How to use Perianth in a sentence
Flower with Perianth removed.
It has pale-purple flowers, rarely more than three in number; the perianth is funnel-shaped, and produced below into a long slender tube, in the upper part of which the six stamens are inserted.
The conformation of those flowers a consists essentially in the pres- ' 'A B ence of a six-parted perianth, the three outer segments of which correspond to a calyx, the three inner ones to a corolla.
These segments spring apparently from the top of the ovary - the real explanation, however, being that the end of the flower-stalk or "thalamus," as it grows, becomes dilated into a sort of cup or tube enclosing and indeed closely adhering to the ovary, so that the latter organ appears to be beneath the perianth instead of above it as in a lily, an appearance which has given origin to the term "inferior ovary."
Within the perianth, and springing from its sides, or apparently from the top of the ovary, are six stamens whose anthers contain pulverulent pollen-grains.Advertisement
The main distinguishing features consist in the fact that one of the inner pieces of the perianth becomes in course of its growth much larger than the rest, and usually different in colour, texture and form.
It would appear, then, that the orchid flower differs from the more general monocotyledonous type in the irregularity of the perianth, in the suppression of five out of six stamens, and in the union of the one stamen and the stigmas.
Other common modifications arise from the union of certain parts of the perianth to each other, and from the varied and often very remarkable outgrowths from the lip. These modifications are associated with the structure and habits of insects and their visits to the flowers.
The remaining parts of the perianth are very much smaller, and commonly are so arranged as to form a hood overarching the "column."
A small group of Australian genera closely approach the order Juncaceae in having small crowded flowers with a scarious or membranous perianth; they include Xanthorrhoea (grass-tree or blackboy) and Kingia, arborescent plants with an erect woody stem crowned with a tuft of long stiff narrow leaves, from the centre of which rises a tall dense flower spike or a number of stalked flower-heads; this group has been included in Juncaceae, from which it is doubtfully distinguished only by the absence of the long twisted stigmas which characterize the true rushes.Advertisement
It resembles Juncaceae in the general plan of the flower, which, however, has become much more elaborate and varied in the form and colour of its perianth in association with transmission of pollen by insect agency; a link between the two orders is found in the group of Australian genera referred to above under Asphodeloideae.
The flowers are hermaphrodite and regular, with the same number and arrangement of parts as in the order Liliaceae, from which they differ in the inconspicuous membranous character of the perianth, the absence of honey or smell, and the brushlike stigmas with long papillae-adaptations to wind-pollination as contrasted with the methods of pollination by insect agency, which characterize the Liliaceae.
From the margin springs a perianth of four short lobes.
The flowers are regular, with a perianth springing from above the ovary, tubular below, with spreading segments and a central corona; the six stamens are inserted within the tube.
They admit of being forced into early bloom, like the hyacinth and tulip. They vary with a white, creamy or yellow perianth, and a yellow, lemon, primrose or white cup or coronet; and, being richly fragrant, they are general favourites amongst spring flowers.Advertisement
The white perianth is six-parted, the outer three segments being larger and more convex than the inner series.
One of the most important of the properties of a fine florists' tulip is that the cup should form, when expanded, from half to a third of a hollow ball, the six divisions of the perianth being broad at the ends, and smooth at the edges, so that the divisions may scarcely show on indenture.
Moreover there is the fact that the flowers of nearly all the primitive phanerogams, such as the Gymnosperms, consist solely of sporophylls, having no perianth.
The plants are bulbous herbs, with flat or rounded radical leaves, and a central naked or leafy stem, bearing a head or umbel of small flowers, with a spreading or bell-shaped white, pink, red, yellow or blue perianth.
In these the corona is small and shallow as compared with the perianth.Advertisement
These form the perianth and are in one series, when the flower is termed monochlamydeous, or in two series (dichlamydeous).
The seven series of Monocotyledons represent a sequence beginning with the most complicated epigynous orders, such as Orchideae and Scitamineae, and passing through the petaloid hypogynous orders (series Coronarieae) of which Liliaceae is the representative to Juncaceae and the palms (series Calycinae) where the perianth Ioses its petaloid character and thence to the Aroids, screw-pines and albuminous Dicotyledons the cotyledons act as the absorbents of the reserve-food of the seed and are commonly brought above ground (epigeal), either withdrawn from the seed-coat or carrying it upon them, and then they serve as the first green organs of the plant.
The petaloid perianth consists of two series, each with three members, which are joined below into a longer or shorter tube, followed by one whorl of three stamens; the inferior ovary is three-celled and contains numerous ovules on an axile placenta; the style is branched and the branches are often petaloid.
The flower has in rare cases a perianth of six scale-like leaves arranged in two whorls, and thus conforming to the common monocotyledonous type of flower.
This structure was formerly regarded as pointing to the fusion of two organs, and the pale was considered by Robert Brown to represent two portions soldered together of a trimerous perianth - whorl, the third portion being the " lower pale."Advertisement
The perianth is represented by very rudimentary, small, fleshy scales arising below the ovary, called lodicules; they are elongated FIG.
Some Commelinaceae and Marantaceae approach grasses in foliage; the leaves of Allium, &c., possess a ligule; the habit of some palms reminds one of the bamboos; and Juncaceae and a few Liliaceae possess an inconspicuous scarious perianth.
The presence of a perianth is a feature suggestive of an approach to the floral structure of Angiosperms; the prolongation of the integument furnishes the flowers with a substitute for a stigma and style.
A single male flower consists of an axis enclosed at the base by an inconspicuous perianth formed of two concrescent leaves and terminating in two, or as many as eight, shortly stalked or sessile anthers.
The female flower is enveloped in a closely fitting sac-like investment, which must be regarded as a perianth; within this is an orthotropous ovule surrounded by a single integument prolonged upwards as a beak-like micropyle.
The flower may be described as a bud bearing a pair of leaves which become fused and constitute a perianth, the apex of the shoot forming an ovule.
In function the perianth may be compared with a unilocular ovary containing a single ovule; the projecting integument, which at the time of pollination secretes a drop of liquid, serves the same purpose as the style and stigma of an angiosperm.
After fertilization, some of the uppermost bracts below each flower become red and fleshy; the perianth develops into a woody shell, while the integument remains membranous.
A male flower consists of a single angular perianth, through the open apex of which the flower-axis projects as a slender column terminating in two anthers.
The whole flower may be looked upon as an adventitious bud bearing two pairs of leaves; each pair becomes concrescent and forms a perianth, the apex of the shoot being converted into an orthotropous ovule.
The incomplete female flowers are characterized by the almost complete suppression of the inner perianth.
The fleshy outer portion of the seed is formed from the outer perianth, the woody shell being derived from the inner perianth.
Each cone consists of an axis, on which numerous broad and thin bracts are arranged in regular rows; in the axil of each bract occurs a single flower; a male flower is enclosed by two opposite pairs of leaves, forming a perianth surrounding a central sterile ovule encircled by a ring of stamens united below, but free distally as short filaments, each of which terminates in a trilocular anther.
Sometimes, as usually in monocotyledons, the calyx and corolla are similar; in such cases the term perianth, or perigone, is applied.
Thus, in the tulip, crocus, lily, speak of the parts of the perianth, in place of corolla, although in these plants there is an outer whorl (calyx), of three parts, and an inner (corolla), of a similar number, alternating with them.
Coloured hairs are seen on the petals of Menyanthes, and on the segments of the perianth of Iris.
When the perianth (p) expands, the filaments are thrown out with force as at a, so as to scatter the pollen.
The image on the left shows three yellow anthers at the tips of perianth segments.
Group 11 Changing Colors pure white perianth with pale lemon-yellow shades & white then pale pink corona.
Look out for its rather dog-eared, pale primrose yellow perianth chiseled, richer yellow trumpet, and slightly nodding poise.
The catkins of the poplars differ from those of the nearly allied willows in the presence of a rudimentary perianth, of obliquely cup-shaped form, within the toothed bracteal scales; the male flowers contain from eight to thirty stamens; the fertile bear a onecelled (nearly divided) ovary, surmounted by the deeply cleft stigmas; the two-valved capsule contains several seeds, each furnished with a long tuft of silky or cotton-like hairs.
The sporophylls (stamens and carpels) are generally associated with other leaves, known as the perianth, to form a flower; these subsidiary leaves are protective and attractive in function and their development is correlated with the transport of pollen by insect agency (see ANGI0sPERM5; POLLINATION, and FLOWER).
It is closely allied to H. minor, also known as H. graminea, but it is a much stronger plant, however, with leaves twice as broad, the flower-stems short, and the divisions of the perianth divided almost or entirely to their base.
N. stellaris has narrow perianth lobes, and N. jonquilloides is a robust form from Spain.
Sternbergia Graeca - Has very narrow leaves and broad perianth segments.
The ovary, three-celled at first, but becoming one-celled and one-seeded by abortion, is surmounted by an inconspicuous perianth with six small teeth.
The purple flower, which blooms late in autumn, is very similar to that of the common spring crocus, and the stigmas, which are protruded from the perianth, are of a characteristic orange-red colour.
The perianth consists of five or six oblong greenish lobes, within which is found a tuft, consisting of a large number of stamens, each of which has a very short filament and an oblong two-lobed anther bursting longitudinally, and surmounted by an oblong lobe, which is the projecting end of the connective.
Thus, in a phanerogam, the sepals, petals, stamens and foliage-leaves all come under the category leaf, though some are parts of the perianth, others are spore-bearing organs (sporophylls), and others carry on nutritive processes.