Group V.: N, trivalent and pentavalent, but divalent in nitric oxide; P, As, Sb, Bi, trivalent and pentavalent, the last being possibly divalent in BiO and BiC1 2.
These involve pentavalent nitrogen.
In general it is pentavalent, but divalent compounds are known.
Dissolved in hydrochloric acid at - 20°, it yields with solutions of the alkaline chlorides compounds of the type MC1 CrOC1 3, pointing to pentavalent chromium.
For these reasons, one must assume the existence of pentavalent nitrogen in the diazonium salts, in order to account for their basic properties.
The tertiary phosphines are characterized by their readiness to pass into derivatives containing pentavalent phosphorus, and consequently they form addition compounds with sulphur, carbon bisulphide, chlorine, bromine, the halogen acids and the alkyl halides with great readiness.
It does not dissociate on heating as do the pentachloride and pentabromide, thus indicating the existence of pentavalent phosphorus in a gaseous compound; dissociation, however, into the trifluoride and free fluorine may be brought about by induction sparks of 150 to 200 mm.