Peasants Sentence Examples
The peasants feared him more than they did their master.
They rode at a footpace to the barn, where a large crowd of peasants was standing.
The two tall peasants had their say.
In many parts the peasants and townsfolk, enraged by the licence of the French, hung on his flank and rear.
The closing of the French market to Sicilian produce, the devastation wrought by the phylloxera and the decrease of the sulphur trade had combined to produce in Sicily a discontent of which Socialist agitators took advantage to organize the workmen of the towns and the peasants of the country into groups known as fasci.Advertisement
Le prochain--your Kiev peasants to whom you want to do good.
The crown paid the landlord in obligations representing the capitalized rent, and the peasants had to pay the crown, for forty-nine years, 6% interest on this capital.
A trained midwife was engaged for Bogucharovo at his expense, and a priest was paid to teach reading and writing to the children of the peasants and household serfs.
In a few weeks he collected thousands of so-called Kuruczok (a corruption of Cruciati), consisting for the most part of small yeomen, peasants, wandering students, friars and parish priests, the humblest and most oppressed portion of the community, to whom alone a crusade against the Turk could have the slightest attraction.
Instantly the movement was diverted from its original object, and the peasants and their leaders began a war of extermination against the landlords.Advertisement
The penalty of flogging, preferred by the peasants to fine or imprisonment, was not unknown.
The peasants are not compelled to go to the volost court.
By "what was due from the Ryazan estate" Prince Vasili meant several thousand rubles quitrent received from Pierre's peasants, which the prince had retained for himself.
Then he vividly pictured to himself Bogucharovo, his occupations in the country, his journey to Ryazan; he remembered the peasants and Dron the village elder, and mentally applying to them the Personal Rights he had divided into paragraphs, he felt astonished that he could have spent so much time on such useless work.
The peasants were ruined; some of them too had gone to Bogucharovo, only a few remained.Advertisement
They are not, as a rule, supported by workmen or peasants, but rather by small tradespeople, manufacturers and farmers.
Half of them were formerly serfs (10,447,149 males in 1858) - the remainder being " state peasants " (9,194,891 males in 1858, exclusive of the Archangel government) and " domain peasants " (842,740 males the same year).
The peasants are ruined?
He pointed to the two peasants who kept as close to him as horseflies to a horse.
Within a week the peasants who came with empty carts to carry off plunder were stopped by the authorities and made to cart the corpses out of the town.Advertisement
Much of the work is done by companies of peasants, who come down from the mountainous districts when required, permanent residence not being possible owing to the malaria.
The rebellion was the more dangerous as the town rabble was on the side of the peasants, and in Buda and other places the cavalry sent against the Kuruczok were unhorsed as they passed through the gates.
The ukaz allowed peasants with the requisite qualifications to vote as landowners.
In 1893 district committees for the management of the peasants' affairs, similar to those in the purely Russian governments, were introduced into this part of the empire.
The peasants, as already stated, form a class apart, untouched by the influence of Western civilization, the principles of which they are quite incapable of understanding or appreci.Advertisement
This fact was recognized by the legislators of 1864, and beneath the statutory tribunals created in that year the special courts of the peasants were suffered to survive.
The edict of emancipation abolished this jurisdiction, and set up instead in each volost a court particular to the peasants (volostnye sud), of which the judges and jury, themselves peasants, were elected by the assembly of the volost (volostnye skhod) each year.
In these courts the ordinary written law had little to say; the decisions of the volost courts were based on the local customary law, which alone the peasants, and the peasants alone, understand.
In the ordinary tribunals weight is given to the " customs " of the peasants, even when these conflict with the written law.
Other noteworthy sources of revenue are trade licences, direct taxes on lands and forests, stamp duties, posts and telegraphs, indirect taxes on tobacco, sugar and other commodities, the crown forests, and land redemption payable annually by the peasants since 1861.
Protected as they were by the right of self-government, exempted from military service, and endowed with considerable allotments of good land, these colonies are much wealthier than the neighbouring Russian peasants, from whom they have adopted the slowly modified village community.
The peasants proper received their houses and orchards, and allotments of arable land.
For these allotments the peasants had to pay, as before, either by personal labour or by a fixed rent.
The effect of this, craftily calculated beforehand, was to compel the peasants to rent pasture lands from the landlord at any price.
The present condition of the peasants - according to official documents - appears to be as follows.
Many peasants took the " gratuitous allotments," whose amount was about one-eighth of the normal allotments.
The average allotment in Kherson is only 0.90 acre, and for allotments from 2.9 to 5.8 acres the peasants pay 5 to 10 roubles of redemption tax.
The state peasants are better off, but still they are emigrating in masses.
In Little Russia, where the allotments were personal (the mir existing only among state peasants), the state of affairs does not differ for the better, on account of the high redemption taxes.
Finally, in the Baltic provinces nearly all the land belongs to the German landlords, who either farm the land themselves, with hired labourers, or let it in small farms. Only one-fourth of the peasants are farmers, the remainder being mere labourers, who are emigrating in great numbers.
The forests have been sold, and only those landlords are prospering who exact rack-rents for the land without which the peasants could not live upon their allotments.
On the other hand, since 1861, and more especially since 1882, when the Peasant Land Bank was founded for making advances to peasants who were desirous of purchasing land, the former serfs, or rather their descendants, have between 1883 and 1904 bought about 19,500,000 acres from their former masters.
They have achieved good results, but do not exhibit, on the whole, the same unity of organization as those which have arisen in a natural way among the peasants and artisans.
The elder took monastic orders under the name of Sergius, and became famous among the peasants around.
The peasants and slaves at the same time amused themselves with dancing in the meadows.
The educated clergy were not always less cruel than the illiterate peasants.
What Pierre did not know was that the place where they presented him with bread and salt and wished to build a chantry in honor of Peter and Paul was a market village where a fair was held on St. Peter's day, and that the richest peasants (who formed the deputation) had begun the chantry long before, but that nine tenths of the peasants in that villages were in a state of the greatest poverty.
The good he has done to everybody here, from his peasants up to the gentry, is incalculable.
And the peasants are asking three rubles for carting--it isn't Christian!
A group of bareheaded peasants was approaching across the meadow toward the prince.
Princess Mary saw him walk out of the house in his uniform wearing all his orders and go down the garden to review his armed peasants and domestic serfs.
One instance, which had occurred some twenty years before, was a movement among the peasants to emigrate to some unknown "warm rivers."
Hundreds of peasants, among them the Bogucharovo folk, suddenly began selling their cattle and moving in whole families toward the southeast.
Dron was one of those physically and mentally vigorous peasants who grow big beards as soon as they are of age and go on unchanged till they are sixty or seventy, without a gray hair or the loss of a tooth, as straight and strong at sixty as at thirty.
Though the peasants paid quitrent, Alpatych thought no difficulty would be made about complying with this order, for there were two hundred and thirty households at work in Bogucharovo and the peasants were well to do.
Alpatych named certain peasants he knew, from whom he told him to take the carts.
Dron replied that the horses of these peasants were away carting.
Because, you will agree, chere Marie, to fall into the hands of the soldiers or of riotous peasants would be terrible.
She also knew that neither her father nor her brother would refuse to help the peasants in need, she only feared to make some mistake in speaking about the distribution of the grain she wished to give.
She began asking Dron about the peasants' needs and what there was in Bogucharovo that belonged to the landlord.
An hour later Dunyasha came to tell the princess that Dron had come, and all the peasants had assembled at the barn by the princess' order and wished to have word with their mistress.
Dron came and confirmed Dunyasha's words; the peasants had come by the princess' order.
For a long time that night Princess Mary sat by the open window of her room hearing the sound of the peasants' voices that reached her from the village, but it was not of them she was thinking.
Two tall old peasants with wrinkled faces and scanty beards emerged from the tavern, smiling, staggering, and singing some incoherent song, and approached the officers.
Forgive us for Christ's sake, eh? said the peasants, smiling joyfully at him.
Rostov looked at the tipsy peasants and smiled.
The peasants are rioting, and you can't manage them?
He said the peasants were obdurate and that at the present moment it would be imprudent to "overresist" them without an armed force, and would it not be better first to send for the military?
The peasants in the crowd were similarly impressed when they saw Rostov's rapid, firm steps and resolute, frowning face.
Some of the peasants said that these new arrivals were Russians and might take it amiss that the mistress was being detained.
Alpatych turned to the peasants and ordered two of them by name to come and bind Karp.
And in fact two more peasants began binding Dron, who took off his own belt and handed it to them, as if to aid them.
The two drunken peasants followed them.
If we had had only peasants to fight, we should not have let the enemy come so far, said he with a sense of shame and wishing to change the subject.
But the attention of the crowd--officials, burghers, shopkeepers, peasants, and women in cloaks and in pelisses--was so eagerly centered on what was passing in Lobnoe Place that no one answered him.
It's not the soldiers only, but I've seen peasants today, too....
The peasants--even they have to go, said the soldier behind the cart, addressing Pierre with a sad smile.
Standing among the crowd of peasants, Pierre recognized several acquaintances among these notables, but did not look at them--his whole attention was absorbed in watching the serious expression on the faces of the crowd of soldiers and militiamen who were all gazing eagerly at the icon.
The peasants went up and took him by his shoulders and legs, but he moaned piteously and, exchanging looks, they set him down again.
The peasants, adjusting the stretcher to their shoulders, started hurriedly along the path they had trodden down, to the dressing station.
Ah... those peasants! shouted an officer, seizing by their shoulders and checking the peasants, who were walking unevenly and jolting the stretcher.
The peasants say that a cold wind blows in late spring because the oaks are budding, and really every spring cold winds do blow when the oak is budding.
But though I do not know what causes the cold winds to blow when the oak buds unfold, I cannot agree with the peasants that the unfolding of the oak buds is the cause of the cold wind, for the force of the wind is beyond the influence of the buds.
The peasants and house serfs carrying out the things were treading heavily on the parquet floors.
The voices and footsteps of the many servants and of the peasants who had come with the carts resounded as they shouted to one another in the yard and in the house.
An enormous crowd of factory hands, house serfs, and peasants, with whom some officials, seminarists, and gentry were mingled, had gone early that morning to the Three Hills.
When--free from soldiers, wagons, and the filthy traces of a camp--he saw villages with peasants and peasant women, gentlemen's country houses, fields where cattle were grazing, posthouses with stationmasters asleep in them, he rejoiced as though seeing all this for the first time.
We had a well-to-do homestead, plenty of land, we peasants lived well and our house was one to thank God for.
And lastly you too, peasants, come from the forests where you are hiding in terror, return to your huts without fear, in full assurance that you will find protection!
Markets are established in the city where peasants can bring their surplus supplies and the products of the soil.
There were no industrious workmen, and the peasants caught the commissaries who ventured too far out of town with the proclamation and killed them.
That was a misfortune no one could remedy, for the peasants of the district burned their hay rather than let the French have it.
There were also small scratch groups of foot and horse, and groups of peasants and landowners that remained unknown.
The Cossacks and peasants who crept in among the French now considered everything possible.
Besides the plunderers, very various people, some drawn by curiosity, some by official duties, some by self-interest--house owners, clergy, officials of all kinds, tradesmen, artisans, and peasants--streamed into Moscow as blood flows to the heart.
Only when he had understood the peasants' tastes and aspirations, had learned to talk their language, to grasp the hidden meaning of their words, and felt akin to them did he begin boldly to manage his serfs, that is, to perform toward them the duties demanded of him.
He was as careful of the sowing and reaping of the peasants' hay and corn as of his own, and few landowners had their crops sown and harvested so early and so well, or got so good a return, as did Nicholas.
He was a master... the peasants' affairs first and then his own.
I have the power that runs in our blood, but I don't have any of the natural skills the peasants have.
His talents and amiability soon won him great popularity, especially among the peasants.
Thus more than 88 millions of the Russians are peasants.
It was only as late as 1904, however, that the landed proprietors were forbidden by law to inflict corporal punishment upon the peasants.
The aggregate value of the redemption and land taxes often reaches 185 to 275% of the normal rental value of the allotments, not to speak of taxes for recruiting purposes, the church, roads, local administration and so on, chiefly levied from the peasants.
Since their emancipation in 1861, the peasants of the central governments of Russia have in large numbers drifted away into the black earth zone, or have gone to the factories.
The actual distribution of arable land, forests and meadows, in European Russia and Poland is shown in the following table The land in European Russia and Poland (Caucasia being excluded) is divided amongst the different classes of owners as follows Down to January 1st 1903, the peasants had actually redeemed out of the land allotted to them in 1861 a total of 280,530,516 acres..
In Poland the peasants as a body have, in addition to the land thus assigned to them by the government, bought some 22 million acres since 1863, and of this quantity they purchased no less than 1,600,000 acres, or 64% of the whole, between 1893 and 1905.
Owing to the forced abstention from agricultural labour in the winter months the peasants of central Russia, more especially those of the governments of Moscow, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Tver, Smolensk and Ryazan have for centuries carried on a variety of domestic handicrafts during the period of compulsory leisure.
Jews, and elsewhere Russians,-to whom the peasants are for the most part in debt, as they purchase in advance on security of subsequent payments in corn, tar, wooden wares, &c. A good deal of the internal trade is carried on by travelling merchants.
This he did during fourteen years, and his administration was signalized by two important innovations - the attaching of the peasants to the land (adscriptio glebae) and the creation of the patriarchate - both of which deserve a passing notice.
The remedy they proposed was that the labourers should be prohibited from migrating from one estate to another, and an order to that effect was issued, with the result that the peasants, being no longer able to change their domicile and seek new employers, fell practically under the unlimited power of the proprietors on whose land they resided.
It was proposed, therefore; in 1576, that 6000 families should be registered as a militia under a Polish Hetman for the protection of the country against Tatar raids, and that the remainder of the inhabitants should be assimilated to the ordinary peasants of Poland.
Threatened seriously in their liberty and their faith, the people rose with greater enthusiasm than before, and a general insurrection, in which the peasants joined, spread over the whole country under the leadership of Bogdan Chmielnicki or Khmelnitski (q.v.), whose name is still remembered in the Ukraine.
Many believed, or affected to believe, in the pretender, and in a short time he gathered around him a large force of Cossacks, peasants, Tatars and Tchuvash, swept over the basin of the lower Volga, executed mercilessly the landed proprietors, seized and pillaged the town of Kazan, and kept the whole country in a state of alarm for more than a year.
The reformers of the previous reign had endeavoured to make the emancipated peasantry administratively and economically independent of the landed proprietors; the conservatives of this later era, proceeding on the assumption that the peasants did not know how to make a proper use of the liberty prematurely conferred upon them, endeavoured to re-establish the influence of the landed proprietors by appointing from amongst them " land-chiefs," who were to exercise over the peasants of their district a certain amount of patriarchal jurisdiction.
In France the Revolution had been the work of the middle classes; in Russia an indigenous middle class has, comparatively speaking, no existence, the peasants forming the overwhelming majority of the population.'
The supreme peril to the autocracy in Russia lay in the genuine grievances of the peasants, less political than economic, which had opened their minds to revolutionary propaganda.
The peasants numbered 75%.
On the 19th of March he laid before the House his programme of reforms, which included the emancipation of the peasants from the control of the communes and the handing over to them of the crown lands and imperial estates.
Stolypin of the fact that there was plenty of land in Russia for the peasants without any attack on private property.
The town was sold in 1302 by its lord to the bishop of Basel who, in 1400, sold it to the city of Basel, at whose hands it suffered much in the Peasants' War of 1653, and so consented gladly to the separation of 1833.
In two peasants' cottages in the Campagna, protected with wire netting by Professor Celli, all the inmates-10 in number - escaped, while the neighbours suffered severely; and three out of four persons living in a third hut, from which protection was removed owing to the indifference of the inmates, contracted malaria.
On his own initiative he conducted exhaustive inquiries into the conditions of the Sicilian peasants and of the Tuscan metayers, and in 1877 published in co-operation with Signor Leopoldo Franchetti a masterly work on Sicily (La Sicilia, Florence, 1877).
In1608-1609it withstood a sixteen months' siege by the Poles; at a later date the monks took a lively part in the organization of the army which crushed the outbreak of the peasants.
The down-trodden peasants were left in peace to divide the land among them, and new conditions arose as they took over the ownerless estates.
During the insurrection which followed, the usual barbarities were committed on both sides; the Christians betook themselves to the mountains, and the Mussulman peasants crowded into the fortified towns.
The advance of a Turkish detachment through the western districts, where other garrisons were besieged, was marked by pillage and devastation, and 5000 Christian peasants took refuge on the desolate promontory of Spada, where they suffered extreme privations.
The indignation of the Christians increased, a state of insecurity prevailed, and the Moslem peasants refused to return to their homes.
The intervention of Greece caused immense excitement among the Christian population, and terrible massacres of Moslem peasants took place in the eastern and western districts.
The wild doctrines of Thomas Miinzer and the Zwickau prophets, merging eventually into the excesses of the Peasants' War and the doings of the Anabaptists in Minster, first roused Luther to the dangerous possibilities of mysticism as a disintegrating force.
He soon acquired great influence among the peasants, and from the first took up an attitude of fearless opposition to King Ferdinand's policy.
One of the most ancient towns in Thuringia, Saalfeld, once the capital of the extinct duchy of Saxe-Saalfeld, is still partly surrounded by old walls and bastions, and contains some interesting medieval buildings, among them being a palace,, built in 1679 on the site of the Benedictine abbey of St Peter, which was destroyed during the Peasants' War.
The bitter feelings engendered between employer and employed culminated in the peasants' revolt of 1381.
He was still the peasants' emperor.
But these Scythians soon amalgamated with the Parthian peasants.
For two years he acted as manager of his father's bank, and in 1830 was inducted to his first charge, Arbirlot, in Forfarshire, where he adopted a vivid dramatic style of preaching adapted to his congregation of peasants, farmers and weavers.
On the northern inland downs liquorice grows wild and is collected by the peasants and sent down to Alexandretta.
The little trade of his dominions was ruined, and the burghers and peasants were deeply offended.
He had received from his father the smatterings of a liberal education, but until the outbreak of the Revolution he was a domestic servant, and from 1785 occupied the invidious office of cornmissaire a terrier, his function being to assist the nobles and priests in the assertion of their feudal rights as against the unfortunate peasants.
The Angoras most valued are albinos, with pure white fur and pink eyes; in some parts of the Continent they are kept by the peasants and clipped regularly.
They were not even adscripti glebae, though forbidden to migrate; an imperial ukase of 1721 says, " the proprietors sell their peasants and domestic servants, not even in families, but one by one, like cattle."
Although there are some good arable farms in favoured districts, the vast majority of holdings are small crofts occupied mostly by peasants who combine fishing with farming.
Its trade is carried on chiefly on market-days, when the peasants of the Beauce bring their crops and live-stock to be sold and make their purchases.
It had worked, on the whole, satisfactorily; and between 1885 and 1895 the number of peasants farming their own land rose from 117,000 to 200,000.
The losses inflicted on the Turks by Hunyadi Janos, and the attempt to organize a defensive league among the neighbouring Christian lands, temporarily averted the ruin of all the neighbouring lands were governed by Moslems or Roman Catholics; and at home the peasants were permitted to retain their creed and communal organization.
The peasants owning the land remained undisturbed in their XXVII.
Other parts of the river were colonized by peasants who emigrated with government aid, and were bound to settle in villages, along the Amur, at spots designated by officials.
Later on serfdom, religious persecutions and conscription were the chief causes which led the peasants to make their escape to Siberia and build their villages in the most inaccessible forests, on the prairies and even on Chinese territory.
Since the emancipation of the serfs in 1861, it has been steadily increasing, the Russian peasants of a village often emigrating en bloc.'
Industrial surveys, having for their object the granting of land to the peasants to the extent of 40 acres per each male head, with 8 additional acres of wood and 8 acres as a reserve, were started many years ago, and after being stopped in 1887 were commenced again in 1898.
In the case of the peasants the allotments vary on an average from 32 to 102 acres (in some cases from 21.6 to 240 acres); the Transbaikal Cossacks have about 111 acres per male head, and the indigenous population 108 to 154 acres.
In 1852 a Russian military expedition under Muraviev explored the Amur, and by 1857 a chain of Russian Cossacks and peasants were settled along the whole course of the river.
The intendants, by an exercise of their general or special powers, took the place of the elus, and delegated commissaires aux tailles (commissaries of the taille) for the assessment of the parishes, who guided and supervised the elected collectors - for the most part ignorant and partial peasants.
During the Peasants' War the town was occupied, in 1525, by the insurgents, who were driven out in their turn by Duke Anton of Lorraine.
Chartier lays bare the abuses of the feudal army and the sufferings of the peasants.
His vision of the ideal state was that of a patriarchial monarchy, surrounded and advised by the traditional estates of the realm - nobles, peasants, burghers - and cemented by the bonds of evangelical religion; but in which there should be no question of the sovereign power being vested in any other hands than those of the king by divine right.
The peasants are described as intelligent, and the artizans are justly celebrated for their ingenuity and mechanical skill.
Many towns were founded, among which were Dresden, Leipzig and Freiburg; Chemnitz began its textile industry; and although the condition of the peasants was wretched, that of the townsmen was improving.
Herds of buffaloes, and the few peasants who watch them, are now the only occupants of this once thickly populated and garden-like region.
The most serious drain on the population is caused by emigration, due partly to the grinding poverty of the mass of the peasants, partly to the resentment of the subject races against the process of " Magyarization " to which they have long been subjected by the government.
Owing to the improvidence of the Hungarian landowners and the poverty of the peasants the soil of the country is also gradually passing into their hands.3 The Gipsies, according to the special census of 1893, numbered 2 74,94 0.
On the other hand, his example in manumitting most of his slaves, together with the precepts of the church, practically put an end to slavery in the course of the 13th century, the slaves becoming for the most part serfs, who differed from the free peasants only in the fact that they were attached to the soil (adscripti glebae).
Sixty-two of its seventy-one enactments were directed against the peasants, who were henceforth bound to the soil and committed absolutely into the hands of " their natural lords."
The drberi szabalyzat (feudal prescription) of 1767 restored to the peasants the right of transmigration and, in some respects, protected them against the exactions of their landlords.
Two progressive measures of the highest importance were passed by this diet, one making Magyar the official language of Hungary, the other freeing the peasants' holdings from all feudal obligations.
The enfranchisement of villeins granted by Richard at the Mile End conference was revoked by parliament in 1382, and no permanent results were obtained for the peasants by Wat.
It was the usual garb of scribes, servants and peasants, and in the earlier dynasties was worn even by men of rank.
Such coverings find their analogies among the peasants of modern Cilicia and Cappadocia.
He does not seek in that poem to draw Italian peasants from the life, but to bring back the shepherds of Theocritus on Italian scenes.
Maria Theresa also took a great interest in the Banat, colonized the land belonging to the crown with German peasants, founded many villages, encouraged the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the country, and generally developed the measures introduced by Mercy.
It is, indeed, recorded by Diodorus that Dionysius built the north wall from Euryelus to the Hexapylon in twenty days for a length of 2 3 - 4 m., employing 60,000 peasants and 6000 yoke of oxen for the transport of the blocks.
When the anti-clerical policy of the revolutionary powers provoked the rising of the peasantry, of La Vendee, he put himself at the head of the men of his neighbourhood, and came rapidly to the front among the gentlemen whom the peasants took for leaders.
The allprevailing need of the later Roman and early medieval society was protection - protection against the sudden attacks of invading tribes or revolted peasants, against oppressive neighbours, against the unwarranted demands of government officers, or even against the legal but too heavy exactions of the government itself.
The rood of Bromholm was a reputed fragment of the Cross which attracted many pilgrims. To the south of North Walsham is North Walsham Heath, whither in June 1381 a body of insurgents in connexion with the Peasants' Revolt were driven from before Norwich by Henry le Despenser, bishop of Norwich, and defeated; after which their leader, Geoffrey Lister, and others were sent to the scaffold.
The abolition of serfdom without cancellation of the peasants' prerogatives as to pasturage and timber rights served to accentuate classantagonism.
It was socially significant that he and his political collaborators were drawn of the stock of newly emancipated peasants.
The Tsar's Government under the electoral statute of 1905 granted the four-class franchise (landowners, peasants, townsmen and workmen) in such wise as to favour the rural population.
The serious disadvantage under which the Lithuanian army suffers is the shortage of the officer class, but the sturdy, phlegmatic peasants should, under good leadership, make good fighting material.
This fact was not observed (that is, the collections of examples were not made) till recently, when experiments in private non-spiritualist circles drew attention to crystal-gazing, a practice always popular among peasants, and known historically to have survived through classical and medieval times, and, as in the famous case of Dr Dee, after the Reformation.
Towards everything like disorder, tyranny, or aristocratic oppression, Casimir was always inexorably severe; all disturbers of the peace were remorselessly put to death as the worst enemies of their country and he enjoyed in consequence the honourable title of "the Peasants' King."
The other attitude, however, is that into which simple-minded Latin peasants actually lapse, as it is also that which characterizes other religions ancient or modern which use pictures or sculptures of gods, demons, men, brutes, or of particular parts and organs of the same.
The majority of the population is devoted to pastoral, and in some degree to agricultural pursuits, the cattle, as in other Alpine lands, being the mainstay of the peasants.
The peasants are famous for their devotion to the Roman Catholic religion, their fervent loyalty to the House of Austria, their excellent marksmanship, and their love of singing and music, the zither being the national instrument.
Locally it is ruled by an Imperial governor (the Statthalter) who resides at Innsbruck, where, too, meets annually the local legislature or Diet (the Landtag), composed (according to the constitution of 1861) of 68 members; the archbishop of Salzburg, the bishops of Trent and Brixen, and the rector of the university of Innsbruck sit in person, while the great ecclesiastical corporations send four deputies, the chambers of commerce of Innsbruck, Trent and Rovereto each one, the nobles ten, the towns 13, and the peasants 34.
The peasants refused to believe in the bad news, and continued to resist the French, but were at last overpowered by numbers.
The duke himself complained in parliament of the way he was spoken of out of doors, and at the outbreak of Wat Tyler's insurrection the peasants stopped pilgrims on the road to Canterbury and made them swear never to accept a king of the name of John.
Doubtless the free peasants of Switzerland contributed to stimulate disorder and discontent, especially in southern Germany.
The best known statement of the peasants' grievances is to be found in the famous " Twelve Articles " drawn up in 1524.
The peasants demanded that the gospel should be taught them as a guide in life, and that each community should be permitted to choose its pastor and depose him if he conducted himself improperly.
Protests follow against hunting and fishing rights, restrictions on wood-cutting, and excessive demands made on peasants.
Luther, who believed that the peasants were trying to cloak their dreadful sins with excuses from the gospel, exhorted the government to put down the insurrection.
The German rulers took Luther's advice with terrible literalness, and avenged themselves upon the peasants, whose lot was apparently worse afterwards than before.
An insurrection of the Yorkshire peasants, which is to be ascribed in part to the distress caused by the enclosure of the commons on which they had been wont to pasture their cattle, and in part to the destruction of popular shrines, may have caused the king to defend his orthodoxy by introducing into parliament in 1539 the six questions.
A small handful of obedient peasants, priest-ridden and over-administered, formed the basis of the colony.
The peace decrees of these various synods differed considerably in detail, but in general they were intended fully to protect non-combatants; they forbade, under pain of excommunication, every act of private warfare or violence against ecclesiastical buildings and their environs, and against certain persons, such as clerics, pilgrims, merchants, women and peasants, and against cattle and agricultural implements.
In 1492 it was captured by the insurgent peasants of North Holland, was re-taken by the duke of Saxony, the imperial stadholder, and deprived of its privileges.
It is, however, by no means easy to determine their original tenets, as in the 13th and 14th centuries they were a body of obscure and unlettered peasants, hiding themselves in a corner, while in the 16th century they were absorbed into the general movement of the Reformation.
Nearly all the soil belongs to the nobility, the extent of the peasants estates being only 15% of the entire area of the government.
Serfdom was abolished in 1819, but the peasants remained under the jurisdiction of their landlords.
The class of peasant proprietors being restricted to a small number of wealthy peasants, the bulk have remained tenants at will; they are very miserable, and about one-fourth of them are continually wandering in search of work.
The first active interference of Lithuania in the affairs of Livonia took place immediately after the great outbreak of the peasants on Oesel; Olgierd then devastated all southern Livonia.
Saxony owes its unusual wealth in fruit partly to the care of the elector Augustus I., who is said never to have stirred abroad without fruit seeds for distribution among the peasants and farmers.
When the insurgents under Duke Otto were joined by the Thuringians, Henry was compelled in 1074 to release Magnus and to make a number of concessions as the price of the peace of Gerstungen; which, however, was short-lived, as the peasants employed in pursuance of its terms in demolishing the forts, desecrated the churches and violated the ducal tombs.
He died in 1525 while the Peasants' War was desolating his land, and was succeeded by his brother John, who was an enthusiastic supporter of the reformed faith and who shared with Philip, landgrave of Hesse, the leadership of the league of Schmalkalden.
In the peasants' rising of 1381 the rebels plundered the archbishop's palace at Canterbury, and 10o,000 Kentishmen gathered round Wat Tyler of Essex.
The war was begun by the Greeks without definite plan and without any generally recognized leadership. The force with which Germanos marched from Kalavryta against Patras was composed of peasants armed with scythes, clubs and slings, among whom the "primates" exer tion.
The peasants of the open country welcomed the Turks as deliverers, and Reshid's conciliatory policy facilitated his march to Athens, which fell at the first assault on the 25th of August, siege being at once laid to the Acropolis, where Gouras and his troops had taken refuge.
In the time of the Spanish wars these underground passages served to hide the peasants and their cattle.
A born ruler, Casimir introduced a whole series of administrative and economical reforms. He was the especial protector of the cities and the peasants, and, though averse from violent measures, punished aristocratic tyranny with an iron hand.
Even the peasants, who had suffered severely from the wholesale establishment of prisoners of war as serfs on the estates of the nobles, still preserved the rights of personal liberty and free transit from place to place, whence their name of lazigi.
The nobles who dominated the diet did nothing to remove the most crying evil of the country - the miserable state of the peasants, who had been freed from personal serfdom by Napoleon in 1807, but were being steadily driven from their holdings by the landlords.
In Poland itself the tsar left much of the current civil administration in the hands of the nobles, whose power over their peasants was hardly diminished and was misused as of old.
Alongside of such want of firmness as this were, however, to be found such measures of ill-timed repression as the order given in 1860 to the agricultural society not to discuss the question of the settlement of the peasants on the land.
The peasants were freed in Lithuania, and in Poland proper much was done to improve their position.
The condition, however, of the Polish peasants was too miserable to admit of their being easily made subjects for bucolic poetry.
He served under Napoleon in the Polish legion, and has left a small collection of poems, the most important being the idyl Wieslaw, in which the manners of the peasants of the district of Cracow are faithfully portrayed.
He everywhere appears as the advocate of the suffering peasants, and has consecrated to them many beautiful lyrics.
The district was mainly inhabited by peasants; it contained few important towns, and the bourgeois were but a feeble minority.
The influence of the priests kept up the fanaticism of the peasants, and a great manifestation of religious feeling took place on Easter eve, but the republican soldiers taken prisoners were often maltreated and even tortured.
Charette de la Contrie, Gigot d'Elbee, Henri de la Rochejaquelein and the marquis de Lescure placed themselves at the head of the peasants.
Although the peasants had to leave their chiefs and work on the land, the Vendeans still remained formidable opponents.
He restored their cattle to the peasants who submitted, "let the priests have a few crowns," and on the 20th of July 1795 annihilated an émigré expedition which had been equipped in England and had seized Fort Penthievre and Quiberon.
By exacting forced labour from the peasants he gave France admirable roads, though at the cost of rousing angry discontent.
It successfully resisted the attacks of the insurgent peasants under Stephen Fadinger on the 21st and 22nd of July 1626, but its suburbs were laid in ashes.
Peasants from the south of France, whose vines had been destroyed by the phylloxera, crossed the Mediterranean and established in Algeria an important vineyard.
The Trumpet of Nordland remains as fresh as ever in the memories of the inhabitants of the north of Norway; boatmen, peasants, priests will alike repeat long extracts from it at the slightest notice, and its popularity is unbounded.
Basel was slow to accept the Reformation; the news of the Peasants' War and the inroads of Anabaptists prevented progress; but at last, in 1525, it seemed as if the authorities were resolved to listen to schemes for restoring the purity of worship and teaching.
When the kingdom of Naples was overrun by the French and the Parthenopaean Republic established (1799), Cardinal Ruffo, acting on behalf of the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV., who had fled to Sicily, undertook the reconquest of the country, and for this purpose he raised bands of peasants, gaol-birds, brigands, &c., under the name of Sanfedisti or bande della Santa Fede (" bands of the Holy Faith").
He received a liberal education, and, when he left school, became an officer in the artillery; but his sympathy with the peasants, among whom he had lived during his boyhood in the country, developed in him at first democratic and, later, revolutionary opinions.
Together with a few other men of birth and education, he began secretly to sow the sentiments of democracy among the peasants.
Lang's adherence to the older faith, together with his pride and arrogance, made him very unpopular in his diocese of Salzburg; in 1523 he was involved in a serious struggle with his subjects, and in 1525, during the Peasants' War, he had again to fight hard to hold his own.
The jars and boxes of birch bark made by Russian peasants are often stamped with very effective patterns.
The castle of Hohenstaufen was destroyed in the 16th century during the Peasants' War, and only a few fragments now remain.
Taking advantage of a petition presented by the Polish landed proprietors of the Lithuanian provinces, praying that their relations with the serfs might be regulated in a more satisfactory way - meaning in a way more satisfactory for the proprietors - he authorized the formation of committees "for ameliorating the condition of the peasants," and laid down the principles on which the amelioration was to be effected.
Representation was granted to the peasants; the two chambers were empowered to initiate legislation; ministers were made responsible for all acts of government; a civil list was given to the king in return for the surrender of the crown lands; and, in short, the new constitution was similar to that of Great Britain.
Mexican peasants regularly paint or tattoo a cross on their foreheads, and the old Armenian equivalent for destiny or fate is cakatagir or forehead-writing.
In general we may perhaps define them as nobles and commons, though in view of the numbers of the higher classes it would probably be more correct to speak of gentry and peasants.
These sudden appearances of vast bodies of lemmings, and their singular habit of persistently pursuing the same onward course of migration, have given rise to various speculations, from the ancient belief of the Norwegian peasants, shared by Olaus Magnus, that they fall down from the clouds, to the hypothesis that they are acting in obedience to an instinct inherited from ancient times, and still seeking the congenial home in the submerged Atlantis, to which their ancestors of the Miocene period were wont to resort when driven from their ordinary dwelling-places by crowding or scarcity of food.
On the 14th of November 1626, Pappenheim completely defeated here the army of the rebellious peasants.
The town presents, therefore, a cosmopolitan and on market days a very varied appearance, when side by side with people turned out in the latest fashions from Paris or Vienna, we meet peasants of various nationalities, attired in their national costume, intermingled with very scantilyclad Gypsies.
Peasants still find numerous antiquities, and the site would certainly repay more thorough excavation.
The parliament was to consist of two houses; the first comprising the great hereditary landowners, government officials and nominees of the crown; the second, elected on a very narrow franchise, representatives of the small land-owners, the towns and the peasants.
The ancient district of the Hernicans, of which Alatri is regarded as the centre, is known as the Ciociaria, from a kind of sandals (cioce) worn by the peasants.
Much of the labour in the winter and spring is furnished by peasants who come down from the Volscian and Hernican mountains, and from Abruzzi, and occupy sometimes caves, but more often the straw or wicker huts which are so characteristic a feature of the Campagna.
Many of the domestic kind in central and northern Europe and Canada are used for drivers' and peasants' coat linings, &c. In Great Britain many coats of the home-reared sheep, having wools two and a half to five inches long, are dyed various colours and used as floor rugs.
The Hungarian peasants are very fond of their natural brown sheep coats, the leather side of which is not lined, but embellished by a very close fancy embroidery, worked upon the leather itself; these garments are reversible, the fur being worn inside when the weather is cold.
Both, however, greatly declined in the 18th century; and towards the beginning of the 19th, the peasants, ruined by their proprietors, 'or abandoned to the Jews, were in a more wretched condition than even their Russian neighbours.
Serfdom was abolished in 1807; but the liberated peasants received no allotments of land, and the old patrimonial jurisdictions were retained.
Compelled to accept the conditions imposed by the landlords, the peasants had to pay rack-rents and to give compulsory labour in various forms for the use of their land.
Pursuing a policy intended to reconcile the peasantry to Russian rule and to break the power of the Polish nobility, the Russian government promulgated, during the outbreak in 1864, a law by which those peasants who were holders of land on estates belonging to private persons, institutions (such as monasteries and the like), or the Crown were recognized as proprietors of the soil-the state paying compensation to the landlords in bonds, and the peasants having to pay a yearly annuity to the state until the debt thus contracted had been cleared off.
At the same time the self-government of the peasants was organized on democratic principles.
These reforms resulted in a temporary increase of prosperity, or at any rate an alleviation of the previous misery of the peasants.
Of the land in the possession of the peasants no less than 70% is under crops, and of the land in the larger estates 52%; of the former category t i %, and of the latter 8%, is meadow.
He was there engaged when his palace of the Savoy in London was burnt during the peasants' revolt in June 1381.
All along the Nile banks from morning to night may be seen brown-skinned peasants working these shadi fs, tier above tier, so as to raise the water 15 or 16 ft.
The population of the immigrant colony was 792,666, consisting mainly of thriving and prosperous peasants with occupancy rights in holdings of about 28 acres each.
Zealously carrying out the conditions of the peace, the peasants not only battered down the detested forts, they even destroyed the chapel at the Harzburg and committed other acts of desecration.
The German peasants had grievances compared with which those of the knights and lesser barons were The imaginary.
Thus, solely under the influence of social and economic conditions, various risings of the peasants had taken place during the latter part of the 15th century, the first one being in 1461, and at times the insurgents had combined their forces with those of the lower classes in the towns, men whose condition was hardly more satisfactory than their own.
These movements, however, were only preludes to the great revolution, which is usually known as the Peasants War (Bauernkrieg).
The Peasants War, properly so called, broke out at Stuhlingen in June 1522.
In the absence of the emperor and of his brother, the archduke Ferdinand, the authorities in these parts of the country were unable to check the movement and, aided by many knights, prominent among whom was Gbtz von Berlichingen, the peasants were everywhere victorious, while another influential recruit, Ulrich, the dispossessed duke of Wurttemberg, joined them in the hope of recovering his duchy.
Ulrichs attempt, which was made early in 1525, was, however, a failure, and about the same time the peasants drew up twelve articles embodying their demands.
But soon the victorious peasants became so violent and so destructive that Luther himself urged that they should be sternly punished, and a number of princes, prominent among whom was Phi.iip of Hesse, banded themselves together to crush the rising.
Munzer and his followers were defeated at Frankenhausen in May, the Swabian League gained victories in the area under its control, successes were gained elsewhere by the princes, and with much cruelty the revolt of the peasants was suppressed.
The general result was that the power of the territorial lords became greater than eve-r, although in some cases, especially in Tirol and in Baden, the condition of the peasants was somewhat improved.
Elsewhere, however, this was not the case; many of the peasants suffered still greater oppression and some of the immediate nobles were forced to submit to a detested yoke.
The commission, which was appointed for the purpose, during the next ten years bought land to the amount of about 200,000 acres and on it settled more than 2000 German peasants.
It has merely caused great bitterness among the Polish peasants, and the effect on the population is also counteracted by the fact that the large proprietors in purely German districts continue to import Polish laborers to work on their estates.
Polish newspapers were confiscated and their editors imprisoned, fines were imposed for holding Polish meetings, and peasants were forbidden to build houses on their own land.
The Peasants Union had actually been forbidden by the police; Bismarck himself was violently attacked for his reputed connection with a great Jewish firm of bankers.
Two days later the Peasants League, or Deutsche Bauernbund, which had been founded in 1885 and included some 44,000 members, chiefly from the smaller proprietors in Pomerania, Posen, Saxony and Thuringia, merged itself in the new league.
It was, moreover, the tradition of the Prussian court and the Prussian government (and it must be remembered that the imperial government is inspired by Prussian traditions) that the nobility and peasants were in a peculiar way the support of the crown and the state.
Obliged by their constitution to regard equally the material interests of all classes for they represent rich and poor, peasants and artisansthey were the natural support of the government when it attempted to find a compromise between the clamour of opposing interests.
There was, moreover, a tendency for local parties to gain in numbers and influencethe Volkspartei in Wurttemberg, the Anti-Semites in Hesse, and the Bauernbund (Peasants League) in Bavaria.
The last demanded that the peasants should be freed from the payment to the state, which represented the purchase price for the remission of feudal burdens.
It soon lost ground, however, partly owing to personal reasons, and partly because the Centre, in order to maintain their influence among the peasants, adopted some features of their programme.
Peasants and lahdlords, artisans and tradesmen, each formed their own league for the protection of their interests, and all looked to the state as the proper guardian of their class interests.
This treatment of the " Fakirs and Ulemas " (as he called them in his letters), who formed the most powerful element in the monarchy, would alone have ensured the failure of his plans, but failure was made certain by the introduction of the conscription, which turned even the peasants, whom he had done much to emancipate, against him.
The most important of all the symptoms of the approaching cataclysm was, however, the growing unrest among the peasants.
Since, in spite of this object-lesson, the Polish nobles still continued their offers, the peasants consulted the local Austrian authorities as to what course they should take; and the local authorities, unaccustomed to arriving at any decision without consulting Vienna, practically gave them carte blanche to do as they liked.
A hideous jacquerie followed for three or four days; during which cartloads of dead were carried into Tarnow, where the peasants received a reward for every " rebel " brought in.
The result was, that the peasants saw that though their wrongs were admitted, their sole hope of redress lay in a change of government, and added the dead weight of their resentment to the forces making for revolution.
Count Stadion began it in Galicia, where, before bombarding insurgent Cracow into submission (April 26), he had won over the Ruthenian peasants by the abolition of feudal dues and by forwarding a petition to the emperor for the official recognition of their language alongside Polish.
This fact, which was to lead to violent trouble later, was at first subordinate to other issues, of which the most important was the question of the emancipation of the peasants.
The peasants thus received all that they desired, and their vast weight was henceforth thrown into the scale of the government against the revolution.
In the rural districts the clergy had much influence; they were supported by the peasants, and the diets of Tirol and Vorarlberg, where there was a clerical majority, refused to carry out the school law.
Upon the completion of unity, elementary schools were founded everywhere; but, though education was free, the indigence of the peasants in some regions prevented them from taking full advantage of the opportunities offered.
The women of the peasants of Upper Egypt perform strange dances, &c., at funerals, which are regarded partly as relics of ancient Egyptian customs.
The docile, yet robust and hardy peasants, under their foreign leaders, gained an unbroken series of successes in the first Syrian.
The earlier merciless practice had been in theory abolished by a decree based on the German system, published in 1880; but owing to defective organization, and internal disturbances induced by Khedive Ismails follies, the law had not been applied, and the 6000 recruits collected at Cairo in January 1883 represented the biggest and strongest peasants who could not purchase exemption by bribing the officials concerned.
As an experiment the police is now a voluntary service, except in Alexandria and Cairo, for which cities peasants are conscripted for the police under army conditions.
He proclaimed himself a prophet, and was soon followed by between 20,000 and 30,000 insurgents, mostly peasants, but some of them deserters from the Nizm Gedid, for that force was yet in a half-organized state, and in part declared for the impostor.
In January 1814 he had 14,000 peasants at work on the castle of Argiro Castro, and about 1500 erecting a fort at Porto Palermo, nearly opposite Corfu."
The independent tenure of the land by a vast number of small farmers, who are their own masters, gives an air of carelessness, almost of truculence, to the well-to-do Danish peasants.
The peasants hold about 73% of all the land according to its value.
At the bottom of the social ladder lay the peasants, whose condition had decidedly deteriorated.
The price of corn continued 1746/730= to fall; the migration of the peasantry assumed alarming proportions; and at last, " to preserve the land " as well as to increase the defensive capacity of the country, the national militia was re-established by the decree of the 4th of February 1733, which at the same time bound to the soil all peasants between the age of nine and forty.
These charges gathered weight until the minister was forced to resign in July 1908, and in September he was arrested on a charge of forgery in his capacity as director of the Zealand Peasants' Savings Bank.
He did much too for the economic development of Prussia, especially for agriculture; he established colonies, peopling them with immigrants, extended the canal system, drained and diked the great marshes of the Oderbruch, turning them into rich pasturage, encouraged the planting of fruit trees and of root crops; and, though in accordance with his ideas of discipline he maintained serfdom, he did much to lighten the burdens of the peasants.
These sons of poor peasants, artisans or tradesmen are already disposed to narrow fanaticism, and generally take up study as a means of livelihood rather than from genuine religious interest.
He attempted no subjects at all commensurate with those of his great woodcuts, but contented himself for the most part with Madonnas, single figures of scripture or of the saints, some nude mythologies of a kind wholly new in northern art and founded upon the impressions received in Italy, and groups, sometimes bordering on the satirical, of humble folk and peasants.
The crisis came in the socalled Peasants' War in South Germany in 1525.
The latter supplied only the rough materials; the Gotz von Berlichingen whom Goethe drew, with his lofty ideals of right and wrong, and his enthusiasm for freedom, is a very different personage from the unscrupulous robber-knight of the 16th century, the rough friend of Franz von Sickingen and of the revolting peasants.
The empire was only saved by an outbreak of plague amongst the invaders and the bravery of the Bulgarian peasants.
Pious parents, whether among the burghers or peasants, seem to have taught their children a simple evangelical faith.
The combination suggested an alliance between the lesser knights and the peasants, dreaded by all the ruling classes.
From this time onwards to the outbreak of the Peasants' War (1525) Luther was the real leader of the German nation, and everything seemed to promise a gradual reformation without tumult.
The Peasants' War ended this anticipation.
He did his best therefore to prevent the rising and risked his life among the infuriated peasants as readily as when he stood before the emperor and the diet.
In the end the rebellion, formidable as it seemed for a few months, was crushed, and a heavier yoke was laid on the shoulders of the unfortunate peasants.
During the storm of the Peasants' War (13th of June 1525) Luther married Catherine von Bora, the daughter of a noble but impoverished family belonging to Meissen.
Above all Luther had good grounds for believing that at the conference at Memmingen friends of Zwingli had helped to organize a Peasants' War and to link the social revolution to the religious awakening.
The Peasants' War during the Reformation period first broke out in Bruchsal.
He succeeded beyond expectation, and with his " Christian army of the Holy Faith " (Esercito Cristiano della Santa Fede), consisting of brigands, convicts, peasants and some soldiers, marched through the kingdom plundering, burning and massacring.
In 1719, while Prince Elbeuf of the house of Lorraine, in command of the armies of Charles VI., was seeking crushed marble to make plaster for his new villa near Portici, he learned from the peasants that there were in the vicinity some pits from which they not only quarried excellent marble, but had extracted many statues in the course of years (see Jorio, Notizia degli scavi d'Ercolano, Naples, 1827).
The name rayah is most commonly used of the peasants, but it does not apply only to the agricultural populations.
The development of feudal society, of centralizing kingship and ultimately of a system of common law, brought about great changes which all hinge on the fundamental fact that the kings, while increasing the power of the state in other respects, surrendered it completely as regards the relations between the peasants and their lords.
From the close of the 13th century downwards countless transactions on the basis of leases for terms of years occur between the peasants themselves, any suitably kept set of 14th-century court rolls containing entries in which such and such a villein is said to appear in the halimote and to surrender for the use of another person named a piece of land belonging to the holding.
There were even whole bodies of peasants called Molmen, because they had bought off work from the lord by settling with him on the basis of money rents.
It is a fact of first-rate magnitude that in the 15th century customary relations on one hand, the power of government on the other, ripened, as it were, to that extent that the judges of the king began to take cognizance of the relations of the peasants to their lords.
In 287 he suppressed the rising of the peasants (Bagaudae) in Gaul, but in 289, after a three years' struggle, his colleague and he were compelled to acquiesce in the assumption by his lieutenant Carausius (who had crossed over to Britain) of the title of Augustus.
During the Peasants' War it was captured by the rebels and during the Seven Years' War by the Hanoverians.
The peasants either became nomads themselves or took refuge in the towns or the mountains.
This diet was on the old Swedish model, consisting of representatives of the four estates - nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants - sitting and voting in separate " Houses."
His predecessor having created an order of nobility, - counts, barons and nobles, Gustavus Adolphus in the beginning of the 17th century established the diet of Finland, composed of the four orders of the nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants.
Many of the popular Finnish authors of our day are peasants.
It was long considered to be wholly inaccessible, but was first conquered in 1804 by three Tirolese peasants, of whom the chief was Josef Pichler.
In the year 1870 - a date that for many reasons marks the opening of an important era in modern Welsh history - the dissenting bodies of Wales were supporting two quarterly, sixteen monthly and ten weekly papers, all published in the vernacular and all read largely by peasants, colliers and artisans.
Mention must be made of the Rebecca riots in1843-1844in South Wales, wherein many toll gates were destroyed by mobs of countrymen dressed in female garb, " as the daughters of Rebecca about to possess the gates of their enemies "; and the Anti-Tithe agitation of1885-1886- largely traceable to the inflammatory language used concerning clerical tithe by certain organs of the vernacular press - which led to some disorderly scenes between distraining parties of police and crowds of excited peasants in the more remote rural districts.
In 1852 he produced "Girls Sewing," "Man Spreading Manure"; 1853, "The Reapers"; 1854, "Church at Greville"; 1855 - the year of the International Exhibition, at which he received a medal of second class - "Peasant Grafting a Tree"; 1857, "The Gleaners"; 1859, "The Angelus," "The Woodcutter and Death"; 1860, "Sheep Shearing"; 1861, "Woman Shearing Sheep," "Woman Feeding Child"; 1862, "Potato Planters," "Winter and the Crows"; 1863, "Man with Hoe," "Woman Carding"; 1864, "Shepherds and Flock, Peasants Bringing Home a Calf Born in the Fields"; 1869, "Knitting Lesson"; 1870, "Buttermaking"; 1871, "November - recollection of Gruchy."