Pennsylvania Sentence Examples
Dean "attended" college, served in the military, and was employed by the Parkside, Pennsylvania Police Department for fifteen years.
Bucknell was in Pennsylvania, and Ryder College, where Jen attended, in New Jersey.
Pennsylvania is a very beautiful State.
Exasperated, Dean drove toward Easton, Pennsylvania until he found a motel that satisfied Baratto.
A waitress wearing a lace cap denoting her Pennsylvania Dutch heritage seated him at a small corner table by the window.Advertisement
I've chased more bad guys running Bird Song bed and breakfast than when I was a Parkside, Pennsylvania police detective.
Dean felt cheated, doubly so because yesterday, a comp day off, it had rained as if St. Swithin was ticked off at the world, denying him the pleasure of biking the Pennsylvania countryside.
News of the break-in on Collingswood Avenue had traveled with the speed of an Olympic sprinter through the Parkside, Pennsylvania police department.
Cleary, Corbin, any single guy, a motor home with paper Pennsylvania plates that checked in on the May dates we know— any of those things.
It is bounded on the north-west by Ohio, from which it is separated by the Ohio river, on the north by Pennsylvania and Maryland, the Potomac river dividing it from the latter state; on the east and south-east by Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, the boundary lines in the first two cases being meridians, in the last case a very irregular line following the crest of mountain ridges in places; and on the south-west by Virginia and Kentucky, the Big Sandy river separating it from the latter state.Advertisement
The same year German settlers from Pennsylvania founded New Mecklenburg, the present Shepherdstown, on the Potomac, and others soon followed.
Jen made him go back to Pennsylvania to Bucknell, even without the scholarship.
The bituminous coal of West Virginia is a particularly good coking coal, and in 1905, 1906, 1907 and 1908 West Virginia ranked second (to Pennsylvania) among the states of the Union in the amount of coke manufactured; the Flat Top district is the principal cokemaking region.
Much of the natural gas is piped out of the state into Ohio (even into the northern parts), Kentucky, Pennsylvania and Maryland; within the state gas has been utilized as a fuel in carbon black and glass factories.
During the War of Independence the Pennsylvania members of the Church were mostly attached to the American cause, and Nicholas Herkimer and Baron von Steuben were both Reformed; but in New York and in the South there were many German Loyalists.Advertisement
Our route scooted between Pennsylvania and Virginia for three hours until we crossed into West Virginia and traded a major highway for winding secondary roads.
What everyone did to him makes me think of what those Pennsylvania Dutch folks do; shunning is it called?
He used to be a police detective, back in Pennsylvania.
No activity was more natural than spending the day like this biking the Pennsylvania countryside—with Cynthia Byrne.
The population was not homogeneous, as a considerable part of the immigration came by way of Pennsylvania and included Germans, the Protestant Scotch-Irish and settlers from the states farther.Advertisement
Georg Michael Weiss (c. 1700-c. 1762), a graduate of Heidelberg, ordained and sent to America by the Upper Consistory of the Palatinate in 1727, organized a church in Philadelphia; preached at Skippack; worked in Dutchess and Schoharie counties, New York, in 1731-46; and then returned to his old field in Pennsylvania.
Johann Heinrich Goetschius was pastor (c. 1731-38) of ten churches in Pennsylvania, and was ordained by the Presbyterian Synod of Philadelphia in 1737.
A part of his work was undertaken by Johann Conrad Wirtz, who was ordained by the New Brunswick (New Jersey) Presbytery in 1750, and in 1761-63 was pastor at York, Pennsylvania.
A church was built in 1736 at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where Johann Bartholomaeus Rieger (1707-1769), who came from Germany with Weiss on his return in 1731, had preached for several years.
Thereafter Schlatter's work was in the charity schools of Pennsylvania, which the people thought were tinged with Episcopalianism.Advertisement
Franklin College was founded by Lutherans and Reformed, with much outside help, notably that of Benjamin Franklin, at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1787.
The strongest churches were those of Philadelphia, Lancaster and Germantown in Pennsylvania, and Frederick in Maryland.
In 1824 the Classis of Northampton, Pennsylvania (13 ministers and 80 congregations), became the Synod of Ohio, the parent Synod having refused to allow the Classis to ordain.
Maybe World Wide has business in Milford, Pennsylvania.
Our boy was 'James Rogers from Lancaster, Pennsylvania.'
It is the carrier of a heavy tonnage of coal to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.
Whittier, Lundy's successor, became The Pennsylvania Freeman.
A court of arbitration appointed by the Continental Congress met at Trenton, New Jersey, in 1782, and on December 30th gave a unanimous decision in favour of Pennsylvania.
In 1732 the presbytery of "Dunagall" (Donegal) was established in Lancaster (disambiguation)|Lancaster county, Pennsylvania.
The Burgher Synod in 1764 sent Thomas Clarke of Ballybay, Ireland, who settled at Salem, Washington county, New York, and in 1776 sent David Telfair, of Monteith, Scotland, who preached in Philadelphia; they united with the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania; in 1771 the Scotch Synod ordered the presbytery to annul its union with the Burghers, and although Dr Clarke of Salem remained in the Associate Presbytery, the Burgher ministers who immigrated later joined the Associate Reformed Church.
Presbyterians of different churches in the United States in 1906 numbered 1,830,555; of this total 322,542 were in Pennsylvania, where there were 248,335 members of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (the Northern Church), being more than one-fifth of its total membership; 56,587 members of the United Presbyterian Church of North America, being more than two-fifths of its total membership; 2709 members of the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, three-tenths of its total membership; the entire membership of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada (440), 3150 members of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church, nearly one-fourth of its total membership; and 2065 members of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, general synod, about five-ninths of its total membership. The strength of the Church in Pennsylvania is largely due to the Scotch-Irish settlements in that state.
In 1790 he was converted to Methodism, and in 1796 determined to devote himself to preaching that faith among the Pennsylvania Germans.
Albright died on the 18th of May 1808, at MÃ¼hlbach, Pennsylvania.
Cadmium does not occur naturally in the uncombined condition, and only one mineral is known which contains it in any appreciable quantity, namely, greenockite, or cadmium sulphide, found at Greenock and at Bishopton in Scotland, and in Bohemia and Pennsylvania.
It is served by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central System), the Lake Erie & Western (New York Central System), the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania System) and the Vandalia (Pennsylvania System) railways.
In comparing the figures, it should be noted that main line mileage in the Eastern states, as for example that of the Pennsylvania railroad and the New York, New Haven & Hartford, does not differ greatly in standards of safety or in unit cost from the best British construction, although improvement work in America is charged to income far more liberally than it has been in England.
The standard specification adopted by the Pennsylvania railway in 1908 provided that in rails weighing Ioo lb to the yard 41% of the metal should be in the head, 18-6% in the web, and 40-4% in the base, while for 85 lb rails 42.2% was to be in the head, 17-8% in the web and 40.0% in the base.
Its growth was accelerated by the establishment here, in 1863, of the shops of the railway from Pittston to Hawley built in 1849-1850 by the Pennsylvania Coal Company.
It is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Cincinnati Northern (New York Central system), and a branch of the Cincinnati, Lebanon & Northern (Pennsylvania system) railways.
Those who had fled to Philadelphia in Pennsylvania (1734) formed a small community under the name of Schwenkfelders; and Zinzendorf and Spangenberg, when they visited the United States, endeavoured, but with little success, to convert them to their views.
He then engaged in the lumber and tanning business in western New York, and in banking at Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania.
The state subscribed $5,000,000, which was raised on bonds sold to Nicholas Biddle, president of the United States Bank of Pennsylvania.
Settled largely by people from Pennsylvania, this section came to be closely associated with the continental colonies.
For nearly twenty years he dominated the government of Pennsylvania, and also played a very prominent part in national affairs.
They took refuge in Holland, from whence they emigrated to Pennsylvania, in small companies, between 1719 and 1729.
The first congregation in America was organized on Christmas Day 1723 by Peter Becker who preceeded Alexander Mack to Germantown, Pennsylvania.
From Pennsylvania the sect spread chiefly westward, and, after various vicissitudes, caused by defections and divisions due to doctrinal differences, in 1908 were most numerous in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas and North Dakota.
Their founder was Johann Conrad Beissel (1690-1768), a native of Eberbach and one of the first emigrants, who, after living as a hermit for several years on Mill Creek, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, founded the sect (1725), then again lived as a hermit in a cave (formerly occupied by another hermit, one Elimelech) on the Cocalico Creek in Pennsylvania, and in 1732-1735 established a semi-monastic community (the "Order of the Solitary") with a convent (the "Sister House") and a monastery (the "Brother House") at Ephrata, in what is now Lancaster county, about 55 m.
It is served directly by the Chesapeake & Ohio railway, and indirectly by the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk (Pennsylvania System), passengers and freight being carried by steamer from the terminus at Cape Charles; by steamboat lines connecting with the principal cities along the Atlantic coast, and with cities along the James river; by ferry, connecting with Norfolk and Portsmouth; and by electric railway (3 m.) to Hampton and (1 2 m.) to Newport News.
Among the railways are the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Baltimore & Ohio, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & St Louis, the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania), the Pittsburgh, Ft.
In 1701, New York, seeking another claim, obtained from the Iroquois a grant to the king of England of this territory which they claimed to have conquered but from which they had subsequently been expelled, and this grant was confirmed in 1726 and again in 1744 About 1730 English traders from Pennsylvania and Virginia began to visit the eastern and southern parts of the territory and the crisis approached as a French Canadian expedition under Celeron de Bienville took formal possession of the upper Ohio Valley by planting leaden plates at the mouths of the principal streams. This was in 1749 and in the same year George II.
General Wayne's victory was followed by an extensive immigration of New Englanders, of Germans, Scotch-Irish and Quakers from Pennsylvania, and of settlers from Virginia and Kentucky, many of whom came to escape the evils of slavery.
In Pennsylvania, parol evidence of the date is allowed.
Finally settling at Northumberland, Pennsylvania, he lived there for nearly ten years, until on the 6th of February 1804, after clearly and audibly dictating a few changes he wished made in some of his writings, he quietly expired.
Standing in the public green, in the centre of the city, is the original statue (by Launt Thompson) of the "Massachusetts Color Bearer," which has been reproduced on the battlefield of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
A Russian traveller, Peter Kalm, in his work on America, published in 1748, showed on a map the oil springs of Pennsylvania, and about the same time Raicevich referred to the " liquid bitumen " of Rumania.
Drake started a well on Oil Creek, Pennsylvania.
For about 10 years Pennsylvania was the one great oil producer of the world, but since 1870 the industry has spread all over the globe.
The principal elements are found in various combinations, the hydrocarbons of the Pennsylvania oils being mainly paraffins (q.v.), while those of Caucasian petroleum belong for the most part to the naphthenes, isomeric with the olefines (q.v.).
The gas wells of Pennsylvania indicate about double the pressure of those drilled in the Trenton limestone, 600-800 lb.
The earlier wells in Pennsylvania consisted of three sections, the first formed of surface clays and gravels, the second of stratified rocks containing water, and the third of stratified rocks, including the oil-sands, usually free from water.
Wells in Pennsylvania now range in depth from 300 ft.
With the adoption of carefully fitted screw-joints in 1865 the pipe line gradually came into general use, until in 1891 the lines owned by the various transit companies of Pennsylvania amounted in length to 25,000 m.
In 1900 Florida ranked fourth in the manufacture of tobacco among the states of the Union, being surpassed by New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio; in 1905 it ranked third (after New York and Pennsylvania).
There are now three Conferences - the Eastern, Pennsylvania and Western, with about 70 ministers, too churches and 7000 members.
In the backwoods of Pennsylvania and Virginia there seemed to be better chances for a young adventurer.
He was a member of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1789-1790, and of the Pennsylvania Assembly in 1790, 1791, and 1792, and rose with surprising rapidity, despite his foreign birth and his inability to speak English with correctness or fluency.
In 1793 he was chosen United States senator from Pennsylvania by the votes of both political parties.
The leading part which Gallatin had taken in the "Whisky Insurrection" in Western Pennsylvania had, without doubt, been an efficient cause in his rejection by the senate.
He had lost his hold upon Pennsylvania and his support in the house, while a cabal in the senate, bitterly and personally hostile to the treasury, crippled the administration and reduced every government measure to mere inanity.
From New York the movement spread into other middle states and into New England, and became especially strong in Pennsylvania and Vermont.
In September 1831 the party at a national convention in Baltimore nominated as its candidates for the presidency and vice-presidency William Wirt of Maryland and Amos Ellmaker (1787-1851) of Pennsylvania; and in the election of the following year it secured the seven electoral votes of the state of Vermont.
In Allegheny county, of which Pittsburgh is the county seat and business centre, there were in 1920 1,184,832 persons, 13.6% of the total pop. of Pennsylvania.
The university of Pittsburgh, established in 1908 by assembling the scattered departments of what was the Western University of Pennsylvania, and taking over 43 ac. near the Carnegie Institute for a campus, grew rapidly in its new location, and in 1920 numbered 4,979 students.
The Molly Maguires of Pennsylvania consisted of similar classes of Irishmen, but there seems to have been no connexion between the two societies.
It is the eastern terminus of the Pennsylvania, the Lehigh Valley, the West Shore, the Central of New Jersey, the Baltimore & Ohio, the Northern of New Jersey (operated by the Erie), the Erie, the New York, Susquehanna & Western, and the New Jersey & New York (controlled by the Erie) railways, the first three using the Pennsylvania station; and of the little-used Morris canal.
The student of English constitutional history will observe the success with which Friends have, by the mere force of passive resistance, obtained, from the legislature and the courts, indulgence for all their scruples and a legal recognition of their customs. In American history they occupy an important place because of the very prominent part which they played in the colonization of New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
The history of this is part of the history of America and of Pennsylvania (q.v.) in particular.
In 1711 a law was passed in Pennsylvania prohibiting the importation of slaves, but it was rejected by the Council in England.
He was a friend of Franklin, a member of Congress for the state of Pennsylvania in 1776, and one of those who signed the Declaration of Independence the same year.
In 1787 he was a member of the Pennsylvania convention which adopted the Federal constitution, and thereafter he retired from public life, and gave himself up wholly to medical practice.
In 1789 he exchanged his chemistry lectureship for that of the theory and practice of physic; and when the medical college, which he had helped to found, was absorbed by the university of Pennsylvania in 1791 he became professor of the institutes of medicine and of clinical practice, succeeding in 1796 to the chair of the theory and practice of medicine.
Lancaster is served by the Hocking Valley, the Columbus & Southern and the Cincinnati & Muskingum Valley (Pennsylvania Lines) railways, and by the electric line of the Scioto Valley Traction Company, which connects it with Columbus.
Some of the early settlers were from Lancaster, Pennsylvania, whence the name.
The Pennsylvanian Quakers advised their members against the trade in 1696; in 1754 they issued to their brethren a strong dissuasive against encouraging it in any manner; in 1774 all persons concerned in the traffic, and in 1776 all slave holders who would not emancipate their slaves, were excluded from membership. The Quakers in the other American provinces followed the lead of their brethren in Pennsylvania.
It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio and the Pennsylvania railways, and is connected by an electric line with Byesville (pop. in 1900, 1267), about 7 m.
In 1742, in reply to a call from the Lutheran churches of Pennsylvania, he went to Philadelphia, and was joined from time to time, especially in 1745, by students from Halle.
Pennsylvania in 1842 (16 Peters 539), that state authorities could not be forced to act in fugitive slave cases, but that national authorities must carry out the national law, was followed by legislation in Massachusetts (1843), Vermont (1843), Pennsylvania (1847) and Rhode Island (1848), forbidding state officials to help enforce the law and refusing the use of state gaols for fugitive slaves.
The system reached from Kentucky and Virginia across Ohio, and from Maryland across Pennsylvania and New York, to New England and Canada, and as early as 1817 a group of anti-slavery men in southern Ohio had helped to Canada as many as moo slaves.
The Quakers of Pennsylvania possibly began the work of the mysterious Underground Railroad; the best known of them was Thomas Garrett (1789-1871), a native of Pennsylvania, who, in 1822, removed to Wilmington, Delaware, where he was convicted in 1848 on four counts under the Fugitive Slave Law and was fined $800o; he is said to have helped 2700 slaves to freedom.
Cleveland's rapid growth both as a commercial and as a manufacturing city is due largely to its situation between the iron regions of Lake Superior and the coal and oil regions of Pennsylvania and Ohio.
The city is served by the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern; the New York, Chicago & St Louis; the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis; the Pennsylvania; the Erie; the Baltimore & Ohio; and the Wheeling & Lake Erie railways; by steamboat lines to the principal ports on the Great Lakes; and by an extensive system of inter-urban electric lines.
The discovery of iron ore in the Lake Superior region made Cleveland the natural meeting-point of the iron ore and the coal from the Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia mines; and it is from this that the city's great commercial importance dates.
This situation did not last long, however, for on the 3rd of March 1849 the bill organizing the territory of Minnesota was passed, and on the 19th President Zachary Taylor appointed Alexander Ramsey of Pennsylvania the first territorial governor.
He practised law in New York and Philadelphia, was chosen mayor of Philadelphia in 1828, and in 1829 was appointed by President Jackson, whom he had twice warmly supported for the presidency, United States attorney for the eastern district of Pennsylvania, a position long held by his father.
From 1833 to 1835 Dallas was attorney-general of Pennsylvania, and from 1835 to 1839 was minister to Russia.
During the following years he was engaged in a long struggle with James Buchanan for party leadership in Pennsylvania.
As an authority on the Inquisition he stood in the highest rank of modern historians, and distinctions were conferred on him by the universities of Harvard, Princeton, Pennsylvania, Giessen and Moscow.
It is served by the Pennsylvania railway.
Bristol was one of the first places to be settled in Pennsylvania after William Penn received his charter for the province in 1681, and from its settlement until 1725 it was the seat of government of the county.
It is served by the Pennsylvania, the Baltimore & Ohio, and the Wheeling & Lake Erie railways, and is connected by an interurban electric system with all the important cities and towns within a radius of 50 m.
In 1806 Friends from North Carolina and Pennsylvania settled near here, and Richmond was platted in 1816.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Pennsylvania.
Inscriptions found at Nippur, where extensive excavations were carried on during 1888-1900 by Messrs Peters and Haynes, under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania, show that Bel of Nippur was in fact regarded as the head of an extensive pantheon.
He built other foundries at Ringwood, New Jersey, and at Durham, Pennsylvania; bought iron mines in northern New Jersey, and carried the ore thence by railways to his mills.
This method originated in the Pennsylvania anthracite mines in 1887, but has been employed in recent years on a large scale in Silesia, Westphalia and other European coalfields.
In June 1754, in pursuance of a recommendation of the Lords of Trade, a convention of representatives of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland met here for the purpose of confirming and establishing a closer league of friendship with the Iroquois and of arranging for a permanent union of the colonies.
Warsaw is served by the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago (Pennsylvania system) and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis railways, and by interurban electric lines.
Of less importance is the silicate, Zn 2 SiO 4 H 2 0, named electric calamine or hemimorphite; this occurs in quantity in Altenburg near Aix-laChapelle, Sardinia, Spain and the United States (New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Wisconsin).
In 1861 he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, and had command of the 2nd brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves in the Army of the Potomac under General M'Call.
Tarentum is served by the Pennsylvania railway and by an electric line connecting with Pittsburg.
In 1752 the company had a pathway blazed between the small fortified posts at Will's Creek (Cumberland), Maryland, and at Redstone Creek (Brownsville), Pennsylvania, which it had established in 1750; but it was finally merged in the Walpole Company (an organization in which Benjamin Franklin was interested), which in 1772 had received from the British government a grant of a large tract lying along the southern bank of the Ohio as far west as the mouth of the Scioto river.
It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio, the Cincinnati & Muskingum Valley (Pennsylvania Lines), the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton, and the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton railways.
The total membership of this order probably reached 250,000 to 300,000, principally in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Kentucky and south-western Pennsylvania.
By an agreement made in 1907 the school of theology of Ursinus College (Collegeville, Pennsylvania; the theological school since 1898 had been in Philadelphia) and the Heidelberg Theological seminary (Tiffin, Ohio) united to form the Central Theological seminary of the German Reformed Church, which was established in Dayton in 1908.
He was also active for many years as Indian commissioner and surveyor-general and helped to settle the New York boundary disputes with Massachusetts and Pennsylvania.
The other pre-revolutionary magazines were the Boston American Magazine (1743-1747), in imitation of the London Magazine; the Boston Weekly Magazine (1743); the Christian History (1743-1744); the New York Independent Reflector (1752-1754); the Boston New England Magazine (1758-1760), a collection of fugitive pieces; the Boston Royal American Magazine (1774-1775); and the Pennsylvania Magazine (1775-1776), founded by Robert Aitken, with the help of Thomas Paine.
There is also the Lancaster, Pennsylvania, American Historical Review, issued quarterly.
There is a painted image from Alaska, now in the museum of the university of Pennsylvania, which represents such an one.
The borough is served by the Pennsylvania and the Pittsburg & Lake Erie railways.
In October-November 1768, Sir William Johnson and representatives of Virginia and Pennsylvania met 3200 Indians of the Six Nations here and made a treaty with them, under which, for 10,460 in money and provisions, they surrendered to the crown their claims to what is now Kentucky and West Virginia and the western part of Pennsylvania.
Blaine graduated at Washington College in Washington, Pennsylvania, in 1847, and subsequently taught successively in the Military Institute, Georgetown, Kentucky, and in the Institution for the Blind at Philadelphia.
In the second form, named after Robert Hare (1781-1858), professor of chemistry at the university of Pennsylvania, the liquids are drawn or aspirated up vertical tubes which have their lower ends placed in reservoirs containing the different liquids, and their upper ends connected to a common tube which is in communication with an aspirator for decreasing the pressure within the vertical tubes.
Those of economic value are kaolin, mined chiefly in the vicinity of Hockessin, New Castle county, the static kaolin product being exceeded in 1903 only by that of Pennsylvania among the states of the United States; granite, used for road-making and rough construction work, found near Wilmington; and brick and tile clays; but the value of their total product in 1902 was less than $500,000.
The development of manufacturing in Delaware has not been so extensive as its favourable situation relative to the other states, the facilities for water and railway transportation, and the proximity of the coal and iron fields of Pennsylvania, would seem to warrant.
Its railway mileage in January 1907 was J33.6 m.; the Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington (Pennsylvania system), the Baltimore & Philadelphia (Baltimore & Ohio system), and the Wilmington & Northern (Philadelphia & Reading system) cross the northern part of the state, while the Delaware railway (leased by the Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington) runs the length of the state below Wilmington, and another line, the Maryland, Delaware & Virginia (controlled by the Baltimore, Chesapeake & Atlantic railway, which is related to the Pennsylvania system), connects Lewes, Del., with Love Point, Md., on the Chesapeake Bay.
The unit of local government is the " hundred," which corresponds to the township of Pennsylvania.
He arrived early in 164 3 and subsequently established settlements on the island of Tinicum, near the present Chester, Pennsylvania, at the mouth of Salem Creek, New Jersey, and near the mouth of the Schuylkill river.
This accounts for the present curved boundary line between Delaware and Pennsylvania.
Previously, however, in August 1680, the duke of York had leased this territory for ro,000 years to William Penn, to whom he conveyed it by a deed of feoffment in August 1682; but differences in race and religion, economic rivalry between New Castle and the Pennsylvania towns, and petty political quarrels over representation and office holding, similar to those in the other American colonies, were so intense that Penn in 1691 appointed a special deputy governor for the " lower counties."
Although reunited with the " province " of Pennsylvania in 1693, the so-called " territories " or " lower counties " secured a separate legislature in 1704, and a separate executive council in 1710; the governor of Pennsylvania, however, was the chief executive until 1776.
The colonial records are preserved with those of New York and Pennsylvania; only one volume of the State Records has been published, and Minutes of the Council of Delaware State, 1776-1792 (Dover, 1886).
In the United States of America the Appalachian mountain system, from Pennsylvania southward, roughly marks the line of the chief coal-producing region.
Anthracite coal in Pennsylvania is subjected to breaking between toothed rollers and an elaborate system of screening, before it is fit for sale.
It is served by the Pennsylvania railway, the Camden & Trenton railway (an electric line, forming part of the line between Philadelphia and New York) and by freight and passenger steamboat lines on the Delaware.
In September 1729 he bought at a merely nominal price The Pennsylvania Gazette, a weekly newspaper which Keimer had started nine months before to defeat a similar project of Franklin's, and which Franklin conducted until 1765.
In 1737 he had been appointed postmaster at Philadelphia, and about the same time he organized the first police force and fire company in the colonies; in 1749, after he had written Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania, he and twenty-three other citizens of Philadelphia formed themselves into an association for the purpose of establishing an academy, which was opened in 1751, was chartered in 1753, and eventually became the University of Pennsylvania; in 1727 he organized a debating club, the " Junto," in Philadelphia, and later he was one of the founders of the American Philosophical Society (1743; incorporated 1780); he took the lead in the organization of a militia force, and in the paving of the city streets, improved the method of street lighting, and assisted in the founding of a city hospital (1751); in brief, he gave the impulse to nearly every measure or project for the welfare and prosperity of Philadelphia undertaken in his day.
In 1751 he became a member of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, in which he served for thirteen years.
Notwithstanding the alarm occasioned by Braddock's defeat, the old quarrel between the proprietors of Pennsylvania and the assembly prevented any adequate preparations for defence; " with incredible meanness " the proprietors had instructed their governors to approve no act for levying the necessary taxes, unless the vast estates of the proprietors were by the same act exempted.
This quiet was interrupted, however, by the " Paxton Massacre " (Dec. 14, 1763) - the slaughter of a score of Indians (children, women and old men) at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, by some young rowdies from the town of Paxton, who then marched upon Philadelphia to kill a few Christian Indians there.
But the question of taxing the estates of the proprietors came up in a new form, and a petition from the assembly was drawn by Franklin, requesting the king " to resume the government " of Pennsylvania.
The natural objection of the colonies, as voiced, for example, by the assembly of Pennsylvania, was that it was a cruel thing to tax colonies already taxed beyond their strength, and surrounded by enemies and exposed to constant expenditures for defence, and that it was an indignity that they should be taxed by a parliament in which they were not represented; at the same time the Pennsylvania assembly recognized it as " their duty to grant aid to the crown, according to their abilities, whenever required of them in the usual manner."
He was agent now, not only of Pennsylvania, but also of New Jersey, of Georgia and of Massachusetts.
On the 6th of May, the day after his arrival in Philadelphia, he was elected by the assembly of Pennsylvania a delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.
In October he was elected a member of the Pennsylvania assembly, but, as members of this body were still required to take an oath of allegiance to the crown, he refused to serve.
From July 16 to September 28 he acted as president of the Constitutional Convention of Pennsylvania.
He was immediately elected a member of the municipal council of Philadelphia, becoming its chairman; and was chosen president of the Supreme Executive Council (the chief executive officer) of Pennsylvania, and was re-elected in 1786 and 1787, serving from October 1785 to October 1788.
As president of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, Franklin signed a petition to Congress (12th February 1790) for immediate abolition of slavery, and six weeks later in his most brilliant manner parodied the attack on the petition made by James Jackson (1757-1806) of Georgia, taking off Jackson's quotations of Scripture with pretended texts from the Koran cited by a member of the Divan of Algiers in opposition to a petition asking for the prohibition of holding Christians in slavery.
He was an excellent compositor and pressman; his workmanship, clear impressions, black ink and comparative freedom from errata did much to get him the public printing in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and the printing of the paper money a and other public matters in Delaware.
In the year before (1742) he had planned the " Pennsylvania fire-place," better known as the " Franklin stove," which saved fuel, heated all the room, and had the same principle as the hot-air furnace; the stove was never patented by Franklin, but was described in his pamphlet dated 1744.
The others, it was found, contained papers belonging to Franklin, and this important collection was bought and presented to the university of Pennsylvania.
At Alexandria in 1 755 General Edward Braddock organized his fatal expedition against Fort Duquesne, and here, in April of the same year, the governors of Virginia, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland met (in a house still standing) to determine upon concerted action against the French in America.
It is served by the Pennsylvania, the Erie, and the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg railways, and is connected with Olean, New York, by an electric line.
Tyrone is served by the main line and three short branches of the Pennsylvania railway (which has repair shops here), and is connected with Altoona by an electric line.
In the middle region between them religion had a large share in promoting the formation of Pennsylvania, which was founded by the Quaker William Penn.
The materials for studying the American man biologically are abundant in the United States National Museum in Washington; the Peabody Museum, at Cambridge, Massachusetts; the American Museum of Natural History, New York; the Academy of Sciences and the Free Museum of Arts and Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Field Museum in Chicago; the National Museum, city of Mexico, and the Museum of La Plata.
Morris was one of Pennsylvania's representatives in the constitutional convention of 1787, and took an active part in the debates.
The struggle which the frontier settlers of Pennsylvania had made in the state legislature to secure unlimited issues of paper money and the enactment of laws favourable to the debtor class prejudiced him against the West, and he tried to introduce into the constitution a clause guaranteeing forever the political supremacy of the states east of the Alleghanies.
From North Carolina, Alabama and Pennsylvania, also, phosphates have been obtained but only in comparatively small quantities.
First come the low folds of the western Appalachians, which, though well developed in Pennsylvania, die out near the New York boundary.
The common bricks made in New York in 1908 were valued at $5,066,084, an amount in excess of that in any other state; and the total value of brick and tile products was $7,270,981, being less than that of Ohio, Pennsylvania or Illinois.
The Appalachian oil field extends northward from West Virginia and Pennsylvania into Cattaraugus, Allegany and Steuben counties.
Their places, however, were taken by Andrew Hamilton, speaker of the Assembly of Pennsylvania and a lawyer of great reputation in the English colonies.
In the 'eighties he was interested in the development of the coal, coke and iron industry of Western Pennsylvania and was often associated in various enterprises with Henry C. Frick.
He built the first independent pipe line, in competition with the Standard Oil Co., through Pennsylvania.
Marion is served by the Pennsylvania, the Erie, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, and the Hocking Valley railways, and by interurban electric railway to Columbus.
Meantime his father had removed to a small tract of wild land in the dense forests of Western Pennsylvania, 30 m.
In August, on representations of the alarming state of the contest, he took the field in person, and made a series of campaign speeches, beginning in New England and extending throughout Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana, which aroused great enthusiasm, and were regarded at the time by both friends and opponents as the most brilliant continuous exhibition of varied intellectual power ever made by a candidate in a presidential canvass.
He was educated at the Philadelphia Latin School, the College of Philadelphia (now the University of Pennsylvania), and Princeton, where he graduated in 1793.
Fossil remains of mammals, fish and reptiles found in the Tertiary deposits of south-western Montana are preserved in the Carnegie Museum at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and in the museum of the university of Montana.
It had only a small share in making the constitutions of the American colonies, as only the Carolinas, Pennsylvania, Georgia and Nova Scotia were formed after the reign of Charles II.; and in 1760 a secretary of state for the colonies was appointed, to whom the control drifted away.
The Blue Ridge, rising in southern Pennsylvania and there known as South Mountain, attains in that state elevations of about 2000 ft.; southward to the Potomac its altitudes diminish, but 30 m.
In Pennsylvania the summits of the Valley Ridges rise generally to about 2000 ft., and in Maryland Eagle Rock and Dans Rock are conspicuous points reaching 3162 ft.
They are rarely metamorphosed to the point of recrystallization, though locally shales are altered to roofing slates, sandstones are indurated, limestones slightly marblized, and coals, originally bituminous, are changed to anthracite in northern Pennsylvania, and to graphite in Rhode Island.
In eastern Pennsylvania the Great Valley was accessible by reason of a broad gateway between the end of South Mountain and the Highlands, and here in the Lebanon Valley settled German Moravians, whose descendants even now retain the peculiar patois known as "Pennsylvania Dutch."
He graduated at Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1851, studied law under his father, and was admitted to the Kentucky bar in 1853.
In the beginning of 1679 he stood for Guildford, and was warmly supported by William Penn, with whom he had long been intimate, and to whom he is said (as is now thought, erroneously) to have afforded assistance in drawing up the constitution of Pennsylvania.
Newark is served by the Pennsylvania, the Lehigh Valley, the Erie, the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western and the Central of New Jersey railways, and by steamboats engaged in coastwise and river commerce.
But the pressure from the representatives of some of the states, notably Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, compelled him to incorporate in the Tariff Act certain specific duties borrowed from the Tariff Acts then in force in these states, which had a distinctly protective aim.
In 1848 his father, who had been a Chartist, emigrated to America, settling in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania.
Scott of the Pennsylvania railway, who employed him as a secretary; and in 1859, when Scott became vice-president of the company, he made Carnegie superintendent of the western division of the line.
Most of these railways use the Union Station; the Pennsylvania and the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, have separate stations.
He graduated from Washington (now Washington and Jefferson) College, Pennsylvania, in 1825, and began to practise law in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1828.
It is served by the Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia & Reading, the Northern Central and the Cumberland Valley railways; and the Pennsylvania canal gives it water communication with the ocean.
From 1756 until 1774 (except in 1764) he was one of the most influential members of the Pennsylvania Assembly, over which he presided in 1766-1773.
After he left America his life was attainted, and his property, valued at £40,000, was confiscated by the Pennsylvania Assembly, a loss for which he received a partial recompense in the form of a small parliamentary pension.
The graphite of New York, Pennsylvania and Alabama is "flake" and unsuitable for this purpose.
Steelton is served by the Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia && Reading railways, and is connected with Harrisburg by electric line.
Steelton is in an agricultural district, but its industrial importance is due primarily to the vast steel works of the Pennsylvania Steel Company.
West of Catoctin Mountain (1800 ft.) is Middletown Valley, with Catoctin Creek running through it from north to south, and the Blue Ridge Mountains (2400 ft.), near the Pennsylvania border, forming its west slope.
The more important railway lines are the Baltimore & Ohio, the Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington (controlled by the Pennsylvania and a consolidation of the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore, and the Baltimore & Potomac), the Western Maryland, the West Virginia Central & Pittsburg (leased by the Western Maryland), the Northern Central, the Maryland electric railways (including what was formerly the Baltimore & Annapolis Short Line), and the Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis electric railway.
In Virginia and the east, Washington, situated on the outpost line of the Union, and separated by the "border" state of Maryland from Pennsylvania and the North, was for some time in great peril.
Besides biogra p hical sketches of Defoe, Sir John Davies, Allan Ramsay, Sir David Lyndsay, Churchyard and others, prefixed to editions of their respective works, Chalmers wrote a life of Thomas Paine, the author of the Rights of Man, which he published under the assumed name of Francis Oldys, A.M., of the University of Pennsylvania; and a life of Ruddiman, in which considerable light is thrown on the state of literature in Scotland during the earlier part of the last century.
The industry was rapidly developed by distillers, who immediately after the suppression of the Whisky Insurrection, in 1794, removed from Pennsylvania and settled in what is now Mason county and was then a part of Bourbon countythe product is still known as " Bourbon " whisky.
Good whisky is made in Maryland and in parts of Pennsylvania from rye, but all efforts in other states to produce from Indian corn a whisky equal to the Bourbon have failed, and it is probable that the quality of the Bourbon is largely due to the character of the Kentucky lime water and the Kentucky yeast germs. The average annual product of the state from 1880 to 1900 was about 20,000,000 gallons; in 1900 the product was valued at $9,786,527; in 1905 at $11,204,649.
All kindred organizations in the states gradually became amalgamated with this national body, and the federation was completed in 1839 by the adhesion of the Philadelphia Society (which now changed its name to the Pennsylvania Bible Society).
The village is served by the Pennsylvania system.
The founder, George Rapp, after livingwith his would-be primitive Christian followers at Harmony, Butler county, Pennsylvania, in 1803-1814, and in 1815-1824 in New Harmony, Indiana, which he then sold to Robert Owen, settled here in 1824 and rapidly built up a village, in which each family received a house and garden.
Three hundred thus separated from Rapp in 1833, with $105,000 as their share of the communal property, to build the millennial kingdom of New Jerusalem at Phillipsburg (now Monaca), Beaver county, Pennsylvania, under the lead of Bernhard Muller, who had come to Economy in 1831 as a fellow religionist, and was called Count Maximilian de Leon (or Proli); in 1833 Leon went, with his followers, to Louisiana, and established a religious colony 6 m.
Norristown is served by the Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia & Reading and the Stony Creek railways, by interurban electric railway to Philadelphia and Reading, and by the Schuylkill canal, and is connected by bridge with the borough of Bridgeport (pop. in 1900, 3095), where woollen and cotton goods are manufactured.
It has a State Hospital for the Insane (opened 1880), a fine County Court House, a general hospital, a Friends' Home, a home for aged women, St Joseph's Protectory (Roman Catholic) for girls, and the Norristown and McCann public libraries; in Montgomery cemetery are the tombs of General Winfield Scott Hancock and General John Frederick Hartranft (1830-1889), a distinguished Federal officer in the Civil War and governor of Pennsylvania in 1873-1879.
Norristown was founded in 1785, and was named in honour of Isaac Norris (c. 1671-1735), a friend of William Penn and a member of the Pennsylvania legislature, who had owned the land on which the borough is built.
Taking his army by sea from New York to the head of the Chesapeake, he marched up into Pennsylvania, whither Washington had repaired to watch him, and on the 26th of September entered the city.
It is served by the Cambridge branch of the Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington railway (Pennsylvania railway), which connects with the main line at Seaford, 30 m.
They are found specially in York (disambiguation)|York county, Pennsylvania (whence the name "Yorkers").
They had in 1909 22 ministers and 28 churches with 749 communicants, all in Pennsylvania.
As a member of the Pennsylvania house of representatives in 1772-1775, he was an ardent Whig, and in 1774 was a member of the first Continental Congress.
In1785-1788he was speaker of the Pennsylvania general assembly (then consisting of only one house); he was a member of the Federal Constitutional Convention of 1787, and president of the state supreme executive council (or chief executive officer of the state) in 1788-1790.
He was president of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1789-1790; was the first governor of the state, from 1790 to 1 799, after the adoption of the new state constitution; and during the Whisky Insurrection assumed personal command of the Pennsylvania militia.
The first delegated general conference met at Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania, in 1815, and adopted a confession of faith, rules of order and a book of discipline, which were revised in 1885-1889, when women were first admitted to ordination, and when the Conservatives, protesting against the new constitution, withdrew and formed the body now commonly known as the United Brethren in Christ "of the Old Constitution."
Alexander in 1809, after a year at Glasgow University, joined his father in Washington, Pennsylvania, where the elder Campbell had just formed the Christian Association of Washington, "for the sole purpose of promoting simple evangelical Christianity."
He seemed momentarily to approach the doctrinal position of the Baptists, but by his statement, "I will be baptized only into the primitive Christian faith," by his iconoclastic preaching and his editorial conduct of The 'Christian Baptist (1823-1830), and by the tone of his able debates with Paedobaptists, he soon incurred the disfavour of the Redstone Association of Baptist churches in western Pennsylvania, and in 1823 his followers transferred their membership to the Mahoning Association of Baptist churches in eastern Ohio, only to break absolutely with the Baptists in 1830.
He studied at Woodhouse Grove, at the University of London, and, after removing to America in 1832, at the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania in 1835-1836.
Reading is served by the Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia & Reading railways, by the Schuylkill Canal, which carries freight to Philadelphia, and by electric railways to several villages in Berks county.
German was long used in Reading; Pennsylvania German (or "Dutch") is still spoken in the surrounding country; and several German periodicals are published in the city, including among them the weekly Adler since 1796.
Wit continued decrease of altitude south-eastward, the crystalline belt dips under the coastal plain, near a line marked by the Delaware river from Trenton to Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, and thence south-south-westward through Maryland and Virginia past the cities of Baltimore, Washington and Richmond.
The Appalachian trends (N.E.S.W.) that are so prominent in the stratified belt of the middle Appalachians, and are fairly well marked in the crystalline belt of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, are prevailingly absent in New England.
The border of this part of the plateau descends eastward by a single strong escarpment to the Hudson valley, from which the mountains present a fine appearance, and northward by two escarpments (the second being called the Helderberg Mountains) to the Mohawk Valley, north of which rise the Adirondacks; but to the south west the dissected highland continues into Pennsylvania and Virginia, where it is commonly known as the Alleghany plateau.
In certain parts of the plateau there are narrow anticlinal uplifts, an outlying effect of mountain-making compression; here a ridge rises if the exposed strata are resistant, as in Chestnut ridge of western Pennsylvania; but here a valley is excavated if the exposed strata are weak, as in Sequatchie Valley, a long narrow trough which cuts off a strip of the plateau from its greater body in Tennessee.
In the north-east (New York and Pennsylvania) the higher parts of the plateau are drained by the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers directly to the Atlantic; farther west and south-west, the plateau is drained to the Ohio rrver and its branches.
The upper part of the system is more restricted than the middle, and includes the salt-bearing series of New York, Ohio and Pennsylvania, with its peculiar fauna.
The Devonian system yields much oil and gas in western Pennsylvania, south-western New York, West Virginia and Ontario; and some of the Devonian beds in Tennessee yield phosphates of commercial value.
In Ohio the system contains much clastic rock, and in Pennsylvania little else.
The Upper Barren Coal Measures of some parts of the east (Ohio, Pennsylvania, &c.) are now classed as Permian on the basis of their fossil plants.
The Canadian zone crosses from Canada into northern and northwestern Maine, northern and central New Hampshire, northern Michigan, and north-eastern Minnesota and North Dakota, covers the Green Mountains, most of the Adirondacks and Catskills, the higher slopes of the mountains in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee, the lower slopes of the northern Rocky and Cascade Mountains, the upper slopes of the southern Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains, and a strip along the Pacific coast as far south as Cape Mendocino, interrupted, however, by the Columbia Valley.
Four statesNew York, Pennsylvania, Illinois and Massachusetts each manufactured in 1900 products valued at over $1,000,000,000; New York exceeding and Pennsylvania attaining almost twice that sum.
About 1789 there were fourteen furnaces and thirty-four forges in operation in Pennsylvania.
From 1830 the increase in the production was very rapid, and in 1841 the annual shipments from the Pennsylvania anthracite region had nearly reached 1,000,000 tons, the output of iron at that time being estimated at about 300,000 tons.
The extent and value of the deposits of zinc ore in the Saucon Valley, Pennsylvania, had also just become known in 1850.
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, West Virginia, California, Colorado, Montana, Michigan, New York and Missouri were the ten states of greatest absolute production in 1907.
The total production of coal from 1814 (the year in which anthracite was first mined in Pennsylvania) to 1908 amounted to 7,280,940,265 tons, which represented an exhaustionadding 50% for waste in mining and preparationof 11,870,049,900, or four-tenths of I% of the supposed original supply.
Pennsylvania (117,179,527 tons of bituminous and 83,268,754 of anthracite), Illinois (47,659,690), West Virginia (41,897,843), Ohio (26,270,639), Indiana (12,314,890) and Alabama (11,604,593) were the states of greatest production.
The total oiitnijt amounted to zLIc.8a2.6o2 short tons, valued at $532 3 i4,1 17 in 1908 and to 480,363,424t0ns, valued at $614,798,898 in 1909 Pennsylvania produced three-fourths of the total output of the country in 1860, and since 1900 slightly less than one-half.
Up to 1870 there was more anthracite mined in Pennsylvania than bituminous in the whole country, but since that year the production of the latter has become vastly the greater, the totals in 1907, in which year each stood at its maximum, being 83,268,754 and 332,573,944 tons respectively.
The Appalachian field (Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, West Virginia and Tennessee) produces oil rich in paraffin, practically free from sulphur and asphalt, and yielding the largest percentage of gasoline and illuminating oils.
The geological conditions of the different fields, and the details of the composition of the oils yielded, are exceedingly varied, and their study has been little more than begun In 1859 when the total output of the country is supposed to have been only 2000 barrels of oil, production was confined to Pennsylvania and New York.
Pennsylvania, with a product valued at $155,620,395 from 1899 to 1908, West Virginia with $84,955,496, Ohio with $48,172,450 and Indiana with $46,141,553 were the greatest producers of the Union.
Vermont, Pennsylvania and New York are the leading producers.
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Alabama and New York are the leading states in production.
The least respected legislatures are those of the richest and most populous states, such as New York and Pennsylvania, because in such states the opportunities offered to persons devoid of scruple are the largest.
During the democratizing period from 1820 to 1860 the system of popular election was extended, especially in the new states, and at present this system prevails in thirty-six states, including practically all of the new states and five of the original statesNew York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, North Carolina and Georgia.
Eight to ten years is the average term of service; it is longer in New York (14), Maryland (15), and Pennsylvania (21), where alone superior judges are not re-eligible.
Thus an inheritance tax was first adopted by Pennsylvania in 1826, yet sixty years later only two states were taxing collateral inheritances.
General Fairfax and General Lambert are mentioned as occupants after his death, and later the property was let, William Penn of Pennsylvania being among those who leased it.
He graduated from the medical department of the university of Pennsylvania in 1838, and a few years later set up in practice at Philadelphia and became a lecturer at the Philadelphia School of Anatomy.
For twenty-six years (1863-1889) he was connected with the medical faculty of the university of Pennsylvania, being elected professor of operative surgery in 1870 and professor of the principles and practice of surgery in the following year.
From 1865 to 1884 - except for a brief interval - he was a surgeon at the Pennsylvania Hospital.
Borie (1809-1880), of Pennsylvania, was secretary of the navy in President Grant's cabinet, Porter was virtually in charge of the navy department.
In Pennsylvania as much as $300,000 changed hands for plants in one week, and frequently the young trees were sold two and three times over within a few days at ever-advancing prices.
It is served by the Pennsylvania (Pittsburg, Ft Wayne & Chicago Division), the Baltimore & Ohio and the Wheeling & Lake Erie railways.
Before the Civil War Pennsylvania held its state elections several months before the national elections.
It is served by branches of the Pennsylvania and the New York Central & Hudson River railways and by electric interurban railways.
A town was founded in 1833, the Pennsylvania Canal (no longer in use here) was completed to this point in 1834, and the name of the place was suggested by two canal locks and the harbour, or haven, for rafts in the river.
One special endeavour of Spangenberg in Pennsylvania was to bring over the scattered Schwenkfeldians to his faith.
During the second half of this missionary period of his life he superintended as bisho p the churches of Pennsylvania, defended the Moravian colonies against the Indians at the time of war between France and England, became the apologist of his body against the attacks of the Lutherans and the Pietists, and did much to moderate the mystical extravagances pf Zinzendorf, with which his simple, practical and healthy nature was out of sympathy.
In 1785 he became a commission merchant in Philadelphia; but in October 1786, soon after the legislature of Pennsylvania had passed a bill for erecting Wyoming district into the county of Luzerne, he was appointed prothonotary and a judge of the court of common pleas and clerk of the court of sessions and orphans, court for the new county, and was commissioned to organize the county.
Pickering was a member of the Pennsylvania convention of 1787 which ratified the federal constitution, and of the Pennsylvania constitutional convention of 1789-1790.
The Pennsylvania portion of the younger Appalachian ridges and valleys, known as the central province of the state, embraces the region between the South Mountains, on the south-east, and the crest of the Alleghany plateau or Alleghany Front, on the north-west.
The valleys rarely exceed more than a few miles in width, are usually steep-sided, and frequently are traversed by longitudinal ranges of hills and cross ridges; but the Pennsylvania portion of the Appalachian or Great Valley, which forms a distinct division of the central province and lies between the South Mountains and the long rampart of Blue Mountain, is about to m.
The Alleghany plateau, which extends from the crest of the Alleghany Front to and beyond the west and north borders of Pennsylvania and covers more than one-half of the state, is much more dissected.
Most of the Pennsylvania shore of Lake Erie is lined with a wall of sand and clay 50-100 ft.
Except on some portions of the Pocono plateau, Pennsylvania was originally well forested, and, although most of the merchantable timber has been cut, about one-half of the state is still woodland.
Pennsylvania is noted for its mineral wealth and manufactures rather than for its agricultural resources, but in 1900 about two-thirds of its land was included in farms, a little more than two-thirds of its farm-land was improved, and in several crops the state has long ranked high.
Pennsylvania is by far the most important coalproducing state in the Union, and as much of the iron ore of the Lake Superior region is brought to its great bituminous coal-field for rendering into pig-iron, the value of the state's mineral products constitutes a large fraction of the total value for the entire country; in 1907, when the value of the mineral products of the state was $ 6 57,7 8 3,345, or nearly one-third that of all the United States, and in 1908 when the total for the state was $473,083,212, or more than one-fourth that of the whole United States, more than fourfifths of it was represented by coal and pig-iron.
With the exception of two small areas in Colorado and New Mexico, Pennsylvania contains the only anthracite-coal region in the country.
Besides having practically all the anthracite, Pennsylvania has the thickest bituminous coal-measures, and most of the coal obtained from these is of the best quality.
In 1880 the output of coal (anthracite and bituminous) in Pennsylvania was 66% of that of the entire country; in 1908 it was 48.2%; but in the latter year the Pennsylvania mines produced more coal than the combined production of all the countries of the world excepting Great Britain, Germany and Austria-Hungary, and it was nearly four times as much as the total mined in Austria, nearly five times as much as that mined in France, and seven times as much as the output of Russia in that year.
Extending from the south-west corner of the state through Greene, Washington, Allegheny, Beaver, Butler, Venango, Clarion, Forest, Elk, Warren, McKean and Tioga counties is the Pennsylvania section of the Appalachian oil-field which, with the small section in New York, furnished nearly all of the country's supply of petroleum for some years following the discovery of its value for illuminating purposes.
The early settlers in west Pennsylvania also found that some unknown people had dug pits several feet in depth around the oil springs apparently for the purpose of collecting the oil.
It went down quite steadily to 9,424,325 in 1908, and in that year Pennsylvania was out-ranked as an oil-producing state by Oklahoma, California, Illinois, Texas and Ohio.
The industry then became of greater importance in several other states and declined in Pennsylvania until in 1896 the value of Pennsylvania's product amounted to only $5,528,610, or 42.5% of that of the United States.
There are deposits of various kinds of iron ore in the eastern, south-eastern, middle and some of the western counties, and from the middle of the 18th century until near the close of the 19th Pennsylvania.
In the manufacture of pig-iron Pennsylvania is easily first among the states, with a product value in 1908 of $111,385,000, nearly 43.8% of that of the entire country.
Pennsylvania has extensive areas of limestone rock suitable for making cement, and in Northampton and Lehigh counties enormous quantities of it are used in this industry.
In 1908 the value of Pennsylvania sandstone and bluestone was $1,368,784.
Glass sand abounds both in the eastern and in the western sections and for many years Pennsylvania has used this more extensively in the manufacture of glass than any other state.
The manufacture of iron was established on a commercial basis in 1716-1718, when a furnace was built on Manatawney Creek above Pottstown, and before the close of the colonial era Pennsylvania had risen to first rank among the iron-producing colonies, a position which it has always held among the states of the Union.
The new road cut through the Juniata region in the march of the army of Brigadier-General John Forbes, against Fort Duquesne in 1758, was a result of the influence of Pennsylvania, for it was considered even then a matter of great importance to the future prosperity of the province that its seaport, Philadelphia, be connected with navigation on the Ohio by the easiest line of communication that could be had wholly within its limits.
The principal railways are the lines operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company from New York to Washington through Philadelphia; from Philadelphia to Cincinnati, Cleveland, Chicago and St Louis through Harrisburg and Pittsburg; from Baltimore, Maryland, to Sodus Point on Lake Ontario (Northern Central) through Harrisburg and Williamsport; from Williamsport to Buffalo and to Erie, and from Pittsburg to Buffalo; the Philadelphia & Reading; the Lehigh Valley; the Erie; the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western; the Baltimore & Ohio; and the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg.
The population of Pennsylvania was 434,373 in 1790; 602,365 in 1800; 810,091 in 1810; 1,049,458 in 1820; 1,348,233 in 1830; 1,724,033 in 1840; 2,311,786 in 1850; 2,906,215 in 1860; 3,521,951 in 1870; 4,282,891 in 1880; 5,258,014 in 1890; 6,302,115 in 1900; 7,665,111 in 1910.
Pennsylvania has been governed under constitutions of 1776, 1790 and 1838; the present government is under the constitution of the 16th of December 1873 with amendments adopted on the 5th of November 1901.
The governor and lieutenant-governor must be at least 30 years old, citizens of the United States, and inhabitants of the state for seven years last preceding election; no member of Congress or person holding any office under the United States or Pennsylvania may be governor or lieutenantgovernor.
Pennsylvania has suffered more perhaps than any other state in the Union from legislative interference in local affairs.
Pennsylvania has no homestead law, but the property of a debtor amounting to $300 in value, exclusive of the wearing apparel of himself and family and of all Bibles and school-books in use, is exempt from levy and sale on execution or by distress for rent; and the exemption extends to the widow and children unless there is a lien on the property for purchase money.
The House of Refuge of western Pennsylvania, located in Allegheny in 1854 (act of 1850), became the Pennsylvania Reform School in 1872, and was.
Few states have done so much as Pennsylvania for the humane and scientific treatment of its dependent and defective classes.
A second hospital was opened at Pittsburg in 1853 (act of 1848), but the location was ruined by Pennsylvania railway improvements, and in 1862 it was removed to a new site about 7 m.
A state institution for feebleminded of western Pennsylvania at Polk, Venango county, was opened in 1897 (act of 1893), and the eastern Pennsylvania state institution for feeble-minded and epileptic at Spring City, Chester county, was opened in 1908 (act of 1903).
During the years1852-1857the educational department became a separate branch of the state government, the office of county school superintendent was created, the state teachers' association (known since 1900 as the Pennsylvania educational association) was organized, and a.
The Pennsylvania state college at State College, Center county, was established in 1855 as the farmers' high school of Pennsylvania, in 1862 became the Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, and received its present name in 1874 after the income from the national land grant had been appropriated to the use of the institutions; in1909-1910it had 147 instructors, 1400 students and a library of 37,000 volumes.
During the provincial period Pennsylvania, in common with the other colonies, was affected with the paper money craze.
An agitation was then begun for retrenchment, the public works were put up for sale, and were finally disposed of in 1858 (when the debt was $39,4 88, 2 44) to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company for $7,500,000.
The financial institutions of Pennsylvania other than national banks are created by state charters limited to twenty years and are subject to the supervision of a kcommissioner of banking.
The chief features of Pennsylvania history in colonial days were the predominance of Quaker influence, the heterogeneous character of the population, liberality in matters, of religion, and the fact that it was the largest and the most 7successful of proprietary provinces.
In 1784 Virginia agreed to the extension of the line and to the establishment of the western limit (the present boundary between Pennsylvania and Ohio) as the meridian from a point on the Mason and Dixon line five degrees of longitude west of the Delaware river.
The 42nd parallel was finally selected as the northern boundary in 1789, in 1792 the Federal government sold to Pennsylvania the small triangular strip of territory north of it on Lake Erie.
A territorial dispute with Connecticut over the Wyoming Valley was settled in favour of Pennsylvania in 1782 by a court of arbitration appointed by the Continental Congress.
But the assembly did its part in assisting General Braddock to outfit; and after Braddock's defeat all western Pennsylvania suffered terribly from Indian attacks.
Owing to its central position, its liberal government, and its policy of religious toleration, Pennsylvania had become during the 18th century a refuge for European immigrants, especially persecuted sectaries.
Most of these elements have now become merged in the general type, but there are still many communities in which the popular language is a corrupt German dialect, largely Rheno-Franconian in its origin, known as " Pennsylvania Dutch."
As the central colony, Pennsylvania's attitude in the struggle with the mother country was of vast importance.
But the Whig party under the lead of John Dickinson, Thomas Mifflin and Joseph Reed was successful in the state, and Pennsylvania contributed greatly to the success of the War of Independence, by the important services rendered by her statesmen, by providing troops and by the financial aid given by Robert Morris.
The two Continental Congresses (1774, and 1 7751 781) met in Philadelphia, except for the months when Philadelphia was occupied by the British army and Congress met in Lancaster and York, Pennsylvania, and then in Princeton, New Jersey.
In Philadelphia the second Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, which the Pennsylvania delegation, excepting Franklin, thought premature at the time, but which was well supported by Pennsylvania afterwards.
The party which had carried this constitution through attacked its opponents by withdrawing the charter of the college of Philadelphia (now the university of Pennsylvania) because its trustees were anti-Constitutionalists and creating in its place a university of the State of Pennsyl vania.
These actions of the state assembly against the college and the bank probably were immediate causes for the insertion in the Federal Constitution (adopted by the convention in Philadelphia in 1787) of the clause (proposed by James Wilson of Pennsylvania, a friend of the college and of the bank) forbidding any state to pass a law impairing the obligation of contracts.
Pennsylvania was usually Democratic before the Civil War owing to the democratic character of its country population and to the close commercial relations between Philadelphia and the South.
The labour unions took advantage of this trouble to force Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, Minnesota, Colorado and several other states to pass anti-Pinkerton statutes making it illegal to import irresponsible armed men from a distance to quell local disturbances.
The valley is a part of the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania, fire clay abounds in the vicinity, and .the borough's principal industries are the mining and shipping of coal, and the manufacture of shirts and foundry products.
The state constitution adopted in 1802 followed the enabling act in accepting this line, but made the proviso that if it should not intersect Lake Erie east of the mouth of the Miami river, then the northern boundary should be a line from the southern end of Lake Michigan to the most northern cape of Maumee Bay and thence to the Territorial line, and to the Pennsylvania line.
In 1886 he declined an election as assistant bishop of Pennsylvania.
He graduated at Dartmouth College in 1814, removed to York, Pennsylvania, was admitted to the bar (in Maryland), and for fifteen years practised at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
He was a leader of the Anti-Masons in Pennsylvania, and was prominent in the national Anti-Masonic Convention at Baltimore in 1831.
He served in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, first as an Anti-Mason and later as a Whig, in 1833-1835,1838-1839and 1841-1842.
A partner's venture in the iron business having involved him in a debt of $21 7,000, he retired from public life in 1842 and practised law in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, with such success as within six years to reduce this debt to $30,000.
He frequently appeared in behalf of fugitive slaves before the Pennsylvania courts, and previously, in the state constitutional convention of 1837, he had refused to sign the constitution limiting the suffrage to white freemen.
In 1855 he took a prominent part in organizing the Republican party in Pennsylvania, and in 1856 was a delegate to the Republican National Convention, in which he opposed the nomination of John C. Fremont.
He was not, however, in perfect harmony with Lincoln, who was far more conservative as well as broader minded and more magnanimous than he; besides this Stevens felt it an injustice that Lincoln in choosing a member of his cabinet from Pennsylvania had preferred Cameron to himself.
He also advocated the Freedmen's Bureau bills and the Tenure of Office Act, and went beyond Congress in favouring the confiscation of the property of the Confederate States and "of the real estate of 70,000 rebels who own above 200 acres each, together with the lands of their several states," for the benefit of the freedmen and loyal whites and to reimburse, it was said, the sufferers from Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania, during which Stevens's own ironworks at Chambersburg had been destroyed.
He died at Washington, D.C., on the rrth of August 1868, and was buried at Lancaster, Pennsylvania.'
United States, in Missouri, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio and elsewhere, there is an unconformable junction between the Lower and Upper Carboniferous, representing an interval of time during which the lower member was strongly eroded; it has even been proposed to regard the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) as a distinct geological period, mainly on account of this break in the succession.