They covered a period of twenty years.
Yet it was a short period of time for so much to have happened to them.
The interior begged to be furnished with period pieces.
There is no such period and never will be.
Within a four-hour period, Hannah had dropped $50K.
She finished with a question and answer period and there were quite a few queries that seemed to impress her.
At this period the preceptors of the tsarevich had the highest opinion of his ability; but, unfortunately, it was not the sort of ability that his father could make use of.
During this three-year period, conveniently named by the Chinese "The Three Years of Natural Disasters," no one really knows how many people died; estimates range from fifteen million to a high of more than forty-five million.
Even in summer the double period is not prominent in the arctic climate of Karasjok or on the top of the Eiffel Tower.
By their goofy math, which figured from the first day of her last period, she was 9 weeks pregnant.
For the Pavlograd hussars, however, the whole of this retreat during the finest period of summer and with sufficient supplies was a very simple and agreeable business.
There is a period in the history of the individual, as of the race, when the hunters are the "best men," as the Algonquins called them.
"Maybe one of the characters is designated as a space between words or a period," Dean offered.
Carmen's first impulse was to snatch Destiny back, but the six months waiting period had long passed.
Over a period of a week, the tactics had gone from infantile to novice to advanced, as if someone were learning the intricacies of battle planning.
There's no waiting period in Vermont.
"You started your period," he stated flatly.
The mare strained several times over a period of time.
The gestation period for a horse is eleven months, so this can't be Ed's foal.
The names of leading legislators, which we so often find recorded in the history of primitive peoples, are symbols and myths, merely serving to mark an historic period or epoch by some definite and personal denomination.
All during a set time period when the security was disabled by someone in the command center.
After a short period of adapting himself to the old conditions of life, Nicholas found it very pleasant to be at home again.
It's been calm for the past few hundred years, but I don't think any of us have forgotten that five hundred year period where we were at each other's throats.
My father then insisted on a delay of a year and now already six months, half of that period, have passed, and my resolution is firmer than ever.
The pond rises and falls, but whether regularly or not, and within what period, nobody knows, though, as usual, many pretend to know.
—a guest for an indefinite period of time.
Two days with demons … he'd seen what happened to her here, in Hell, over a similar period of time. Sasha was twisted, but Darkyn was merciless.
During the first period of their acquaintance Bolkonski felt a passionate admiration for him similar to that which he had once felt for Bonaparte.
I've found four unsolved abductions over a six year period that look very close to his work.
Exact information in regard to the period of gestation of the female is still lacking, the length of the period being given from eighteen to twenty-two months by different authorities.
His gaze lifted, and he recalled vividly the last time he.d seen his parents in this very spot, when they were cut down by bloodthirsty demons during the only period in Immortal history when demons attacked humans.
I had more visitors while I lived in the woods than at any other period in my life; I mean that I had some.
Whether, as alleged by some, Waynflete fled and hid himself during the period covered by the battle of Wakefield and Edward's fist parliament in 1461, is very doubtful.
That period when human improvement must end?
I have said that Walden has no visible inlet nor outlet, but it is on the one hand distantly and indirectly related to Flint's Pond, which is more elevated, by a chain of small ponds coming from that quarter, and on the other directly and manifestly to Concord River, which is lower, by a similar chain of ponds through which in some other geological period it may have flowed, and by a little digging, which God forbid, it can be made to flow thither again.
After all, the practical reason why, when the power is once in the hands of the people, a majority are permitted, and for a long period continue, to rule, is not because they are most likely to be in the right, nor because this seems fairest to the minority, but because they are physically the strongest.
The source of this contradiction lies in the fact that the historians studying the events from the letters of the sovereigns and the generals, from memoirs, reports, projects, and so forth, have attributed to this last period of the war of 1812 an aim that never existed, namely that of cutting off and capturing Napoleon with his marshals and his army.
As technology enters its explosive period of growth, with the Internet and associated technologies flourishing in a Moore's-Law-like manner, it will create immense amounts of wealth.
During the period 1958 to 1961, an initiative called "The Great Leap Forward" was intended to increase the production of grain and other agricultural products.
We may not arrive at our port within a calculable period, but we would preserve the true course.
During the ten-year preparatory period this man had formed relations with all the crowned heads of Europe.
During that twenty-year period an immense number of fields were left untilled, houses were burned, trade changed its direction, millions of men migrated, were impoverished, or were enriched, and millions of Christian men professing the law of love of their fellows slew one another.
Only the expression of the will of the Deity, not dependent on time, can relate to a whole series of events occurring over a period of years or centuries, and only the Deity, independent of everything, can by His sole will determine the direction of humanity's movement; but man acts in time and himself takes part in what occurs.
Over the three day period, we located one lost boy, identified two girls as runaways and fingered a true abduction.
The archbishop was one of the "undertakers" who controlled the Irish House of Commons, and although he did not regain the almost dictatorial power he had exercised at an earlier period, which had suggested a comparison between him and Cardinal Wolsey, he continued to enjoy a prominent share in the administration of Ireland until his death, which occurred in London on the 19th of December 1764.
Douglas's literary work, now his chief claim to be remembered, belongs, as has been stated, to the period 1501-1513, when he was provost of St Giles.
When the weather is temperate, mushrooms will appear in about a month after the bed has been made, but at other times a much longer period may elapse.
From this period came some of humanity's greatest masterpieces, including St. Peter's Basilica, Da Vinci's Last Supper, Michelangelo's Pieta, and hundreds of other instantly recognizable artistic treasures.
After the death of Gracchus, a conservative government under Sulla withdrew the subsidy, but shortly afterward, in a period of great unrest, restored it, and two hundred thousand persons stood in line.
There was a period when intellectuals believed and spoke openly of the idea that the "breeding" of the "unfit" should be limited.
Natasha, who had borne the first period of separation from her betrothed lightly and even cheerfully, now grew more agitated and impatient every day.
Most of the people at that time paid no attention to the general progress of events but were guided only by their private interests, and they were the very people whose activities at that period were most useful.
Its first period had passed: when the partisans themselves, amazed at their own boldness, feared every minute to be surrounded and captured by the French, and hid in the forests without unsaddling, hardly daring to dismount and always expecting to be pursued.
So one might have thought that regarding this period of the campaign the historians, who attributed the actions of the mass to the will of one man, would have found it impossible to make the story of the retreat fit their theory.
If the aim of the Russians consisted in cutting off and capturing Napoleon and his marshals--and that aim was not merely frustrated but all attempts to attain it were most shamefully baffled--then this last period of the campaign is quite rightly considered by the French to be a series of victories, and quite wrongly considered victorious by Russian historians.
In dealing with this period they sternly condemn the historical personages who, in their opinion, caused what they describe as the reaction.
The last backwash of the movement from the west occurs: a backwash which serves to solve the apparently insuperable diplomatic difficulties and ends the military movement of that period of history.
This is the period of individual and philosophic legislators.
She would, doubtless, have made a model tsaritsa of the pre-Petrine period, but, unfortunately, she was no fit wife for such a vagabond of genius as Peter the Great.
The report also cited a mid-1950s report that found 85 percent of economic growth was attributed to technological change in the period 1890 to 1950.
Do you think the earlier visions were the same time period?
We couldn't do anything because abduction wasn't made public for three days and the child went missing sometime during a twelve hour overnight period.
We received one piece of good news during our blackout period.
Was this during your dark period?
He chose a fairly level route as time away from the sport called for a breaking-in period.
You were just belly-aching, crying poor-mouth that we were knee deep in a slow period.
The space business doesn't seem to work but she might have used a character for a period.
But you were right—'X' equals a period!
I guess I'm not making much sense, period.
Rita never forgot anything important—or anything, period.
were a period of unmitigated humiliation and disaster.
Liszt, in after years when they had drifted apart, wrote of her: " George Sand catches her butterfly and tames it in her cage by feeding it on flowers and nectar - this is the love period.
The hourly values are derived from smoothed curves, the object being to get the mean ordinate for a 60-minute period.
Indeed all the extant writings by which he has earned his place as a poet and translator belong to this period.
If such is the case, there is reason to think that the composition of Gammer Gurton's Needle should be referred to the earlier period.
Clermont is identified with the ancient Augustonemetum, the chief town of the Arverni, and it still preserves some remains of the Roman period.
The period of Vansittart's government has been truly described as "the most revolting page of our Indian history."
The understanding between Hastings and Francis, originating in this state of affairs, was for a short period extended to general policy.
8), they became the rivals of the Judaean dynasty in the period of its splendour, and a chief element in the disorders which invited Pompey's intervention in Palestine.
But it still retained its importance as a trading and agricultural centre, even in the Roman period, exporting not only agricultural products but textile fabrics and sulphur.
Both temples belong to the best period of the Doric style and are among the finest in existence.
wide; and not far off on the east is a large private house with white tesselated pavements, probably pre-Roman in origin but slightly altered in the Roman period (R.
A village of the Byzantine period has been explored at Balatizzo, immediately to the south of the modern town (Notizie degli Scavi, 1900, 511-520).
The most widely spread of the sedimentary beds belong to the Miocene period.'
The government let the mines to contractors for forty years and then took them over; but in the period from 1720 to 1840 only 14,620 tons of galena were extracted and 2772 of lead.
Among the most curious relics of the art of the period is a group of bronze statuettes, some found at Uta near Cagliari and others near Teti, west of Fonni, in the centre of the island, of which many specimens are now preserved in the museum at Cagliari.
7), inasmuch as up till that period colonization by the Greeks seems to have been regarded as a possible enterprise.
In 238 B.C. the Carthaginian mercenaries revolted, and the Romans took advantage of the fact to demand that the island should be given period.
The name Barbaria for the mountainous district in the east centre of Sardinia, in the district of Nuoro, which still exists in the form Barbargia, goes back to the Roman period, the civitates Barbariae being mentioned in an inscription of the time of Tiberius (Corp. inscr.
Several milestones belonging to it have been discovered, including one of the time of Augustus and one of Claudius near Forum Traiani, and one of Nero near Turris Libisonis, though it was probably not completed right through until a later period (T.
Judices Pisan period.
s There is no authentic history for the intervening period; the famous " pergamene d'Arborea," published by P. Martini in 1863 at Cagliari, have been shown to be modern forgeries.
In 456 it was seized by Genseric. It was retaken Byzantine period.
Under Byzantium it remained nominally until the 10th century, when we find the chief magistrate still bearing the title of apXow.3 In the 8th century 4 (720) the period of Saracen invasion began; but the Saracens never secured a firm footing in the island.
To the Pisan period belong a number of fine Romanesque churches, among which may be specially mentioned those of Ardara, S.
Many of the churches show characteristic Spanish Late Gothic architecture which survived until a comparatively recent period.
In 1 457 King Ladislas died suddenly, and public opinion from an early period accused Podébrad of having poisoned him.
It is at this period that Ranke believes Maximilian to have entertained the idea of a universal monarchy; but whatever hopes he may have had were shattered by the death of his son Philip and the rupture of the treaty of Blois.
After a period of vacillation he deserted Louis and joined the Holy League, which had been formed to expel the French from Italy; but unable to raise troops, he served with the English forces as a volunteer and shared in the victory gained over the French at the battle of the Spurs near Therouanne on the 16th of August 1513.
It may confidently be dated to a period not earlier than the 14th or 15th century A.D., and attributed to the same Bantu people the remains of whose stone-fenced kraals are found at so many places between the Limpopo and the Zambezi.
This ceremony arose out of a dinner held annually at Dagenham, on the Essex shore of the Thames, by the commissioners for engineering works carried out there in 1705-1720 - a remarkable achievement for this period - to save the lowlands from flooding.
The beginnings of his doctrine of cellular pathology date from the earliest period in his career.
436, the period of its introduction may certainly be dated some 500 years previous to the Welsh chronicle and even much earlier."
Remains of the wild cat occur in English caverns; while from those of Ireland (where the wild species has apparently been unknown during the historic period) have been obtained jaws and teeth which it has been suggested are referable to the Egyptian rather than to the European wild cat.
Megara suffered severely during the Civil War of 48 B.C., but seems at some later period to have received new settlers.
- The office of mayor of the palace was an institution peculiar to the Franks of the Merovingian period.
The best account of Descartes's mental history during his life in Holland is contained in his letters, which extend over the whole period, and are particularly frequent in the latter half.
12 He had several writings in hand during the early years of his residence in Holland, but the main work of this period was a physical doctrine of the universe which he termed The World.
From this period dates the castle, and also the buildings of the university, founded by Gabriel Bethlen, and now used as barracks.
When it began to have magistrates of its own is not known: nor indeed have we any inscriptions from Ostia that can be certainly attributed to the Republican period.
In the centre of the area are the substructions of a temple, and on the south-east side are the remains of the theatre, built in the early imperial period, restored by Septimius Severus in 196-197 and again in the 4th or 5th century.
Farther south-east, a line of sand dunes, covering the ruins of ancient villas, marks the coastline of the Roman period.
The decennium extending from 1550 to 1560 was the good period of Ivan IV.'s reign, when he deliberately broke away from his disreputable past and surrounded himself with good men of lowly origin.
Their influence upon the young tsar was profoundly beneficial, and the period of their administration coincides with the most glorious period of Ivan's reign - the period of the conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan.
The last years of his life were troubled by a new period of storm and stress which called for his highest powers of calculation and self-control.
Several interesting monuments of this period remain at Trebizond in the form of churches in the Byzantine style of architecture.
A MS. of that period in the royal library, Windsor (No.
At a much more remote period also the great city of Lagash stood by or on its banks.
The plants are grown in the stove till the flowering period, when they may be removed to the greenhouse.
Wachsmuth holds the former view and regards the Tholos as merely a dining-room for the Prytaneis in the old democratic period.
The remains of the amphitheatre are scanty; many of its stones have gone to build the city wall, which must, therefore, at the earliest belong to the end of the classical period.
The ruined church at Longpont (13th century) is the relic of an important Cistercian abbey; Urcel and Mont-Notre-Dame have fine churches, the first entirely in the Romanesque style, the second dating from the 12th and 13th centuries, to which period the church at Braisne also belongs.
After a period of instruction in medicine by a doctor who also, according to Lucian, was an impostor, he succeeded in establishing an oracle of Aesculapius at his native town.
There is no reason to suppose the human voice has varied, during the period of which we have evidence, more than other physical attributes.
But a positive identity of pitch cannot be claimed for any period of time, and certainly not for the early organs; the foot-rule of the organ-builder, which had to do with the lengths of the pipes, and which varied in every country and province, could easily cause a difference of a semitone.
For a short period the day was changed to Tuesday, but the market was given up before 1888.
The church of St Mary and All Saints is a large and beautiful cruciform building principally of the Decorated period.
Despite the fact that with the exception of the period of the "Great Awakening" (1740-1742), when he preached as an itinerant in several neighbouring colonies, his active labours were confined to his own parish, his influence on the religious thought of his time in America was probably surpassed only by that of his old friend and teacher Jonathan Edwards.
At the Restoration in 1660 he was arrested for preaching, and after a short period of freedom he was again seized, and he remained in prison for seven years.
Since the time of Ali Pasha, who broke the power of the local chieftains, southern Albania has been subject to the central Turkish power; before that period the mountaineers of Suli and Khimara enjoyed an independence similar to that of the Gheg tribes.
at Spalato and on the island of Lesina) has been shown by modern archaeologists to belong to the Roman period.
Period of Native Rule.
The occupants of Edom during practically the whole period of Biblical history were the Bedouin tribes which claimed 1 A curious etymological speculation connects the name with the story of Esau's begging for Jacob's pottage, Gen.
After a period of retirement at Fonte Avellana, he proceeded in 1069 as papal legate to Germany, and persuaded the emperor Henry IV.
The Pipe Roll of Cloyne, compiled by Bishop Swaffham in 1364, is a remarkable record embracing a full account of the feudal tenures of the see, the nature of the impositions, and the duties the purl homines Sancti Colmani were bound to perform at a very early period.
He also was provost of Edinburgh at various times, and it is a remarkable instance of the esteem in which the lairds of Merchiston were held that three of them in immediate lineal succession repeatedly filled so important an office during perhaps the most memorable period in the history of the city.
There seems but little doubt that Napier was the first to make use of a decimal separator, and it is curious that the separator which he used, the point, should be that which has been ultimately adopted, and after a long period of partial disuse.
The monastic buildings have practically disappeared, but the church was a splendid building of various dates from Norman to Decorated, the choir and Lady chapel representing the later period.
Amongst the writings of that period he was most impressed by those of F.
This has led in some quarters to a desire that the moderator should be clothed with greater responsibility and have his period of office prolonged; should be made, in fact, more of a bishop in the Anglican sense of the word.
Their ecclesiastical polity came much more from Paris than from Geneva."2 To trace the history of Presbyterianism in France for the next thirty years would be to write the history of France itself during that period.
The Presbyterianism now visible in England is of Scottish origin and Scottish type, and beyond the fact of embracing a few congregations which date from, or before, the Act of Uniformity and the Five Mile Act, has little in common with the Presbyterianism which was for a brief period by law established.
The Colonial Period.
The general strictness of the church in its requirements for ministerial education occasioned it great loss in this period when the territory beyond the Appalachians was being settled so largely by Scotch-Irish and Presbyterians.
The "sides" remained separate throughout the remainder of this period.
During this early period was known variously as Ferryhook, Ashley's Ferry and Van der Heyden's Ferry.
It fell into the power of Alboin in 569 and became the seat of a Lombard duchy; it was still one of the wealthiest cities of Aemilia in the Lombard period.
In the later Vedic period he is specially connected with the nocturnal heavens.
His life at this period was a struggle against crushing poverty, but his scholarly ambition was never relaxed.
The period of organization and development of the Ku Klux movement was from 1865 to 1868; the period of greatest activity was from 1868 to 1870, after which came the decline.
Thietmar wrote a Chronicon in eight books, which deals with the period between 908 and 1018.
annually, but the drainage from the eastern slopes of the Andes is large enough to meet the loss from evaporation and keep these inland lakes from drying up. At an early period this depressed area drained southward to the Colorado, and the bed of the old outlet can still be traced.
The marine facies of the later Tertiaries is confined to the neighbourhood of the coast, and was probably formed after the elevation of the Andes; but inland, freshwater deposits of this period are met with, especially in Patagonia.
During the Tertiary period the great volcanoes of the Andes were formed, and there were smaller eruptions in the Sierras.
Great masses of granite, syenite and diorite were intruded at this period, and send tongues even into the andesitic tuffs.
According to the official returns,' the over-sea immigration for the forty-seven years 1857-1903 aggregated 2,872,588, while the departure of emigrants during the same period was 1,066,480, showing a net addition to the population of 1,806,108.
During this period the bank-note circulation was increased to $161,700,000, and two mortgage banks - the National Hypothecary Bank and the Provincial Mortgage Bank (of Buenos Aires) - flooded the country with $509,000,000 of cedulas (hypothecary bonds).
His period of office was marked by the rapid advance of Buenos Aires in population and prosperity, and by an expansion of trade that was unfortunately accompanied by financial extravagance.
The first of these mistakes was a measure making (January 1885) the currency inconvertible for a period of two years.
The oldest rocks, the gneisses and schists of the Archean period, form nearly the whole of the Central Plateau, and are also exposed in the axes of the folds in Brittany.
The Central Plateau has probably been a land mass ever since this period, but the rest of the country was flooded by the Palaeozoic sea.
Towards the end of the period, however, during the deposition of the Portlandian beds, the sea again retreated, and in the early part of the Cretaceous period was limited (in France) to the catchment basins of the Sane and Rhnein the Paris basin the contemporaneous deposits were chiefly estuarine and were confined to the northern and eastern rim.
During the later part of the Cretaceous period the sea gradually retreated and left the whole country dry.
During the Tertiary period arms of the sea spread into France in the Paris basin from the north, in the basins of the Loire and the Garonne from the west, and in the Rhne area from the south.
and during the last twenty years of that period it ________
The development of French coal and lignite mining in the i9th century, together with records of prices, which rose considerably at the end of the period, is set forth in the table below:
The department of Meurthe-et-Moselle (basins of Nancy and Longwy-Briey) furnished 84% of the total output during the quinquennial period 1901-1905, may be reckoned as one of the principal iron-producing regions of the world.
The table below gives the average production of zinc, argentiferous lead, iron-pyrites and other ores during the quinquennial period 1901f 905.
being 13,117,000 gallons, or about 26% of the average annual production of France during the same period (49,945,000 gallons).
of subsidiary lines, but the railway expenditure of the country at this period was so large that in a few yearsthey found it impossible to raise the capital they required.
In the same period Spain received exports from France averaging 4,700,000.
The increase of the French mercantile marine (which is fifth in importance in the world) over the same period is traced in the following table.
They are elected by the scrutin de lisle for a period of nine years, and one-third of the body retires every three years.
The following table shows the rapid growth of the state revenue of France during the period 1875-1905, the figures for the specified years representing millions of pounds.
This law naturally made a deep impression on military Europe, not merely because the period of color service was reducedGermany had taken this step years beforebut because of the almost entire absence of the usual exemptions.
Even bread-winners are required to serve, the state pensioning their dependants (75 centimes per diem, up to 10% of the strength) during their period of service.
The reserves of the active army are composed of those who have served the legal period in the active army.
The non-commissioned officers are, as usual in universal service armies, drawn partly from men who voluntarily enlist at a relatively early age, and partly from men who at the end of their compulsory period of service are re-engaged.
The inscript usually begins his service at the age of twenty and passes through a period of obligatory service lasting seven years, and generally comprising five years of active service and two years furlough.
Primary Inslruction.All primary public instruction is free and compulsory for children of both sexes between the ages of six and thirteen, but if a child can gain a certificate of primary studies at the age of eleven or after, he may be excused the rest of the period demanded by law.
If educated at home, the child (after two years of the compulsory period has expired) must undergo a yearly examination, and if it is unsatisfactory the parents will be compelled to send him to a public or private school.
During the second period the pupil has a choice of four courses: (1) Latin and Greek; (2) Latin and sciences; (3) Latin and modern languages; (4) sciences and modern languages.
At the end of this period he presents himself for a degree called the Baccalaurat de tenseignement secondaire.
The year of acquisition in the table, when one date only is given, indicates the period when the country or some part of it first fell under French influence, and does not imply continuous possession since.
The authorized colonial loans, omitting Algeria and Tunisia, during the period 1884f 904 amounted to 19,200,000, the sums paid for interest and sinking funds on loans varying from 600,000 to 800,000 a year.
See Holliday's Life (1797); Campbell's Chief Justices; Foss's Judges; Greville's Memoirs, passim; Horace Walpole's Letters; and other memoirs and works on the period.
After attempting to govern under these conditions for nearly two years, the prince, with the consent of the tsar Alexander III., assumed absolute power (May 9, 1881), and a suspension of the ultra-democratic constitution for a period of seven years was voted by a specially convened assembly (July 13).
Except on Charles Island, where settlement has existed longest, little or no influence of the presence of man is evident in the group; still, the running wild of dogs and cats, and, as regards the vegetation, especially goats, must in a comparatively short period greatly modify the biological conditions of the islands.
in the Eocene period or later) of enormous land masses."
But here his merits are distinguished, and, at the period when his Institutio Interpretis N.
After a period of inaction war between the two countries again became imminent in 1209; but a peace was made at Norham, and about three years later another amicable arrangement was reached.
important reign is a very mportant period in the early history of Scotland, and may almost be said to mark an epoch in every department of public life.
Macan, suggest the period between Solon and Peisistratus, c. 570 B.C. It may be questioned, however, whether the whole episode is not mythical.
Whether a pouch is present or not, the young are born in an exceedingly imperfect state of development, after a very short period of gestation, and are immediately transferred by the female parent to the teats, where they remain firmly attached for a considerable time; the milk being injected into their mouths at intervals by means of a special muscle which compresses the glands.
In the case of the great grey kangaroo, for instance, the period of gestation is less than forty days, and the newly-born embryo, which is blind, naked, and unable to use its bud-like limbs, is little more than an inch in length.
Fossil remains of members of this family have also been found in Europe in strata of the Oligocene period.
Wallace, this author is of opinion that marsupials did not effect an entrance into Australia till about the middle of the Tertiary period, their ancestors being probably opossums of the American type.
The short period of this evolution is at least one factor in the primitive grade of even the most specialized members of the group. In the advance of their molar teeth from a tritubercular to a grinding type, the author traces a curious parallelism between marsupials and placentals.
We have no information regarding Jerusalem during the period of the captivity, but fortunately Nehemiah, who was permitted to return and rebuild the defences about 445 B.C., has given a fairly clear description of the line of the wall which enables us to obtain a good idea of the extent of the city at this period.
But his successors did not act with similar leniency; when the city was captured by Ptolemy I., king of Egypt, twelve years later, the fortifications were partially demolished and apparently not again restored until the period of the high priest Simon II., who repaired the defences and also the Temple buildings.
At some period between the time of the Maccabees and of Herod, a second or outer wall had been built outside and north of the first wall, but it is not possible to fix an accurate date to this line of defence, as the references to it in Josephus are obscure.
At this period the religion of Mahomet was spreading over the east, and in 637 the caliph Omar marched on Jerusalem, which capitulated after a siege of four months.
Prior to 1858, when the modern building period commenced, Jerusalem lay wholly within its 16th-century walls, and even as late as 1875 there were few private residences beyond their limits.
The most unhealthy period is from 1st May to 31st October, when there are, from time to time, outbreaks of typhoid, small-pox, diphtheria and other epidemics.
The " castle of Istakhr " played a conspicuous part several times during the Mahommedan period as a strong fortress.
To a Rechabite (the clan is allied to the Kenites) is definitely ascribed a hand in Jehu's sanguinary measures, and, though little is told of the obviously momentous events, one writer clearly alludes to a bloody period when reforms were to be effected by the sword (1 Kings xix.
There are traces of what may be called a "five-day week," but also some traces of a period of seven days.
This appears actually to be the case in the period of the First Dynasty of Babylon and also in the 7th century in Assyria, where early Babylonian customs were kept up conservatively.
On the other hand, complete indentity of regulations and observance in Babylonia and Israel at one period need not show more than development on the same lines.
It thus abundantly appears that Pheidias was closely connected with Pericles, and a ruling spirit in the Athenian art of the period.
It is as yet difficult to determine the part which Rhodes played in prehistoric days during the naval predominance of the neighbouring island of Crete; but archaeological remains dating from the later Minoan age prove that the early Aegean culture maintained itself there comparatively unimpaired until the historic period.
This period was marked by intense earth movements, which affected the whole of the east Australian highlands.
The Upper Devonian was a period of marine retreat; the crustal disturbances of the Lower Devonian were renewed and great quartz-pebble beaches were formed on the rising shore lines, producing the West Coast Range conglomerates of Tasmania, and the similar rocks to the south-east of Mansfield in Victoria.
The Mesozoic begins with a Triassic land period in the mainland of Australia; while the islands of the Australasian festoon contain the Triassic marine limestones, which fringe the whole of the Pacific. The Triassic beds are best known in New South Wales, where round Sydney they include a series of sandstones and shales.
The Cretaceous period was initiated by the subsidence of a large area to the south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, whereby a Lower Cretaceous sea spread southward, across western Queensland, western New South Wales and the north-eastern districts of South Australia.
The Kainozoic period opened with fresh earth movements, the most striking evidence of which are the volcanic outbreaks all round the Australian coasts.
Similar deposits, of approximately the same age, occur in Tasmania and New Zealand; and at about the same time there began the Kainozoic volcanic period of Australasia.
After this marine period was brought to a close the sea retreated.
The chemical characters of the well-waters, the irregular distribution of the water-pressure, the distribution of the underground thermal gradients, and the occurrence in some of the wells of a tidal rise and fall of a varying period, are facts which are not explained on the simple hydrostatic theory.
During the same period, owing to the efforts of pastoralists to improve their flocks, there was a gradual increase in the weight of wool produced per sheep from 341b to an average of over 71b.
For the period of thirty years during which the mine was worked the production of ore amounted to 234,648 tons, equal to 51,622 tons of copper, valued at £4,749,924.
Four points are clear: (i) the Australians represent a distinct race; (2) they have no kinsfolk among the neighbouring races; (3) they have occupied the continent for a very long period; (4) it would seem that the Tasmanians must represent a still earlier occupation of Australia, perhaps before the Bass Strait existed.
of England, on which a large southern land is shown, and the tradition of a Terra Australis appears to have been current for a long period before it enters into authentic history.
In northern Queensland, also, there were several explorations about this period, with results of some interest.
Such was the growth of infant Victoria in five years; that of Adelaide or South Australia, in the same period, was nearly equal to it.
The building societies and financial institutions in receipt of deposits, or so many of them as were on an unsound footing, failed at an early period of the depression, so also did the weaker banks.
There was distrust in the minds of the depositors, especially those whose holdings were small, and most of the banks were, at a very early period, subjected to the strain of repaying a large proportion of their deposits as they fell due.
The crisis was by no means a sudden crash, and even when the failures began to take place they were spread over a period of sixteen weeks.
During the whole period from 1873 onwards, prices, other than of labour, were steadily tending downwards, so that the cost of living in 1890 was much below that of 1873.
The Labour party held power in the Commonwealth for a short period, and has had the balance of power in its hands ever since the formation of the Commonwealth.
Few men of the period so profoundly impressed their mark on Jewish life.
Ujjain, known as Avanti in the Buddhist period and as Ozene to the Greeks, is one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus and the traditional capital of King Vikramaditya, at whose court the "nine gems" of Sanskirt literature are said to have flourished.
The hot spring which still survive from the period of volcanic activity, rise at a temperature of 147° Fahr.
Here we are concerned only with their earlier history, which is put for convenience under this heading in order to separate the account of the period when they formed practically a single area for historical purposes from that of the time when Holland and Belgium became distinct administrative units.
became for a long period the bulwark of the empire against the inroads of the Germans from the north.
Of this period scarcely any record remains, but when at the end of the 3rd century the Franks began to swarm over the Rhine into the Roman lands, the names of the old tribes had disappeared.
Saxon was at this period the common title of all the north German tribes; there was but little difference between Frisians and Saxons either in race or language, and they were closely united for some four centuries in common resistance to the encroachments of the Frankish power.
The next fifteen years were for Maximilian a stormy and difficult period.
In a brief period he was the acclaimed.
For the Burgundian period - A.
For the Habsburg period to 1 555 - Th.
The two chief seats of his worship were Ur in the S., and Harran considerably to the N., but the cult at an early period spread to other centres, and temples to the moon-god are found in all the large cities of Babylonia and Assyria.
It is to this period that we must trace such designations of the god as "father of the gods," "chief of the gods," "creator of all things," and the like.
In the reign of Augustus, Agrippa fixed the newly mixed colony of Suevi and Menapii at Tournai, which continued throughout the period of Roman occupation to be of importance.
During the Burgundian period it was the residence of Margaret of York, widow of Charles the Bold; and the pretender Perkin Warbeck, whom she championed, if not born there, was the reputed son of a Jew of Tournai.
The pre-Socratics may be classed as naïve materialists in this sense; though, as at that early period the contrast between matter and spirit had not been' fully realized and matter was credited with properties that belong to life, it is usual to apply the term hylozoism to the earliest stage of Greek metaphysical theory.
The evidence for the rite among the Greeks is sufficient to warrant the conclusion of its introduction at a very early period and its persistence to a late day.
- Excluding the Tai, or Siamese, who are undoubtedly recent intruders from the north, there are three races which for an extended period of time have had their home in the Malay Peninsula.
Although the first definite endeavour to locate the Golden Chersonese thus dates from the middle of the 2nd century of our era, the name was apparently well known to the learned of Europe at a somewhat earlier period, and in his Antiquities of the Jews, written during the latter half of the 1st century, Josephus says that Solomon gave to the pilots furnished to him by Hiram of Tyre commands " that they should go along with his stewards to the land that of old was called Ophir, but now the Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch gold."
During this period Achin developed a determined enmity to the Portuguese, and more than one attempt was made to drive the strangers from Malacca.
The Domesday Survey contains a long account of the laws, customs and values of the salt-works at that period, which were by far the most profitable in Cheshire.
The standard authorities for the period before 1791 are: Ira Allen, Natural and Political History of the State of Vermont (London, 1898); B.
Aston Hall, erected by Sir Thomas Holte in 1618-1635, is an admirable architectural example of its period, built of red brick.
It was during this period that he took his Ph.D.
At a later period he was councillor of legation in the Austrian embassy at the Frankfort diet, but in 1818 he returned to Vienna.
It occupies the site of the ancient Beneventum, originally Maleventum or Maluentum, supposed in the imperial period to have been founded by Diomedes.
Sofia, a circular edifice of about 760, now modernized, the roof of which is supported by six ancient columns, is a relic of the Lombard period; it has a fine cloister of the 12th century constructed in part of fragments of earlier buildings; while the cathedral with its fine arcaded facade and incomplete square campanile (begun in 1279) dates from the 9th century and was rebuilt in 1114.
His greatest work in this period was the purchase of Alaska from Russia, in 1867.
Many of the ancient oaks that remain in England may date from Saxon times, and some perhaps from an earlier period; the growth of trees after the trunk has become hollow is extremely slow, and the age of such venerable giants only matter of vague surmise.
An important product of oak woods is the bark that from a remote period has been the chief tanning material of Europe.
In the Saxon period the "mast" seems to have been regarded as the most valuable produce of an oak wood; nor was its use always confined to the support of the herds, for in time of dearth acorns were boiled and eaten by the poor as a substitute for bread both in England and France, as the sweeter produce of Q.
There appears to be no foundation for the statement that he was stopped by an order of council when on the point of abandoning England for America, though there can be little doubt that the thoughts of emigration suggested themselves to his mind at this period.
In general the toleration enjoyed under Cromwell was probably far larger than at any period since religion became the contending ground of political parties, and certainly greater than under his immediate successors.
Its period is mainly Transitional Norman and Early English, and though considerably altered by restoration it contains some good details, with many monuments and brasses.
America), the four-day week of the Chibchas, the five-day week of Persia, Malaysia, Java, Celebes, New Guinea and Mexico; in ancient Scandinavia a five-day period was in use, but markets were probably unknown.
Kossmat has shown that the Atlantic had substantially its present form during the Cretaceous period.
At an early age he entered the cloister; and in 423 he became bishop of Cyrrhus, a small city in a wild district between Antioch and the Euphrates, where, except for a short period of exile, he spent the remainder of his life.
But in cases where a debt or instalment is in arrear and it is proved to the satisfaction of the court that the person making default either has or has had since the date of the order or judgment the means to pay the sum in respect of which he has made default and has refused or neglected to pay, he may be committed to prison at the discretion of the judge for a period of not more than forty-two days.
In practice, a period of twenty-one days is usually the maximum period ordered.
During this period he made a second excursion to Babylon, and in 1820 undertook an extensive tour to Kurdistan - from Bagdad north to Sulimania, eastward to Sinna, then west to Nineveh, and thence down the Tigris to Bagdad.
P.) period 1594-1598.
Mere Angelique Arnaud, who at this time put herself under his direction and wished to join the Order of the Visitation, attracted by its humility and sweetness, may be named as the most interesting of his innumerable penitents of this period.
This is the extent enclosed by the medieval walls; within them are considerable remains of the lofty terrace walls of the Eutruscan period.
In the Lombard period it is spoken of as one of the principal cities of Tuscia.
There is some reason to hope that the day of these misconceptions is passed; although there is also some reason to fear that on other grounds the present era may be known to posterity as an era of instrumentation comparable, in its gorgeous chaos of experiment and its lack of consistent ideas of harmony and form, only to the monodic period at the beginning of the 17th century, in which no one had ears for anything but experiments in harmonic colour.
In every mature period of art it will be found that, however much the technical rules may be collected in one special category, every artistic category has a perfect interaction with all the others; and this is nowhere more perfectly shown than when the art is in its simplest possible form of maturity.
Neither here nor elsewhere are cilia found at any period of development.
While the majority of the Nematodes are parasites, there are many that are never at any period of their life parasitic. These free-living forms are found everywhere - in salt and fresh water, in damp earth and moss, and among decaying substances; they are always minute in size, and like many other lower forms of life, are capable of retaining their vitality for a long period even when dried, which accounts for their wide distribution; this faculty is also possessed by certain of the parasitic Nematodes, especially by those which lead a free existence during a part of their life-cycle.
After a longer or shorter period it enters the alimentary canal of its proper host with drinking-water, or it bores through the skin and reaches the bloodvessels, and is so conveyed through the body, in which it becomes sexually mature.
From Akbar's accession to Aurangzeb's death, a period of 151 years, the Mogul was India's master.
The evidence upon a particular point may be very full at one period and almost entirely lacking at another.
The most remarkable feature in the geology of Elba is the extent of the granitic and ophiolitic eruptions of the Tertiary period.
Besides these we have in the same period the spark telegraph of Reiser, of Don Silva, and of Cavallo, the pith ball telegraph of Francis Ronalds (a model of which is in the collection of telegraph apparatus in the Victoria and Albert Museum), and several others.
In the period from 1855 to 1868 the number of messages carried annually by all the telegraph companies of the United Kingdom increased from 1,017,529 to 5,781,989, or an average annual increase of 16.36 per cent.
During this period the Electric Telegraph Company's average receipts per message fell from 4s.
During that period 8000 m.
D and spark gap, has the same natural time period of oscillation as the open circuit consisting of the antenna, secondary coil and adjustable inductance.
adjust the frequency so that it has the value of the normal time period of the circuit formed of the condenser and transformer secondary circuit, and thus it is possible to obtain condenser oscillatory discharges free from any admixture with alternating current arc. In this manner the condenser discharge can be started or stopped at pleasure, and long and short discharges made in accordance with the signals of the Morse FIG.
When this is done we have a syntonic system which is not easily affected by electric waves of other than the right period or approximating thereto.
In the United States the most active workers and patentees at this period were R.
If, then, a long copper bar which forms part of this circuit is placed in proximity to the transmitting antenna and the handle moved, some position can be found in which the natural time period of the cymometer circuit is made equal to the actual time period of the telegraphic antenna.
The first period is represented, not by any complete table, but by the old unmodernised forms of Tables III.
In the second period the gutturals have been palatalized, but there yet is no change of final s to r.
In the third period final s has everywhere become r.
is a copy or redraft made from older documents during this period.
" Calculographs " are employed for stamping the time upon the tickets, and there is associated with each trunk circuit a device which lights a lamp as soon as the scheduled limit of the period of conversation is reached.
After another period of preaching in Italy and watching over the development of the order, Francis once again set out for the East (1219).
Italy in the Napoleonic Period, 1796-1814 27.5 E.
The illegitimate births show a decrease, having been 6.95 per 100 births in 1872 and 5.72 in 1902 with a rise, however, in the intermediate period as high as 7.76 ir 1883.
The average expectation of life at birth for the same period was 52 years and II months, 62 years and 2 months at the age of three years, 52 years at the age of fifteen, 44 years at the age of twenty-four, 30 years at the age of forty; while the average period of life, which was 35 years 3 months per individual in 1882, was 43 yearf per individual in 1901.
During the period 1900190 the average annual production of silk cocoons was 53,500 tons, an of silk 5200 tons.
The results areaa lack of water-supply and of water-power, the streams becoming mere torrents for a short period and perfectly dry for the rest of the year; lack of a sufficient supply of timber; the denudation of the soil on the hills, and, where the valleys below have insufficient drainage, the formation of swamps.
A capital expenditure of 1/24,000,000 annually was decided on to bring the lines up to the necessary state of efficiency to be able to cope with the rapidly increasing traffic. It was estimated in 1906 that this would have to be maintained for a period of ten years, with a further total expenditure of 1/21 4,000,000 on new lines.
The total imports for the first six months of 1907 amounted to 57,840,000, an increase of 7,520,000 as compared with the corresponding period of 1906.
The exports for the corresponding period amounted to 35,840,000, a diminution of 1,520,000 as compared with the corresponding period of 1906.
In 1902 of 884,612 persons accused of penal offencs, 13.12% were acquitted during the period of the instruction, 30.31 by the courts, 46.32 condemned and the rest acquitted in some other way.
By this law, every man liable and accepted for service served for eight or nine years on the Active Army and its Reserve (of which three to five were spent with the colors), four or, five in the Mobile Militia, and the rest of the service period of nineteen years in the Territorial Militia.
The period for which both communal and provincial councils are elected is six years, one-half being renewed every three years.
B~t in the time of that historian, as well as of Thucydides, the names of Oenotria and Italia, which appear to have been at that period regarded as synonymous, had been extended to include the shore of the Tarentine Gulf as far as Metapontum and from thence across to the gulfs of Laus and Posidonia on the Tyrrhenian Sea.
No satisfactory collection has been made of the Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul, though many are scattered about in different museums. For our present purpose it is important to note that the archaeological stratification in deposits like those of Bologna shows that the Gallic period supervened upon the Etruscan.
At first, indeed, the term was apparently confined to the regions of the central and southern districts, exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul and the whole tract north of the Apennines, and this continued to be the official or definite signification of the name down to the end of the republic. But the natural limits of Italy are so clearly marked that the name came to be generally employed as a geographical term at a much earlier period.
The truth is that no period in Italian history was less really glorious than that which came to a close in 961 by Berengar II.s cession of his rights to Otto the Great.
It was a period marked in the first place by the conquests of the Saracens, who began.
A fourth humiliating episode in this period was the invasion of the Magyar barbarians, who overran the north of Italy, and reduced its fairest provinces to the condition of a wilderness.
The pope was unable to check this revolution, which is now chiefly interesting as further proof of the insurgence of the Latin as against the feudal elements in Italy at this period.
authority, coinciding as it did with the practical elimination of the empire from Italian affairs, gave a long period of comparative independence to the nation.
The period we have briefly traversed was immortalized by Dante in an epic which from one point of view might be called the poem of the Guelphs and Ghibellines.
There is not a burgh of northern Italy but can trace the rise of a dynastic house to the vicissitudes of this period.
Only Florence and Venice, at the close of the period upon which we are now entering, maintained their republican independence.
The conditions which have the five been described, of despotism, mercenary warfare and bourgeois prosperity, determined the character of this epoch, which was also the period when the great achievements of the Renaissance were prepared.
Therefore, when he died in 1458, he bequeathed Naples to his natural son Ferdinand, while Sicily and Aragon passed together to his brother John, and so on to Ferdinand the Catholic. The twenty-three years of Alfonsos reign were the most prosperous and splendid period of South Italian history.
Herein he was aided by the troops of Facino Cane, who, dying opportunely at this period, left considerable wealth, a welltrained band of mercenaries, and a widow, Beatrice di Tenda.
But throughout this period a powerful opposition was gathering strength.
Nearly all wars during this period were undertaken either to check the growing power of Venice or to further th ambition of the papacy.
It is impossible in this place to follow the tangled intrigues of that period.
From 1530 until 1796, that is, for a period of nearly three centuries, the Italians had no history of their own.
The reign of this duke was long remembered as a period of internal prosperity, wise legislation and important public enterprise.
This is perhaps the best that can be said of a king who incarnated the stolid absolutism of the period.
The papacy, during this period, had to reconsider the question of the Jesuits, who made themselves universally odious, not only in Italy, but also in France and Spain.
A provisional government was formed, led by Ubaldino Peruzzi, and was strengthened on the 8th of May by the inclusion of Baron Bettino Ricasoli, a man of great force of character, who became the real head of the administration, and all through the ensuing critical period aimed unswervingly at Italian unity.
The most detailed Italiai history of the period is Carlo Tivaronis Storia critica del Rlsorgs menlo Italiano in 9 vols.
See also Zinis Storia d Italic (4 vols., Milan, 1875); Gualterios Gil ultimi rivolgimenti italiani (4 vols., Florence, 1850) is important for the period from 1831 to 1847, and so also is L.
A succinct account of the chief events of the period will be found in Sir Spencer Walpoles History of Twenty-Five Years (London, 1904).
The friendly attitude of France towards Italy during the period immediately subsequent to the occupation of Rome seemed to cow and to dishearten the Vatican.
By the seizure and sale of Church lands, by th sale of state railways, by economy to the bone and on onc supreme occasion by an appeal to taxpayers to advance a years quota of the land-tax, he had met the most pressing engagements of that troublous period.
During the same period the assumption of the Venetian and Roman debts, losses on the issue of loans and the accumulation of annual deficits, had caused public indebtedness to rise from 92,000,000 to 328,000,000, no less than f 100,000,000 of the latter sum having been sacrificed in premiums and commissions to bankers and underwriters of loans.
It was fortunate for Italy that during the whole period 1869 1876 the direction of her foreign policy remained in the experienced hands of Visconti-Venosta, a statesman whose Foreign trustworthiness, dignity and moderation even political policy opponents have been compelled to recognize.
His disappearance snapped the chief link with the heroic period, and removed from the helm of state a ruler of large heart, great experience and civil courage, at a moment when elements of continuity were needed and vital problems of internal reorganization had still to be faced.
In Bonghis mordant phrase, the foreign policy of Italy during this period may be said to have been characterized by enormous intellectual impotence counterbalanced by equal moral feebleness.
Treaty, It is known to have been concluded for a period of 1882.
The period between May 1881 and July 1887 occupied, in the region of foreign affairs, by the negotiation, conclusion and renewal of the triple alliance, by the Bulgarian crisis and by the dawn of an Italian colonial policy, was marked at home by urgent political and economic problems, and by the parliamentary phenomena known as trasformismo.
The conventions, concluded for a period of sixty years, but terminable by either party after twenty or forty years, retained for the state the possession of the lines (except the southern railway, viz.
Gradually the increase of traffic consequent upon the industrial development of Italy decreased the annual losses of the state, but the position of the government in regard to the railways still remained so unsatisfactory as to render the resumption of the whole system by the state on the expiration of the first period of twenty years in 1905 inevitable.
The gradual abolition of the grist tax on minor cereals diminished the surplus in 1882 to 236,000, and in 1883 to r1o,ooo, while the total repeal of the grist tax on wheat, which took effect on the 1st of January 1884, coincided with the opening of a new and disastrous period of deficit.
Their tactics, however, produced a contrary effect, for Rudini, accepting proposals from Berlin, renewed the alliance in June 1891 for a period of twelve years.
to allow him to dissolve parliament, entrusted Signor Giolitti, a Piedmontese deputy, sometime treasury minister in the Crispi cabinet, with the formation of a ministry of the Left, which contrived to obtain six months supply on account, and dissolved the Chamber, The ensuing general election (November 1892), marked by unprecedented violence and abuse of official pressure upon B k the electorate, fitly ushered in what proved to be scandals, the most unfortunate period of Italian history since the completion of national unity.
Crete (1896-1898), assumed the direction of foreign affairs in the first period of the Pelloux administration.
The characteristic feature of Italys foreign relations during this period was the weakening of the bonds of the Triple Alliance and the improved relations with France, while the ~
For the period of the French revolution and the Napoleonic wars see F.
annus, year; hence annales, sc. libri, annual records), the name given to a class of writers on Roman history, the period of whose literary activity lasted from the time of the Second Punic War to that of Sulla.
For the earlier period their authorities were state and family records - above all, the annales maximi (or annales pontificum), the official chronicle of Rome, in which the notable occurrences of each year from the foundation of the city were set down by the pontifex maximus.
He wrote twenty-three books on the period between the Social War and the dictatorship of Sulla.
During the brief period of his married life he held the 'appointment of lecturer at Buckingham Hall, now Magdalene College.
At a subsequent period the demand for instruction in the sacrificial science called into existence a still more practical set of manuals, the so-called Kalpa-sutras, or ceremonial rules, detailing, in succinct aphorisms, the approved course of sacrificial procedure, without reference to the supposed origin or import of the several rites.
At a later period, when the Atharvan gained admission to the Vedic canon, a special connexion with the Brahman priest was sometimes claimed, though with scant success, for this fourth collection of hymns and spells, and the comparatively late and unimportant Gopatha-brahmana attached to it.
The building of this altar is spread over a whole year, during which period the sacrificer has to carry about the sacrificial fire in an earthen pan for at least some time each day, until it is finally deposited on the completed altar to serve as the offering-fire for the Soma oblations.
Whilst the Soma-sacrifice has been thus developed by the Brahmanas in an extraordinary degree, its essential identity with the Avestan Haoma-cult shows that its origin goes back at all events to the Indo-Iranian period.
Passing to later times, we can watch a theory of monotheism rising, and dying down again, during what our scholars distinguish as the Brahmanical period of Indian religion.
Formally, Cicero adhered to the Academic 3 philosophy during its " middle " or almost sceptical period.
Energetically making use of this period of respite, he again issued the charter to the church, ordered his subjects to take a fresh oath of allegiance to him, and sent to the pope for aid; but neither these precautions, nor his expedient of taking the cross, deterred the barons from returning to the attack.
The fossil shells, pottery and rude stone implements, found alike at the base and at the surface of these middens, prove that the habits of the islanders have not varied since a remote past, and lead to the belief that the Andamans were settled by their present inhabitants some time during the Pleistocene period, and certainly no later than the Neolithic age.
The cosmology of this period consists for the most part of the Aristotelian teleological view of nature combined with the Christian idea of the Deity and His relation to the world.
The period of the revival of learning, which was also that of a renewed study of nature, is marked by a considerable amount of speculation respecting the origin of the universe.
- Another writer of this transition period deserves a passing reference here, namely, Jacob Boehme the mystic, who by his conception of a process of inner diremption as the essential character of all mind, and so of God, prepared the way for later German theories of the origin of the world as the self-differentiation and self-externalization of the absolute spirit.
In fact, there is a period when, as Aristotle long ago said, the embryo of the highest animal has the form of a mere worm, and, devoid of internal and external organization, is merely an almost structureless lump of polype-substance.
The discovery of a single fossil creature in a geological stratum of a wrong period, the detection of a single anatomical or physiological fact irreconcilable with origin by descent with modification, would have been destructive of the theory and would have made the reputation of the observer.
But in the prodigious number of supporting discoveries that have been made no single negative factor has appeared, and the evolution from their predecessors of the forms of life existing now or at any other period must be taken as proved.
Statistical inquiry into the facts of life has long been employed, and in particular Francis Galton, within the Darwinian period, has advocated its employment and developed its methods.
With the " Nicene period " came a great development on the criminal side.
The penalties which the spiritual court could inflict, in the period between the edict of Milan and c. 854, were properly excommunication whether generally or as exclusion from the sacraments for a term of months or years or till the day of death and (in the case of clerics) suspension or deposition.
At some indeterminate later period, the " clerk " was tried for felony by a jury in the king's court and then "pleaded his clergy," after conviction there, and was remitted to the ordinary for ecclesiastical punishment.
(b) Reclusion in a monastery continued from former period, and might be either temporary or perpetual (loc. cit.
(d) Fustigation, as in former period, was hardly an ecclesiastical punishment.
The subject matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Russia during the whole patriarchal period included matrimonial and testamentary causes, inheritance and sacrilege, and many questions concerning the Church domains and Church property, as well as spiritual offences of clergy and laity (ib.).
The wealth of the burghers during this period was equalled by their turbulent spirit of independence; feuds were frequent, - against the rival city of Bruges, against the counts, or, within the city itself, between the plebeian crafts and the patrician governing class.
The works on religion and philosophy especially will be of as much service for the history of ideas in these later periods as the publication of the canonical books has already been for the earlier period to which they refer.
26), Athenagoras (Libellus pro Christianis) and the Acts of Martyrs, were greatly in excess of those recorded in previous reigns, it must not be forgotten that it was only in this period that the Christians began to keep records.
lenzin, lengizin, lenzo, probably from the same root as "long" and referring to "the lengthening days"), in the Christian Church, the period of fasting preparatory to the festival of Easter.
At Rome, for instance, the whole period of fasting was but three weeks, according to the historian Socrates (Hist.
30); but the inconsistency of this period with the name Quadragesima, and with the forty days' fast of Christ, came to be noted, and early in the 7th century four days were added, by what pope is unknown, Lent in the West beginning henceforth on Ash Wednesday.
The period of Lent is still described as "the six weeks of the fast" (E 41360µ6,5Es TWV vioreLWV), Holy Week (7) ayia Kai µeyaAn E/380µas) not being reckoned in.
Beads of'amber occur with Anglo-Saxon relics in the south of England; and up to a comparatively recent period the material was valued as an amulet.
35 is described under another Hebrew word, and refers to ladanum, a fragrant resin produced in Cyprus, and the use of this drug, as well as that of cinnamon and cassia, indicates even at that early period a knowledge of the products of Somaliland, Arabia and the East Indies and the existence of trade between the farther East and Egypt.
The period of study is eighteen months in Denmark or Norway, and two in Austria, Finland, Germany, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland, three in Belgium, France, Greece and Italy, four to six in Holland, and five in Spain.
In Great Britain the period of study is voluntary, and usually occupies only one year.
Internal indications point to the date of compositions as 86-82 B.C., the period of Marian domination in Rome.
The word is derived from the general resemblance of the texture of plant substance to that of a textile fabric, and dates from a period when the fundamental constitution of plant substance from individual cells was not yet discovered.
The triple division of tissues is laid down in most cases at 1 very early period of developmentin the flowering plants usuall3 before the resting stage is reached.
In cases where the development of the embryo is advanced at the resting period, traces run from the cotyledons and determine the symmetry of the stele of the primitive axis, the upperpart of which often shows stem-structure, in some respects at least, and is called the hypocoty- ledonary stem or hypocotyl, while the lower part is the primary root .~-,
Secondly, the histology of fossil plants, particularly woody plants of the carboniferous period, has been placed on a sound basis, assimilated with general histological doctrine, and has considerably enlarged our conceptions of plant anatomy as a whole, though again.
Fixation of Nitrogen.Another, and perhaps an even more important, instance of symbiotic association has come to the front during the same period, it is an alliance between the plants of the Natural Order Leguminosae and certain bacterium-like forms which find a home within the tissues of their roots.
Their cells during the period of incubation of the symbiotic organism are abundantly supplied with starch.
The time during which these regular changes in the rate can be observed is generally spoken of as the grand period of growth.
If we consider the be~aviour of a growing organ such as a root, we find that, like a cell, it shows a grand period, of growth.
Here it is that the actual extension in length of the root takes place, and the cells reach the maximum point of the grand period.
Nor is it only in growing organs that the rhythm can be observed, for many plants exhibit it during a much longer period than that of growth.
the later period of the Mesozoic era saw the almost sudden advent of a fully developed angiospermous vegetation which rapidly occupied the earths surface, and which it is not easy to link on with any that preceded it.
And it is a plausible conjecture that the vegetation of the globe had already in its main features been constituted at this period much as it exists at the present moment.
The tertiary era opens with a climate in which during the Eocene period something like existing tropical conditions must have obtained in the northern hemisphere.
A gradual refrigeration proceeded through the Pliocene period.
The glacial period effected in Europe a wholesale extermination of temperate types accompanied by a southern extension of the arctic flora.
During the milder interglacial period some southern types, such as Rhododendron ponticum, still held their own, but ultimately succumbed.
And Reid has shown that during the glacial period the existing flora was replaced by an arctic one represented by such plants as Salix polaris, S.
At the close of the glacial period the alpine floras retreated to the mountains accompanied by an arctic contingent, though doubtless many species of the latter, such as Salix polaris, failed to establish themselves.
The evidence of the peat bogs shows that the Scots fir, which is now extinct, was abundant in Denmark in the Roman period.
The oak in turn has been almost superseded in Denmark by the beech, which, if we may trust Julius Caesar, had not reached Britain in his time, though it existed there in the pre-glacial period, but is not native in either Scotland or Ireland.
African sub-regiou.Western Arabia must be added to th~ African continent, which, with this exception and possibly a formel European connexinn in the far west, has had apparently from a very early period an almost insular character.
These act as endowments for a specific period, and are conditional on the holder devoting his time to the investigation at first hand of some specified subject.
2 The period of the early middle ages is dealt with in Beazley's Dawn of Modern Geography (London; part i., 1897; part ii., 1901; part iii., 1906); see also Winstedt, Cosmos Indicopleustes (1910).
It is distinguished from other English geographical books of the period by confining attention to the principles of geography, and not describing the countries of the world.
The framework was capable of accommodating itself to new facts, and was indeed far in advance of the knowledge of the period.
practical way during the darkest period of the middle ages.
At length the long period of barbarism which accompanied and followed the fall of the Roman empire drew to a close in Europe.
D'Anville's map contained all that was then known, but ten years afterwards Major Rennell began his surveying labours, which extended over the period from 1763 to 1782.
In South America scientific exploration was active during this period.
But in the 19th century and after exploring work was so generally and steadily maintained in all directions, and was in so many cases narrowed down from long journeys to detailed surveys within relatively small areas, that i t becomes desirable to cover the whole period at one view for certain great divisions of the world.
There is nothing more striking in geography than the perfection of the adjustment of a great river system to its valleys when the land has remained stable for a very lengthened period.
Each of these divisions is the home of a special fauna, many species of which are confined to it alone; in the Australian region, indeed, practically the whole fauna is peculiar and distinctive, suggesting a prolonged period of complete biological isolation.
The study of the evolution of faunas and the comparison of the faunas of distant regions have furnished a trustworthy instrument of pre-historic geographical research, which enables earlier geographical relations of land and sea to be traced out, and the approximate period, or at least the chronological order of the larger changes, to be estimated.
thick, containing rolled fossil bones, cetacean and fish teeth, and shells of the Crag period, with nodules or pebbles of phosphatic matter derived from the London Clay, and often investing fossils from that formation.
"The nodules, having been imbued with phosphatic matter from their matrix in the London Clay, were dislodged," says Buckland, "by the waters of the seas of the first period, and accumulated by myriads at the bottom of those shallow seas where is now the coast of Suffolk.
But this was not enough for the inquisitor-general, who in the following month (April) issued orders to forbid Christians, under severe penalties, having any communication with the Jews or, -after the period of grace, to supply them even with the necessaries of life.
For a long period the city was noted for its commerce with the West Indies, which began to decline about 1876, but the coast trade and commerce with Great Britain are still considerable, especially in the winter, when Portland is the outlet of much of the trade from the Great Lakes that in the other seasons passes through Montreal.
Should the young die or be removed during this period, the parents are liable to die, suffering severely from the turgid congestion of the hypertrophied walls of the crop.
A great number of birds' bones have been found in caves, and among them some bearing marks of human workmanship. In France we have a large and extinct crane, Grus primigenia, but more interesting are the numerous relics of two species, the concomitants even now of the reindeer, which were abundant in that country at the period when this beast flourished there,and have followed it in its northward retreat.
A very long period of isolation must have been required to produce the differences so manifestly to be observed, but a few forms seem at rare intervals to have immigrated, and this immigration would appear to be kept up to our own day, as shown by the instance of Zosterops lateralis, which is said to have lately made its first appearance, and to have established itself in the country, as well as by the fact of two cuckoos, Charadriiformes 650 (incl.
Further on this subject we must not go; we can only state that Godman has shown good reason for declaring that the avifauna of all these islands is the effect of colonization extending over a long period of years, and going on now.
The Ratitae branched off, probably during the Eocene period, from that still indifferent stock which gave rise to the Tinami+Galli+Gruiformes, when the members of this stock were still in possession of those archaic characters which distinguish Ratitae from Carinatae.
He was an able leader during the Revolutionary period, when his wealth and social position were of great assistance to the patriot party.
The principal portal is a fine specimen of 12th-century Romanesque, and the lower part of the nave is of the same period; the choir and the transept are striking examples of the style of the 13th century.