# Peltier Sentence Examples

As a lawyer his greatest public efforts were his lectures (1799) at Lincoln's Inn on the law of nature and nations, of which the introductory discourse was published, and his eloquent defence (1803) of Jean Gabriel

**Peltier**, a French refugee, tried at the instance of the French government for a libel against the first consul.When a current is passed through a solid alloy, a series of

**Peltier**effects, proportional to the current, are set up between the particles of the different metals, and these create an opposing electromotive force which is indistinguishable experimentally from a resistance.When the Revolution developed the importance of the press, Rivarol at once took up arms on the Royalist side, and wrote in the Journal politique of Antoine Sabatier de Castres (1742-1817) and the Actes des Apdtres of Jean Gabriel

**Peltier**(1770-1825).**Peltier**(1785-1845) in 1814 discovered that a current passed across the junction of two metals either generated or absorbed heat.**Peltier**(1834) that heat is absorbed at the junction of two metals by passing a current through it in the same direction as the current produced by heating it, was recognized by Joule as affording a clue to the source of the energy of the current by the application of the principles of thermodynamics.AdvertisementThe order of the metals in respect of the

**Peltier**effect was found to be the same as the thermoelectric series.But on account of the difficulty of the measurements involved, the verification of the accurate relation between the

**Peltier**effect and thermoelectric power was left to more recent times.The coefficients, P and P', are called coefficients of the

**Peltier**effect, and may be stated in calories or joules per ampere-second.The

**Peltier**coefficient may also be expressed in volts or microvolts, and may be regarded as the measure of an E.M.F.Clausius (1853) that the

**Peltier**effect varied directly as the absolute temperature, and that the E.M.F.AdvertisementLike the

**Peltier**coefficient, it may be measured in joules or calories per ampere-second per degree, or more conveniently and simply in microvolts per degree.Consider an elementary couple of two metals A and B for which s has the values s and s" respectively, with junctions at the temperature T and T+dT (absolute), at which the coefficients of the

**Peltier**effect are P and P+dP. Equating the quantity of heat absorbed to the quantity of electrical energy generated, we have by the first law of thermodynamics the relation dE/dT =dP/dT+(s' - s").The signs of the

**Peltier**and Thomson effects will be the same as the signs of the coefficients given in Table I., if we suppose the metal s to be lead, and assume that the value of s may be taken as zero at all temperatures.The

**Peltier**effect was only a small fraction of the total effect, but could be separated from the Joule effect owing to the reversal of the current.According to this formula, the

**Peltier**effect is a linear function of the temperature.AdvertisementThe flow of the current will produce a fall of potential ER'/R in the lead from cold to hot, and ER"/R in the iron from hot to cold, but the potential difference due to the

**Peltier**effect at either junction will not be affected.The

**Peltier**effect and the thermo-E.M.F., on the other hand, do not depend on the state of the surfaces, but only on the state of the substance.It is equally evident that chemical affinity between the metals cannot be the explanation of the

**Peltier**E.M.F.Although it is possible that differences of potential larger than the

**Peltier**effect might exist between two metals in contact on open circuit, it is certain that the only effective E.M.F.But the reason for concluding that there is no other effective source of potential difference at the junction besides the

**Peltier**effect, is simply that no other appreciable action takes place at the junction when a current passes except the**Peltier**generation or absorption of heat.AdvertisementIn this case, however, in order to account for the phenomenon of the

**Peltier**effect at the junctions, it is necessary to suppose that there is a real convection of heat by an electric current, and that the coefficient P or pT is the difference of the quantities of heat carried by unit quantity of electricity in the two metals.The

**Peltier**effect, on the other hand, may be ascribed entirely to convection.If, therefore, we are prepared to admit that an electric current can carry heat, the existence of the

**Peltier**effect is no proof that a corresponding E.M.F.In order to explain the

**Peltier**effect, Kohlrausch further assumes that an electric current, C, carries a heatflow, Q= ABC, with it, where " A is a constant which can be made equal to unity by a proper choice of units."If A and Bare constant, the

**Peltier**effects at the hot and cold junctions are equal and opposite, and may therefore be neglected.AdvertisementHis great experimental discovery, known as the "

**Peltier**effect," was that if a current pass from an external source through a circuit of two metals it cools the junction through which it passes in the same direction as the thermo-electric current which would be caused by directly heating that junction, while it heats the other junction (see Thermo-Electricity),**Peltier**died in Paris on the 27th of October 1845.The range of Steele's observations was too small to show any certain deviation from the formula, but he notes capricious changes attributed to change of condition of the proved to be proportional to the square of the current, the

**Peltier**effect is reversible with the current, and being directly proportional to the first power of the current, changes sign when the current is reversed.Semi conductor thermoelectric device which works on the

**Peltier**effect.Explain what is meant by the

**Peltier**coefficient and thermoelectric power.Thermoelectric cooling is also known as the

**Peltier**effect.Most tabletop chillers that utilize the

**Peltier**effect both heat and cool.