Period Sentence Examples
They covered a period of twenty years.
Yet it was a short period of time for so much to have happened to them.
There is no such period and never will be.
The interior begged to be furnished with period pieces.
During this three-year period, conveniently named by the Chinese "The Three Years of Natural Disasters," no one really knows how many people died; estimates range from fifteen million to a high of more than forty-five million.Advertisement
She finished with a question and answer period and there were quite a few queries that seemed to impress her.
Even in summer the double period is not prominent in the arctic climate of Karasjok or on the top of the Eiffel Tower.
At this period the preceptors of the tsarevich had the highest opinion of his ability; but, unfortunately, it was not the sort of ability that his father could make use of.
For the Pavlograd hussars, however, the whole of this retreat during the finest period of summer and with sufficient supplies was a very simple and agreeable business.
Within a four-hour period, Hannah had dropped $50K.Advertisement
Only once during this period did the young tsar come forward and assert his authority.
Now the early Christian centuries were anything but a period of scientific research.
His military authority was confined to Italy; and his power of life and death over the citizens was at an early period limited by law.
He played an active part in the stirring church politics of the period, and was twice moderator of the kirk, and a member of the commission of inquiry into the condition of the university of St Andrews (1583).
The older formations are nearly all overlaid by deposits of the Quaternary period, which will be described last.Advertisement
The older formation of the Quaternary period is the Lafayette (also called "Orange-sand" or "stratified drift"), which immediately overlies all the Cretaceous groups except the prairies of the Selma chalk, and all the Tertiary except the Porters Creek and Vicksburg formations and parts of the Jackson.
The shrimp fishery, too, grew during the same period.
The public school system, established in 1846, never was universal, because of special legislation for various counties; public education was retarded during the Civil War and the Reconstruction period (when immense sums appropriated for schools were grossly mismanaged), but conditions gradually improved after 1875, especially through the concentration of schools.
Mississippi suffered less than most of the other Southern states during the Reconstruction period; but expenditures rose from $463,219.71 in 1869 to $1,729,046.34 in 1871.
The history of Mississippi may be divided into the period of exploration (154 1699), the period of French rule (1699-1763), the period of English rule (1763-1781), the period of Spanish rule (1781-1798), the territorial period (1798-1817), and the period of statehood (1817 seq.).Advertisement
A diorite statuette, referable by its style and inscription to Dynasty XIII., was discovered in deposit of Period II.
Those of the later Lacustrine period, on the contrary, are so numerous that there is scarcely one lacustrine basin in the regions of the Oka, the Kama, the Dnieper, not to speak of the lake-region itself, and even the White Sea coasts, where remains of Neolithic man have not been discovered.
Settlements belonging to the Stone age, and manufactories of stone implements, burial-grounds of the Bronze epoch, earthen forts and burial-mounds (kurgans) - of this last four different types are known, the earliest belonging to the Bronze period - are superposed, rendering the task of unravelling their several relations one of great difficulty.
This may be explained by a variety of causes, of which the chief is the maintenance by the Slays down to a very late period of gentile or tribal organization and gentile marriages, a fact vouched for, not only in the pages of the Russian chronicler Nestor, but still more by visible social evidences, the gens later developing into the village community, and the colonization being carried on by large co-ordinated bodies of people.
The complete suppression of these small moribund states and the creation of the autocratic tsardom of Muscovy were the work of Ivan III., surnamed the Great, his son Basil and his grandson Ivan IV., commonly known as Ivan the Terrible, whose united reigns cover a period of 122 years (1462-1584).Advertisement
According to Siegmund von Herberstein (1486-1566), an Austrian envoy who visited Moscow at that period, no sovereign in Europe was obeyed like the grand-prince of Muscovy, and his court was remarkable for barbaric luxury.
Accompanied by these so-called Oprichniki, who have been compared to the Turkish Janissaries of the worst period, he ruthlessly devastated large districts - with no other object apparently than that of terrorizing the population and rewarding his myrmidons - and during a residence of six weeks in Novgorod, lest the old turbulent spirit of the municipal republic should revive, he massacred, it is said, no less than 60,000 of the inhabitants, including many women and children.
On the whole, however, at that period as in more recent times, they contributed largely to the process of territorial expansion.
Thus began a period of Russian history commonly called " the Troublous Times, " which lasted until 1613.
During this period, which lasted from 1725 to 1762, the male line of the Romanov dynasty became extinct, and the succession passed to various members of the female line, which intermarried with German princes.
The main events of the period may be summarized very briefly.
Like Alexander in the last period of his reign, Nicholas considered himself the supreme guardian of European order, and was ever on the watch to oppose revolution in all its forms. Hence he was generally in strained relations with France, especially in the time of Louis Philippe, who became king not by the grace of God but by the will of the people.
The local self-government institutions after a short period of feverish and not always well-directed activity, showed symptoms of organic exhaustion.
During this period the relations between the two governments and the two countries became much more cordial.
The new tsar, Alexander III., was an apt pupil of his tutor Pobedonostsev (q.v.), the celebrated procurator of the Holy Synod, for whom the representative system was a modern lie," and his reign covered a period of frank reaction, during which there was not only no question of affected even the stolid and apparently immovable masses of the peasantry.
At a later period he was released from close confinement and allowed to settle in Mexico, where a pension was given him.
In the United States and in certain other countries, a fiscal year, ending on the 30th of June or at some other irregular period, is substituted for the calendar year.
After the reconstruction period of the 1893 panic, however, the tendency for a number of years was to spend larger sums in bettering existing railways rather than in new extensions.
Moreover, the average tractive power per locomotive and the average capacity per freight car advanced greatly in this period, although specific figures cannot be given.
The company therefore promotes a bill, which is considered first by select committees of the two houses of parliament, and afterwards by the two houses themselves, during which period it faces the opposition, if any, of rival concerns, of local authorities and of hostile landowners.
If the officer appointed by the Board of Trade should, after inspection of the railway, report to the department that in his opinion " the opening of the same would be attended with danger to the public using the same, by reason of the incompleteness of the works or permanent way, or the insufficiency of the establishment for working such railway," it is lawful for the department to direct the company to postpone the opening of the line for any period not exceeding one month at a time, the process being repeated from month to month as often as may be necessary.
A reasonable period was afforded them, according to circumstances, to comply with these requirements, and at the present time the work is practically complete.
In the period before 1850 there was but little realization of the public nature of the railway industry and of the possibilities of injury to the public if railway corporations were left uncontrolled.
In the United States a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers, appointed to consider the question of rail manufacture in consequence of an increase in the number of rail-failures, issued an interim report in 1907 in which it suggested a range of carbon from 0-55 to 0-65% for the heaviest sections of Bessemer steel flange rails, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.085%; while the specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials, current at the same period, put the carbon limits at o 45 to 0-55%, and the phosphorus limit at o io.
Since high average speed on a line with frequent stops depends largely on rapidity of acceleration, the tendency in modern equipment is to secure as great an output of power as possible during the accelerating period, with corresponding increase in weight available for adhesion.
In the Pleistocene period many large lakes were formed within the Great Basin; especially, by the fusion of small catchment basins, two great confluent bodies of water - Lake Lahontan (in the Nevada basin) and Lake Bonneville (in the Utah basin).
At a later period, pari passe with the spiritualization of the god, comes a refinement of the tastes attributed to him, and the finer parts of the sacrifice, finally it may be only its savour, are alone regarded as acceptable offerings.
A catena of opinions may be produced in favour of almost any theory; but formularies express the collective or average belief of any given period, and changes in them are a sure indication that there has been a general change in ideas.
Luther at one period (in his treatise De captivitate Babylonica) maintained, though not on historical grounds, that the offering of the oblations of the people was the real origin of the conception of the sacrifice of the mass; but he directed all the force of his vehement polemic against the idea that any other sacrifice could be efficacious besides the sacrifice of Christ.
Lafone, a wealthy cattle and hide merchant on the river Plate, obtained from government a grant of the southern portion of the island, a peninsula 600,000 acres in extent, and possession of all the wild cattle on the island for a period of six years, for a payment of £10,000 down, and £20,000 in ten years from January 1, 1852.
In search of materials for this purpose, Pertz made a prolonged tour through Germany and Italy, and on his return in 1823 he received at the instance of Stein the principal charge of the publication of Monumenta germaniae historica, texts of all the more important historical writers on German affairs down to the year 1500, as well as of laws, imperial and regal archives, and other valuable documents, such as letters, falling within this period.
The town has a public library and some old houses built in the colonial period, and is the seat of Phillips Exeter Academy (incorporated in 1781 and opened in 1783).
The documents underlying the Pentateuch and book of Joshua, represented by the ciphers J, E, D and P, are assumed to have been drawn up in the chronological order in which those ciphers are here set down, and the period of their composition extends from the 9th century B.C., in which the earlier portions of J were written, to the 5th century B.C., in which P finally took shape.
Just as we have in Assyria an Ishtar of Arbela and an Ishtar of Nineveh (treated in Assur-bani-pal's (Rassam) cylinder 2 like two distinct deities), as we have local Madonnas in Roman Catholic countries, so must it have been with the cults of Yahweh in the regal period carried on in the numerous high places, Bethel, Shechem, Shiloh (till its destruction in the days of Eli) and Jerusalem.
Similarly in the earlier pre-exilian period of Israel's occupation of Canaanite territory the Hebrews were always subject to this tendency to worship the old Baal or `Ashtoreth (the goddess who made the cattle and flocks prolific).3 A few years of drought or of bad seasons would make a Hebrew settler betake himself to the old Canaanite gods.
There are indeed abundant indications that prove that in the prevalent popular religion of the regal period monotheistic conceptions had no place.
In the regal period the royal residence gave the priesthood of that place an exceptional position.
Finally the Deutero-Isaiah conveyed to captive Israel the message of Yahweh's unceasing love and care, and the certainty of their return to Judaea and the restoration of the national prosperity which Ezekiel had already announced in the earlier period of the exile.
Thus the exile period marks the parting of the ways in the development of Hebrew religion.
But now as we enter the Greek period (320 B.C. and onwards) there is a gradual change from prophecy to apocalyptic. " It may be asserted in general terms that whereas prophecy foretells a definite future which has its foundation in the present, apoca lyptic directs its anticipations solely and simply to the future, to a new world-period which stands sharply contrasted with the present.
The added conception of the resurrection of the righteous does not appear in the world of Jewish thought till the early Greek period in Isa.
In the writings of the pre-exilian period we have frequent references to supernatural personalities good and bad.
In Scotland, as might be supposed from the nature of the country, the wolf maintained its hold for a much longer period.
History had always been a favourite study with him, and Mably's Observations sur l'histoire appears to have had considerable influence in determining him to the choice of some special period for historic research.
Mr English, one of his secretaries, has furnished a picture of him at this period seated in a study lined on two sides with books and darkened by green screens and curtains of blue muslin, which required readjustment with almost every cloud that passed across the sky.
During the period of the Jesuit ascendancy in the reign of K'ang-hi (1661-1721), the superintendence of this institution was confided to Roman Catholic missionaries, under whose guidance the bronze instruments formerly existing were constructed.
The exact period of the beginning of Anne's relations with Henry is not known.
Meanwhile his indiscriminate appetite for reading had begun to fix itself more and more decidedly upon history; and the list of historical works devoured by him during this period of chronic ill-health is simply astonishing.
At this early period he seems already to have adopted in some degree the plan of study he followed in after life and recommended in his Essai sur l'etude - that is, of letting his subject rather than his author determine his course, of suspending the perusal of a book to reflect, and to compare the statements with those of other authors - so that he often read portions of many volumes while mastering one.
In estimating the comparative advantages and disadvantages of this wearisome period of his life, he has summed up with the impartiality of a philosopher and the sagacity of a man of the world.
It was during this period that he read Homer and Longinus, having for the first time acquired some real mastery of Greek; and after the publication of the Essai, his mind was full of projects for a new literary effort.
He has recorded one or two interesting notes on Turin, Genoa, Florence and other towns at which halt was made on his route; but Rome was the great object of his pilgrimage, and the words in which he has alluded to the feelings with which he Her letters to Walpole about Gibbon contain some interesting remarks by this ' ` aveugle clairvoyante," as Voltaire calls her; but they belong to a later period (1777).
Gibbon was eight-and-thirty when he entered parliament; and the obstacles which even at an earlier period he had not had courage to encounter were hardly likely to be vanquished then.
He enlarges, as it was his business to do, on the tranquillity and prosperity of the empire in that period, but he does not fail to place his finger on the want of political liberty as a fatal defect.
During the glacial period many of the Nevada lakes attained a great size, several of them uniting to form the ancient " Lake Lahontan," in northwestern Nevada.
The works were to be operated by the government foi ten years, and the cost assessed against the holders of the land.1 At the conclusion of this period the system was to pass into the control of the landholders, with no further charge by the government.
In 1859 the mines were worked only for their gold; the ignorant miners threw away the " black stuff " which was really valuable silver ore with an assay value four times as great as that of their ores of gold; and when this was discovered there came a period of unprecedented silver production.
Another mining region that attained importance in the early period was the Eureka District, in Eureka county, about 90 m.
With the working out of the deposits in the Comstock region, the mining industry declined, and between 1877 and 1900 there was a period of great depression, in which Nevada fell from first to sixth place among the silver-producing states and Territories.
During 1905 the town of Goldfield had a period of mushroom growth, then quieted, and finally revived to a healthy development.
The period from 1860 to 1864 was one of rapid development accompanied by the wildest speculation.
A second period of decline followed the working out of this mine and lasted until 1900, when the discovery of a new mineral belt in southern Nevada brought renewed prosperity.
The numerous remains extant, of which the theatre and the buildings partially submerged by the sea are the most noteworthy, all belong to the Roman period.
Its connexion with that empire - or, in other words, its dependence upon Constantinople - lasted for more than 200 years, during which period, under the rule of Narses and his successors the exarchs, Ravenna was the seat of Byzantine dominion in Italy.
Until 1 775 he continued to sit in the House of Burgesses, as a leader during all that eventful period.
Of these the most original and valuable is the Critical Period volume, a history of the consolidation of the states into a government, and of the formation of the constitution.
Thus, in six volumes, he had carried the work no farther than the Carolingian period.
From that period Ward and his associates worked undisguisedly for union with the Church of Rome, and in 1844 he published his Ideal of a Christian Church, in which he openly contended that the only hope for the Church of England lay in submission to the Church of Rome.
The periodicity shows itself in the form of an exacerbation of the still continuing fever, and that exacerbation may take place twentyfour hours after the first onset, or the interval may be only half that period, or it may be double.
At a later period, when the Church had learnt to look with suspicion upon devotional books likely to provoke the scoffing of some and lead others into heresy, a work of this kind could hardly meet with her approval.
Before this there had been translations into French dialects, as by Philippe de Thaun (1121), by Guillaume, "clerc de Normandie," also, about the same period, by Pierre, a clergyman of Picardy.
There are even traditions from this period of an actual conspiracy of Panin and Paul against the empress.
Imported vases of the second half of the 5th century B.C. prove the existence of trade with Greece at that period; and the town was famous in Aristotle's day for a special breed of fowls.
Even at that period, however, the silt brought down by the rivers rendered access to the harbour difficult, and the historian Philistus excavated a canal to give free access to the sea.
This was still open in the imperial period, and the town, which was a municipium, possessed its own gild of sailors; but its importance gradually decreased.
With the exception of a few species from the Solenhofen lithographic Oolite, fossil Diptera belong to the Tertiary Period, during which the members of this order attained a high degree of development.
The foreign policy of this period brought about the complete isolation of Austria, and the ingratitude towards Russia, as shown during the period of the Crimean War, which has become proverbial, caused a permanent estrangement between the two great Eastern empires and the imperial families.
At this period he made provision for twelve fellows and above forty scholars in Emmanuel College.
After this period Orvieto was peaceably ruled by papal governors, and had practically no history.
The church, however, was almost wholly reconstructed in the Perpendicular period, and is a fine example of that style, the interior gaining in beauty from the scheme of colour-decoration in the choir, while the magnificent stone-vaulted roof with fan tracery, extending throughout the church, excepting the south transept, is unsurpassed.
Even during the temporary Hellenization in the second great period the character of the people as a whole was untouched by the various external influences which produced so great an effect on the upper classes.
Finally (c), in the so-called " post-exilic " period, religion and life were reorganized under the influence of a new spirit; relations with Samaria were broken off, and Judaism took its definite character, perhaps about the middle or close of the 5th century.
External oppression and internal rivalries rent the Israelites, and in the religious philosophy of a later (Deuteronomic) age the period is represented as one of alternate apostasy from and of penitent return to the Yahweh of the " exodus."
The Edomites, who had been almost extirpated by David in the valley of Salt, south of the Dead Sea, were now strong enough to seek revenge; and the powerful kingdom of Damascus, whose foundation is ascribed to this period, began to threaten Israel on the north and north-east.
But the surviving material is extremely uneven; vital events in these centuries are treated with a slightness in striking contrast to the relatively detailed evidence for the preceding period - evidence, however, which is far from being contemporary.
The oldest narratives are not in their original contexts, and they contain features which render it questionable whether a very trustworthy recollection of the period was retained.
The conflict between Yahweh and Baal and the defeat of the latter are the characteristic notes of the religious history of the period, and they leave their impression upon the records, which are now more abundant.
The value of this external evidence for the history of Israel is enhanced by the fact that biblical tradition associates the changes in the thrones of Israel and Damascus with the work of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, but handles the period without a single reference to the Assyrian Empire.
This momentous event for the southern kingdom was scarcely the outcome of a challenge to a trial of strength; it was rather the sequel to a period of smouldering jealousy and hostility.
For the understanding of these great wars between Syria and Israel (which the traditional chronology spreads over eighty years), for the significance of the crushing defeats and inspiring victories, and for the alternations of despair and hope, a careful study of all the records of relations between Israel and the north is at least instructive, and it is important to remember that, although the present historical outlines are scanty and incomplete, some - if not all - of the analogous descriptions in their present form are certainly later than the second half of the 9th century B.C., the period in which these great events fa11.4 13.
All that can be recognized from the biblical records, however, is the period of internal prosperity which Israel and Judah enjoyed under Jeroboam and Uzziah (qq.v.) respectively.
The period under review, with its relations between Judah and Egypt, can be illustrated by prophecies ascribed to a similar situation in the time of Hezekiah.
There are a number of apparently related passages which, however, on internal grounds, are unsuitable to the present period, and when they show independent signs of a later date (in their present form), there is a very strong probability that they refer to such subsequent disasters.
Although the records preserve complete silence upon the period now under review, it is necessary to free oneself from the narrow outlook of the later Judaean compilers.
The overthrow of Tyre and Gaza secured the possession of the coast and the Jewish state entered upon the Greek period.
Upon this blank period before the foundation of Judaism (§§ 21, 23) much light is also thrown by another body of evidence.
The naïve impression that each period of history was handled by some more or less contemporary authority is not confirmed by a criticism which confines itself strictly to the literary evidence.
And if the work of criticism has brought a fuller appreciation of the value of these facts, the debt which is owed to the Jews is enhanced when one proceeds to realize the immense difficulties against which those who transmitted the Old Testament had to contend in the period of Greek domination.
These four centuries are the Greek period of Jewish history.
The ancient historians, who together cover this period, are strangely indifferent to the importance of the Jews, upon which Josephus is at pains to insist.
This hellenized Jew who descended from the hills to the coast is a figure typical of the period.
There is a story of a priest named Onias preserved both by Josephus and in the Talmud, which throws some light upon the indecision of the religious in the period just reviewed.
From this point to the end of the period the Jews were dependents of Rome, free to attend to their own affairs, so long as they paid taxes to the subordinate rulers, Herodian or Roman, whom they detested equally.
How well their teaching served his purpose is shown by the sayings of two rabbis who, if not identical with these Pharisees, belong to their period and their party.
Many religious teachers and many revolutionaries were crucified within this period; and the early Christians were outwardly distinguished from other Jews only by their scrupulous observance of religious duties.
While the Spanish period of Jewish history was thus brilliant from the point of view of public service, it was equally notable on the literary side.
The consequences of this blow were momentous; it may be said to inaugurate the ghetto period.
In Germany at the same period the feudal system debarred the Jews from holding land, and though there was as yet no material persecution they suffered moral injury by being driven exclusively into finance and trade.
At this period they controlled more of the foreign and colonial trade than all the other alien merchants in London put together.
Another cause may be sought in the Cossack assaults on the Jews at an earlier period.
It is truer to say that on the whole the Jews began at this period to abandon as hopeless the attempt to find a place for themselves in the general life of their country.
The most petty limitations of Jewish commercial activity continued; thus at about this period the community of Prague, in a petition, " complain that they are not permitted to buy victuals in the market before a certain hour, vegetables not before 9 and cattle not before II o'clock; to buy fish is sometimes altogether prohibited; Jewish druggists are not permitted to buy victuals at the same time with Christians " (op. cit.).
Canea (Xavia), the seat of government since 1840 (pop. 20,972), is built in the Italian style; its walls and interesting galley-slips recall the Venetian period.
This more primitive phase of the indigenous culture, of which several distinct stages are traceable, is known as the Early Minoan, and roughly corresponds with the first half of the third millennium B.C. The succeeding period, to which the first palaces are due and to which the name of Middle Minoan is appropriately given, roughly coincides with the Middle Empire of Egypt.
The beginnings of a school of wall painting also go back to the Middle Minoan period, and metal technique and such arts as gem engraving show great advance.
By the close of this period a manufactory of fine faience was attached to the palace of Cnossus.
The succeeding Late Minoan period, best illustrated by the later palace at Cnossus and that at Hagia Triada, corresponds in Egypt with the Hyksos period and the earlier part of the New Empire.
There is evidence that the use in Crete of both linear and pictorial signs existed in the Early Minoan period, contemporary with the first Egyptian dynasties.
During the Third Middle Minoan period, the lower limits of which approach 1600 B.C., this pictographic script finally gives way to a still more developed linear system - which is itself divided into an earlier and a later class.
It is interesting, as bringing out the personal element in the traditional royal seat, that an inscribed sealing belonging to the earliest period of the later palace of Cnossus bears on it the impression of two official signets with portrait heads of a man and of a boy, recalling the " associations " on the coinage of imperial Rome.
The contents of the royal tombs, on the other hand, reveal a wholesale correspondence with the fabrics of the first, and, to a less degree, the second Late Minoan age, as illustrated by the relics belonging to the Middle Period of the later palace at Cnossus and by those of the royal villa at Hagia Triada.
In Crete, in the later period, when the rulers could trust to the " wooden walls " of the Minoan navy, there is no parallel for the massive fortifications that we see at Tiryns or Mycenae.
The Minoan remains at Orchomenus which are traceable to the latest period go far to substantiate the philological comparison between the name of Minyas, the traditional ancestor of this ancient race, and that of Minos.
Shortly before this date the palaces both of Cnossus and Phaestus had undergone a great destruction, and though during the ensuing period both these royal residences were partially reoccupied it was for the most part at any rate by poorer denizens, and their great days as palaces were over for ever.
There is evidence, moreover, that the script and with it the indigenous language did not die out during this period, and that therefore the days of Hellenic settlement at Cnossus were not yet.
The recent exploration of a cemetery belonging to the close of the great palace period, and in a greater degree to the age succeeding the catastrophe, has now conclusively shown that there was no real break in the continuity of Minoan culture.
This third Late Minoan period - the beginning of which may be fixed about 1400 - is an age of stagnation and decline, but the point of departure continued to be the models supplied by the age that had preceded it.
It is certain that towards the close of this third and concluding Late Minoan period in the island certain mainland types of swords and safety-pins make their appearance, which are symptomatic of the great invasion from that side that was now impending or had already begun.
Both the signet types and the other objects of art here discovered display the fresh naturalism that characterizes in a special way the first Late Minoan period.
The small palace was reconstructed at a later period, and at a somewhat higher level.
To a period contemporary with the concluding age of the Cnossian palace must be referred a remarkable sarcophagus belonging to a neighbouring cemetery.
The "hundred cities" ascribed to Crete by Homer are in a fair way Y period.
The period of decline referred to above (Late Minoan III.), which begins about the beginning of the 14th century before our era, must, from the abundance of its remains, have been of considerable duration.
The Keftiu who represented Minoan culture in Egypt in the concluding period of the Cnossian palace (Late Minoan II.) cease to appear on Egyptian monuments towards the end of the XVIIIth Dynasty (c. 1350 B.C.), and their place is taken by the "Peoples of the Sea."
Subsequently the Dorian element became greatly strengthened by fresh immigrations from the Peloponnesus, and during the historical period all the principal cities of the island were either Dorian colonies, or had adopted the Dorian dialect and institutions.
It is certain that at a very early period the Cretan cities were celebrated for their laws and system of government, and the most extensive monument of early Greek law is the great Gortyna inscription, discovered in 1884.
This change of masters brought some relief to the unfortunate Cretans, who at least exchanged the licence of local misrule for the oppression of an organized despotism; and the government of Mustafa Pasha, an Albanian like Mehemet Ali, the ruler of the island for a considerable period (1832-1852), was more enlightened and intelligent than that of most Turkish governors.
The period of his administration has been called the " golden age " of Crete.
After a period of great distress and cruel oppression, in 1866, on the demand for reforms being again refused, a general insurrection took place, which was only put down by great exertions on the part of the Porte.
The Moslem leaders acquiesced in the arrangement, which the powers undertook to guarantee, and, notwithstanding some symptoms of discontent at Candia, there was every reason to hope that the island was now entering upon a period of tranquillity.
On the 26th of that month the nomination of Prince George of Greece as high commissioner of the powers in Crete for a period of three years (renewed in 1901) was formally announced, and on the 21st of December the prince landed at Suda and made his public entry into Canea amid enthusiastic demonstrations.
On the 14th of September, under an agreement dated the 14th of August, they invited King George of Greece, in the event of the high commissionership becoming vacant, to propose a candidate for that post, to be nominated by the powers for a period of five years, and on the 25th of September Prince George left the island.
Although the observance of Easter was at a very early period the practice of the Christian church, a serious difference as to the day for its observance soon arose between the Christians of Jewish and those of Gentile descent, which led to a long and bitter controversy.
The difference between them and the Roman Church, at this period, was that they still followed the 84 years' cycle in computing Easter, which had been abandoned at Rome for the more accurate cycle of 532 years.
Deposits of the Tertiary period form the basis of more than half the state, extending from the border of the Cretaceous westward nearly to the Yazoo Delta and the Mississippi Bottom, and southward to within a few miles of the Gulf coast.
Claiborne's Mississippi as a Province, Territory and State (Jackson, 1880), gives the best account of the period before the Civil War.
The pay for both senators and representatives is four dollars per day for a period not exceeding sixty days; should the session be prolonged the extra service is without compensation.
Charitable and penal institutions are under the supervision of a Board of Public Charities, appointed by the governor for a period of six years, the terms of the different members expiring in different years.
The first steps were taken in that direction just after the close of the proprietary period in 1729, but the work was not completed until 1815.1 The first permanent English colony in North Carolina was established at Albemarle on the Chowan river about 1660 by people from Virginia.
The proprietary period (1663-1729) was a turbulent one, in spite of the supposedly peaceful influence of the Quakers.
The political history during the royal period is, like that of the other colonies, the story of a constant struggle between the representatives of the people and the representatives of the crown.
The period from 1790 to 1835 was marked by a prolonged contest between the eastern and the western counties.
This position he held for thirteen years, during which period the highest efficiency of his men was reached, and outside the regiment he did good service to his arm by his writings.
Clerical immunities, of course, differed largely at different times and in different countries, the extent of them having been gradually curtailed from a period a little earlier than the close of the middle ages.
Many of them are at high elevations (Lake Victoria, 13,400 ft., being probably the most elevated), and are undoubted vestiges of an ancient period of glaciation.
Others are relics of an earlier geological period, when land areas 1 Authorities differ in their methods and results of computation of these and other similar measurements.
Of scientific geographical exploration in Asia (beyond the limits of actual surveys) the modern period has been so prolific that it is only possible to refer in barest outline to some of the principal Indian expeditions, most of which have been directed either to explorers.
In no other period of the world's history, of equal length of time, has so much scientific enterprise been directed towards the field of General Asiatic inquiry.
In the restoration of the outlines of ancient and medieval geography in Asia Sven Hedin's discoveries of the actual remains of cities which have long been buried under the advancing waves of sand in the Takla Makan desert, cities which flourished in the comparatively recent period of Buddhist ascendancy in High Asia, is of the very highest interest, filling up a blank in the identification of sites mentioned by early geographers and illustrating more fully the course of old pilgrim routes.
The period from about 1880 has been an era of boundary-making in Asia, of defining the politicogeographical limits of empire, and of determining the responsibilities of government.
But there is positive evidence that much of the north and east of Asia has been land since the Palaeozoic era, and it has been conclusively proved that the peninsula of India has never been beneath the sea since the Carboniferous period at least.
The greater part of western Asia, including the basin of the Obi, the drainage area of the Aral Sea, together with Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Persia and Arabia, was covered by the sea during the later stages of the Cretaceous period; but a considerable part 3f this region was probably dry land in Jurassic times.
The date of these eruptions is still uncertain, but they probably continued to a very recent period.
There is again a floor of folded Archean rocks overlaid by nearly horizontal strata of Lower Palaeozoic age; but these are followed by marine beds belonging to the Carboniferous period.
It was after the Eocene period that the main part of the elevation of the Himalayas took place, as is shown by the occurrence of nummulitic limestone at a height of 20,000 ft.
Leaving out of consideration all evidence of more ancient volcanic activity, each of the three regions, into which, as we have seen, the continent may be divided, has been, during or since the Cretaceous period, the seat of great volcanic eruptions.
If this ancient civilized race was really allied to the ancestors of the Turks and Huns, it is a remarkable instance of how civilization thrives best by being transplanted at a certain period of growth.
The earliest Sumerian records seem to be anterior to 4000 B.C. Shortly after that period Babylonia was invaded by Semites, who became the ruling race.
It is clear, however, that the Chinese came from the west, and entered their present territory along the course of the Hwang-ho at an unknown period, possibly about 3000 B.C. In early historical times China consisted of a shifting confederacy of feudal states, but about 220 B.C. the state of Tsin or Chin (whence the name China) came into prominence, and succeeded in forming a homogeneous empire, which advanced considerably towards the south.
The second half of the 16th century was a period of ferment and anarchy, marked by the arrival of the Portuguese and the rise of some remarkable adventurers, one of whom, Hideyoshi, conquered Korea and apparently meditated the invasion of China.
It was left untouched by Mahommedanism, and for an unprecedentedly long period kept Europeans at bay without wasting its strength in hostilities.
In the 16th century the Japanese occupied it for a short period, and in 1894 they went to war with China on account of her claims to suzerainty.
During the greater part of the Mahommedan period Persia has been ruled by troubled and short-lived dynasties.
Their institutions and ideas were probably considerably modified during this period.
But long before this period the Jews of the Dispersion had become as important as the inhabitants of Palestine.
The language and writing of the Semites who, at an unknown period, settled in what is now Abyssinia, show affinities with those of South Arabia, and these Semites may have been immigrants into Africa from that region.
As for science, astronomy was cultivated by the Babylonians at an early period, and it is probably from them that a knowledge of the heavenly bodies and their movements spread over Asia.
Then follows a long period in which eastern Europe was mainly occupied in combating Asiatic invasions, and had little opportunity of Europeanizing the East.
Simien-Despreaux, one of Louis XVIII.'s own authors, stated at a later period (1814) that Louis XVII.
Reid graduated at Aberdeen in 1726, and remained there as librarian to the university for ten years, a period which he devoted largely to mathematical reading.
His ambition and self-confidence at this period knew no bounds.
The fabric of the small chapel is apparently of the 14th century, and may have been attached to the manor house of Portpool, held at that period by the Lords Grey of Wilton.
Two of the galleries are Romanesque, while two are Gothic. Arles has two other churches of the Romanesque period, and others of later date.
Near the sacristy are also some Gothic chapels of the Aragonese period.
Saving and excepting the incident of his being stolen and brought up by a water-fairy (from a Lai relating which adventure the whole story probably started), there is absolutely nothing in Lancelot's character or career to distinguish him from any other romantic hero of the period.
The Oedipus legend was handed down to the period of the Renaissance by the Roman and its imitations, which then fell into oblivion.
In 1870 he published a volume of criticism, The Poetry of the Period, which was again conceived in a spirit of satirical invective, and attacked Tennyson, Browning, Matthew Arnold and Swinburne in no half-hearted fashion.
With his release from Vincennes (August 1782) begins the second period of Mirabeau's life.
After a period of work in Holland he betook himself to England, where his treatise on lettres de cachet had been much admired, being translated into English in 1787, and where he was soon admitted into the best Whig literary and political society of London, through his old schoolfellow Gilbert Elliot, who had now inherited his father's baronetcy and estates, and become a leading Whig member of parliament.
I had such frequent opportunities of seeing him at this time, and afterwards at a much more important period of his life, that I think his character was well known to me.
But 1789 was at hand; the states-general was summoned; Mirabeau's period of probation was over.
Mahommedanism was introduced at a period which, according to the system adopted for the dating of the annals, must be placed either in the 1 2 th or the 14th century.
But the annals of Kano distinctly record the introduction and describe the development of Mahommedanism at an early period of local history.
After a short period of study in Paris on the French Revolution, he spent some time working in the archives of Baden and Bavaria, and published in 1845 Die Geschichte der rheinischen Pfalz, which won for him a professorship extraordinarius at Heidelberg.
This was the first work covering that period based on a scientific study of the archival sources.
During this period of his life he began the study of philosophy, being especially attracted by Locke.
It was he who, in 1776, sketched the plan for the conquest of the Crimea which was subsequently realized; and about the same period he was busy with the socalled "Greek project," which aimed at restoring the Byzantine Empire under one of Catherine's grandsons.
However this may be, already in the oldBabylonian period, i.e.
From a very early period Alsace has been a disputed territory, and has suffered in the contentions of rival races.
In the Merovingian period it formed a duchy attached to the kingdom of Austrasia, and was governed by the descendants of duke Eticho, one of whom was St Odilia.
Originally Celtic, the population was modified during the Roman period by the arrival of a Germanic people, the Triboci.
Since that period the population has in the main been Teutonic; and the French conquests of the 17th century, while modifying this element, still left it predominant.
It was evident from an early period of the war, however, that Prussia was resolved to reannex Alsace to German territory.
Again, with the accession of large territories, the Order became a governing aristocracy; the original care for the sick, and even the later crusading zeal of the period of conquest, gave way, when conquests were gained and administration was needed, to the problem, half military, half political, of governing a frontier state.
The towns were large and flourishing; as many as sixty arose in the period between 1233 and 1416, including Thorn and Elbing, Danzig and Konigsberg (named after Ottocar of Bohemia, who took part in the campaign during which it was founded).
At a later period he was one of the leading contributors to the Encyclopaedia Britannica (seventh and eighth editions), the articles on Electricity, Hydrodynamics, Magnetism, Microscope, Optics, Stereoscope, Voltaic Electricity, &c., being from his pen.
At that period the Georgians were divided into various petty principalities, the chief of which were Imeretia and Georgia (Kharthlia), owing at times a more or less shadowy allegiance to the sultan of the Ottoman Turks at Constantinople.
After a peaceful period of a quarter of a century the Armenian subjects of Russia in Transcaucasia were filled with bitterness and discontent by the confiscation of the properties of their national (Gregorian) church by the Russian treasury.
It was during this period that he met the leaders of the "physiocratic" school, Quesnay and Gournay, and with them Dupont de Nemours, the abbe Morellet and other economists.
Turgot's best known work, Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses, was written early in the period of his intendancy for the benefit of two young Chinese students.
The materials thus obtained formed the basis of his historical and biographical works, which relate chiefly to the period of the Reformation.
It was at a later period of his life that he propounded schemes for cutting canals through the isthmus of Suez and the isthmus of Panama.
The cathedral, of the 12th century, has a carved portal and three apses decorated with small arches and pilasters, and contains a fine pulpit and episcopal throne in marble mosaic. Near it are two grottos 1 To the period after 335 belong numerous silver and bronze coins with the legend Caleno.
Barrows of the Saxon period are numerous in Wirksworth hundred and the Bakewell district, among the most remarkable being White-low near Winster and Bower's-low near Tissington.
Other remains of pre-Conquest date are the chancel arches in the churches of Marston Montgomery and of Sawley; and the curiously carved font in Wilne church is attributed to the same period.
There is a triple-recessed doorway, with arcade above, in the west end of Bakewell church, and there is another fine west doorway in Melbourne church, a building principally of the late Norman period, with central and small western towers.
At Steetley, near Worksop, is a small Norman chapel, with apse, restored from a ruinous condition; Youlgrave church, a building of much general interest, has Norman nave pillars and a fine font of the same period, and Normanton church has a peculiar Norman corbel table.
The Early English style is on the whole less well exemplified in the county, but Ashbourne church, with its central tower and lofty spire, contains beautiful details of this period, notably the lancet windows in the Cockayne chapel.
The parish churches of Dronfield, Hathersage (with some notable stained glass), Sandiacre and Tideswell exemplify the Decorated period; the last is a particularly stately and beautiful building, with a lofty and ornate western tower and some good early brasses.
The churches of Dethic, Wirksworth and Chesterfield are typical of the Perpendicular period; that of Wirksworth contains noteworthy memorial chapels, monuments and brasses, and that of Chesterfield is celebrated for its crooked spire.
The discovery of the uses of the bare fallow and of manure, by making it possible to raise crops from the same area for an indefinite period, marks a stage of progress.
According to early methods of cropping, which were destined to prevail for centuries, wheat, the chief article of food, was sown in one autumn, reaped the next August; the following spring, oats or barley were sown, and the year following the harvest was a period of fallow.
In the former treatise we have a clear and minute description of the rural practices of that period, and from the latter may be learned a good deal of the economy of the feudal system in its decline.
The author, writing from the landowner's point of view, ascribes the rise in rents and the rise in the price of corn' to the " emulation " of tenants in competing for holdings, a practice implying that the agriculture of the period was prosperous.
The first half of the 17th century was a period of agricultural activity, partly due, no doubt, to the increase of enclosed farms. Marling and liming are again practised, new agricultural implements and manures introduced, and the new crops more widely used.
Clover and turnips were confined to a few districts, and at the latter period were scarcely cultivated at all by common farmers in the northern part of the island.
Of the writers of this period, therefore, it is necessary to notice only such as describe some improvement in the modes of culture, or some extension of the practices that were formerly little known.
A more rational system of cropping now began to take the place of the thriftless and barbarous practice of sowing successive crops of corn until the land was utterly exhausted, and then leaving it foul with weeds to recover its power by an indefinite period of rest.
It was during this period that the genius of Robert Bakewell produced an extraordinary change in the character of our more important breeds of live stock, more especially by the perfecting of a new race of sheep - the well-known Leicesters.
This period was distinguished for the adoption and working out of ascertained improvements.
This extraordinary state of matters lasted from 1795 to 1814, the prices of produce even increasing towards the close of that period.
The average price of wheat for the whole period was 89s.
The agriculture of Great Britain, as a whole, advanced with rapid strides during this period; hint nowhere was the change so great as in Scotland.
Previous to this period the husbandry of Scotland was still in a backward state as compared with the best districts of England, where many practices, only of recent introduction in the north, had been in general use for generations.
During this period of depression, which lasted till the 'forties, want of confidence prevented any general improvement in agricultural methods.
Several other acts of the legislature passed during this period exerted a beneficial influence on agriculture.
After a highly useful career, under the presidency till 1813 of Sir John Sinclair, the Board of Agriculture was dissolved in 1819, but left in its statistical account, county surveys and other documents much interesting and valuable information regarding the agriculture of the period.
The scientific and mechanical improvements of the first half of the century were widely adopted, while the prices of the protectionist period showed little decline.
The last quarter of the 19th century proved, however, a fateful period for British agriculture.
It was provided that the act should continue in force only till the 31st of March 1902, but a further act in 1901 extended the period by four years, and in 1905 its operation was extended to the 31st of March 1910.
It is quite possible for a hot dry season to be associated with a large yield of corn, provided the drought is confined to a suitable period, as was the case in 1896 and still more so in 1898; the English wheat crops in those years were probably the biggest in yield per acre that had been harvested since 1868, which is always looked back upon as a remarkable year for wheat.
With the exceptions of 1891 and 1894, every year in the period 1891-1900 was stricken by drought.
At the beginning of the period the aggregate area under wheat, barley and oats was nearly 102 million acres; at the close it did not amount to 8 million acres.
There was thus a withdrawal during the period of over 22 million acres from cereal cultivation.
From Table I., showing the acreages at intervals of five years, it will be learnt that the loss fell chiefly upon the wheat crop, which at the close of the period Table - Areas of Cereal Crops in the United Kingdom - Acres.
The acreage of rye grown in the United Kingdom as a grain crop is small, the respective maximum and minimum areas during the period 1875-1905 having been 102,676 acres in 1894 and 47,937 acres in 1880.
In the period 1875-1905 the area of beans in the United Kingdom fluctuated between 574,414 acres in 1875 and 230,429 acres in 1897, and that of peas between 318,410 acres in 1875 and 155,668 acres in 1901.
In the period 18 751905 the extreme areas returned as " permanent pasture "-a term which, it should be clearly understood, does not include heath or mountain land, of which there are in Great Britain alone about 13 million acres used for grazing-were 23,772,602 acres in 1875, and 28,865,373 acres in 1905.
The largest area of wheat in the period was that of 1890, and the smallest was that of 1904; the same two years are seen to have been respectively those of highest and lowest total produce.
Mangels are sown earlier and have a longer period of growth than turnips; if they become well established in the summer they are less susceptible to autumn drought.
If a decennial period be taken, then-for the purpose of the new calculation -the earliest year is omitted and the latest year added, the number of years continuing at ten.
Barley, on the other hand, is sown in a lighter surface soil, and, with its short period for root-development, relies in a much greater degree on the stores of plant-food within the surface soil.
They are effected chiefly by some alteration in the description of the root-crop, and perhaps by the introduction of the potato crop; by growing a different cereal, or it may be more than one cereal consecutively; by the growth of some other leguminous crop than clover, since " clover-sickness " may result if that crop is grown at too short intervals, or the intermixture of grass seeds with the clover, and perhaps by the extension by one or more years of the period allotted to this member of the rotation.
This result is partly due to their period of accumulation and growth extending even months after the period of collection by the ripening cereals has terminated, and at the season when nitrification within the soil is most active, and the accumulation of nitrates in it is the greatest.
It is the leguminous fodder crops-especially clover, which has a much more extended period of growth, and much wider range of collection within the soil and subsoil, than any of the other crops of the rotation-that yield in their produce the largest amount of nitrogen per acre.
An increase in live cattle accompanied a decrease in live sheep and pigs, but the imports of dead meat expanded fifteen-fold over the period.
It may, however, be noticed that the period 1850-1903 was marked by a steady increase of the cash wages of the farm labourer, as indicated in the following table from the Report on the Earnings of Agricultural Labourers issued by the Board of Trade in 1905.
The outcome of this period of depression was a broadening of his outlook on the problems which he had set himself to solve.
The letters in the Examiner may be taken as marking the close of his period of meditative search, and his return to hopeful aspiring activity.
By 1831 the period of depression had passed; Mill's enthusiasm for humanity had been thoroughly reawakened, and had taken the definite shape of an aspiration to supply an unimpeachable method of search for conclusions in moral and social science.
During the seven years of his married life Mill published less than in any other period of his career, but four of his most ' Mrs Taylor (Harriet Hardy) was the wife of John Taylor, a wholesale druggist in the city of London.
So great was the shock that for the rest of his life he spent most of his time at a villa at St Veran, near Avignon, returning to his Blackheath residence only for a short period in each year.
This was due, no doubt, to his revulsion from the sternness of his upbringing and the period of stress through which he passed in early manhood, but also to the sympathetic and emotional qualities which manifested themselves in his early manhood.
By this expression we do not mean an ideal mode of living, but the habits and requirements of life generally current in a community or grade of society at a given period.
Many influences operating for a long period of time on the character and the environment of a class go to determine its standard of life.
Every volume of records we look through contains a mass of detailed information on the economic life of England in the period we are studying.
A correct sense of proportion and the faculty of seizing upon the dominant factors in an historical problem are the result partly of the possession of certain natural gifts in which many individuals and some nations are conspicuously wanting, partly of general knowledge of the working of the economic and political institutions of the period we are studying, partly of what takes the place of practical experience in relation to modern problems, namely, detailed acquaintance with different kinds of original sources and the historical imagination by which we can realize the life and the ideals of past generations.
But every genuine attempt to overcome its difficulties brings us into closer touch with the period we are examining; and though we may not be able to throw our conclusions into the form of large generalizations, we shall get to know something of the operation of the forces which determined the economic future of England; understand more clearly than our forefathers did, for we have more information than they could command, and a fuller appreciation of the issues, the broad features of English development, and be in a position to judge fairly well of the measures they adopted in their time.
In many works, such as those of a statistical or historical character, there are frequently to be found passages which could have been written in no other period, but are only of the nature of ejaculations and do not affect the argument.
In stating the position of economics during this time we cannot ignore all writers, except those who belonged to one group, however eminent that group may have been, simply because they did not represent the dominant ideas of the period, and exercised no immediate and direct influence on the movement of economic thought.
For the rest of the economists of this period, it is difficult to see how they can escape oblivion.
The great men of the period, Cobden and Bright, are merely historical figures.
This determination closes the first chapter of his life; the second, from 1304 to 1314, is occupied by his contest for the kingdom, which was really won at Bannockburn, though disputed until the treaty of Northampton in 1328; the last, from 1314 to his death in 1329, was the period of the establishment of his government and dynasty by an administration as skilful as his generalship. It is to the second of these that historians, attracted by its brilliancy even amongst the many romances of history and its importance to Scottish history, have directed most of their attention, and it is during it that his personal character, tried by adversity and prosperity, gradually unfolds itself.
Its growth is rapid, the straight leading shoot, in the vigorous period of the tree, often extending 22 or even 3 ft.
It is probable that the limpet takes several years to attain full growth, and during that period it frequents the same spot, which becomes gradually sunk below the surrounding surface, especially if the rock be carbonate of lime.
This is clearly the same process in essence as that of the formation of a vitellogenous gland from part of the primitive ovary, or of the feeding of an ovarian egg by the absorption of neighbouring potential eggs; but here the period at which the sacrifice of one egg to another takes place is somewhat late.
As in other Gastropoda Anisopleura, this shell-sac may abnormally develop a plug of chitinous matter, but normally it flattens out and disappears, whilst the cap-like rudiment of the permanent shell is shed out from the dome-like surface of the visceral hump, in the centre of which the shell-sac existed for a brief period.
At a later period Origen sought to vindicate his teaching in a letter to the Roman bishop Fabian, but, it would seem, without success.
The other also dates from the Caesarean period; it mentions many interesting details, and concludes with a fine exposition of the Lord's Prayer.
To this period belongs his first crude literary effort, a polemic against a Genevese pastor who had criticized Rousseau.
For the constitution of the year 1795 which inaugurated the period of the Directory (1795-1799) see French Revolution.
The Councils allowed the elections to be annulled in forty-nine departments of France, and re-enacted some of the laws of the period of the Terror, notably those against non-juring priests and returned émigrés.
Externally, and in a personal sense, the period falls into two parts.
The reader is referred to the article France (Law and Institutions) for the information respecting the various codes dating from this period, and to the article Concordat for the famous measure whereby Napoleon re-established official relations between the state and the church in France.
Returning to the period of the Consulate, we notice the founding of an institution which also had its complete development during the Empire, namely, the Legion of Honour (19th of May 1802).
Military affairs in this period are dealt with under Napoleonic Campaigns; but it may be noted here that during the anxious days which Napoleon spent at the camp of Boulogne in the second and third weeks of August 1805, uncertain whether to risk all in an attack on England in case Villeneuve should arrive, or to turn the Grand Army against Austria, the only step which he took to avert a continental war was the despatch of General Duroc to Berlin to offer Hanover to Prussia on consideration of her framing a close alliance with France.
Her thirst for glory had long since been slaked, and she longed for peaceful enjoyment of the civic boons which he had conferred upon her in that greatest period of his life, the Consulate.
During this period of diplomatic work he acquired an exceptional knowledge of the affairs of Europe, and in particular of Germany, and displayed great tact and temper in dealing with the Swedish senate, with Queen Ulrica, with the king of Denmark and Frederick William I.
Subsequent discoveries, however, have made it clear that Mycenae was not its chief centre in its earlier stages, or, perhaps, at any period; and, accordingly, it is more usual now to adopt a wider geographical title.
As soon as Schliemann came on the Mycenae graves three years later, light poured from all sides on the prehistoric period of Greece.
Certain central Aegean islands, Antiparos, Ios, Amorgos, Syros and Siphnos, were all found to be singularly rich in evidence of the middle-Aegean period.
South-eastern Sicily, ever since P. Orsi excavated the Sicel cemetery near Lentini in 1877, has proved a mine of early remains, among which appear in regular succession Aegean fabrics and motives of decoration from the period of the second stratum at Hissarlik.
Religion in the area seems to have been essentially the same everywhere from the earliest period, viz.
Even the smaller houses, after the Neolithic period, seem also to have been of stone, plastered within.
After 1600 B.C. the palaces in Crete had more than one story, fine stairways, bath-chambers, windows, folding and sliding doors, &c. In this later period, the distinction of blocks of apartments in some palaces has been held to indicate the seclusion of women in harems, at least among the ruling caste.
Chariots were in use in the later period, as is proved by the pictures of them on Cretan tablets, and therefore, probably, the horse also was known.
The dead in the earlier period were laid (so far as we know at present) within cists constructed of upright stones.
In the later period a peculiar "bee-hive" tomb became common, sometimes wholly or partly excavated, sometimes (as in the magnificent Mycenaean "Treasuries") constructed domewise.
At no period do the Aegean dead seem to have been burned.
The magnificent gold work of the later period, preserved to us at Mycenae and Vaphio, needs only to be mentioned.
Thanks to the exploration of Cnossus, we now know that Aegean civilization had its roots in a primitive Neolithic period, of uncertain but very long duration, represented by a stratum which (on that site in particular) is in places nearly 20 ft.
That of painting in fresco, for instance, shows the same orderly development from at any rate Period II.
We see evidence of a uniform Nature Worship passing through all the normal stages down to theoanthropism in the latest period.
The earliest palace at Cnossus was built probably in Period II.
The pictographic characters, found on seals and discs of Period II.
The most that can be said to he capable of proof is the infiltration of some northern influence into Crete at the end of Minoan Period II.; but it probably brought about no change of dynasty and certainly no change in the prevailing race.
A good deal of anthropometric investigation has been devoted to human remains of the Aegean epoch, especially to skulls and bones found in Crete in tombs of Period II.
Not enough evidence has been collected to affect the question of racial change during the Aegean period.