The magistracy had been acquiring more and more the character of an oligarchy; all power was practically in the hands of a few closely-related families; and the gravest peculation and malversation took place without hindrance.
He was tried by a court of inquiry, who found that his conduct to natives had been "unjustifiable and oppressive," that he had used abusive language to his native officers and personal violence to his men, and that his system of accounts was "calculated to screen peculation and fraud."
The tahsildars check the accounts of the kabz-i-mals, and, if they discover peculation, send them at once to be dealt with by the chief official authorities of the Gaza (department); all the electors of a mukhtar are, ipso facto, joint sureties for him.
Maladministration and peculation of public moneys go hand in hand, without any vigorous measures being adopted to put a stop to the scandal.
Every time the tsar returned to Russia he received fresh accusations of peculation against "his Serene Highness."
Tweed and members of the "Tweed Ring," and published Peculation Triumphant, Being the Record of a Five Years' Campaign against Official Malversation, A.D.
He was freely accused of looting at the time, and though this charge, like that of peculation, is matter for controversy, it is very strongly supported.
A charge of peculation, unproved, was made against him in connexion with this expedition and he was placed on half-pay.
Accused of peculation, he was threatened with imprisonment unless he paid a fine of 10o,000 pieces of gold.
But when he declined even under torture to confess that he had been guilty of extensive peculation, he was finally released.
When, as sometimes happens, those revenues have been dissipated by peculation, neglect or change of times, the caravanserai passes through downward stages of dilapidation to total ruin (of which only too many examples may be seen) unless some new charity intervene to repair and renew it.
Year he was accused of peculation and other offences to the emperor, who caned him severely and deprived him of his plenipotentiary powers, despite his undeniable services in Persia, but for which Peter could never have emerged so triumphantly from the difficult Persian war of 1722-23.