Per Sentence Examples
Yeah, but here you measure the land by cows per acre, not the other way around.
But the price per gallon's right so it don't look like he faked it.
Brady hesitated to respond, feeling as though he should concentrate on supporting her, per Tim's directions, rather than reach out to her when he needed her.
These could probably run around 45 miles per hour in a sprint.
If then the screw-value in kilometres per second is known for the neighbourhood of each of the comparison lines employed, the radial velocity of the star can be independently derived directly from coincidences made in above manner in the neighbourhood of each comparison line.Advertisement
The mortality from malaria in 1902 was higher than for any other part of Italy-1037 persons, or 154 per 100,000 (Basilicata, 141; Apulia, 104; Calabria, 77; Sicily, 76; province of Rome, 27).
The memory for that computer cost me $40 per MB, just under $200.
That would average over three SMS messages per day per person on the planet.
Smith says that if one man tried to make pins by himself, he might make one per day.
The Emperor is to be here tomorrow... there's to be an Extraordinary Meeting of the nobility, and they are talking of a levy of ten men per thousand.Advertisement
Had the expenses of all the small towns and rural communities been included, the total would be in excess of $20 gold, or £4, per capita.
In the church of St Lars are some paintings by Per Horberg (1746-1816), the Swedish peasant artist.
The usual working speed is from 100 to 120 words per minute.
During this period the Electric Telegraph Company's average receipts per message fell from 4s.
The internal rate is 15c. (i3/4d.) per 3/4 oz.; post-cards foe.Advertisement
Farmers don't optimize per plant but per farm.
This sum represents the interest payable on government loans placed outside Australia, mainly in England, and the income from British and other capital invested in the country; the former may be estimated at £7,300,000 and the latter £8,000,000 per annum.
The speed of the receiving perforator ranges from 20 to 150 words per minute.
The speed of a cable is given in words per minute, the conventional number of five letters per word being understood, though in actual practice, owing to the extensive use of special codes, the number of letters per word is really between eight and nine; and this forms a considerable factor in lowering the earning capacity of a cable.
In the period from 1855 to 1868 the number of messages carried annually by all the telegraph companies of the United Kingdom increased from 1,017,529 to 5,781,989, or an average annual increase of 16.36 per cent.Advertisement
There were also extra charges under contingent regulations of great complexity, which commonly added 50 per cent.
In support of these views he reported that in Belgium in 1863 "a reduction of 33 per cent.
The Belgian state telegraphs were started in 1850 and were at first very profitable, but for the years 1866-9 they yielded an average profit of only 2.8 per cent., and subsequently failed to earn operating expenses, the reasons for the steady decline of the profits being the opening of relatively unprofitable lines and offices, increases in wages, and a diminution in growth of the foreign and transit messages which had constituted the most profitable part of the whole business.
In 1868 there were in France over 300 telegraph offices whose average receipts did not exceed 8 per annum.
The stock of the Electric and International Company, the return on which had reached 10 per cent.Advertisement
In 1869 Mr Scudamore estimated the operating expenses at 51 to 56 per cent.
In 1870-1 they were 57 per cent.
The interspace is filled with a very small quantity of nickel and silver filings, about 95 per cent.
Thus, for instance, when using an induction coil or transformer to charge a condenser, it is not generally convenient to make more than 50 discharges per second, but each of these may create a train of oscillations consisting of, say, 20 to 50 waves.
These electric pulses were made to act on an electromagnet at the receiving station, which, in accordance with Page's discovery, gave out a sound of a pitch corresponding to the number of times it was magnetized or demagnetized per second.
As a result the time occupied by an operator per call was reduced from 50.77 seconds to 16.63 seconds.
In city districts the modern practice is to restrict the number to four stations per line, and to equip the exchanges and stations for selective ringing.
As subscribers' lines are invariably short, the smallest gauge of wire possessing the mechanical strength necessary to withstand the stresses to which it may be subjected can be employed, and bronze wire weighing 40 lb per mile is commonly used.
The conductors used for subscribers' circuits are of copper weighing from 10 to 20 lb per mile.
Wire weighing between 150 and 400 lb per mile is generally used.
In circuits possessing high resistance and capacity and low inductance per mile, telephonic currents are rapidly attenuated, and the higher the frequency the more rapid is the attenuation.
The licences were for 31 years, expiring in 1922, without any provision for purchase or compensation, and were subject to the payment of a minimum royalty to the Post Office of 10 per cent.
In 1906 there were 30,551, equal to 7.2 per cent., more telephone stations in the United Kingdom than in the ten European countries of Austria, Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Italy; Norway, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland, having a combined population of 288 millions as against a population of 42 millions in the United Kingdom.
With a population of 58 millions there are 10.2 telephones per loon of the population in that country compared with 10 15 in Great Britain and Ireland.
The development of telephony in the United States of America is much greater than anywhere else; on the 1st of January 1907, 5 per cent.
But the tendency is towards a system of charging a moderate sum to cover the rent of the instrument and an additional fee per message.
For instance, in the county of London, the telephone tariff is £5 per annum plus id.
The subscriber pays a fixed annual rent which covers a certain number of free out - ward calls, say boo; additional calls he purchases in advance in blocks of several hundred at so much per hundred, the price being reduced as the number increases.
The working expenses amounted to £1,530,093 or 62.6 per cent.
The Postmaster-General also agreed to lay underground wires for the company at an annual rental of L1 per mile of double wire in any local area in which the company was operating, but not in areas in which the municipalities had established exchanges.
Gaine, general manager of the company, stated before the Select Committee that in the view of the directors the bargain was a hard one, because it gave no consideration in respect of the goodwill of the great business, with its gross income of over £ 2,000,000 per annum and its net revenue of over £750,000, which the company had built up. The company had had to pay for all the experiments and mistakes which are inherent in the launching and development of any new industry.
Inasmuch as the debenture stocks and preference shares would have to be redeemed in 1911 at premiums ranging from 3 to 5 per cent., the state would have to pay the company £253,000 in excess of the total of the outstanding securities in order to enable the ordinary shares to receive par, and in the council's view this payment would diminish the p robability of the Post Office being able to afford a substantial reduction in the telephone charges.
The years' working of the whole telephone system of the Post Office showed a balance of £451,787 after payment of the working expenses, while the estimated amount required to provide for depreciation of plant and interest at 3 per cent.
Taking the statistics for the whole kingdom, the annual marriagerate for the years 1876-1880 was 7.53 per 100o; in 1881-1885 it rose to 8o6; in 1886-1890 it was 777; in 1891-1895 it was 7.41, and in 1896-1900 it had gone down to 7.14 (a figure largely produced by the abnormally low rate of 6.88 in 1898), and in 1902 was 7.23.
The illegitimate births show a decrease, having been 6.95 per 100 births in 1872 and 5.72 in 1902 with a rise, however, in the intermediate period as high as 7.76 ir 1883.
The death-rate (excluding still-born children) was, in 1872, 30.78 per boo, and has since steadily decreasedless rapidly between 1886-1890 than during other years; in 5902 it was only 22.15 and in 1899 was as low as 2189.
The excess of births over deaths shows considerable variationsowing to a very low birth-rate, it was only 3.12 per 1000 in 1880, but has averaged 11.05 per 1000 from 1896 to 1900, reaching 11.98 in 1899 and 11.14 in 1902.
The average expectation of life at birth for the same period was 52 years and II months, 62 years and 2 months at the age of three years, 52 years at the age of fifteen, 44 years at the age of twenty-four, 30 years at the age of forty; while the average period of life, which was 35 years 3 months per individual in 1882, was 43 yearf per individual in 1901.
They yield as much as 12 tons per acre.
Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) is used as fodder, and yields about 10 tons per acre.
If the tiller receives as much as 45 lire per month, supplemented by other wages in kind, it is said to be boaria a salario; if the principal part of his remuneration is in kind, his contract is called boaria a spesa.
The average production is about i8o,ooo hectolitres per annum.
It is estimated that the total production of the finer wares amounts on the average to 400,000 per annum.
The minimum annual premium is six lire for an annuity of one lira per day at the age of sixty, and insurance against sickness.
Printed matter is 2c. (Id.) per 50 grammes (s3/4 oz.).
In addition to the regular charitable institutions, the communal and provincial authorities exercise charity, the former (in 1899) to the extent of 1,827,166 and the latter to the extent of 919,832 per annum.
The Italian parishes had in 1901 a total gross revenue, including assignments from the public worship endowment fund, of 1,280,000 or an average of 63 per parish; 51% of this gross sum consists of revenue from glebe lands.
The Italian sees (exclusive of Rome and of the suburbicarian sees) have a total annual revenue of 206,000 equal to an average of 800 per see.
To priests and choristers, for example, of the proprietary or endowed orders were assigned 24 per annum if they were upwards of sixty years of age, 16 if upwards of 40, and 14, 8s.
The public worship endowment fund has relieved the state exchequer of the cost of public worship; has gradually furnished to the poorer parish priests an addition to their stipends, raising them to 32 per annum, with the prospect of further raising them to 40; and has contributed to the outlay incurred by the communes for religious purposes.
Statistics of offences, including contravvenzioni or breaches of by-laws and regulations, exhibit a considerable increase per 100,000 inhabitants since 1887, and only a slight diminution on the figures of 1897.
The figure was 1783.45 per 100,000 in 1887, 2I6446 in I892, 2546.49 in 1897, 2497.90 in 1902.
The Italian suicide rate of 63.6 per 1,000,000 is, however, lower than those of Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and France, while it approximates to that of England.
Emilia gives a maximum rate of 10.48 per ioo,ooo, while that of Liguria and Lazio is little lower.
The Italian Chamber decided that from the 1st of July 1901 until the 30th of June 1907 Italian military expenditure proper should not exceed the maximum of 1/29,560,000 per annum fixed by the Army Bill of May 1897, and that, military pensions should not exceed 1/21,440,000.
Italian military expenditure was thus until f907 1/2ff,000,000 per annum.
The demands of the Commission were only partly complied with, but a large special grant was voted amounting to at least 1/2I,ooo,000 per annum for the next seven years.
The annual consumption per inhabitant of certain kinds of food and drink has considerably increased, e.g.
Tobacco slightly diminished in weight at a little over I lb per head, while the gross receipts are considerably increasedby over 23/4 millions sterling since 1884-1885---showing that the quality consumed is much better.
Thus, that of 1907-1908 was devoted mainly to raising the salaries of government officials and university professors; even then the maximum for both (in the former class, for an under-secretary of state) was only 500 per annum.
The debt per head of population was, in 1905, 14, lbs.
The demands for reimbursement at par represented a sum of only 187,588 and the market value of the stock was hardly affected; while the saving to the Treasury was to be 800,000 per annum for the first five years and about double the amount afterwards.
The Italian treasury at once honored all the papal drafts, and thus contributed a first instalment of the 3,225,000 lire per annum afterwards placed by Article 4 of the Law of Guarantees at the disposal of the Holy See.
To the pope was made over 16,000 per annum as a contribution to the expense of maintaining in Rome representatives of foreign orders; the Sacred College, however, rejected this endowment, and summoned all the suppressed confraternities to reconstitute themselves under the ordinary Italian law of association.
A further derogation from the ideal of democratic austerity was committed by adding 80,000 per annum to the kings civil list (14th May 1877) and by burdening the state exchequer with royal household pensions amounting to 20,000 a year.
It had been extorted from the king by force (per vim et metum), and in the words of the bull the pope said "compositionem hujusmodi reprobamus penitus et damnamus."
The net annual cost of the settlement to the government is about £6 per convict.
In this way the medusa sinks from an independent per sonality to an organ of the polyp-colony, becoming a so-called medusoid gonophore, or bearer of the reproductive organs, and losing gradually all organs necessary for an independent existence, namely those of sense, locomotion and nutrition.
During the reign of Antoninus Pius (138 to 161), the concord between him and Aurelius was complete; Capitolinus (c. 7) says "nec praeter duas noctes per tot annos mansit diversis vicibus."
The celebrated Gascoigne's powder, which was sold as late as the middle of the 19th century in the form of balls like sal prunella, consisted of equal parts of crabs' eyes," the black tips of crabs' claws, Oriental pearls, Oriental bezoar and white coral, and was administered in jelly made of hart's horn, but was prescribed by physicians chiefly for wealthy people, as it cost about forty shillings per ounce.
About £1 4 o per acre was paid for the lease of the land, which after two years was restored to its owners re-soiled and levelled.
The average annual birth-rate is about 35 per 1000, and the death-rate about 15.5 About 26% of the births are illegitimate.
Owing to the increased friction produced by a rotator making approximately 900 revolutions per mile, towed at the end of a line varying from 40 fathoms for a 12 -knot FIG.
The city is lighted by gas and electricity, - it was one of the first cities in the United States to adopt electric lighting, - and has a good watersupply system, owned by a private corporation, with a 41 acre filter plant of 18,000,000 gallons per diem capacity and an additional supply of water pumped from deep wells outside the city.
The monument was erected after designs by Bruno Schmidt of Berlin, with fountains at the base said to be among the largest in the world, their capacity being 20,000 gallons per minute.
Many of his original papers were published in the Zeitschrift Per analytische Chemie, which he founded in 1862 and continued to edit till his death.
Russia, which is going on from Esthonia and Finland to the Kola peninsula and Novaya Zemlya, at an average rate of about two feet per century.
During the two following years it amounted to an average of over 160,000, but in the years 1901-3 to an average of 84,638 per annum.
The sum of 700,000,000 roubles per annum is thus excepted from the control of the chambers.
Other exceptions are the " Institutions of the Empress Marie," which absorb, inter alia, the duties on playing-cards and the taxes on places of public entertainment; the imperial civil list, so far as this does not exceed the sum fixed in 1906 (16,359,595 roubles!); the expenses of the two imperial chanceries, 10,000,000 roubles per annum, which constitute in effect a secret service fund.
One quarter of them have received allotments of only 2.9 acres per male, and one-half less than 8.5 to 11.4 acres - the normal size of the allotment necessary to the subsistence of a family under the three-fields system being estimated at 28 to 42 acres.
At the same time the chief lines of railway which had been built by public companies with a state guarantee, and which represented a loss to the empire of £3,171,250 per annum, as well as a growing indebtedness, were bought by the state.
The Black Sea fisheries, in which about 4000 men are engaged, yield fish valued at £300,000 per annum.
The total value of the Caspian fisheries is estimated at £3,000,000 per annum.
As used by George Stephenson on the Stockton & Darlington and Whitstable & Canterbury lines they weighed 28 lb per yard.
Moreover, the average tractive power per locomotive and the average capacity per freight car advanced greatly in this period, although specific figures cannot be given.
Yet the mileage open per Io,000 inhabitants in Australia, as a whole, far surpasses that in any other of the broad geographical divisions.
In railway mileage per io,000 inhabitants, however, Queensland, in the Australian group, reports a figure much greater than any other country; while at the other end of the list Persia holds the record for isolation.
The total paid-up railway capital of the United Kingdom amounted, in 1908, to £1,310,533,212, or an average capitalization of £56,476 per route mile, though it should be noted that this total included £196,364,618 of nominal additions through " stock-splitting," &c. Per mile of single track, the capitalization in England and Wales, Scotland, Ireland and the United Kingdom, is shown in Table VIII.
But there are long stretches of pine loam in the South where branch lines can be, and are, built and equipped for £2400 or less per mile, while the construction of new main line in the prairie region of the West ought not to cost more than £4000 per single-track-mile, under present conditions.
They are not exact, but may be taken as representing an approximation correct within one per cent.
For each of these classes a rate-sheet gives the actual ratecharge per unit of weight between the various stations covered by the tariff.
Of trespassers the number killed per mile of line is about as large in England as in America, the density of population and of traffic in Great Britain apparently counterbalancing the laxity of the laws against trespassing in America.
The number of passengers (36) killed in train accidents in 1907 was equal to o 0759 per million passengers carried and o o024 per million kilometres travelled by passengers, or 0.1503 per million kilometres travelled by trains.
In that most largely used, known as " creosoting," dead oil of tar, to the amount of some 3 gallons per sleeper, is forced into the wood under pressure, or is sucked in by vacuum, both the timber and the oil being heated.
The rails, which for heavy main line traffic may weigh as much as too lb per yard, or even more, are rolled in lengths of from 30 to 60 ft., and sleepers are placed under them at intervals of between 2 and 3 ft.
The unit of power commonly used by engineers is the horse-power, and this unit corresponds to a rate of working of 550 foot-lb of work per second.
If the total resistance against which the train is maintained in motion with an instantaneous velocity of V feet per second is R, the rate at which energy is expended in moving the train is represented by the product RV, and this must be the rate at which energy is supplied to the train after deducting all losses due to transmission from the source of power.
The rate at which work is done on a particular axle is measured by the product where T is the torque or turning moment exerted on the axle by the motor or mechanism applied to it for this purpose, and is the angular velocity of the axle in radians per second.
If the speed is given in miles per hour, S say, V =1.466 S (6) The revolutions of the axle per second, n, are connected with the radians turned through per second by the relation n =w/27r = w/6.38 (7) § 2.
Let E represent the pounds of coal burnt per hour in the fire-box of a locomotive, and let c be the calorific value in B.Th.U.
Let p be the mean pressure in pounds per square inch, calculated from an indicator diagram taken from a particular cylinder when the speed of the crank-shaft is n revolutions per second.
This corrected pull is then divided by the weight of the vehicles hauled, in which must be included the weight of the dynamometer car, and the quotient gives the resistance per ton of load hauled at a certain uniform speed on a straight and level road.
From Aspinall's experiments it appears to be about 17 lb per ton, and this value is plotted on the diagram.
Thus a gradient of I in 200 is the same as a half per cent.
The maximum rate of combustion may be as much as so lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, and in exceptional cases even a greater rate than this has been maintained.
A few experimental results are set forth in Table XX., from which it will be seen that with a relatively low rate of combustion, a rate which denotes very light service, namely lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, the efficiency of the boiler is %, which is as good a result as can be obtained with the best class of stationary boiler or marine boiler even when using economizers.
The exhaust steam passing from the engine through the blastpipe and the chimney produces a diminution of pressure, or partial vacuum, in the smoke-box roughly proportional to the weight of steam discharged per unit of time.
Then the work done during one revolution of the crank is 2pla per cylinder.
Assuming that the mean pressure in the other cylinder is also p, the total work done per revolution is 4pla.
If T is the mean torque, the work done on the crank-axle per revolution is 27rT.
Let the boiler pressure be 175 lb per square inch.
Taking 85% of this, the maximum mean effective pressure would be 149 lb per square inch.
This would be distributed between three coupled axles giving an average of 1.38 tons per axle, though the distribution might not in practice be uniform, a larger proportion of the weight falling on the driving-axle.
The engine can only exert this large tractive force so long as the mean pressure is maintained at 149 lb per square inch.
This high mean pressure cannot be maintained for long, because as the speed increases the demand for steam per unit of time increases, so that cut-off must take place earlier and earlier in the stroke, the limiting steady speed being attained when the rate at which steam is supplied to the cylinders is adjusted by the cut-off to be equal to the maximum rate at which the boiler can produce steam, which depends upon the maximum rate at which coal can be burnt per square foot of grate.
If C is the number of pounds of coal burnt per square foot of grate per hour, the calorific value of which is c B.Th.U.
If h is the water heat at the lower temperature, h l the water heat at the higher temperature, and L the latent heat at the higher temperature, the heat supply per pound of steam is equal to h1 - h2+L1, which, from the steam tables, with the values of the temperatures given, is equal to 1013 B.Th.U.
When the initial pressure is 100 lb per square inch by the gauge the thermal efficiency drops to about nearly 15% with the same back pressure.
The expression for the indicated horse-power may be written I.H.P. =pay/550 (27) where v is the average piston speed in feet per second.
In a particular case where the boiler pressure was maintained constant at 130 lb per square inch, and the cut-off was approximately 20% of the stroke, the values c =55 and b=o 031 were deduced, from which it will be found that the value of the piston speed corresponding to the maximum horsepower is 887 ft.
Compound working permits of a greater range of expansion than is possible with a simple engine, and incidentally there is less range of pressure per cylinder, so that the pressures and temperatures per cylinder have not such a wide range of variation.
In compound working the combined volumes of the low-pressure cylinders is a measure of the power of the engine, since this represents the final volume of the steam used per stroke.
In Hungary and Russia a zone-tariff system is in operation, whereby the charge per mile decreases progressively with the length of the journey, the traveller paying according to the number of zones he has passed through and not simply according to the distance traversed.
On the other hand, where, as in America, the great volume of freight is raw material and crude food-stuffs, and the distances are great, a low charge per unit of transportation is more important than any consideration such as quickness of delivery; therefore full car-loads of freight are massed into enormous trains, which run unbroken for distances of perhaps 1000 m.
Intra-urban railways, as compared with ordinary railways, are characterized by shortness of length, great cost per mile, and by a traffic almost exclusively passenger, the burden of which is enormously heavy.
The maximum 1st, 2nd and 3rd class passenger fares are, per kilometre, 067 f.
As far as possible, these railways are laid beside roads, in preference to independent formation; the permanent way costs £977 per mile in the former as against £793 in the latter.
If laid in paving, the price varies between £1108 and £2266 per mile.
In the towns a deeper rail is used, weighing about 60 lb per yard.
The total cost per mile of such a line, including all bolts, nuts, fish-plates and fastenings, ready for laying,, delivered in the United Kingdom, is under Soo a mile.
He wrote (1) Antapodoseos, seu rerum per Europem gestarum, Libri VI, an historical narrative, relating to the events from 887 to 949, compiled with the object of avenging himself upon Berengar and Willa his queen; (2) Historia Ottonis, a work of greater impartiality and merit, unfortunately covering only the years from 960 to 964; and (3) the Relatio de Legatione Constantinopolitana (968-969).
In 1909 in the amount of barley per acre (38 bushels) Nevada ranked third, and in the average farm price per bushel ($0.75) ranked first among the barley-producing states of the country, but in the total amount produced (304,000 bushels) held only the twenty-second place; and in the same year the average yield of potatoes per acre in Nevada was 180 bushels, exceeded in two states - the average for the entire country was 106.8 bushels per acre - but the total crop in Nevada (540,000 bushels) was smaller than in any state or Territory of the Union, except New Mexico.
In 1920 he vetoed a bill calling for censorship of moving pictures and likewise a bill to permit the sale of " 2.7 5 per cent " beer.
The cost of operations amounted to an initial expenditure of 6.25 francs, and an annual expenditure of about 2.3 francs per head of the population.
Thomsen by direct experiment found that the heat-capacity of a dilute aqueous solution diverged in general less than i per cent.
Since thermochemical measurements of this type may be frequently performed with an error due to other causes of much less than i per cent., the error introduced by either of these assumptions is the chief cause of uncertainty in the method.
The accuracy of heats of combustion determined in the closed calorimeter is in favourable cases about one-half per cent.
The observed heat of combustion of sugar is, however, 1354000, so that the error of the rule is here 20 per cent.
Some idea of the business efficiency of the C.R.B., as it was familiarly called, may be gained from the fact that although almost $1,000,000,000 was expended on food and transportation, only about one-half of one per cent was required for overhead expenses.
The pay for both senators and representatives is four dollars per day for a period not exceeding sixty days; should the session be prolonged the extra service is without compensation.
Pop. (1901), 4135 It is in the midst of the oil region of Canada, and numerous wells in the vicinity have an aggregate output of about 30,000,000 gallons of crude oil per annum, much of which is refined in the town.
The staple crop is rice, which is grown on 77 per cent.
D, Optical section of a branch of organs are present to the number of a single pair per somite, and are commonly present in the majority of the segments of the body, failing often among the Oligochaeta in a varying number of the anterior segments.
Frequently reduced in number of pairs; rarely (Capitellidae) more than one pair per segment.
In 1905 the value of, the factory product was $11,264,123, an increase of 59 per cent.
The value of the factory products increased from $1,935,442 in 1900 to $4,427,816 in 1905, or 128.8 per cent.
If you intend to preserve seed, then the second crop must be let stand till it come to a full and dead ripeness, and you shall have at the least five bushels per acre.
It is quite possible for a hot dry season to be associated with a large yield of corn, provided the drought is confined to a suitable period, as was the case in 1896 and still more so in 1898; the English wheat crops in those years were probably the biggest in yield per acre that had been harvested since 1868, which is always looked back upon as a remarkable year for wheat.
The drought of 1898 was interrupted by copious rains in June, and these falling on a warm soil led to a rapid growth of grass and, as measured by yield per acre, an exceedingly heavy crop of hay.
These prices are per imperial quarter, - that is, 480 lb of wheat, 400 lb of barley and 312 lb of oats, representing 60 lb, 50 lb and 39 lb per bushel respectively.
By dividing the total production, say of wheat, in each county by the number of acres of wheat as returned by the occupiers on June 4, the estimated average yield per acre is obtained.
It is important to notice that the figures relating to total production and yield per acre are only estimates, and it is not claimed for them that they are anything more.
The total produce of any crop in a given year must depend mainly upon the acreage grown, whilst the average yield per acre will be determined chiefly by the character of the season.
The effects of a prolonged [[Table Ix]].-Estimated Annual Average Yield per Acre of Crops in spring and summer drought, like that of 1893, are exemplified in the circumstance that four corn crops and the two hay crops all registered very low average yields that year, viz.
The mean values at the foot of the table-they are not, strictly speaking, exact averages-indicate the average yields per acre in the United Kingdom to be about 31 bushels of wheat, 33 bushels of barley, 40 bushels of oats, 28 bushels of beans, 26 bushels of peas, 44 tons of potatoes, 134 tons of turnips and swedes, 184 tons of mangels, 32 cwt.
The general average yields of the corn crops are not fairly comparable one with the other, because they are given by measure and not by weight, whereas the weight per bushel varies considerably.
The figure denoting the general average yield per acre of any class of crop needs readjustment after every successive harvest.
A large expansion in the acreage of the wheat crop would probably be attended by a decline in the average yield per acre, for when a United Kingdom, 1895-1904.
Even without manure the average produce over forty-six years, 1852-1897, was nearly thirteen bushels per acre, or about the average yield per acre of 1 The higher yield of wheat in the later years of the 19th century appears to be largely attributable to better grain-growing seasons.
In one case, indeed, the average produce by mixed minerals and nitrogenous manure was more than that by the annual application of farmyard manure; and in seven out of the ten cases in which such mixtures were used the average yield per acre was from over two to over eight bushels more than the average yield of the United Kingdom (assuming this to be about twenty-eight bushels of 60 lb per bushel) under ordinary rotation.
It is the leguminous fodder crops-especially clover, which has a much more extended period of growth, and much wider range of collection within the soil and subsoil, than any of the other crops of the rotation-that yield in their produce the largest amount of nitrogen per acre.
It has been proved at the Christmas fat stock shows that the older a bullock gets the less will he gain in weight per day as a result of the feeding.
It has been stated on good evidence that a loss of £7,000,000 per annum was caused by the attack of the ox warble fly on cattle in England alone.
There the bishops of Jerusalem and Caesarea received him in the most friendly manner, and got him to deli;per public lectures in the churches.
Upwards of 300,000 species have been collected and described, and at present the number of named forms increases at the rate of about 8000 species per annum.
Among other learned institutions we may mention the Ateneo Veneto, the Deputazione per la Storia Patria, and the Royal Institute of Science, Letters and Art, which has its seat in the Palazzo Loredan at Santo Stefano.
The running expenses per capita in 1900 were $35.23; more than twice the average of 86 leading cities of the country (New York, $23.92; Chicago, $11.62).
The debt per capita is as high as the cost of current administration relatively to other cities.
In the case of proposed drainage improvements, notice in writing must be given to the landlord, who may then execute the improvements himself and charge the tenant with interest not exceeding 5% per annum on the outlay, or such annual instalments, payable for a period of twenty-five years, and recoverable as rent, as will repay the outlay, with interest at the rate of 3% a year.
Three to four inches of rain per month is the average.
It is paid for at the rate of from 45 to cents per cwt.
A hand Macarthy roller gin worked by two men will clean about 4 to 6 lb of lint per hour.
A similar, but larger machine, requiring about horse-power to run it, will turn out 50 to 60 lb of Egyptian or 60 to 80 lb of Sea Island cleaned cotton per hour.
The average yield of lint per " saw " in the United States, when working under perfect conditions, is about 6 lb per hour.
Cotton seed meal, in the absence of sufficient stock to consume it, is also used extensively as a fertilizer, and for this purpose it is worth, determining the price on the same basis as used above for the seed, from $19 to $20 per ton.
From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.
The table indicates the chief cottonproducing islands, the acreage in each, yield, average value per pound and total value of the crop in 1905-1906.
The low yield per acre in this island, and also the low value of the lint per lb compared with the Sea Island cotton, is clearly apparent.
A considerable amount is used locally, and during the six years ending in 1907 the surplus exported ranged from about 24,000 to 40,000 bales per annum.
Against the common view that miracles can attest the truth of a divine revelation Gerhard maintained that " per miracula non possunt probari oracula "; and Hopfner returns to the qualified position of Augustine when he describes them as praeter et supra naturae ordinem."
They need not be horizontal, and sometimes have a dip of a few feet per mile, as in the case of the Ohio and Indiana oil fields, where the amount varies from one to ten feet.
Contractors will often undertake to drill wells of moderate depth at 90 cents to $1 per foot, but the cost of a deep well may amount to as much as $7000.
The authorities for the Crusades have been collected in Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611) (incomplete); Michaud, Bibliotheque des croisades (Paris, 1829) (containing translations of select passages in the authorities); the Recueil des historiens des croisades, published by the Academie des Inscriptions (Paris, 1841 onwards) (the best general collection, containing many of the Latin, Greek, Arabic and Armenian authorities, and also the text of the assizes; but sometimes poorly edited and still .incomplete); and the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin (founded in 1875), especially the Archives, of which two volumes were published in 1881 and 1884, and the volumes of the Revue, published yearly from 1893 to 1902, and containing not only new texts, but articles and reviews of books which are of great service.
The minor authorities for the Fifth Crusade have been collected by Rohricht, in the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin for 1879 and 1882; the ten valuable letters of Oliver, bishop of Paderborn, and the Historia Damiettina, based on these letters, have also been edited by Rohricht in the Westdeutsche Zeitschrift per Geschichte and Kunst (1891).
Epidemics of smallpox and typhoid occur; and leprosy, imported from the Orange River and Cape Colonies, has taken firm hold on the Basuto, of whom about 9r per too() are sufferers from this disease.
Revenue is obtained from a hut tax of £1 per hut; the sale of licences to trade; customs and post office receipts.
A continuous electric current of one ampere is defined to be one which deposits electrolytically 0.001118 of a gramme of silver per second from a neutral solution of silver nitrate.'
Many of the springs have curative properties, one of them, the Green Cove Spring in Clay county, discharging about 3000 gallons of sulphuretted water per minute.
In 1907 the average farm prices of tobacco was 45 cents per lb higher than that of any other state.
The principal crop is Bermuda onions; in 1909 it was estimated that 150o acres in the vicinity were devoted to this crop, the average yield per acre being about 20,000 lb.
The population increased from 583,308 in 1860 to 798,565 in 1887, and to 953,243, or 2 77.5 per sq.
The concluding feast does not seem to refer to tabernacles per se, but to be distinct from it, as is shown by the break in the descending series of the sacrifices of bullocks as given in Numbers.
It was an assessed tax on the rental value of the house, levied according to the number of windows and openings on houses having more than six windows and worth more than £5 per annum.
During 1897 the death-rate for the whole province rose to sixty-nine per thousand, or double the average, while the birth-rate fell to twenty-seven per thousand.
This controversy was unfinished when Dalton published the first part of his New System of Chemical Philosophy in 1808, although the per saltum theory was the most popular.
Thus a normal solution of sodium carbonate contains 53 grammes per litre, of sodium hydrate 40 grammes, of hydrochloric acid 36.5 grammes, and so on.
Wagnerian harmony is, then, neither a side-issue nor a progress per saltum, but a leading current in the stream of musical evolution.
In convocation, when the supremacy was discussed (11th of February 1531), he declared that acceptance would cause the clergy "to be hissed out of the society of God's holy Catholic Church"; and it was his influence that brought in the saving clause, quantum per legem Dei licet.
Agriculture is better conducted than in most of the departments of France, and the average yield per acre is greater.
To meet the cost of this Captain Fox suggested that each member should give a penny per week.
The expenses were met by collections made in the Calvinistic Methodist Societies, and as the funds increased masters were multiplied, until in 1786 Charles had seven masters to whom he paid £io per annum; in 1787, twelve; in 1789, fifteen; in 1794, twenty.
In good seasons and exceptional localities the yield may approach a bale per acre, as in Assumption parish, and in the Mississippi valley at the junction of Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas.
The irrigated rice area increased 92.9% from 1899 to 1902, and the construction cost of irrigation works ($4747,359 in 1902; $12.25 per irrigated acre) 87.7% in the same years.
The average of settlement per square mile varied from 169.7 in Havana province to 11.8 in Camaguey, and was 46.4 for all of Cuba; the percentage of urban population (in cities, that is, with more than 1000 inhabitants) in the different provinces.
By financial expedients of this kind payments were effected by the treasury ill fifteen years (1881-1896) amounting to £T11,666,000 or at the rate of nearly £T800,000 per annum.
It was transformed long since into a fixed amount per head of the animals taxed, which amount varies according to the region in which the tax is levied, the highest tariff being in the sanjak of Jerusalem (72 piastres) and the lowest in the Yemen (1 piastre).
Under the reformed constitution every senator is entitled to a salary of £Tloo per month, any remuneration which he may receive from the government for other services to be deducted from the senatorial allowance which, however, it may of course exceed.
Deputies are allowed T30o for each session of parliament, and £T50 per month in addition should the session exceed its legal duration.
This measure would produce about £T1,250,000 per annum.
On this reduced capital a minimum interest of% was to be paid, the rate of interest to be increased by quarters per cent.
In this manner an annuity of £T159,500 was set free, of which £Ti i,000 per annum was allotted as " extraordinary sinking fund " to series A and £T49,500 per annum each to series B, C and D; the lottery bonds were originally excluded from this arrangement, and special compensation was granted to these later.
Series B, C and D (series A having already been completely redeemed by the action of the sinking fund) were replaced by the creation of new 4% bonds to a nominal amount of £T32,738,772, with a sinking fund of 0.45% per annum, bearing identical rights and privileges, and ranking immediately after, the priority bonds.
For its privileges the regie has to pay a rent of £T750,000 per annum to the government (assigned to bondholders), " even if it has no revenues at all," and after the payment of a dividend of 8% to its shareholders, and certain other deductions, it has to share profits with the government and the bondholders according to a sliding scale agreed upon between the three parties.
The government adopted this proposal, and laid down as a principle that it would guarantee the gross receipts per kilometre of guaranteed railways, such gross receipts to be settled for each railway on its own merits.
The capital sum per section was fixed, in round figures, at 54,000,000 francs (£2,160,000), subject to adjustment when the section was completed and its actual length definitely measured up. A minimum net price of 812% was fixed for the realization of these securities on the market.
It should be mentioned that the Bagdad Railway Company has sublet the working of the line to the Anatolian Railway Company at the rate of £148 per kilometre, as against the £180 per kilometre guaranteed by the Turkish government The line from Mustafa-Pasha to Vakarel now lies in the kingdom of Bulgaria.
A duty of 10 per mille on its estimated value has to be paid on transfer by sale, donation or testament; 5 per mille on transfer by inheritance; and, a registration duty on expenses of transfer.
The various special dues payable on vakuf form too long a list to be inserted; the highest is 30 per mille.
The fixed rent is pp piastres per jerib (about 10,000 square metres), to he paid whether the mine is worked or not.
All water is metered and sells for 40 cents per thousand cub.
The municipal electric-lighting plant was in 1907 producing arc lights for $34 per arc, per year.
The municipal garbage plant (destructor) collects and reduces to fertilizer 200 tons of garbage per day.
In the city's six bath houses the average number of baths per day, per house, in 1906, was 1165.
To do this the city maintained (1906) 24 flushing wagons working 2 shifts of 8 hours each per day.
The density of population increased from 16.5 per sq.
Tracing, then, the quantities of oil given per 1,000 fish from year to year, they seemed to establish a connexion between the variation in " condition " of the fish, the variation in the inflow of Atlantic water, and the variation in the number of sunspots from year to year.
It appeared that the quantity of oil contained in the liver of a cod (per unit of weight) increases with the age of the fish.
All these substances exist as only a fraction of one part or, at most, a few parts, per million of water.
Carbonic acid is the most abundant and it may be contained in sea-water in the proportion of about 50 milligrammes per litre (that is, 50 per million).
In 1758 Home became private secretary to Lord Bute, then secretary of state, and was appointed tutor to the prince of Wales; and in 1760 his patron's influence procured him a pension of 300 per annum and in 1763 a sinecure worth another f Soo.
Regarding the current as the passage of a certain amount of electricity per second, it will be seen that the results FIG.
The conductivity gives us the amount of electricity conveyed per second under a definite electromotive force.
On the view of the process of conduction described above, the amount of electricity conveyed per second is measured by the product of the number of ions, known from the concentration of the solution, the charge carried by each of them, and the velocity with which, on the average, they move through the liquid.
Corresponding with this result we find that the freezing point of dilute solutions indicates that two pressure-producing particles per molecule are present.
Let x be the number of molecules which dissociate per second when the number of undissociated molecules in unit volume is unity, then in a dilute solution where the molecules do not interfere with each other, xp is the number when the concentration is p. Recombination can only occur when two ions meet, and since the frequency with which this will happen is, in dilute solution, proportional to the square of the ionic concentration, we shall get for the number of molecules re-formed in one second ye where q is the number of dissociated molecules in one cubic centimetre.
The yield of rubber varies, but it is stated on an average to be Io lb of rubber per tree, and if carefully tapped one tree will yield this amount for many years in succession.
The annual yield of rubber is rather more than 1 lb per tree.
The trees are tapped when about ten years old, and as a rule annually furnish from 5-10 lb of rubber per tree.
The blocks are cut into thin sheets by means of a sharp knife, which is caused to move to and fro about two thousand times per minute, the knife being kept moistened with water, and the block fed up to it by mechanical means.
The population of the duchy in 1900 was 809,918, which is equivalent to 174.8 inhabitants per sq.
In 1824 the settled indigenes had to pay the very heavy rate of 11 roubles (about 1) per head, and the arrears, which soon became equal to the sums levied, were rigorously exacted.
The natural rate of increase of population is very slow as a rule, and does not exceed 7 or 8 per 1000 annually.
Industrial surveys, having for their object the granting of land to the peasants to the extent of 40 acres per each male head, with 8 additional acres of wood and 8 acres as a reserve, were started many years ago, and after being stopped in 1887 were commenced again in 1898.
In the case of the peasants the allotments vary on an average from 32 to 102 acres (in some cases from 21.6 to 240 acres); the Transbaikal Cossacks have about 111 acres per male head, and the indigenous population 108 to 154 acres.
In the same address he called attention to the conditions of the world's food supply, urging that with the low yield at present realized per acre the supply of wheat would within a comparatively short time cease to be equal to the demand caused by increasing population, and that since nitrogenous manures are essential for an increase in the yield, the hope of averting starvation, as regards those races for whom wheat is a staple food, depended on the ability of the chemist to find an artificial method for fixing the nitrogen of the air.
The population of Lower Austria in 1900 was 3,100,493, which corresponds to 405 inhabitants per sq.
The pulse is slowed, the number of beats per minute being actually reduced, under considerable doses, to forty, or even thirty, per minute.
The latest result is 299,860 kilometres per second, with a probable error of perhaps 30 kilometres - that is, about the ten-thousandth part of the quantity itself.
The intensity of magnetization, or, more shortly, the magnetization of a uniformly magnetized body is defined as the magnetic moment per unit of volume, and is denoted by I, I, or „a.
Hence if the induction per square centimetre at any point is denoted by B, then in empty space B is numerically equal to H; moreover in isotropic media both have the same direction, and for these reasons it is often said that in empty space (and practically in air and other nonmagnetic substances) B and H are identical.
The magnetic flux per square centimetre at any point (B, B, or 0) is briefly called the induction, or, especially by electrical engineers, the flux-density.
The induction may therefore be specified as B lines per square centimetre.
If the conductor consists of a coil of wire the ends of which are connected with a suitable galvanometer, the integral electromotive force due to a sudden increase or decrease of the induction through the coil displaces in the circuit a quantity of electricity Q=SBns R, where SB is the increment or decrement of induction per square centimetre, s is the area of the coil, n the number of turns of wire, and R the resistance of the circuit.
When the magnetizing current is twice reversed, so as to complete a cycle, the sum of the two deflections, multiplied by a factor depending upon the sectional area of the specimen and upon the constants of the apparatus, gives the hysteresis for a complete cycle in ergs per cubic centimetre.
Working with two different specimens, he found that the hysteresis loss in ergs per cubic centimetre (W) was fairly represented by o 00125B 1 6 and o o0101B 1 ' 6 respectively, the maximum induction ranging from about 300 to 3000.
After pointing out that, since the magnetization of the metal is the quantity really concerned, W is more appropriately expressed in terms of I, the magnetic moment per unit of volume, than of B, he suggests an experiment to determine whether the mechanical work required to effect the complete magnetic reversal i Phil.
Parshall quotes tests of six samples of iron, described as of good quality, which showed an average hysteresis loss of 3070 ergs per c.cm.
The standard induction in reference to determinations of hysteresis is generally taken as 2500, while the loss is expressed in watts per lb at a frequency of ioo double reversals, or cycles, per second.
In many experiments, however, different inductions and frequencies are employed, and the hysteresis-loss is often expressed as ergs per cubic centimetre per cycle and sometimes as horse-power per ton.
Taking the density of iron to be 7.7, the factor for reducing the loss in ergs per c.cm.
Since t horse-power= 746 watts, and r ton = 2 240 lb, the factor for reducing horse-power per ton to watts per lb is 746/2240, or just 1/3.
F=27r12+HI expressed as dynes per square centimetre.
In the case supposed therefore the total force per square centimetre is H2 F =2712-f-HI+B ?r (4 7r I +H)2 8?r B2 =87r.
He made use of the expression F =Wg=27r12+HI, where W is the weight in grammes per square centimetre of sectional area, and g is the intensity of gravity which was taken as.
The greatest weight supported in the experiments was 14,600 grammes per square cm., and the corresponding induction 18, Soo units.
But when exceptionally strong fields are desired, the use of a coil is limited by the heating effect of the magnetizing current, the quantity of heat generated per unit of time in a coil of given dimensions increasing as the square of the magnetic field produced in its interior.
Du Bois's results, which, as given in his papers, show the relation of H to the magnetic moment per unit of mass, have been reduced by Ewing to the usual form, and are indicated in fig.
The force acting on the magnetism of one of the faces, and urging this face towards the other, will be less than B by 27r1, the part of the total force due to the first face itself; hence the force per unit of area with which the faces would press against each other if in contact is P = (B-27rI)I =27rT 2 +HI = (B 2 -H 2) =/81r.
Even under so " moderate " a load as 33 kilogrammes per square mm., the induced magnetization of a hard-drawn nickel wire in a field of 60 fell from 386 to 72 units, while the residual was reduced from about 280 to io.
The maximum susceptibility of one of his bars rose from 5.6 to 29 under a stress of 19.8 kilos per square mm.
Ewing's independent experiments showed that the magnetization curve for a cobalt rod under a load of 16.2 kilogrammes per square mm.
B =9000, at a frequency of loo per second, was only 0.254 watt per pound, as compared with 0.382 for the Swedish iron.
Its hysteresis-loss for B =9000 was o 236 per pound.
There was considerable hysteresis, the energy-loss per cycle being fairly represented by W =0.000549513 2 ' 238.
Annexed are values of Io 6 K for the different salts examined, w being the weight of the salt per c.c. of the solution.
In one case the hysteresis loss per cubic centimetre per cycle was 16,100 ergs for B =1 5,900, and only 1200 ergs for B = 20,200, the highest induction obtained in the experiment; possibly it would have vanished before B had reached 21,000.2 These experiments prove that actual friction must be almost entirely absent, and, as Baily remarks, the agreement of the results with the previously suggested deduction affords a strong verification of Ewing's form of the molecular theory.
In 1912 in the corresponding area there were 98 secondary schools with 22,600 pupils, one per 26,000 inhabitants (in Germany one per 54,000).
Religion.-Seventy-five per cent at least of the Letts are Protestants, but there is a Catholic majority in Latgalia and a number of Greek Orthodox among the Letts.
Pop. (1901) 395,570, showing an increase of 17 per cent.
From that time the rao has paid a subsidy of 13,000 per annum to the British for the maintenance of the military force stationed within his dominions.
Others were sent into the provinces as governors, comites per provincias constituti; thus in the Notitia dignitatum we find a comes Aegypti, a conies Africae, a comes Belgicae, a comes Lugdunensis and others.
The Amazon plain is heavily forested and has a slope of less than one inch to the mile within Brazilian territory - one competent authority placing it at about one-fifth of an inch per mile.
The members of both houses receive a per diem subsidy.
It is modelled after the Argentine Conversion office, and is authorized to issue notes to bearer against deposits of gold at the rate of 15 pence per milreis although exchange was above 17d.
In 1900 the birth-rate was 26.90 per thousand, 7.8% of the births being illegitimate; the deathrate was 19.40 per thousand, and the marriage-rate 10 per thousand.
The circumstances of his appointment and the erroneous belief that he was receiving a pension of f 4 000 per annum for his few days' court work brought Campbell much unmerited obloquy.'
It contains manufactories of chemicals, machinery, starch, white lead and various other articles, but is chiefly noted for its extensive salt springs and works, which produce about 75,000 tons of salt per annum.
Of the total population 985,167 live in rural areas, the average density for the whole country being 31.34 per sq.
The cost of construction, to the same year, exceeded £14,000,000, the interest earned per cent since 1895 not being less than £3, 12s.
Population.-Hungary had in 1900 a population of 19,254,559, equivalent to 153.7 inhabitants per square mile.
In this respect, however, matters are improving, the death-rate sinking from 33.1 per thousand in1881-1885to 28.1 per thousand in 1896-1900.
These armaments, which cost Matthias 1,000,000 florins per annum, equivalent to 200,00O, did not include the auxiliary troops of the hospodars of Walachia and Moldavia, or the feudal levies of the barons and prelates.
The force operative upon the positive half is parallel to OZ, and of amount per unit of area equal to - b 2 D = b 2 kD cos nt; and to this force acting over the whole of the plane the actual motion on the positive side may be conceived to be due.
Like Fe 2 0 3, the yellow oxide lost 48 parts of oxygen per Ur203 (= 864 parts) as water, while Ur 2 = 816 parts of metal remained.
The population of the Transvaal, on the 17th of April 1904, when the first complete census of the country was taken, was 1,269,951 (including 8215 British soldiers in garrison),1 or 11.342 persons per sq.
It is grown at elevations of 1600 to 3000 ft., and the yield is reported to be a to 2 lb per tree, which is much less than the yield in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
The tree has an average height of 12-13 ft., begins bearing five years after planting, requires little attention beyond occasional irrigation, bears two crops a year (June and December), and produces well until it is forty years of age - the yield being from 490 to 600 lb per acre of 100 trees.
In 1903 the rate was fixed at R.12 per maund, against R.2 for the rest of India.
In a series of letters, De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis, published when he was in his eightieth year, he describes the appearances met with at the post mortem examination as well as the symptoms during life in a number of cases of various diseases.
The following table shows the average birthrate and death-rate per thousand at stated periods.
The subdrift system is somewhat cheaper than the top-slice system, the output per man being greater.
For hand tramming, animal and rope haulage, the rails weigh from 8 to 24 lb per yard, for locomotive haulage 30 to 40 lb.
With an efficient engine the cost per gallon of water is often less than for pumping.
The speed is slow - from 4 to ro strokes per minute - but the larger sizes, up to 24 in.
This resistance is equal to the square of the velocity of the current in feet per minute, Air.
A certain pressure of air is required to maintain circulation against the resistance, and for a given volume per minute the smaller and more irregular the mine openings the greater must be the pressure.
Assuming, for example, the life of the mine at ten years as before, and taking the interest to be earned by the amortization fund at 3%, and that on the investment at io%, we shall find that the annual income should amount to 18.7% per year.
The density of population per square mile is 44 as compared with 167 for the whole of India and S52 for the Bengal Delta.
Within this area the petty chiefs have appointment orders, the people are disarmed, and the rate of tribute per household is fixed in each case.
Processes of annealing, or very gradual cooling, are intended to relieve these strains, but such processes are only completely effective when the cooling, particularly through those ranges of temperature where the glass is just losing the last traces of plasticity, is extremely gradual, a rate measured in hours per degree Centigrade being required.
Hence 1000Ã† is the elongation in millimetres per metre length per kilo.
The pressure at any point cf a plane in the interior of a fluid is the intensity of the normal thrust estimated per unit area of the plane.
Hence the space variation of the pressure in any direction, or the pressure-gradient, is the resolved force per unit volume in that direction.
I n a straight uniform current of fluid of density p, flowing with velocity q, the flow in units of mass per second across a plane area A, placed in the current with the normal of the plane making an angle 0 with the velocity, is oAq cos 0, the product of the density p, the area A, and q cos 0 the component velocity normal to the plane.
As a rule these equations are established immediately by determining the component acceleration of the fluid particle which is passing through (x, y, z) at the instant t of time considered, and saying that the reversed acceleration or kinetic reaction, combined with the impressed force per unit of mass and pressure-gradie