Siberia was for many years a penal colony.
The penal code was unified and reformed in 1890.
26 enforced; the master was forbidden to put his slave to death, but was obliged to bring him before a court of justice; if he ill-treated him it was a penal offence.
King George Sound, of which Albany is the township, was first occupied in 1826 and a penal settlement was established.
Tea is grown in considerable quantities and the cultivation is under a department of the penal settlement.
In April 1687 he published a Declaration of Indulgence - exempting Catholics and Dissenters from penal statutes.
The discussion lasted over eight sittings, but the conference, to which the British delegates had come with powers to assent to a penal clause, arrived at an understanding, and a convention was signed in March 1902.
The cour dassises occupies itself entirely with offences of the most serious type, classified under the penal code as crimes, in accordance with the severity of the penalties attached.
These prisons received all sentenced to short terms of imprisonment, the long-term convicts going to the bagnes (the great convict prisons at the arsenals of Rochefort, Brest and Toulon), while in 1851 transportation to penal colonies was adopted.
The penal tribunals have jurisdiction in cases involving imprisonment up to ten years, or a fine exceeding 40, while the assize courts, with a jury, deal with offences involving imprisonment for life or over ten years, and have exclusive jurisdiction (except that the senate is on occasion a high court of justice) over all political offences.
Capital punishment was abolished in 1877, penal servitude for life being substituted.
The increase is partly covered by contravvenzioni, but almost every class of penal offence shows a rise except homicide, and even in that the diminution is slow, 5418 in 1880, 3966 in 1887, 4408 in 1892, 4005 in 1897, 3202 in 1902; and Italy remains, owing to the frequent use of the knife, the European country lit which it is most frequent.
They are now penal settlements, and their isolated character led to their being similarly used in ancient times.
The state penal institutions are the boys' industrial school near Lancaster (established in 1854 as a Reform Farm), the girls' industrial home (1869) at Rathbone near Delaware, the reformatory at Mansfield (authorized 1884, opened 1896) and the penitentiary at Columbus (1816).
Hospitals, asylums, refuges and homes, pauper, reformatory and penal institutions, flower missions, relief associations, and other charitable or philanthropic organizations, private and public, number several hundreds.
The penal code of November 1821 abolished many odious customs and punishments of the old code, and allowed publicity in criminal trials.
The penal laws under which Friends suffered may be divided chronologically into those of the Commonwealth and the Restoration periods.
At the same time it was granted an extension of penal powers, and the losses on reftieh (duty on tobacco exported to Egypt) were to be partially borne by the public debt administration.
When then on July 21 Draskovic was murdered by a young Bosnian Communist, Parliament resolved on reprisals, and io days later passed by 190 to 54 laws of extraordinary severity for "the Defence of the State," terrorist agitation being made punishable by death, prolonged penal servitude or heavy fines.
Thonissen, L'Organisation judiciaire, le droit penal et la procedure de la loi salique (2nd ed., Brussels and Paris, 1882); P. 'E.
His other works were Traite de droit penal (1829); Cours de droit constitutionnel (1866-67), and Mélanges d'economie politique, d'histoire et de philosophie (2 vols., 1857).
It began to be recognized also that stereotyped punishments, such as belong to penal codes, fail to take due account of the particular condition of an offence and the character and circumstances of the offender.
The charitable and penal institutions of the state are controlled by separate boards of directors, but all are subject to the general supervision of a board of visitors composed of the governor, lieutenant-governor and speaker of the House of Representatives, and a woman appointed by the governor.
In 13 of the principal towns there are also pretori who have exclusively penal jurisdiction.
The pretori have penal jurisdiction concerning all misdemeanours (contravvenzioni) or offences (delitti) punishable by imprisonment not exceeding three months or by fine not exceeding 1000 lire (~4o).
In 1902 of 884,612 persons accused of penal offencs, 13.12% were acquitted during the period of the instruction, 30.31 by the courts, 46.32 condemned and the rest acquitted in some other way.
In spite of the gravity of the charges formulated against many prominent men, the report merely deplored and disapproved of their conduct, without proposing penal proceedings.
The point of enduring interest as regards the Andamans is the penal system, the object of which is to turn the life-sentence and few long-sentence convicts, who alone are sent to the settlement, into honest, self-respecting men and women, by leading them along a continuous course of practice in self-help and self-restraint, and by offering them every inducement to take advantage of that practice.
In 1788-1789 the government of Bengal sought to establish in the Andamans a penal colony, associated with a harbour of refuge.
After a profligate youth at court, he followed his wife in professing the Roman faith, and in 1585 made an attempt to leave England to seek safety from the penal laws.
The Greek penal code has been adopted with some modifications.
Charitable and Penal Institutions.
Charitable and penal institutions are under the supervision of a Board of Public Charities, appointed by the governor for a period of six years, the terms of the different members expiring in different years.
Finally, the government sustains about two score of penal establishments, reform schools, hospitals, dispensaries and asylums, which are scattered all over the island, - every town of any considerable size having one or more of these charities.
Royalty and the Church, when they acquire the lead in social life, work out a new penal system based on outlawry, death penalties and corporal punishments, which make their first appearance in the legislation of Withraed and culminate in that of !Ethelred and Canute.
For the penal settlements at a distance from France see DEPORTATION.
The number of penal proceedings, especially those within the competence of praetors, has also increased,, chiefly on account of the frequency of minor contraventions of the law referred to in the section Crime.
Certain types of dangerous individuals are relegated after serving a sentence in the ordinary convict prisons, and by administrative, not by judicial process, to special penal colonies known as domicilii coatti or forced residences.
Notwithstanding the construction of new prisons and the transformation of old ones, the number of cells for solitary confinement is still insufficient for a complete application of the penal system established by the code of 1890, and the moral effect of the association of the prisoners is not good, though the system of solitary confinement as practised in Italy is little better.
Of these, 31,219 were in lockups, 25,145 in penal establishments, 1837 minors in government, and 4547 in private reformatories, and 307!
On the 12th of July 1871, Articles 268, 269 and 270 of the Italian Penal Code were so modified as to make ecclesiastics liable to imprisonment for periods varying from six months to five years, and to fines from 1000 to 3000 lire, for spoken or written attacks against the laws of the state, or for the fomentation of disorder.
There is a large penal establishment containing over 700 convicts.
All fines collected under the penal laws, all escheats and 2% of the receipts of toll roads and bridges go into the school fund, which is invested in state and Federal securities and the interest apportioned among the counties according to their school population.
The commissioners supervise the penal and charitable institutions, schools, roads, bridges and finances of the county.
The state charitable and penal institutions are supervised by the board of charities of six members ("not more than three ...
To this act Great Britain replied by various penal regulations and reconstructive acts of government.
In return for this negligence the Thebans fastened a religious quarrel upon their neighbours, and secured a penal decree against them from the Amphictyonic synod (356).
Issued his declaration suspending the penal laws in ecclesiastical matters, and shortly afterwards, by pardon under the great seal, he released nearly 500 Quakers from prison, remitted their fines and released such of their estates as were forfeited by praemunire.
It is of volcanic origin, and is partly occupied by a penal agricultural colony.
The law administered is that of the civil and penal codes of the German empire, and the court of appeal for all three Hanse towns is the common Oberlandesgericht, which has its seat in Hamburg.
North of Sydney, to choose the site of a new penal establishment.