Pentachloride Sentence Examples
By the action of phosphorus pentachloride, the hydroxyl group is replaced by chlorine.
Again, when tungsten hexachloride is converted into vapour it is decomposed into chlorine and a pentachloride, having a normal vapour density, but as in the majority of its compounds tungsten acts as a hexad, we apparently must regard its pentachloride as a compound in which an odd number of free affinities are disengaged.
Of the halogen compounds of phosphorus, the trichloride was discovered by Gay Lussac and Thenard, while the pentachloride was obtained by Davy.
The oxychloride, bromides, and other compounds were subsequently discovered; here we need only notice Moissan's preparation of the trifluoride and Thorpe's discovery of the pentafluoride, a compound of especial note, for it volatilizes unchanged, giving a vapour of normal density and so demonstrating the stability of a pentavalent phosphorus compound (the pentachloride and pentabromide dissociate into a molecule of the halogen element and phosphorus trichoride).
It is also prepared by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on potassium nitrite or on nitrogen peroxide.Advertisement
Nascent hydrogen reduces them to primary alcohols, and phosphorus pentachloride replaces the carbonyl oxygen by chlorine.
Columbium trichloride, CbC1 3, is obtained in needles or crystalline crusts, when the vapour of the pentachloride is slowly passed through a red-hot tube.
Columbium pentachloride, CbC1 5, is obtained in yellow needles when a mixture of the pentoxide and sugar charcoal is heated in a current of air-free chlorine.
The chloride is very hygroscopic. By heating in hydrogen it yields the trichloride, UC1 3, and by direct combination with chlorine the pentachloride, UC1 5.
It behaves as a strong acid and on treatment with phosphorus pentachloride at high temperatures gives triazole.Advertisement
By heating with phosphorus pentachloride an alkyl group is eliminated and a chlorcarbonic ester formed.
Braun (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 35 8 3) has prepared pentamethylene derivatives from piperidine by the action of phosphorus pentachloride.
Phosphorus pentachloride decomposes it into carbon monoxide and dioxide, the reaction being the one generally applied for the purpose of preparing phosphorus oxychloride.
Tantalum pentachloride, TaC1 5, is obtained as light yellow needles by heating a mixture of the pentoxide and carbon in a current of chlorine.
The trichloride, IC1 31 results from the action of excess of chlorine on iodine, or from iodic acid and hydrochloric acid, or by heating iodine pentoxide with phosphorus pentachloride.Advertisement
Duppa (Annalen, 1865, 136, p. 12) by acting with phosphorus pentachloride on oxyisobutyric ester (CH 3) 2 C(OH) 000C 2 H 5.
Sodium amalgam reduces them to secondary alcohols; phosphorus pentachloride replaces the carbonyl oxygen by chlorine, forming the ketone chlorides.
Phosphorus pentachloride converts them into alkyl chlorides, a similar decomposition taking place when they are heated with the haloid acids.
Considerable interest is attached to the remarkable series of hydrocarbons obtained by Gomberg (Ber., 1900, 33, p. 3150, et seq.) by acting on triphenylmethane chloride (from triphenylmethane carbinol and phosphorus pentachloride, or from carbon tetrachloride and benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride) and its homologues with zinc, silver or mercury.
The tetrachloride, WC1 41 is obtained by partial reduction of the higher chlorides with hydrogen; a mixture of the pentaand hexa-chloride is distilled in a stream of hydrogen or carbon dioxide, and the pentachloride which volatilizes returned to the flask several times.Advertisement
The pentachloride, WC1 5, is obtained as a product in the preparation of the tetrachloride.
The monoxychloride, WOC14, is obtained as red acicular crystals by heating the oxide or dioxychloride in a current of the vapour of the hexachloride, or from the trioxide and phosphorus pentachloride.
Iodine, antimony trichloride, molybdenum pentachloride, ferric chloride, ferric oxide, antimony, tin, stannic oxide and ferrous sulphate have all been used as chlorine carriers.
The majority of the metallic chlorides are solids (stannic chloride, titanic chloride and antimony pentachloride are liquids) which readily volatilize on heating.
While working on the olefines he noticed that a change takes place in the density of the vapour of amylene hydrochloride, hydrobromide, &c., as the temperature is increased, and in the gradual passage from a gas of approximately normal density to one of half-normal density he saw a powerful argument in favour of the view that abnormal vapour densities, such as are exhibited by sal-ammoniac or phosphorus pentachloride, are to be explained by dissociation.Advertisement
Antimony pentachloride, SbC1 5, is prepared by heating the trichloride in a current of chlorine.
Antimony nentasulphide, Sb2S5, is prepared by precipitating a solution of the pentachloride with sulphuretted hydrogen, by decomposing "Schlippe's salt" with an acid, or by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into water containing antimonic acid.
The three monochlorpyridines are known, the a and -y compounds resulting from the action of phosphorus pentachloride on the corresponding oxypyridines, and the 1 3 compound from the action of chloroform on potassium pyrrol.
It does not dissociate on heating as do the pentachloride and pentabromide, thus indicating the existence of pentavalent phosphorus in a gaseous compound; dissociation, however, into the trifluoride and free fluorine may be brought about by induction sparks of 150 to 200 mm.
With chlorine it gives the pentachloride, PC1 5, and with oxygen when heated phosphoryl chloride, POC1 3.
Phosphorus pentachloride, PC15, discovered by Davy in 1810 and analysed by Dulong in 1816, is formed from chlorine and the trichloride.
The pentabromide, PBr 5, which results from phosphorus and an excess of bromine, is a yellow solid, and closely resembles the pentachloride.
Nitrogen Compounds.-Phosphorus pentachloride combines directly with ammonia, and the compound when heated to redness loses ammonium chloride and hydrochloric acid and gives phospham, PN 2 H 4, a substance first described by Davy in 1811.
The diamide, PO (NH 2) (NH), results when the pentachloride is saturated with ammonia gas and the first formed chlorophosphamide, PC1 3 (NH 2) 2, is decomposed by water.
For example, in phosphorus pentachloride the five units of affinity possessed by the phosphorus atom are satisfied by the five monad atoms of chlorine, but in the trichloride two are disengaged, and, it may be supposed, satisfy each other.
Phosphorus pentachloride converts it into picryl chloride, C 6 H 2 C1(NO 2) 3, which is a true acid chloride, being decomposed by water with the regeneration of picric acid and the formation of hydrochloric acid; with ammonia it yields picramide, C 6 H 2 NH 2 (NO 2) 3.
Geuther); or by the addition of water to the pentachloride, the precipitate formed being dried over sulphuric acid (P. Conrad, Chem.
Kulisch, Monats., 1894, 15, p. 276); by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on hydrocarbostyril (the inner anhydride of ortho-aminohydrocinnamic acid), the chlorinated compound first formed being then reduced by hydriodic acid (A.