The commonest of all penalties was a fine.
The cour dassises occupies itself entirely with offences of the most serious type, classified under the penal code as crimes, in accordance with the severity of the penalties attached.
Laws and penalties in protection of property were enforced by the tribe.
The canons respecting the clergy exhibit the clergy as already a special class with peculiar privileges, a more exacting moral standard, heavier penalties for delinquency.
In 1724 Louis XV., again assuming that there were no Protestants in France, prohibited the most secret exercise of the Reformed religion, and imposed severe penalties.
Mill tried to reconcile criminal law and its punishments with his very hard type of determinism by saying that law was needed in order to weight the scale, and in order to hold out a prospect of penalties which might deter from crime and impel towards good citizenship, so Paley held that virtue was not merely obedience to God but obedience " for 1 Criticism of the scheme, from the point of view of an idealist theism, will be found in John Caird's Introduc to the Phil.
and intervene to supplement the spiritual sentence by administrative penalties.
Any one acting against these provisions shall be subject to canonical penalties.
The penalties which the spiritual court could inflict, in the period between the edict of Milan and c. 854, were properly excommunication whether generally or as exclusion from the sacraments for a term of months or years or till the day of death and (in the case of clerics) suspension or deposition.
Gradually, however, doubtless by way of commutation of excommunication and of penance, temporal penalties were added, as scourging, banishment, seclusion in a monastery, fines.
It is difficult to say how far some of these temporal penalties were penitential only or how far they could be inflicted in invitos.
There is little evidence of the imposition of fines as ecclesiastical penalties; but there are references to the practice in the epistles of St Gregory the Great, notably in his instructions to St Augustine.
The later medieval system, thus inaugurated, may be considered (1) in its hierarchy, (2) in the subject matter of its jurisdiction, (3) in its penalties.
out their decrees by their own apparitors who could levy pecuniary penalties on a defendant's goods (Van Espen, pars iii.
But this was not enough for the inquisitor-general, who in the following month (April) issued orders to forbid Christians, under severe penalties, having any communication with the Jews or, -after the period of grace, to supply them even with the necessaries of life.
In the first instance laws were enacted prescribing schedules of maximum freight and passenger rates with stringent penalties against rebates and discriminations.
It enacted that published rates should not be changed except on thirty days' notice, whether the change involved an increase or a decrease, and it required annual reports to be made under oath, penalties being prescribed for failure to comply with the Commission's requests for information.
Orders of the Commission became effective within such time, not less than thirty days, as the Commission should prescribe, and penalties began to take effect from the date fixed by the Commission, unless the carrier secured an injunction from the Court suspending the order.
The enormous influence of the collection, with its added Gude and Godlie Ballatis, on Scottish reform, is attested by the penalties enacted against the authors and printers of these books.
Like Jeremiah He foretold the destruction of the temple and suffered the extreme penalties of anti-patriotism.
An attack on Christianity laid a writer open to prosecution and penalties under the statutes of the realm (9 and io William III.
James caused it to be burned by the common hangman, and forbade its perusal under the 'severest penalties, complaining bitterly at the same time to Philip III.
With the apparent intention of restoring order in Jerusalem, he assembled the Sanhedrin, and being, as a Sadducee, cruel in the matter of penalties, secured the condemnation of certain lawbreakers to death by stoning.
describes him as judex ordinarius, and he possesses in his own right the powers of visitation, of holding courts and imposing penalties, of deciding in matrimonial causes and cases of disputed jurisdiction, of testing candidates for orders, of inducting into benefices.
It also provides penalties for breaches of duty by the seller, but grants him protection in cases where he is not morally responsible.
The beginnings of this rupture, as well as a sharp affray between his volunteers and the townsfolk of Ajaccio, may have quickened Bonaparte's resolve to return to France in May 1792, but there were also personal and family reasons for this step. Having again exceeded his time of furlough, he was liable to the severe penalties attaching to a deserter and an émigré but he saw that the circumstances of the time would help to enforce the appeal for reinstatement which he resolved to make at Paris.
On those who refused to submit to their decisions they had the power of inflicting severe penalties, of which excommunication from society was the most dreaded.
Such are the penalties exacted by the irony of fate for the world's persecution of its prophets.
By listening to the revelations of the "Holy Maid of Kent," the nun Elizabeth Barton, he was charged with misprision of treason, and was condemned to the loss of his goods and to imprisonment at the king's will, penalties he was allowed to compound by a fine of X300 (25th of March 1534).
It was feared that the heresy, if suffered to make headway, would spread like wildfire among the ignorant Russian peasantry, and Archbishop Nikon was sent to Athos to threaten the recalcitrant brethren with severe temporal and eternal penalties should they remain obstinate.
Several imprisonments, including that of George Fox at Derby in 1650-1651, were brought about under the Blasphemy Act of 1650, which inflicted penalties on any one who asserted himself to be very God or equal with God, a charge to which the Friends were peculiarly liable owing to their doctrine of perfection.
The Lord's Day Act 1656 also enacted penalties against any one disturbing the service, but apart from statute many Friends were imprisoned for open contempt of ministers and magistrates.
The Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Acts of 1664 and 1670, designed to enforce attendance at church, and inflicting severe penalties on those attending other religious gatherings, were responsible for the most severe persecution of all.
c. 1., enacting even more severe penalties, had never been repealed, and was sometimes put in force against Friends.
The penalties of the law for crime were specially severe on slaves.
This state of things, it was plain, must continue as long as the trade was only a contraband commerce, involving merely pecuniary penalties.
A maximum price was fixed, above which no one was to buy or sell under severe penalties.
Certain specified plans must be delivered annually, under penalty of £T5 to £T25, to the Mines Administration, and, under similar penalties, all information and facilities for visiting the mines in detail must be afforded to government inspectors.
He is not opposed to penalties against heretics, but he would have them pronounced only by civil tribunals.
The innocent simoniace promotus was, apart from dispensation, liable to the same penalties as though he were guilty.
The first part of the act deals with the penalties for election or resignation of officers of churches, colleges, schools, hospitals, halls and societies for reward.
Now if Barlow all this time was not consecrated - and so far the only form of consecration known in England was according to the Roman rite - he would have incurred the penalties of praemunire, let alone the fact that Henry VIII.
The drug has naturally always been liable to great adulteration in spite of penalties, the severity of which suggests the surviving tradition of its sacred character.
35, "a confection after the art of the apothecary," or rather "a perfume after the art of the perfumer," which was to be regarded as most holy, and the imitation of which was prohibited under the severest penalties, was compounded of four "sweet scents" (sammim),3 namely stacte (nataph), onycha (sheheleth), galbanum (helbenah) and "pure" or "fine" frankincense (lebonah zaccah), pounded together in equal proportions, with (perhaps) an admixture of salt (memullah).
Royalty and the Church, when they acquire the lead in social life, work out a new penal system based on outlawry, death penalties and corporal punishments, which make their first appearance in the legislation of Withraed and culminate in that of !Ethelred and Canute.
He was foremost in support of the claims of the Presbyterians and against the bishops; advocated the indiscriminate infliction of penalties, and demanded that the officials of the commonwealth should be compelled to refund their salaries.
There is also the greatest difference in the penalties assigned, reaching from little more than restitution of property to penance of one to five or even fifteen years.
The penalties in the canon law included, in addition to restitution, penance, fines and excommunication; and right of asylum was denied to the culprit.
The laws repeatedly forbade it under increasing penalties, but clearly it could not be stopped.
by the Remission of Penalties Act 1875 his majesty may remit any penalty imposed under 21 Geo.
Examples of acts of indemnity are two private acts passed in 1880 to relieve Lords Byron and Plunket from the disabilities and penalties to which they were liable for sitting and voting in the House of Peers without taking the oath.
Regarding heresy as a crime, the church was not content with inflicting its spiritual penalties.
Besides the condemnation of divine justice, they must expect the heavy penalties which our authority, guided by heavenly wisdom, shall think proper to inflict" (Schaff's Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity, i.
In Geneva under Calvin, while the Consistoire, or ecclesiastical court, could inflict only spiritual penalties, yet the medieval idea of the duty of the state to co-operate with the church to maintain the religious purity of the community in matters of belief as well as of conduct so far survived that the civil authority was sure to punish those whom the ecclesiastical had censured.
At the same time any manifest contradiction of the Articles, or any obvious evasion of them, would subject the offender to the penalties of deprivation.
These proceedings were challenged in the House of Lords by Lord Houghton, and the lord chancellor (Westbury), speaking on behalf of the government, stated that if there was any ' `synodical judgment" it would be a violation of the law, subjecting those concerned in it to the penalties of a praemunire, but that the sentence in question was "simply nothing, literally no sentence at all."
Unitarians were saved from these atrocious penalties by a later act (53 Geo.
On the nth of June he was included by the House of Commons, in spite of a recommendatory letter from Monk, among the twenty persons excepted from the act of indemnity and subject to penalties not extending to life.
He was only carrying a step farther the policy of Augustus, who by a system of rewards and penalties had tried to encourage marriage and the nurture of children.
The lesser (niddah) involved exclusion from the synagogue for thirty days, and other penalties, and might be renewed if the offender remained impenitent.
Courts of justice, however, do not grant reprieves by way of dispensation from the penalties of the law, which is not for the judicial department, but for temporary purposes, e.g.
" It is a shame which cries to heaven, this oppression by tithes, dues, penalties, excommunication, and tolls of the peasant, on whose labour all men depend for their existence."
The ancient statutes of the praemunire and provisors are recalled and the penalties attached to.
As supreme governor of the Church of England the sovereign strictly controlled all ecclesiastical legislation and appointed royal delegates to hear appeals from the ecclesiastical courts, to be a " papist " or to " hear Mass " (which was construed as the same thing) was to risk incurring the terrible penalties of high treason.
The means employed for its enforcement remained practically the same: spiritual penalties, such as excommunication, special ecclesiastical tribunals, sworn leagues of peace, and assistance from the temporal power.
But to compel religion, to plant churches by power, and to force a submission to ecclesiastical government by laws and penalties, belongeth not to them.
Here Browne distinguishes acceptance of the covenant relation with God (religion) and the forming or " planting " of churches on the basis of God's covenant (with its laws of government), from the enforcing of the covenant voluntarily accepted, whether by church-excommunication or by civil penalties - the latter only in cases of flagrant impiety, such as idolatry, blasphemy or Sabbath-breaking.
Revenues for state purposes are derived from special taxes collected from the liquor traffic, corporations, transfers of decedents' estates, transfers of shares of stock, recording tax on mortgages, sales of products of state institutions, fees of public officers including fines and penalties, interest on deposits of state funds, refunds from department examinations and revenue from investments of trust funds, the most important of which are the common school fund and the United States deposit fund.
there was a revelation of the righteousness of God, which must otherwise have been revealed in the infliction of the penalties of sin on the human race."
It must excite our surprise that one who used his pen so freely should have escaped the pains and penalties which invariably overtook minor offenders in the same kind.
Its jurisdiction was limited to monetary penalties.
Its utterances (plebiscite) had the full force of law; it elected the tribunes of the plebs and the plebeian aediles, and it pronounced judgment on the penalties which they proposed.
Penalties were also inflicted if an accuser failed to carry the prosecution through or to obtain a fifth part of the votes.
The Seed Control Act of 1905 brings under strict regulations the trade in agricultural seeds, prohibiting the sale for seeding of cereals, grasses, clovers or forage plants unless free from weeds specified, and imposing severe penalties for infringements.
A law forbidding under severe penalties a labourer from hiring himself to a second employer without giving notice of a prior contract, and an employer from hiring a labourer known by him to be bound by such a contract, had aided in the development of the system, though it had been enacted for a different purpose.
Sericulture was enjoined under penalties by statute; it was encouraged by bounties and rewards; and its prosecution was stimulated by learned essays and rhapsodical rhymes, of which this is a sample: " Where Wormes and Food doe naturally abound A gallant Silken Trade must there be found.
There is no use, religiously, in falling back upon the old forms, in order to avoid the social penalties of a sectarian position within Judaism, when the secret of religious "perfection" or maturity (vi.
To save himself from the penalties of high treason, Patkul fled from Stockholm to Switzerland, and was condemned in contumaciam to lose his right hand and his head.
A licence under the Great Seal to proceed to the election of a bishop, known as the conge d'eslire, together with a letter missive containing the name of the king's nominee, is thereupon sent to the dean and chapter, who are bound under the penalties of Praemunire to proceed within twelve days to the election of the person named in it.
"After God has changed eternal punishments into temporary, the justified must expiate these temporary penalties for sin in purgatory" (p. 268).
Tomlins says that there is only one instance of a prosecution on a praemunire to be found in the state trials, in which case the penalties were inflicted upon some persons for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to Charles II.
Meetings of the league were held in 1172 and 1173 to strengthen the bond, and to concert measures against the emperor, the penalties of the church being invoked to prevent defection.
He was included among the twenty liable to penalties other than capital, and was finally incapacitated from holding any office of trust.
Under the previously existing law, simony, or "the corrupt presentation of any person to an ecclesiastical benefice for gift, money or reward," renders the presentation void, and subjects the persons privy or party to it to penalties; a presentation to a vacant benefice cannot be sold, and no clerk in holy orders can purchase for himself a next presentation.
Martial law was everywhere proclaimed; officers, and all classes of officials who had incurred the displeasure of the government, were subjected to arbitrary penalties; and such was the misery of the people that multitudes of them were compelled to emigrate.
the appointment of the clergy, and in matters of church discipline the civil courts had no voice - the clergy being absolutely subject to the power of the bishops, who could impose temporal as well as spiritual penalties.
The acts establish a close time for wild birds and impose penalties for shooting or taking them within that time; prohibit the exposing or offering for sale within certain dates any wild bird recently killed or taken unless bought or received from some person residing out of the United Kingdom; the taking or destroying of wild birds' eggs, the setting of pole traps, and the taking of a wild bird by means of a hook or other similar instrument.
a fragment of such a decree, directed by Horemheb of theXVIIIth Dynasty against oppression of the peasantry by officials and prescribing penalties, is preserved on a stela in the temple of Karnak, and enactments of Ptolemy Philadelphus and Euergetes II.
The Nestorians and the Eutychian Monophysites were not threatened with such severe civil penalties, although their worship was interdicted, and their bishops were sometimes banished; but this vexatious treatment was quite enough to keep them disaffected, and the rapidity of the Mahommedan conquests may be partly traced to that alienation of the bulk of the Egyptian and a large part of the Syrian population which dates from Justinian's persecutions.
The king declared him loyal, and a statute was passed freeing him from any penalties which he might have incurred under the Statute of Provisors or in other ways.
Penalties are set on the refusal to celebrate Easter in accordance with the Nicene decree, as well as on leaving a church before the service of the Eucharist is completed.
Not so the Knoxian claims for the power of ministers to excommunicate, with civil penalties, and generally to " rule the roast" in secular matters.
By " Presbyterianism " we are here to understand, not the Presbyterian form of church government - the kirk whose motto is Nec tamen consumebatur - but the pretensions of preachers to dominate the state by the mythical " power of the keys," by excommunication with civil penalties and by the fiercest religious intolerance.
An act abolished civil penalties upon sentences of excommunication, and thus broke the terrible weapon which the preachers had wielded so long.
The majority of the best theologians held that Indulgences had nothing to do with the pardoning of guilt, but only with freeing from temporal penalties in this life or in purgatory.
It can have no efficacy for souls in Purgatory; penalties imposed by the church can only refer to the living; death dissolves them; what the pope can do for souls in Purgatory is by prayer, not by jurisdiction or the power of the keys.
The Treasury of Merits has never been properly defined; it is hard to say what it is, and it is not properly understood by the people; it cannot be the merits of Christ and of His saints, because these act of themselves and quite apart from the intervention of the pope; it can mean nothing more than that the pope, having the power of the keys, can remit ecclesiastical penalties imposed by the church; the true Treasure-house of merits is the Holy Ghost of the grace and glory of God.
The subject was referred to many committees for inquiry, and it was shown that there was a lamentable want of uniformity in the enforcement of legal penalties.
Such penalties had exercised no sufficient terrors.
The "B" division indicates the worst penalties to be inflicted upon habitual criminals.
In 1863 the Cameronians, or Reformed Presbyterians, decided to inflict no penalties upon those members who had taken the oaths, or had exercised civil functions, and consequently a few congregations seceded.
When Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France appeared, in 1790, Paine at once wrote his answer, The Rights of Man first part appeared on the r3th of March 1791, and had an enormous circulation before the government took alarm and endeavoured to suppress it, thereby exciting intense curiosity to see it, even at the risk of heavy penalties.
Through him Church discipline was administered, a complete system of ecclesiastical penalties, i.e.
The famous May laws (1873) were a determined attempt to bring the literary education, appointment and dis cipline of the clergy under state control, and to regulate the use of such spiritual penalties as deprivation and excommunication.
The barbarian invaders, though they were accustomed to contributions to their chiefs and to the payment of commodities as tributes or as penalties, had no acquaintance with the working of a regular system of taxation.
The zeal of the friars in stamping out the religious rites of the natives, the severe penalties inflicted for non-observance of the rules of the Church, and the heavy tribute in kind demanded by the Spanish authorities, aroused feelings of resentment in the Pueblo Indians and led in 1680 to a general revolt, headed by a native named Pope.
It makes no considerable difference that he looked for the moral sanction not to God but to the state: men, in his scheme, are to be induced to obey the rules of the common good by legally ordained penalties and rewards.
of 1859, which provides penalties for breach of the contract, but does not allow of the arrest of deserters without warrant.
Mere prohibition under penalties will practically lead to an additional charge as security against risk.
But the third, inflicting heavy penalties, with death on a third conviction, on those who should celebrate mass or even be present at it, showed that the reformer and his friends had crossed the line, and that their position could no longer be described as, in Knox's words, "requiring nothing but the liberty of conscience, and our religion and fact to be tried by the word of God."
The private forests are protected from abuse chiefly by the important legislation of 1903, which prescribes penalties for excessive lumbering and any action liable to endanger the regrowth of wood.
In 1780 van Plettenberg, the governor, proclaimed the Sneeuwbergen the northern boundary of the colony, expressing " the anxious hope that no more extension should take 'place, and with heavy penalties forbidding the rambling peasants to wander beyond."
Stringent penalties are provided for offences against the act.
Illegal imprisonment beyond seas renders the offender liable in an action by the injured party to treble costs and damages to the extent of not less than £50o, besides subjecting him to the penalties of praemunire and to other disabilities.
The effect of the act was to impose upon the judges under severe sanction the duty of protecting personal liberty in the case of criminal charges and of securing speedy trial upon such charges when legally framed; and the improvement of their tenure of office at the revolution, coupled with the veto put by the Bill of Rights on excessive bail, gave the judicature the independence and authority necessary to enable them to keep the executive within the law and to restrain administrative development of the scope or penalties of the criminal law; and this power of the judiciary to control the executive, coupled with the limitations on the right to set up "act of state" as an excuse for infringing individual liberty is the special characteristic of English constitutional law.
If the delator lost his case or refused to carry it through, he was liable to the same penalties as the accused; he was exposed to the risk of vengeance at the hands of the proscribed in the event of their return, or of their relatives; while emperors like Tiberius would have no scruples about banishing or putting out of the way those of his creatures for whom he had no further use, and who might have proved dangerous to himself.
Under the better emperors a reaction set in, and the severest penalties were inflicted upon the delators.
Owing to the close resemblance between the two chapters, many critics have assumed that they are derived from the same source and that the latter chapter was added for the purpose of supplying the penalties.
3-13, and (b) the penalties incurred by disobedience to the preceding laws, vv.
heavy blow for the Company, and though Vieira recovered his freedom and much of his prestige shortly afterwards on the accession of King Pedro II., it was determined that he should go to Rome to procure the revision of the sentence, which still hung over him though the penalties had been removed.
He threatened with the severest penalties all who should continue to resist the authority of Rome.
Although the importation was forbidden by the Chinese imperial authorities in 1796, and opium-smoking punished with severe penalties (ultimately increased to transportation and death), the trade continued and had increased during1820-1830to 16,877 chests per annum.
As an indication of their earnestness of purpose the government allowed officials a period of six months in which to break off the use of opium, under heavy penalties if they failed to do so.
and Francis of France in 1516; and the council of Trent, while insisting on far more stringent conditions for lawful marriage than those which had prevailed in the middle ages, imposed at last heavy ecclesiastical penalties on concubinage and appealed to the secular arm for help against contumacious offenders (Sessio xxiv.
At the restoration he was excluded from the act of indemnity but not included in the clause of pains and penalties extending to life and goods, being therefore only incapacitated from public employment.
Corrupt and illegal practices at the election are forbidden by a statute passed in the year 1894, which imposes heavy penalties and disqualifications for the offences which it creates.
It may be mentioned here that by an act, called the Public Bodies' Corrupt Practices Act 1889, severe penalties are imposed alike upon members and officers of public bodies for corruption in office.
Censorships and penalties are among the means he recommends.
The essence of the compulsion in the case of stamp duties is the invalidity of the documents in courts of law unless the stamp is affixed, besides liability to penalties for not affixing the proper stamps.
An ordinance passed in 1827, abolishing the old Dutch courts of landroost and heemraden (resident magistrates being substituted) and decreeing that henceforth all legal proceedings should be conducted in English; the granting in 1828, as a result of the representations of the missionaries, of equal rights with whites to the Hottentots and other free coloured people; the imposition (1830) of heavy penalties for harsh treatment of slaves, and finally the emancipation of the slaves in 1834,3 - all these things increased the dislike of the farmers to the government.
A public official may be tried for incompetence, corruption or malfeasance according to the regular procedure in criminal cases, and if convicted he may be dismissed from office and receive such other penalties as the law provides.
benefices, dues, sacraments, &c., with the exception of marriage, which is the subject of book (4); (5) of penalties.
After the legislation under William and Mary disestablishing episcopacy in Scotland and subjecting its professors to civil penalties, little attention was given to canon law for many years.
Very careful provision is made for the preparation of the sites of great assemblies, and the preservation of peace and order at them is sanctioned by the severest penalties of the law.
For these it inflicted the severest penalties known to the law - banishment, confiscation of property, death or putting out of eyes.
The priest is bound, under the most stringent penalties, never to divulge what he has thus learnt.
The revulsion only came when the queen, victorious after the rout of Ludford, Supp,~sapplied to the vanquished Yorkists those penalties of sion of confiscation and attainder which Duke Richard ~had Yorks always refused to employ in his day of power.
In defence of both it may be pleaded that after the anarchy of the Wars of the Roses a strong hand was needed to restore security for life and property, and that it was better that penalties should be overheavy rather than.
that there should be no penalties at all.
No penalties were attached to this act, but another passed in the same session made it treason to attempt to deprive the king of any of his titles, of which supreme head of the church was one, being incorporated in the royal style by letters patent of January 1535.
James at first relaxed the penalties under which the Roman Catholics suffered, then he grew frightened by the increase of their numbers and reimposed the penalties.
Hence the Conventicle Act (1664) imposed penalties on those taking part in religious meetings in private houses, and the Five Mile Act (1665) forbade an expelled clergyman to come within five miles of a corporate borough, the very place where he was most likely to secure adherence, unless he would swear his adhesion to the dbctrmn.e of non-resistance.
He began by making use of the necessity of resisting Monmouth to increase his army, under the pretext of the danger of a repetition of the late rebellion; and ir, the regiments thus levied he appointed many Roman Catholic officers who had refused to comply with the Test Act., Rather than submit to the gentlest remonstrance, he prorogued parliament, and proceeded to obtain from the court of kings bench a judgment in favor of his right to dispense with all penalties due by law, in the same way that his grandfather had appealed to the judges in the matter of the post-nati.
An Occasional Conformity Bill, imposing penalties on those who adopted this practice, twice passed the Commons (1702, 1703), but was rejected by the House of Lords, in which the Whig element predominated.
ing, but directed that he should be brought to trial within a year; the second increased the penalties for seditious libel; the third imposed the newspaper stamp duty on all pamphlets and the like containing news; the fourth (Seditious Meetings Act) once more greatly curtailed the liberty of public meetings; the fifth forbade the training of persons in the use of arms; the sixth empowered magistrates to search for and seize arms.
The failure of the Bill of Pains and Penalties against the queen, which Was dropped after it had passed its third reading in the Lords by a majorityof only seven, was greeted as a great popular triumph..
The church thus came to be more and more involved in discussions as to the number of days to be observed, especially in " Lent," as fast days, as to the hour at which a fast ought to terminate (whether at the 3rd or at the 9th hour), as to the rigour with which each fast ought to be observed (whether by abstinence from flesh merely, abstinentia, or by abstinence from lacticinia, xerophagia, or by literal jejunium), and as to the penalties by which the laws of fasting ought to be enforced.
On the 9th of November the Assembly decreed that the émigrés assembled on the frontiers should be liable to the penalties of death and confiscation unless they returned to France by the ist of January following.
The penalty of death was adopted by 361 votes against 360 in favour of other penalties or of postponing at least the execution of the 'sentence.
The rest were either harmless fugitives from destruction or had never quitted France and had been placed on the list simply in order that they might incur the penalties of emigration.
Their relatives were subjected to various pains and penalties.
It may be replied that experience makes it reasonably certain that the infliction of certain penalties will produce acts of a certain character and that the influence of certain incentives upon conduct may be established as reasonably probable by induction.
Among the prejudices from which the wise man was free he included all regard to customary morality beyond what was due to the actual penalties attached to its violation; though he held, with Socrates, that these penalties actually render conformity reasonable.
is the sole ultimate good, and pain the sole evil; that no pleasure is to be rejected except for its painful consequences, and no pain to be chosen except as a means to greater pleasure; that the stringency of all laws and customs depends solely on the legal and social penalties attached to their violation; that, in short, all virtuous conduct and all speculative activity are empty and useless, except as contributing to the pleasantness of the agent's life.
Indeed, in many parts of his work, in the department of legislative and constitutional theory, it is rather assumed that the interests of some men will continually conflict with those of their fellows, unless we alter the balance of prudential calculation by a readjustment of penalties.
necessary however to pass an act in 18 3 7, forbidding as and from the 1st of January 18 4 0, under severe penalties, the use of any other weights and measures than those established by the laws of 1795 and 1799.
No attempt was made to arrest his murderers; two persons were, however, arraigned for the crime in 1896, and subjected to almost nominal penalties.
The action resulted in Helfferich's being condemned to pay a small fine (the German law does not admit of any damages or penalties for slander); the court, however, in its judgment took the line that Helfferich's allegations regarding Erzberger's corrupt business practices and untruthful statements on the part of Erzberger were justified.
In the same year Demosthenes wrote the speech "Against Timocrates," to be spoken by the same Diodorus who had before prosecuted Androtion, and who now combated an attempt to screen Androtion and others from the penalties of embezzlement.
An act of indemnity is a statute passed for the purpose either of relieving persons from disabilities and penalties to which they have rendered themselves liable or to make legal transactions which, when they took place, were illegal.
in 244 B.C. The Spartans did what they could to remedy this by law: certain penalties were imposed upon those who remained unmarried or who married too late in life.
In 405 an edict was issued by the emperor Honorius commanding the Donatists, under the severest penalties, to return to the Catholic church.
Spanish codes still contain severe penalties for delicts against the state religion, as writers frequently discover when they give offence to the ecclesiastical authorities.
beWe lack confidence at taking them, which is probably why we take " safe " penalties.
Still they paid for this monumental blunder in the biggest fashion, beaten by a VERY poor Portugal on penalties.
The Friends Provident with-profits bond will likely have penalties for anyone who wants to exit in the first five years, says Ms Bowes.
Investigate all possible legal action There are penalties in law for people who are unnecessarily cruel to animals.
only disciplinary matters brought to the Race Controller can result in race penalties.
The possession of illicit drugs in some countries carries very severe penalties.
enacted that escalates the penalties for this crime.
Penalties for VED evasion are much greater than the cost of a tax disk.
first quarter ended with the visitors back to within a point, Matthew Vaughan kicking two penalties.
Appropriately severe penalties should be applied in cases where inaccurate or even fraudulent information is submitted.
halftime interval saw us entertained by some Norton youngsters taking penalties.
homology recognition using environment-specific substitution tables and structure-dependent gap penalties.
These are the 'aggravated offenses ' which carry harsher penalties because they are motivated by religious hostility.
If you are responsible for delivering an inheritance tax account this leaflet explains how and why we seek penalties.
levy penalties on defaulters.
Proffessional players payed megabucks should score penalties with their eyes shut.
Cyclists would face on-the-spot penalties and even two years in jail if they did not warn pedestrians of their approach.
penaltye you do not incur penalties for delayed payments Once a Direct Debit mandate is signed payments are made automatically on your behalf.
penaltyrs who sell drugs near schools or use children as couriers could face stiffer penalties.
penaltymportance of the regime The law imposes very severe penalties on anyone involved in money laundering.
penaltye who have a problem with alcohol, alcoholics, cannot be swayed by stricter laws, harsher penalties or spates in jail.
penaltyatter has no redemption penalties at any time.
penalty>Penalties for non-compliance will treat complete and marginal failure the same.
Harsh penalties await any organization with an established duty of care that neglects these precautions.
prosecuted for careless driving or dangerous driving which carry higher penalties.
Or, rather, a string of penalties is occasionally punctuated by rugby.
redemption penalties at any time.
For example, making sis under existing powers prevents the setting of penalties specific to a new offense.
Unfortunatly, some drivers got a little too eager, resulting in 2 pit lane speeding penalties being handed out.
The package of incentives and penalties, backed by six world powers, seeks to defuse a standoff over Iran's nuclear program.
stiffening criminal penalties boosting sales for.
stonewall penalties turned down.
However, we do not impose surcharges on any tax on which tax geared penalties are also being charged.
swingeing penalties come into play.
tougher new criminal penalties at the federal level.
toughening up the penalties for drunk and uninsured drivers.
Mr Teague believed that the Sussex League were introducing a code of varying penalties to punish transgressions by players.
unfortunate to lose in a 5 penalties finish.
In theory Sir Rupert faces a potentially unlimited fine, although similar cases have attracted penalties of up to £ 15,000.
withstand an onslaught from the spirited French team who were pushing hard for penalties.
He presided over the Convocation of 1531 when the clergy of the province of Canterbury voted ioo,000 to the king in order to avoid the penalties of praemunire, and accepted Henry as supreme head of the church with the saving clause "so far as the law of Christ allows."
In penal cases its jurisdiction extends to all offences of the class known as dClitsoffences punishable by a more serious penalty than the contraventions dealt with by the juge de paix, but not entailing such heavy penalties as the code applies to crimes, with which the assize courts (see below) deal.
Of the legal passages that speak of the Sabbath all those which show affinity with the doctrine of the Scribes - regarding the Sabbath as an arbitrary sign between Yahweh and Israel, entering into details as to particular acts that are forbidden, and enforcing the observance by severe penalties, so that it no longer has any religious value, but appears as a mere legal constraint - are post-exilic (Exod.
Where the debtor is a company or corporation registered under the companies acts, the creditor may petition to have it wound up. (See COMPANY.) Imprisonment for debt, the evils of which have been so graphically described by Dickens, was abolished in England by the Debtors Act 1869, except in cases of default of payment of penalties, default by trustees or solicitors and certain other cases.
The tsar formally confirms its judgments; but sometimes reduces penalties in the exercise of the prerogative of mercy (see Mouravieff, op. cit.
The beginnings of this rupture, as well as a sharp affray between his volunteers and the townsfolk of Ajaccio, may have quickened Bonaparte's resolve to return to France in May 1792, but there were also personal and family reasons for this step. Having again exceeded his time of furlough, he was liable to the severe penalties attaching to a deserter and an Ã©migrÃ© but he saw that the circumstances of the time would help to enforce the appeal for reinstatement which he resolved to make at Paris.
The penalty for taking money, &c., to procure ordination or to give orders or licence to preach is a fine of £40; the party so corruptly ordained forfeits £10; acceptance of any benefice within seven years after such corrupt entering into the ministry makes such benefice merely void, and the patron may present as on a vacancy; the penalties are divided as in the last case.
The convention of 1888 was never ratified, and it is doubtful whether its ratification was urged, for a bill introduced by the British government in 1889 to give it effect was not pressed, and it was manifest that there was hesitation - which presently became refusal - to uphold the policy of the penalties on the importation of bountied sugar imposed by the seventh article, without which the convention would be so much waste paper.
Noise occasioned by the frequent repetition of street cries is frequently the subject of local by-laws, which impose penalties for infringement.
It regarded itself as justified in invoking the power of the state to suppress heresy by civil pains and penalties, including even torture and death.
But in the 5th century there were rejected as heretical (I) "the doctrine of universalism, and the possibility of the redemption of the devil; (2) the doctrine of the complete annihilation of evil; (3) the conception of the penalties of hell as tortures of conscience; (4) the spiritualizing version of the resurrection of the body; (5) the idea of the continued creation of new worlds" (A.
Their application to publications which had no concern with morals or religion was no longer conceivable; and, finally, the penalties called for modification.
Penalties in the New Kingdom were death (by starvation or self-inflicted), fines, beating with a certain number of blows so as to open a specified number of wounds on as, many different parts of the body (e.g.
Whatever tended to infringe in the slightest degree on their darling monopoly was visited with the severest penalties, whether the culprit chanced to be high in rank or low.
A contract made by an urban council, whereof the value and amount exceed X50, must be under seal, and certain other formalities must be observed, some of which are imperative; for example, the taking of sureties from the contractor, and the making provision for penalties to be paid by him in case the terms of the contract are not observed.
On the 9th of November the Assembly decreed that the Ã©migrÃ©s assembled on the frontiers should be liable to the penalties of death and confiscation unless they returned to France by the ist of January following.
Enormous depreciation ensued and, although penalties rising to death itself were denounced against all who should refuse to take them at par, they fell to little more than r% of their carried a decree that Marat should be sent before the Revolutionary Tribunal for incendiary writings, but his acquittal showed that a Jacobin leader was above the law.
The necessity of laws and penalties had to be explained to her.
The main penalties are a fine and sequestration of property.
For example, making SIs under existing powers prevents the setting of penalties specific to a new offense.
The package of incentives and penalties, backed by six world powers, seeks to defuse a standoff over Iran 's nuclear program.
Full two dozen stiffening criminal penalties boosting sales for.
Their goal was fortunate and I felt we had two stonewall penalties turned down.
If the price condition ca n't be imposed lawfully then compliance is effectively by agreement and the swingeing penalties come into play.
With the home support 's voice growing, Bath responded through two Olly Barkley penalties to set up a tense climax to the game.
The campaign will also seek tougher new criminal penalties at the federal level.
Our roads will be made safer with a Road Safety Bill, toughening up the penalties for drunk and uninsured drivers.
The scope and impact of arbitrary penalties would make speed cameras trivial by comparison.
They were most unfortunate to lose in a 5 penalties finish.
Superior pack power and weight advantage saw the Lions withstand an onslaught from the spirited French team who were pushing hard for penalties.
Corrective Actions-Corrective action procedures such as the withdrawal or suspension of a license, as well as probationary status and penalties, should be listed.
Home Shopping Network offers a pay later program that does not involve any extra fees or penalties, which gives you many options for buying gifts and items for your own home.
The counseling service will contact your debtors to negotiate new repayment terms that may reduce or eliminate interest, penalties and late fees.
Failure to repay the loan on time or in the full amount can result in severe penalties.
Quitting or termination automatically makes the loan balance to be considered unpaid and subject to penalties and taxes.
Once the IRS penalties and interest are added to tax repayment, a conventional loan may save you money in the long run and look better on your credit report.
Your company's HR department should be able to explain in detail what you need to do to avoid tax penalties.
This does not include any penalties you may have to pay for under withholding federal taxes during the year.
Credit card offers vary in a number of respects: different spending limits, interest rates, penalties, grace periods, reward offers, and other terms and conditions.
What penalties exist for early dispersal of the account?
What are the fees and penalties associated with a home equity line of credit versus a second mortgage loan?
Responsibly managing your credit is critical to avoiding excessive penalties, and finance charges.
Get Good Loan Terms - Borrowers who have bad credit are often subject to prepayment penalties and other undesirable terms.
It may also create an opportunity for debt negotiation, which could encourage them to lower your interest rates or waive some penalties.
They may be able to negotiate with your creditors to reduce penalties and interest, but the decision is up to the creditors.
Creditors may forgive some of the interest and penalties, but they typically do not reduce principal.
The more you know, the less likely you will be unhappy with interest rates, penalties and fees..
Since identity theft is a complicated crime and can also be used to commit other crimes along with it, it can be hard to tell what the penalties are.
This crime is in conjunction with aggravated identity theft but carries harsher penalties than that crime alone.
In addition, identity thieves can be subject to state penalties and can even be tried by both federal authorities and state authorities for different charges on the same crime.
State penalties can vary drastically depending on the seriousness of the crime, the cost to the victims and whether the thief is a first-time offender.
The current state penalties can be found on the website of the National Conference of State Legislatures.
Prepayment Penalties: This fee is an additional service charge assessed to your loan if you pay the balance off early.
As you can see, while Ontario bank fraud and identity theft investigations are sometimes successful, the penalties for such fraud are not necessarily always severe enough to act as a deterrent.
Despite the fact that the card bears the name of the individual cardholder, this card is not for personal use and has steep penalties for personal usage without permission.
By using a cash-based debit card, there are no interest rate charges and penalties like those associated with a credit card.
You are just as likely to delay going back to drop off the games, which is often leads to late fee penalties, making your game rental even more expensive.
The 25-year-old was placed on three years of probation, as well as ordered to pay a $390 fine plus penalties.
The latest payments are for January, including late penalties and other fees.
Due to the large number of Pitbull attacks in recent years, many cities have implemented Pit Bull-specific legislation regarding who may own one, the type of restraints and fencing required, and penalties for violations.
The information gathered during a visit from an OSHA consultant is kept confidential and will not lead to any citations being issued or penalties being imposed.
They ensure that the employers are in compliance with the safety regulations and codes for their specific industry, conduct workplace inspections and enforce penalties if there are violations.
Investors cannot withdraw funds from an IRA before age 59 1/2 without incurring substantial penalties.
Some annuities carry penalties on early withdrawals.
LoveToKnow Seniors had the opportunity to talk with Lund about required minimum distributions for IRAs and receive his perspective on the penalties for not withdrawing enough money.
No half damage, no minor penalties, nothing of the sort.
Either way, if you mess up or die, there are no lasting penalties.
In Canada, you can face some stiff penalties and fines if you are found using a cell phone while driving a car in Vancouver.
It also imposed penalties on schools that did not raise the achievement levels of ELLs for at least two consecutive years.
The 1992 Child Support Recovery Act allows courts to impose criminal penalties on parents who cross state lines to avoid child support payments.
Noncompliance results in penalties for the parent(s) or guardian of the truant student.
For example, a lender may set forth terms that define the condition the property must be kept in, leasing restrictions, and penalties for an early payoff of the principal balance.
One reason is that some mortgages have prepayment penalties attached.
Often these penalties can negate the savings you may receive by refinancing and you can end up paying a higher interest rate for far longer than necessary.
This program also covered tax penalties and interest charges that resulted from Fairbanks' failure to pay tax payments in a timely manner, or interest collected due to rounding errors.
This kind of a loan means smaller payments to start out with, but if you have to refinance to avoid penalties for not paying in full after that initial period they can force you into refinancing at higher interest rates.
Look for a lender that doesn't charge application fees, origination fees, or prepayment penalties.
Don't forget about prepayment penalties.
Some lenders put prepayment penalties into their loans as a way to make a profit even if the borrower refinances.
The documentation will specify if there are any penalties for early repayment of funds, should you choose to do so, as well as the costs and consequences associated with failure to meet the monthly payment obligations.
The late notice may also inform the homeowner of the fees and penalties assessed for the late payment.
You can sometimes get an extension on your payment due date so you are able to pay late without any late penalties or fees being assessed, and without a notation of a late payment on your credit report.
Do not obtain a loan that has a wildly unpredictable adjustable interest rate or steep penalties for prepayments because this may wind up hurting your credit even more.
Otherwise, you can always take a 30 year mortgage and pay it off early if you want, but just make sure there are no prepayment penalties.
Check first with your lender to make sure you will not wind up paying any prepayment penalties, which might cancel out any benefit of an extra payment due to fees.
While it is true that borrowers with bad credit can expect to pay higher interest rates, this does not mean that they should automatically accept prepayment penalties and necessary closing costs.
However, there are no real penalties for writers who choose to work for a term paper mill.
What are the monthly late rent penalties?
Borrowers should also carefully investigate fees and late payment or prepayment penalties before signing up for a loan.
Travel Plan Flexibility: Some student airfares can easily be changed for very low fees, while others have stiff penalties if itineraries need to be altered.
However, certain conditions must be met in order to receive what are called "qualified distributions" and avoid penalties and taxes.
See Publication 590, Tax Topic 557 via the IRS, or your financial or tax advisor for more details about avoiding penalties for an early withdrawal due to an emergency or other qualified situation.
Keep in mind that even if you do not mind the potential tax penalties on your withdrawal, you are hurting your future savings.
As stated previously, you can avoid penalties and taxes on Roth IRA withdrawals if you meet certain exceptions outlined in Publication 590 or Tax Topic 557.
Only you and your financial or tax professional can determine qualifications for Roth IRA early withdrawal and assess potential penalties.
If you withdraw money from your 401K before retirement age, you'll pay stiff tax penalties.
The National SAFEKIDS Campaign believes that children under the age of 12 are too young to be left home alone and some states have laws that provide criminal penalties for parents who leave their young children home alone.
Keep in mind that you should only choose highly responsible employees to give business credit cards to, for your business will be the one to suffer penalties should an employee happen to be late with a payment.
Since there are no contracts binding you to one carrier, or any hefty plan cancellation penalties, when you reach the end of your allotted minutes, you're free to change carriers.
Workman's comp is generally an expensive no-fault insurance that carries heavy penalties issued against businesses who do not carry the insurance.
It's less expensive to pay the list rental fee up front than the legal costs or penalties incurred.
It offers stiffer criminal penalties for securities fraud, defrauding shareholders and destroying or altering records in federal investigations.
Failure to send in estimated tax payments can result in penalties or interest being owed.
Make sure there are no prepayment penalties, and pay back the loan as quickly as you would pay a regular car loan - in three to five years.
While you cannot change a number of factors, such as age and driving history, you can work with insurance companies that provide more savings and fewer penalties.
Driving Record: Penalties for traffic violations, up to five years previous, raise your auto insurance rates.
If you have money in your account after you turn 65, you can withdraw it tax-free for any reason without incurring penalties.
Penalties for withdrawing before age 65.
When this period ends, however, penalties and enrollment fees will apply if they do decide to enroll.
This is considered a separate penalty from any court penalties.
The card can only be used to pay for health-related costs otherwise there are tax penalties as well as other fees.
The bailout rate is the rate at which individuals can end their annuities without incurring major financial penalties.
One drawback of investing in an annuity is that, like with an IRA, you can't take the money out early without incurring penalties.
In most cases, you will have to pay at least a 10 percent penalty for early withdrawal if you take it out before you reach age 59 ½, plus you could be charged additional penalties from the insurance company itself.
However, downloading music illegally can have some stiff penalties so always be careful of where you get your tunes.
If you are caught downloading music illegally, the penalties can result in some very heavy fines.
However, if a team has incurred any penalties, they will be asked to step outside of the mat and wait out their allotted penalty time.
Lastly, Intuit guarantees that it will pay for IRS penalties and interest should any related error occur while using their program.
Failure to pay or the underpayment of FICA may subject employers and workers to fines and other penalties.
There are penalties for filing a tax return late, but these penalties might still be less than the amount you receive.
Penalties continue to accrue on the entire balance until the total amount of liability is paid in full.
Therefore, taxpayers cannot escape penalties for filing late by requesting a payment plan after the due date passes.
The rate and calculation of penalties assessed against a taxpayer who files or pays late depends on the amount they owe and how long it has been overdue.
Failing to File and Pay: Taxpayers who do not comply with either of the IRS rules are subject to both penalties.
The penalties for filing your taxes late can result in your owing a substantial amount of money to the IRS.
You must also include any tax penalties assessed against you, of which the IRS will notify you.
Overpayment entitles you to a refund at tax time, but underpayment may subject you to penalties.
Long terms of imprisonment and the bastinado, the latter even inflicted on women, were the penalties for the least expression of anti-Austrian opinion.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.