left numerous traces of their sojourn, and two different periods may be easily distinguished in their remains.
Spain ranked second in 1850 with about 47,000 tons; this was increased in 1863, 1876 and in 1888 to 84,000, 127,000 and 187,000 tons respectively; but the maximum outputs mentioned were preceded and succeeded by periods of depression.
His treatise was remarkable, not only as offering a satisfactory explanation of the coincidence between the lunar periods of rotation and revolution, but as containing the first employment of his radical formula of mechanics, obtained by combining with the principle of d'Alembert that of virtual velocities.
During the Triassic and Jurassic periods even the basin of the Amazon appears to have been dry land.
The university of Edinburgh, the youngest of the Scottish universities, was founded in 1583 by a royal charter granted by James IV., and its rights, immunities and privileges have been remodelled, ratified and extended at various periods.
It is divisible into two well-marked periods - the first extending to the end of the 12th century and embracing as its chief names Roscellinus, Anselm, William of Champeaux and Abelard, while the second extended from the beginning of the 13th century to the Renaissance and the general distraction of men's thoughts from the problems and methods of Scholasticism.
For works on special periods see the separate articles on the sovereigns and other notabilities of Hungary.
The next three literary periods stand in special relationship to one another, and are sometimes regarded as the same.
Magyar history is indebted to Paul Jaszay for his careful working out of certain special periods, as, for instance, in his A Magyar nemzet napjai a legregibb idOtOl az arany bullaig (Days of the Hungarian nation from the earliest times to the date of the Golden Bull).
When sin 0 = 2A/a, the phases range one and a half periods, and there is revival of illumination.
He constructed gratings up to 340 periods to the inch by straining fine wire over screws.
The dark lines which separate the bands are the places at which the phases of the secondary wave range over an integral number of periods.
The country suffers also from periods of excessive heat and general drought, while locusts occasionally sweep over the land, devouring every green thing.
The first of these periods saw the severest fighting of the campaign.
Fontenelle forms a link between two very widely different periods of French literature, that of Corneille, Racine and Boileau on the one hand, and that of Voltaire, D'Alembert and Diderot on the other.
Rank has accounted for much, and ceremonial dress - the apparel Romans, naturally left its mark, and there have been ages of increasing luxury followed by periods of reaction, with a general levelling and nationalization on religious grounds (Judaism, Islam).
He applied himself to the study of the early French chroniclers, and proposed to publish extracts which would throw light on the first periods of the monarchy.
The south wall of Epipolae, considerable remains of which exist, shows traces of different periods in its construction, and was probably often restored.2 It is built of rectangular blocks of limestone generally quarried on the spot, about 53 ft.
But the intellectual thread is naturally traced with greater difficulty than that which is the theme of civil history; and in periods such as that from the 5th to the 10th century in Europe it is almost lost.
The character of modern medicine cannot be summed in a word, as, with more or less aptness, that of some previous periods may be.
The Rhine connects the highest Alps with the mud banks of Holland, and touches in its course the most varied geological periods; but the river valley itself is, geologically speaking, of comparatively recent formation.
In architecture of the Norman and Gothic periods London must be considered rich, though its richness is poverty 1 1as- when its losses, particularly during the great fire of 1666, tical are recalled.
The following table shows the average birthrate and death-rate per thousand at stated periods.
During these periods other companies had a surplus of water, and in 1899 an act was passed providing for the interconnexion of systems. The Thames and Lea are the principal sources of supply, but the Kent and (partially) the New River Company draw supplies from springs.
At these central theatres successful plays are allowed to " run " for protracted periods, but there are numerous fine houses in other parts of London which are generally occupied by a succession of touring companies presenting either revivals of popular plays or plays successful at the moment in the central theatres.
We know the size of London at different periods and are able to guess to some extent as to the number of its inhabitants, but most of the figures which have come down to us are mere guesses.
Although there were fluctuations in the numbers at different periods there is evidence to show that on the average the amount of forty to fifty thousand fixed by Dr Creighton for the years between 1189 and 1509 is fairly correct.
One of the first periods of increase was after the dissolution of the religious houses; another period of increase was after the Restoration.
For short periods the mineral may remain in the mine cars, or may be loaded into railway wagons held at the mine for this purpose.
The defending side, in fact, came to be in a much more favourable position than was the attacking side in respect to diminishing the strain that is always experienced by fighting personnel when in close contact with an enemy even during periods of virtual inactivity.
Of Metternich, Stadion's successor, he had at the outset no high opinion, and it was not till 1812 that there sprang up between the two men the close relations that were to ripen into life-long friendship. But when Gentz returned to Vienna as Metternich's adviser and henchman, he was no longer the fiery patriot who had sympathized and corresponded with Stein in the darkest days of German depression and in fiery periods called upon all Europe to free itself from foreign rule.
Net fisheries, worked by licence-holders in the principal rivers and along the sea-shore, are not nearly so profitable as the closed fisheries - called In - which are from time to time sold by auction for fixed periods of years.
The word is applied to any group of one hundred, and more particularly to a period of a hundred years, and to the successive periods of a hundred years, dating before or after the birth of Christ.
We can trace three periods in the art of these bas-reliefs; it is vigorous but simple under Assur-nazir-pal III., careful and realistic under Sargon, refined but wanting in boldness under Assur-bani-pal.
It will be convenient to begin with the later historical periods, and then to push our inquiry back into the earlier periods of Babylonian and Sumerian history.
Thus all historians are agreed with regard to the Babylonian chronology back to the year 747 B.C., and with regard to that of Assyria back to the year 911 B.C. It is in respect of the periods anterior to these two dates that different writers have propounded differing systems of chronology, and, as might be imagined, the earlier the period we examine the greater becomes the discrepancy between the systems proposed.
This omission is much to be regretted, since Nabonassar was the last king but two of this dynasty, and, had we known its duration, we could have combined the information on the earlier periods furnished by the Kings' List with the evidence of the Ptolemaic Canon.
Having first fixed the date of the close of Dynasty III., they employed the figures of the Kings' List unemended for defining the earlier periods, and did not attempt to reconcile their results with other conflicting data.
Besides the divine element, proper names as a rule in the Babylonian-Assyrian periods had a verbal form attached and a third element representing an object.
In the case of texts from the oldest historical periods we encounter hundreds of names that are genuinely Sumerian, and here in view of the multiplicity of the phonetic values attaching to the signs used it is frequently difficult definitely to determine the reading of the names.
The law is a compilation, the various chapters were composed at different periods, and we do not possess the original form of the compilation.
In the present survey we shall limit ourselves to the great formative periods in this literature - in Judaism to 200 B.C. t0 A.D.
But the above periods came and passed by, and again the expectations of the Jews were disappointed.
Furthermore, the visionary who is found at most periods of great spiritual excitement was forced by the prejudice of his time, which refused to acknowledge any inspiration in the present, to ascribe his visionary experiences and reinterpretations of the mysterious traditions of his people to some heroic figure of the past.
He was received with enthusiasm on returning to Florence and became absolute master ' The history of Florence from 1434 to 1737 will be found in greater detail in the article Medici, save for the periods from 1494 to 1512 and from 1527 to 1530, during which the republic was restored.
When, in April 1908, Mr Asquith became premier, and Mr Lloyd George chancellor of the exchequer, the sugar convention The world's trade in cane and beet sugar in tons avoirdupois at decennial periods from 1840 to 1870, inclusive, and yearly from 1871 to 1901 inclusive, with the percentage of beet sugar and the average price per cwt.
Remains of the city walls, with traces of one gate and several towers, of a total length of over 3 m., still exist, and belong to three different periods, in all of which the crystalline limestone of the locality is used.
Similar conditions have produced an organization which may be called feudal, in various countries, and in widely separated periods of history.
The Sabaean rule is generally divided into periods indicated by the titles given to their rulers.
The historical interval that separated these two events is treated as naturally dividing itself into three great periods, - those of Moses, David and Ezra.
The periods are externally indicated by the successive names by which the chosen people were called - Hebrews, Israelites, Jews.
The greater part of Tunisia is composed of sandstones, marls and loosely stratified deposits belonging to the Pliocene and Quaternary periods.
Ship and boat building, together with subsidiary industries, such as rope and sail making, appear less subject to periods of depression than other industries.
It is likely that the name was differently understood in different periods and.
The number of cercariae produced by the pullulating rediae in a single water-snail is immense, and as they are emitted at a given period or a few successive periods, the snail at these times appears enclosed in a cloud of whitish flocculent matter.
This view of the distinction seems to be borne out by the division of the work of Tacitus into the Historiae, relating the events of his own time, and the Annales, containing the history of earlier periods.
Painting in Verona may be divided into four periods.
The central lake, during the periods of eruption (which are frequent), displays a geyser-like activity.
There had, indeed, been five periods of declining population in that interval of 124 years, namely, the periods 1738 1744, 1759-1762, 1773-1774, 1791-1792, and I 8441846.
Accurate reviewers of the era have divided it into periods of two or three years each, according to the various groups of foreign authors that were in vogue, and every year sees a large addition to the number of Japanese who study the masterpieces of Western literature in the original.
The development of Japanese painting may be divided into the following six periods, each signalized by a wave of progress.
Setting aside rude prehistoric essays in stone and metal, which have special interest for the antiquary, we have examples of sculpture in wood and metal, magnificent in conception and technique, dating from the earliest periods of what we may term historical Japan; that is, from near the beginning of the great Buddhist propaganda under the emperor Kimmei (540571) and the princely hierarch, ShOtoku Taishi (573621).
During the first of these periods he deepened his unpopularity by assailing the undoubted prerogatives of the crown, by claiming for the House of Commons the right to override not only the king and the Lords but the opinion of the country, and by resisting a dissolution.
In estimating this wonderful productiveness on the part of a man sixty years old, it should be remembered that it was a habit of Defoe's to keep his work in manuscript sometimes for long periods.
During such periods of excitement it is even able, by the pressure of the muscles on the poison-duct, to eject the fluid to some distance; hence it shares with the cobra a third Dutch name, that of "spuw slang" (spitting snake).
His literary activity extends over about thirty years and naturally divides itself into three periods, each marked by a distinct character.
In the two preceding periods the rapid diffusion of literary culture following the Social War and the first Civil War was seen to awaken into new life the elements of original genius in Italy and Cisalpine Gaul.
All the art of his ornate and courtly periods cannot disguise the fact that there was nothing now for paganism to say.
The remaining history may be broken up into two periods, the first from 371 to 357, the second from 357 to 338.
Throughout these two periods, which saw the decline and final dissolution of the alliance, there is very little specific evidence for its existence.
But the comparative study of religions has suggested the lines of reconstitution and the careful analysis of survivals embedded in literature and the evidence of monumental remains, and in particular of the old calendars, has enabled modern scholars to make good progress in the task of separating the elements due to different periods and influences.
The average annual world's production for certain periods from 1801 to 1880 in ounces is given in Table I.
Having in general shared the fortunes of Aquitaine during the Merovingian and Carolingian periods, Agenais next became an hereditary countship in the part of the country now called Gascony (Vasconia).
Next come the various kinds of inhumation graves, the most important of which are rock-hewn chambers, many of which contain well-preserved paintings of various periods; some show close kinship to archaic Greek art, while others are more recent, and one, the Grotta del Tifone (so called from the typhons, or winged genii of death, represented) in which Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions appear, belongs perhaps to the middle of the 4th century B.C. Fine sarcophagi from these tombs, some showing traces of painting, are preserved in the municipal museum, and also numerous fine Greek vases, bronzes and other objects.
Frivolous, selfish, avaricious and fond of luxury, she used her influence, during the different periods when she was invested with the regency, not for the public welfare, but mainly in her own personal interest.
The average rainfall is in.; it is, however, uncertain; periods of drought have extended over three years.
Those that have been mentioned seem to have been sanctuaries (some of them in part dwelling-places), but Halsaflieni was an enormous ossuary, of which others may have existed in other parts of the island; for the numerous rock-cut tombs which are everywhere to be seen belong to the Phoenician and Roman periods.
In Augustus' time Tegea was the only important town of Arcadia, but its history throughout the Roman and Byzantine periods is obscure; it ceased to exist as a Greek city after the Gothic invasion of 395.
Hence it has been a practice, very extensively followed, to employ cycles or periods, consisting of a moderate number of years, and to distinguish and reckon the years by their number in the cycle.
There are, no doubt, gaps in the record; there are long periods for which the chronology is still uncertain.
These fragments have until recently, however, given us our only clue to the earlier periods of Egyptian history.
As to the exact dates of early Egyptian history there is rather more of vagueness than for the corresponding periods of Mesopotamia.
As, one after another, the various tablets and cylinders and annalistic tablets have been translated, it has become increasingly clear that here are almost inexhaustible fountains of knowledge, and that sooner or later it may be possible to check the Hebrew accounts of the most important periods of their history with contemporaneous accounts written from another point of view.
As yet we see these periods somewhat darkly.
But it is necessary to notice here the different Eras and Periods that have been employed by historians, and by the different nations of the world, in recording the succession of time and events, to fix the epochs at which the eras respectively commenced, to ascertain the form and the initial day of the year made use of, and to establish their correspondence with the years of the Christian era.
It is material to observe, that as the Olympic years and periods begin with the 1st of July, the first six months of a year of our era correspond to one Olympic year, and the last six months to another.
Since five Olympic periods have elapsed, the third year of the sixth Olympiad is 5X4+3=23; therefore, subtracting 23 from 776, we have 753, which is the year before Christ to which the foundation of Rome is referred by Varro.
This method of reckoning time is more convenient than those which employ cycles or periods of any length whatever; but it still fails to satisfy in the simplest manner possible all the conditions that are necessary for registering the succession of events.
Each of these periods, which is denominated a tsee, is subdivided into two equal portions called chung-ki and tsie-ki, the chung-ki denoting the first half of the tse, and the tsie-ki the latter half.
The periods thus formed are called by the Chinese Nien-hao.
For the first century and a half of his special period he is mainly occupied with a review of classical learning, and he adopts the plan of taking short decennial periods and noticing the most remarkable works which they produced.
Thus in the period 1520-1550 we have separate chapters on ancient literature, theology, speculative philosophy and jurisprudence, the literature of taste, and scientific and miscellaneous literature; and the subdivisions of subjects is carried further of course in the later periods.
Sweeping theories of the movement of society, and broad characterizations of particular periods of history seem to have no attraction for him.
Though a few later authorities, such as Epiphanius and Theophylact, assign the book to earlier or later periods, the main body of early Christian tradition attests the date of its composition in the closing years of Domitian.
The present church is baroque in style, but contains some works of art of earlier periods.
The philosophy of Fichte, worked out in a series of writings, and falling chronologically into two distinct periods, that of Jena and that of Berlin, seemed in the course of its development to undergo a change so fundamental that many critics have sharply separated and opposed to one another an earlier and a later phase.
The rainfall is also very unequal in distribution throughout the year, as also between the same periods of different years, and as between the different parts of the state.
When at the beginning of the 16th century the Portuguese obtained possession of the towns along the East African coast, they had been, for periods extending in some cases fully five hundred years, under Arab dominion.
In the first of the two periods the intellectual activity was of a purely literary and scientific nature.
Taking quinquennial periods from1856-1905the birth-rates were 29.5, 25.3, 26 o, 27.6, 24.2, 25.0, 25.8, 27.6, 27.0 and 24.2 per r,000; and the death-rates 17.7, 20.7, 18.2, 20 8, 18.8,19.8, 19.4, 19.8, r 8 o and 16.4.
The marriage rates in quinquennial periods up to 1905 were 19.6, 18.6, 21.0, 19.8, 15.6, 18.6, 18.6, 18.6, 17.4 and 17.4; the ratio of marriages to the marriageable population was for males (above 16 years) 61.5, for females (above 14) 46.0; the fecundity of marriages seemed to have increased, being about twice as high for foreigners as for natives.
During three periods, 1701-1702, in February 1715, and from April to August 1757 the affairs of the colony were administered by the Executive Council.
It is inherently not improbable that a recollection has been preserved of Philistine oppressions in the 1 ith century, but it is extremely difficult to sketch any adequate sequence of events, and among the conflicting traditions are situations equally applicable to later periods of hostility.
In many parts the Benedictine Rule met the much stricter Irish Rule of Columbanus, introduced by the Irish missionaries on the continent, and after brief periods, first of conflict and then of fusion, it gradually absorbed and supplanted it; thus during the 8th century it became, out of Ireland and other purely Celtic lands, the only rule and form of monastic life throughout western Europe, - so completely that Charlemagne once asked if there ever had been any other monastic rule.
Other governments known as captain-generalships were cut out of the viceroyalties at different periods - Guatemala in 1527, Venezuela in 1773, Cuba in 1777 and Chile in 1778.
And though in recent years Spanish America has seemingly settled down, and republican institutions have followed upon long periods of continual revolution, yet over the American continent as a whole there is an overwhelming predominance, material and intellectual, of the communities of English speech and politically of English origin.
In larger or smaller numbers of cognate kindred, for shorter or longer periods of time, near or far from home, the aborigines developed their legislatures, courts, armies, secret societies and priesthoods.
It was finished early in the 16th century; and thus the cathedral belongs to two distinct periods and represents two distinct styles.
He was for two periods president of the Directory, but on the coup d'etat of the 18th Fructidor (1797) was forced to take refuge abroad.
Later, he spent long periods on the intertropical coasts of Africa and America, and again among the snows of Spitzbergen.
In 1820 a sixth age class was introduced for free white males, an age classification of four periods was applied to the free coloured and the slaves of each sex, and the number of aliens and of persons engaged in agriculture, in manufactures and in commerce was called for.
To ascertain the facts we must await the tabulation of the population by periods of life, and ascertain how many of the inhabitants of the United States of 7890 were under ten years of age."
Roughly speaking, both the political and the industrial history of the colony from 1879 to 1 9 08 may be divided into two periods.
During the Persian and Greek periods the doctrine of angels underwent a great development, partly, at any rate, under foreign influences.
But the rulers named can be assigned to three periods, according as they bear the title " mukrab of Saba," " king of Saba," or " king of Saba and Raidan."
Further, the greater the dissipation of energy the less is the prominence of the amplitude of vibration for exact coincidence over the amplitude when the periods are not quite the same, though it is still the greatest for coincidence.
According to Helmholtz, the ear probably contains within it a series of resonators, with small intervals between the periods of the successive members, while the series extends over the whole range of audible pitch.
It is the prevailing wind of winter in the mountains and in consequence the periods of cold, though often severe, are short.
The typical speeches in Chronicles are of little value for the periods to which they relate, and where they are inconsistent with the evidence from earlier writings or contain inherent improbabilities are scarcely of historical worth.
Some of the definitions would apply to the authority of powerful religious bodies in certain periods of history, or of illegal associations, such as the Mafia, which have terrorized the community.
But this is not the original picture, and, since very contradictory representations of Solomon's reign can be clearly discerned, it is necessary in the first instance to view them in the light of an independent examination of the history of the preceding and following periods where, again, serious fluctuation of standpoint is found.
It embraces the Hindu and Mahommedan periods, and is still a work of high authority.
A characteristic peculiarity of the process is that the claims of the Roman see were always in advance of the actual facts and always encountered opposition; though there were many periods - at the height of the middle ages, for instance - when the voices raised in protest were only timid and hesitating.
Other tribes, whose presence is probably owing to immigration at remote or recent periods, are the Karens of the western frontier range, the Lu, Yao, Yao Yin, Meo and Musur of northern Siam.
It is now known, however, that" Siam "or" Sayam "is one of the most ancient names of the country, and that at least a thousand years ago it was in common use, such titles as Swankalok-Sukhotai, Shahr-i-nao, Dwarapuri, Ayuthia, the last sometimes corrupted to" Judea,"by which the kingdom has been known at various periods of its history, being no more than the names of the different capital cities whose rulers in turn brought the land under their sway.
The production of dates in Egypt, by bringing two kinds of flowers into contact, proves that in very remote periods some notions were entertained on the subject.
This Land Act was to be carried out in a series of successive periods, during the first of which only estates over 5,000 hectares (12,350 ac.) would be affected.
The names of Hus, Chelcicky and Comenius (Komensky) are connected with the pre-Renaissance religious periods.
The days of scrutiny varied at different periods from three to seven.
The tariff history of the United States, like that of European countries, divides itself into two great periods, before and after the year 1860.
This very characteristic larva is termed a planula, but though very uniform externally, the planulae of different species, or of the same species at different periods, do not always represent the same stage of embryonic development internally.
For works relating to the Sobieskian, Saxon and Partitional periods of Polish history, the reader is referred to the bibliographical notes appended to the biographies of John III., king of Poland, Michal Czartoryski, Stanislaus II., Tadeusz Andrzej Kosciuszko, Jozef Poniatowski, and the other chief actors of these periods.
In Kaczkowski the Poles found a novelist who treated many periods of their history with great success.
Numerous graves, both from the pagan and the Christian periods, the latter containing more than 2000 skeletons, with a great number of small articles, were discovered in the same year in the same neighbourhood.
Quantities can be learned from experience, and from watching individual cases; frequency varies within very wide limits, from reptiles which at most may feed once a week and fast for long periods, to the smaller insectivorous birds which require to be fed every two or three hours, and which in the winter dark of northern latitudes must be lighted up once or twice in the night to have the opportunity of feeding.
Among the Tertiary volcanic rocks those of acid types (granites, granulites) were the first to appear and are developed latitudinally; rocks of intermediate type (dacites, andesites) characterize the Miocene and early Pliocene periods; while the basic rocks (ophites, elaeolite syenites and basalts) attained their maximum in later Pliocene and Quaternary times.
Attempts by the French to improve the education of the natives were at first marked by hesitation and long periods in which little or nothing was done.
At various periods of his life he occupied himself with scientific invention.
It would seem as though we could roughly divide the history of the text in Alexandria into three periods.
It will be seen that these periods are of more or less the same length, namely, six (or seven) years, five years, six years.
There is, therefore, some slight presumption that the three earlier periods, which together cover about fifteen years, were intended by so artistic a writer as St Luke to mark each some similar lapse of time.
It is divided into four books, treating successively of the Roman, the Pictish, the Scottish and the Scoto-Saxon periods, from 80 to 1306 A.D.
He lived at Cnossus for periods of nine years, at the end of which he retired into a sacred cave, where he received instruction from Zeus in the legislation which he gave to the island.
The last two branches of inquiry are regarded as forming but a single body of doctrine in the well-known passage of the Theory of Moral Sentiments in which the author promises to give in another discourse "an account of the general principles of law and government, and of the different revolutions they have undergone in the different ages and periods of society, not only in what concerns justice, but in what concerns police, revenue and arms, and whatever else is the subject of law."
Money, however, is in men's actual transactions the measure of value, as well as the vehicle of exchange; and the precious metals are best suited for this function, as varying little in their own value for periods of moderate length; for distant times, corn is a better standard of comparison.
In relation to the earliest social stage, we need consider nothing but the amount of labour employed in the production of an article as determining its exchange value; but in more advanced periods price is complex, and consists in the most general case of three elements - wages, profit and rent.
He remarks in a just historical spirit that the performance of these functions requires very different degrees of expense in the different periods of society.
Invertebrate fossils employed for the definite division of all the great periods of time.
Thus the recapitulation law, which had been built up independently from the observations and speculations on vertebrates by Lorenz Ofen (1779-1851), Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), St Hilaire, Karl Ernst von Baer (1;92-1876) and others, and had been applied (1842-1843) by Karl Vogt (1817-1895) and Agassiz, in their respective fields of observation, to comparison of individual stages with the adults of the same group in preceding geological periods, furnished the key to the determination of the ancestry of the invertebrates generally.
Closely connected with palaeogeography is zoogeography, the animal distribution of past periods.
Among the ammonites of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods types occur which in their external appearance so closely resemble each other that they could be taken for members of a single series, and not infrequently have been taken for species of the same genus and even for the same species; but their early stages of development and, in fact, their entire individual history prove them to be distinct and not infrequently to belong to widely separated genetic series.
Williams observes (Geological Biology, p. 268) that the evolution of those fundamental characters which mark differences between separate classes, orders, sub-orders, and even families of organisms, took place in relatively short periods of time.
Deperet notes that the genus Neumayria, an ammonite of the Kimmeridgian, suddenly branches out into an explosion" of forms. Deperet also observes the contrast between periods of quiescence and limited variability and periods of sudden efflorescence.
Great waves of extinction have followed the long periods of the slow evolution of relatively inadaptive types of tooth and foot structure, as first demonstrated by Waldemar Kowalevsky; thus mammals are repeatedly observed in a cul-de-sac of structure from which there is no escape in an adaptive direction.
According to Humboldt's theory there is a deep rent in the earth's crust about the 19th parallel through which at different periods the underground fires have broken at various points between the largest of this class, and has the town and port of Carmen at its western extremity.
The characteristic civilization of prehistoric Mexico, however, antedates both of these periods.
Other loans and obligations contracted during periods of disorder were afterwards consolidated under this type, and later on unpaid railway subsidies were also included.
It is plain that this rotation of signs served no, useful purpose whatever, being less convenient than ordinary counting such as the Mexicans employed in their other calendar already mentioned, where the 20-day periods had each a name like our' months, and their days had signs in regular order.
From the accounts given by Landa and other writers it is plain that the Central-American calendar, reckoning the year in twenty-eight periods of thirteen days, was the same in its principle of combining signs as that of Mexico.
The explorations made by Dr Lehmann in 1909 in the famous ruins of Teotihuacan, near Mexico city throw new light upon certain chronological problems. Like the excavations made by Dr Max Uhle in Peru, they tend to determine the relative antiquity of the different periods of the ancient civilization.
The life of the parasites while in the insect is characterized by an alternation of active periods, during which multiplication goes on, with resting-periods, when the Trypanosomes become attached to the epithelial cells of the host.
The indifferent parasites exhibit an alternation of resting, attached phases with active periods, during which they multiply actively and become very abundant in the insect.
This extraordinary production is memorable as having announced the discovery of the "third law" - that of the sesquiplicate ratio between the planetary periods and distances.
For short periods, also, he studied in the academies of Strafford, N.H., Wolfeborough, N.H., and Concord, N.H.
The deformation of the Appalachianswas accomplished in two chief periods of compressive deformation, one in early Palaeozoic, the other about the close of Palaeozoic time, and both undoubtedly of long duration; the second one extended its effects farther northwest than the first.
The extent of the submergence and the area over which the Palaeozoic strata were deposited are unknown; for in consequence of renewed elevation without deformation, erosion in later periods has stripped off an undetermined amount of the covering strata.
These mountains have since been worn down, so that, in spite of their subsequent periods of growth, their height is not great.
Deformative movements of the minor sort seem to have been in progress somewhat generally during the Tertiary periods, especially in the western part of the country, but those at the close of the Pliocene seem to have exceeded greatly those of the earlier stages.
In the two twenty-year periods after 1860 the increases of the North were 61.9 and 48.7%; of the South, 48.4 and 48.5%.
This latter became of increasing moment in the successive periods of European colonial wars of the 18th century.
Certain terms of residence within the United States, in the state, and in the voting district are generally prescribed, the periods varying from state to state.
At three periods, namely 1800-1802,1814-1817and 1863-1871, direct taxes have contributed considerable amounts to the revenue.
They have, however, never been a stable source of revenue, even during periods when the tariff was constant; and compared with th steady returns shown by the selected articles of the British tariff list this instability has been most extraordinary.
During the course of its history it has passed through two periods of greatness, two of decay and one of revival.
The history of monasticism is one of alternate periods of decay and revival.
The mountain structures originated in three great orogenic periods, the earliest in the Archean, the second at the end of the Palaeozoic and the third at the end of the Mesozoic. The Archean mountain chains, which enclosed the present region of Hudson Bay, were so ancient that they had already been worn down almost to a plain before the early Palaeozoic sediments were laid down.
The rocks underlying it have been subjected to successive foldings and crumplings by forces acting chiefly from the direction of the Atlantic Ocean, with alternating prolonged periods of waste and denudation.
Every year there are, normally, two distinct periods of high water; one an early freshet due mainly to the heavy winter rainfall on the lower river, when the upper river is still frozen hard; the other in the late spring, due to the setting in of rains along the upper courses also, and to the melting of the snow in the mountains.
The subject of the rates of ocean carriage at different periods requires consideration if a proper understanding of the working of the foreign grain trade is to be obtained.
This is the less improbable because it lies in the neighbourhood of a line of earthquake movement, and both from Thucydides and from Strabo we hear of the northern part of the island being shaken at different periods, and the latter writer speaks of a fountain at Chalcis being dried up by a similar cause, and a mud volcano formed in the neighbouring plain.
In point of time also three periods can be readily distinguished, the years 202-203 and 207-208 constituting the divisions.
In both periods, too, as we shall find in the sequel, he was already occupied in composing some of the extant writings which were afterwards to form parts of his final philosophical system.
The literary career of Aristotle falls into three periods.
Of all the periods marked out by the motions of the celestial bodies, the most conspicuous, and the most intimately connected with the affairs of mankind, are the solar day, which is distinguished by the diurnal revolution of the earth and the alternation of light and darkness, and the solar year, which completes the circle of the seasons.
But in the early ages of the world, when mankind were chiefly engaged in rural occupations, the phases of the moon must have been objects of great attention and interest, - hence the month, and the practice adopted by many nations of reckoning time by the motions of the moon, as well as the still more general practice of combining lunar with solar periods.
The Greeks divided the month into three decades, or periods of ten days, - a practice which was imitated by the French in.
When Regard Is Had To The Sun'S Motion Alone, The Regulation Of The Year, And The Distribution Of The Days Into Months, May Be Effected Without Much Trouble; But The Difficulty Is Greatly Increased When It Is Sought To Reconcile Solar And Lunar Periods, Or To Make The Subdivisions Of The Year Depend On The Moon, And At The Same Time To Preserve The Correspondence Between The Whole Year And The Seasons.
The Mean Length Of The Year Was Thus Reduced To 365.4 Days; But It Is Not Certain At What Time The Octennial Periods, Borrowed From The Greeks, Were Introduced Into The Roman Calendar, Or Whether They Were At Any Time Strictly Followed.
The Observance Of This Rule Renders It Necessary To Reconcile Three Periods Which Have No Common Measure, Namely, The Week, The Lunar Month, And The Solar Year; And As This Can Only Be Done Approximately, And Within Certain Limits, The Determination Of Easter Is An Affair Of Considerable Nicety And Complication.
In The Gregorian Calendar This Error Is Assumed To Amount To One Day In 3121 Years Or Eight Days In 2500 Years, An Assumption Which Requires The Line Of Epacts To Be Changed Seven Times Successively At The End Of Each Period Of 300 Years, And Once At The End Of 400 Years; And, From The Manner In Which The Epacts Were Disposed At The Reformation, It Was Found Most Correct To Suppose One Of The Periods Of 2500 Years To Terminate With The Year 1800.
The political history of Alabama may be divided into three periods, that prior to 1860, the years from 1860 to 1876, and the period from 1876 onwards.
At certain periods, intercourse with Egypt was especially intimate, and there is much in favour of the view that the name Mizraim (Egypt) extended beyond the borders of Egypt proper.
In the 11th and 12th centuries it was connected at different periods with Meissen, Poland and Bohemia.
The palace is now partly used for government purposes, and also contains the municipal archives, a collection of ancient inscriptions, formed by the epigraphist Raffaele Fabretti (many of them from Rome), a gallery of sculpture of various periods and a picture gallery.