Peaks Sentence Examples
The highest of the volcanic peaks rises to 12,000 ft.
The day grew hot fast, though the surrounding peaks shaded her from the sun itself.
The actual highest summit is wholly French and is the loftiest peak in the Alps, and in Europe also, if certain peaks in the Caucasus be excluded.
Many of the peaks upon them rise higher than 12,000 ft., and the passes lie at altitudes of 11,000 ft.
All the peaks remained snow-capped, giving sharply defined contrast to the green of their slopes and the blue of the summer sky.Advertisement
All three Paris curves show three peaks, the first and third representing the ordinary forenoon and afternoon maxima.
Already in 1884 a protocol had been signed between the contending parties, by which it was agreed that the frontier should follow the line where " the highest peaks of the Andine ranges divide the watershed."
South of the lake two ranges of the Tian-shan, separated by the valley of the Naryn, stretch in the same direction, lifting up their icy peaks to 16,000 and 18,000 ft.; while westwards from the lake the precipitous slopes of the Alexander chain, 9000 to io,000 ft.
The highest known peaks rise to 8000 ft., some of them being volcanic.
The snow-clad peaks of the main Caucasus, descending by short, steep slopes, fringe the valley on the north, while an abrupt escarpment, having the characteristics of a border ridge of the Armenian highlands, fronts it on the south.Advertisement
The Anti-Atlas or Jebel Saghru, also known as the Lesser Atlas, running parallel to and south of the central range, is one of the least elevated chains in the system, having a mean altitude of not more than 5000 ft., although some peaks and even passes exceed 6000 ft.
The Jurjura range, extending through Kabylia from Algiers to Bougie, contains the peaks of Lalla Kedija (7542 ft.), the culminating point of the maritime chains, and Babor (6447 ft.).
What we had supposed to be peaks were in reality a thousand glittering spires.
They were at another discreet location, this one nestled between the peaks of two mountains.
The warmth of the evening chased out Bird Song's guests—all non-dieters probably queuing up for ice cream, or maybe simply promenading the Victorian village streets as alpenglow painted the surrounding peaks in pink.Advertisement
Dean pointed out the peaks that ringed them; Cirque and Teakettle Mountains, and Potosi Peak, all over 13,000 feet, and Mount Sneffles, standing tall beyond the others, stretching 14,150 feet to the sky.
In Victoria the greatest elevation is reached in the peaks of Mount Bogong (6508 ft.) and Mount Feathertop (6303 ft.), both of which lie north of the Dividing Range; in the main range Mount Hotham (6100 ft.) and Mount Cobberas (6025 ft.) are the highest summits.
As the tableland runs northward it decreases both in height and width, until it narrows to a few miles only, with an elevation of scarcely 1500 ft.; under the name of the Blue Mountains the plateau widens again and increases in altitude, the chief peaks being Mount Clarence(4000 ft.), Mount Victoria (3525 ft.), and Mount Hay (3270 ft.).
The higher Australian peaks in the south-east look just what they are, the worn and denuded stumps of mountains, standing for untold ages above the sea.
Having left the tree-line far behind him, nothing is visible to the traveller for miles around but barren peaks and torn crags in indescribable confusion.Advertisement
The whole residency is mountainous, but there are two main parallel ranges of peaks along the northern boundary and through the middle.
The rivers of the province belong to the basins of the Indian Ocean and the Java Sea respectively, the water-parting being formed by the western and eastern ends respectively of the northern and southern lines of mountain peaks.
It extends along the right bank of the Rhine from Basel to Kehl, and includes the principal peaks of the southern Black Forest and the Freiburg valley.
Besides the lofty central masses enumerated there are two other lofty peaks, outliers from the main range, and separated from it by valleys of considerable extent.
A mountain, usually with very steep peaks, forms the centre, if not the whole island; on all sides steep ridges descend to the sea, or, as is oftener the case, to a considerable belt of flat land.Advertisement
There is excellent yachting in the bay, which contains many beautiful islands, such as Peaks and Cushing's islands.
This range is the water-parting for nearly all the westward-flowing streams of the state, and is by far the steepest and most rugged within Nevada, a number of its peaks attaining a height of 11,000 or 12,000 ft.
The other great peaks of the group are Braeriach (4248 ft.) and Cairntoul (4241 ft.), and 6 m.
From the central peaks, of which the axis runs from W.N.W.
From the central peaks fifteen glaciers, all lying west of the main divide, descend to the north and south, the two largest being the Lewis and Gregory glaciers, each about 1 m.
The highest point in the Julian Alps is formed by the three sugar-loaf peaks of the Triglav or Terglou (9394 ft.), which offers one of the finest views in the whole of the Alps, and which bears on its northern declivity the only glacier in the province.
Other high peaks are the Mangart (8784 ft.) and the Jaluz (8708 ft.).
Four peaks along the Blue Ridge have an elevation exceeding 5000 ft.
Other noteworthy peaks are Black Brother (6690 ft.) and Hairy Bear (6681 ft.), the next highest mountains.
Many of the neighbouring mountain ridges have uniform crests, but a greater number terminate in numerous peaks, some sharp, rugged and rocky, but more of them rounded domes.
These mountains, which include the highest peaks in the world, rise, along their entire length, far above the line of perpetual snow, and few of the passes across the main ridges are at a less altitude than 15,000 or 16,000 feet.
South and west the bounding territories are well fixed in geographical position by the Indian survey determinations of the value of Himalayan peaks.
The highest peaks in the Karawankas are the Grosse Mittagskogel (7033 ft.), the Hoch-Obir (7023 ft.) and the Petzen (6934 ft.).
Ansariya, which presently springs up into a high chain of Jurassic limestone with basaltic intrusions, whose peaks rise to 10,000 ft.
The frontier line follows the crest of the mountains, three peaks some io,000 or more ft.
In winter the effect is heightened by the snow which caps all the higher peaks.
The picturesque valley of the Tordino is here dominated by the peaks of the Gran Sasso d'Italia.
Along the western shore woods and prairies alternate, interspersed with a few high peaks.
On the north are the Sudetes, namely the Altvater Gebirge, with the highest peaks the Grosser Schneeberg (4664 ft.) and the Altvater (4887 ft.), which sink gradually towards the west, where the valley of the Oder forms a break between the German mountains and the Carpathians.
Within a hundred miles of the mountains there is constantly in view, in clear weather, the beautiful line of snowy peaks along the western horizon.
The peaks of these mountains are majestic, many of them reaching a height of more than two miles above the sea.
The principal peaks are the Reiftrager (4430 ft.), the Hohe Rad (4968 ft.), the Great Sturmhaube (4862 ft.), the Little Sturmhaube (4646 ft.), and, near the east extremity, the Schneekoppe or Riesenkoppe (5266 ft.), the loftiest mountain in northern or central Germany.
As in the peaks of Orjen, Orobac, Samotica and Veliki Kap, their height often exceeds 6000 ft.
The snow-fall is slight, and, except on a few of the loftier peaks, the snow soon melts.
It has an average height of over 1 i,000 ft., whereas the loftiest peaks in Algeria do not exceed 8000 ft., and the highest in Tunisia are under 6000 ft.
Although only one or two peaks reach the line of perpetual snow, several of the loftiest summits are snowclad during the greater part of the year.
Along the west coast of Greenland the mountains are generally not quite so high, but even here peaks of 5000 and 6000 ft.
Many peaks of the ranges in this section have an altitude of 11,000 to 13,000 ft., and the elevation of the passes leading over the ranges varies between 7000 and io,000 ft.
The highest peaks are situated in the still unexplored district of Talikan, N.W.
It also has many peaks over 10,000 ft.
The border-ridges of the Alai Mountains, the Khantengri group, the Sailughem range and the West Sayan contain the highest peaks of their respective regions.
Although attaining altitudes of 6000 to 10,000 ft., the mountain peaks of East Siberia do not reach the snow-line, which is found only on the Munku-Sardyk in East Sayan, above 10,000 ft.
It is pleasantly situated in the valley of the Guns, and is dominated towards the west by the peaks of Altenhaus (2000 ft.) and of the Geschriebene Stein (2900 ft.).
As the Hindu Kush gradually recedes from the Ab-i-Panja and turns south-westwards it gains in altitude, and we find prominent peaks on the crest which measure more than 24,000 ft.
Even here, however, the main central water-divide, or axis of the chain, is apparently not the line of highest peaks, which must be looked for to the south, where the great square-headed giant called Tirach Mir dominates Chitral from a southern spur.
It is this range, crowned by peaks of 22,000 ft.
There are several peaks in the Ruby Mines district which rise beyond 7000 ft.
The deodar forms forests on the mountains of Afghanistan, North Beluchistan and the north-west Himalayas, flourishing in all the higher mountains from Nepal up to Kashmir, at an elevation of from 5500 to 12,000 ft.; on the peaks to the northern side of the Boorung Pass it grows to a height of 60 to 70 ft.
It contains a regular chain of volcanic peaks overlooking the coastregion of Tarapaca.
In rear of Moquegua there is a group of volcanic peaks, clustering round those of Ubinas and Huaynaputina.
During the rainy season, from October to May, the sky is generally clear at dawn, and the magnificent snowy peaks are clearly seen.
Mr Forbes says that the peaks of Illampu (21,709 ft.) and Illimani (21,014 ft.) in Bolivia are Silurian and fossiliferous to their summits.
In the Pasud taluk, however, there are wide stretches of woodland, while some of the peaks rise to a height of 2000 ft., the scenery (especially during the rains) being very beautiful.
The department includes an arid, sand-covered region on the coast traversed by deep gorges formed by river courses, and a partly barren, mountainous region inland composed of the high Cordillera and its spurs toward the coast, between which are numerous highly fertile valleys watered by streams from the snow-clad peaks.
The provinces of Hida and Etchiu are bounded on the east by a chain of mountains including, or having in their immediate vicinity, the highest peaks in Japan after Fuji.
Farther south, in the same range, stands Ontake (10,450 ft.), the second highest mountain in Japan proper (as distinguished from Formosa); and other remarkable though not so lofty peaks mark the same regions.
In the north of the main island there are no peaks of remarkable height.
A little farther south enclosing the fertile plain of Aizu (Aizu-taira, as it is called) several important peaks are found, among them being lide-san (6332 ft.) Azuma-yama (7733 ft.), which, after a long interval of quiescence, has given many evidences of volcanic activity during recent years; Nasu-dake (6296 ft.), an active volcano; and Bandai-san (6037 ft.), A terrible interest attaches to the last-named mountain, for, after having remained quiet so long as to lull the inhabitants of the neigh.
Farther south, in the province of Kai (KOshiu), and separating two great rivers, the Fuji-kawa and the Tenriu-gawa, there lies a range of hills with peaks second only to those of the Japanese Alps spoken of above.
The highest is Ishizuchi-zan (7727 ft.), but there are several peaks varying from 3000 to 6000 ft.
Kishi, though abounding in mountain chains, independent or connected, is not remarkable for lofty peaks.
The Carpathians, which only in a few places attain an altitude of over 8000 ft., lack the bold peaks, the extensive snow-fields, the large glaciers, the high waterfalls and the numerous large lakes which are found in the Alps.
The principal peaks are Rusky Put (4264 ft.), Popadje (5690 ft.), Bistra (5936 ft.), Pop Ivan (6214 ft.), Tomnatik (5035 ft.), Giumaleu (6077 ft.) and Cserna Gora (6505 ft.), the culminating peak of the whole range.
The post commands an excellent view of the Columbia, and of the mountain peaks, Mt Hood,.
Michael Scot (1175-1234), acting as a confederate of the Evil One (so the fable runs) cleft Eildon Hill, then a single cone, into the three existing peaks.
Of the sister peaks, Kibo and Mawenzi, the latter is far the oldest and has beengreatly denuded, while Kibo retains its crateriform shape intact.
The group has numerous other lofty peaks, of which the chief are the Pizzo d Intermesole (8680 ft.), the Corno Piccolo (8650 ft.), the Pizzo Cefalone (8307 ft.) and the Monte della Portella (7835 ft.).
The peaks of the Guatemala Cordillera rise round it, culminating near its southern end in the volcanoes of San Pedro (7000 ft.) and Atitlan (11,719 ft.).
The Algau Alps contain several lofty peaks, the highest of which is Madelegabel (8681 ft.).
On the south, east and west, these ranges, though wild and rugged, are of no great elevation, but on the north the Pyrenees attain their greatest altitude in the peaks of Aneto (11,168 ft.) and Monte Perdido (10,998 ft.) - also known as Las Tres Sorores, and, in French, as Mont Perdu.
The island is throughout mountainous, presenting from the sea in some directions the appearance of a series of jagged peaks.
The highest peak is Mount Marcy (5344 ft.), though associated with it are several other peaks with an elevation from 4000 to 5000 ft.
The general height of the ridges and peaks is about 8000 ft.
The action of water and ice upon the soft sandstone of which the hills here are chiefly composed has produced deep gorges and isolated fantastic peaks, which, however, though both beautiful and interesting, by no means recall the characteristics of Swiss scenery.
The highest summit attains a height of 1830 ft.; but the more interesting peaks, as the Lilienstein, Kiinigstein and the Bastei, are lower.
Upon this limestone plateau there is a central area of high ridges, among them the rough crags of Harney, Custer and Dodge peaks.
In Maine four peaks exceed 3000 ft., including Katandin (5200 ft.), Mount Washington, in the White Mountains (6279 ft.), Adams (5805), Jefferson (5725), Clay (5554), Monroe (5390), Madison (5380), Lafayette (5269); and a number of summits rise above 4000 ft.
The Unaka Ranges (including the Black and Smoky Mountains) have eighteen peaks higher than 5000 ft., and eight surpassing 6000 ft.
Several quiescent volcanic peaks, reaching 5700 ft., occupy most of the island, and are covered with forests.
But although the crests of its component ranges reach altitudes of 21,500 to 22,000 ft., they are not as a rule overtopped by individual peaks of commanding and towering elevation, as the Himalayas are, but run on the whole tolerably uniform and relatively at little greater altitude than the lofty valleys which separate them one from another.
Although they all decrease in altitude from west to east, they nevertheless reach elevations of 19,000 ft., with individual peaks ascending some2000-2500ft.
In the Kalta-alaghan, which is the culminating range of this part of the Kuen-lun, and is overtopped by towering, snow-clad peaks, the passes climb to considerably higher altitudes, namely, 14,560, 1 4,47 0, 1 4,43 0 and 14,190 ft., while the pass of Avraz-davan ascends to 15,700 ft.
The Arka-tagh ranges do not culminate in lofty jagged, pinnacled peaks, but in broad rounded, flattened domes, a characteristic feature of the system throughout.
The view that meets the eye southwards from the heights of the Kalta-alaghan is the picture of a chaos of mountain chains, ridges, crests, peaks, spurs, detached masses, in fact, montane conformations of every possible description and in every possible arrangement.
In fact, the region is dominated by three ranges of nearly equal altitude, all lifting many of their peaks above the snow-line.
As a rule the passes are at an altitude of 12,000 to 14,000 ft., and the peaks reach 18,000 to 20,000 ft.
The northern portion of the country is mountainous, some of the peaks rising to a height of 5000 ft.
The surface is formed of cement moulded over metal gimmel-work, and arranged to form ledges and boulders, peaks and escarpments, and faced with coloured sand and paint.
On the mountains and the high plateaus the winter is often very severe; snow lies for six months on the higher peaks of the Kabyle mountains.
The average depth varies from 1500 to 2500 fathoms, and from this level innumerable volcanic ridges and peaks rise almost or quite to the surface, their summits for the most part occupied by atolls and reefs of coral formation, while interspersed with these are depressions, mostly of small area, among which the deepest soundings recorded have been obtained.
The peaks or sharp cones in which they Islands Of The Pacific Ocean The above figures give a total land area for the whole region of 69,561 sq.
At first it is rather a succession of isolated volcanic cones than a continuous ridge, the most conspicuous peaks being Orosi (5185 ft.), the four-crested Rincon de la Viej a (4500), Miravalles (4698) and Tenorio (6800).
Poas (8895), the scene of a violent eruption in 1834, begins a fresh series of igneous peaks, some with flooded craters, some with a constant escape of smoke and vapour.
The site was chosen by Epaminondas and lay on the western slope of the mountain which dominates the Messenian plain and culminates in the two peaks of Ithome and Eua.
The remains of transverse and other ranges are to be seen in the isolated ridges and peaks which rise above the level of the table-land, in some cases forming well-defined basins; otherwise the surface is singularly uniform in character and level.
In the sierras, above the tierras frias, which are not " cold lands " at all, are the colder climates of the temperate zone, suitable for cereals, grazing and forest industries, and, farther up, the isolated peaks which rise into the regions of snow and ice.
The direction of the great volcanic cones, which rise in an irregular line above it, is not identical with the main axis of the Sierra itself, except near the Mexican frontier, but has a more southerly trend, especially towards Salvador; here the base of many of the igneous peaks rests among the southern foothills of the range.
Although the relief is strong, the mountain forms are rounded rather than rugged; few of the summits deserve or receive the name of peaks; some are called domes, from their broadly rounded tons, others are known as balds, becatise the widespread forest cover is replaced over their heads by a grassy cap.
Travellers whose idea of picturesqueness is based upon the abnormally sharpened peaks of the ice-sculptured Alps are disappointed with the scenery of the central and southern ranges of the Rocky Mountains.
In this central region, however, it is only by way of exception that the cirques were so far enlarged by retrogressive glacial erosion as to sharpen the preglacial dome-like summits into acute peaks; and in no case did glacial action here extend down to the plains at the eastern base of the mountains; but the widened, trough-like glaciated valleys frequently descend to the level of the elevated intermont basins, where moraines were deployed forward on the basin floor.
The Arctic or ArcticAlpine zone covers in the United States only the tops of a few mountains which extend above the limit of trees, such as Mt Katahdin in Maine, Mt Washington and neighboring peaks in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, and the loftier peaks of the Rocky, Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains.
Near the height of land between British Columbia and Alberta there are many peaks which rise from 10,000 to 12,000 ft.
It rises in a pocket of lofty peaks at an altitude of 10,400 ft.
The deep valley of the Kinzig divides it laterally into halves, of which the southern, with an average elevation of 3000 ft., is the wilder and contains the loftiest peaks, which again mostly lie towards the western side.
The summits of the highest peaks are bare, but even on them snow seldom lies throughout the summer.
The principal peaks of this range are grouped in three knots which divide the island into three portions.
Towards the north, opposite the Locrian territory, the highest peaks are Mts.
This island has several lofty peaks; Ponnobori-yama near the eastcoast, and Chachanobori and Rurindake in the north.
Its southern border is occupied by the snow-clad peaks of the eastern Pyrenees, the highest of which within the department is the Pic de Montcalm (10,512 ft.).
The principal peaks in the Julian Alps are the Monte Canin (8469 ft.), the Manhart (8784 ft.), the Jalouc (8708 ft.), the Krn (7367 ft.), the Matajur (5386 ft.), and the highest peak in the whole range, the Triglav or Terglou (9394 ft.).
Unlike the other three it has no peaks, but rises gradually to a central ridge about 1900 ft.
The chief peaks in the province are Kaisargarh (11,300 ft.) and Pir Ghol (11,580 ft.) in Waziristan; Shekh Budin (4516 ft.), in the small range; Sikaram (15,621 ft.) in the Safed Koh; Istragh (18,900 ft.), Kachin (22,641 ft.) and Tirach Mir (25,426 ft.), in the Hindu Kush on the northern border of the Chitral agency; while the Kagan peaks in Hazara district run from 10,000 ft.
The valleys are remarkable for beautiful scenery, - peaks, cliffs, lateral ravines, cascades and tropical vegetation.
The peaks of the mountain are irregular, abrupt and broken; its sides are deeply furrowed by gorges and ravines; the shore plain is broken by ridges and by broad and deep valleys; no other island of the group is so well watered on all sides by large mountain streams; and it is called " garden isle."
On the north, its valley is bounded by the wild Sierra Morena; on the south, by the mountains of the Mediterranean littoral, among which the Sierra Nevada, with its peaks of Mulhacen (11,421 ft.)and Veleta(11,148 ft.), is the most conspicuous.
Its peaks are 4000 to 5000 feet lower than Mount Everest, but its passes average 3000 feet higher than the Himalayan passes."
Other hills in the island are the Cuilags (1420 ft.) and the Knap of Trewieglen (1308 ft.), besides several peaks exceeding 1000 ft.
The derivation of the name Alps is still very uncertain, some writers connecting it with a Celtic root alb, said to mean height, while others suggest the Latin adjective albus (white), referring to the colour of the snowy peaks.
The Alps, therefore, are not composed of a single range (as shown on the old maps) but of a great " divide," flanked on either side by other important ranges, which, however, do not comprise such lofty peaks as the main watershed.
Beyond the Col de Tenda the direction is first roughly west, then north-west to the Rocher des Trois Eveques (939 0 ft.), just south of the Mont Enchastraye (9695 ft.), several peaks of about 10,000 ft.
From the Rocher des Trois Eveques the watershed runs due north for a long distance, though of the two loftiest peaks of this region one, the Aiguille de Chambeyron (11,155 ft.), is just to the west, and the other, the Monte Viso (12,609 ft.), is just to the east of the watershed.
Thence the direction taken is north as far as the eastern summit (11,693 ft.) of the Levanna, the watershed rising in a series of snowy peaks, though the loftiest point of the region, the Pointe de Charbonel (12,336 ft.), stands a little to the west.
Once more the chain bends to the north-west, rising in several lofty peaks (the highest is the Aiguille de la Grande Sassiere, 12,323 ft.), before attaining the considerable depression of the Little St Bernard Pass.
A number of high peaks crown our watershed before it attains the Mont Dolent (12,543 ft.).
But, though it rises in a number of lofty peaks, such as the Mont Velan (12,353 ft.), the Matterhorn (14,782 ft.), the Lyskamm (14,889 ft.), the Nord End of Monte Rosa (15,132 ft.), and the Weissmies (13,226 ft.), yet many of the highest points of the region, such as the Grand Combin (14,164 ft.), the Dent Blanche (14,318 ft.), the Weisshorn (14,804 ft.), the true summit or Dufourspitze (15,217 ft.) of Monte Rosa itself, and the Dom (14,942 ft.), all rise on its northern slope and not on the main watershed.
Our selected divisions relate only to the High Alps between the Col de Tenda and the route over the Radstddter Tauern, while in each of the 18 subdivisions the less elevated outlying peaks are regarded as appendages of the higher group within the topographical limits of which they rise.
No attempt, of course, has been made to give a complete catalogue of the peaks and passes of the Alps, while in the case of the peaks the culminating point of a lower halfdetached group has been included rather than the loftier spurs of the higher and main group; in the case of the passes, the villages or valleys they connect have been indicated, and also the general character of the route over each pass.
This range contains all the highest peaks in the Alps, save the Finsteraarhorn (14,026) in the Bernese Oberland.
Nor did it fare much better with the high peaks, though the two earliest recorded ascents were due to non-natives, that of the Rochemelon in 1358 having been undertaken in fulfilment of a vow, and that of the Mont Aiguille in 1492 by order of Charles VIII.
Limits of space forbid us to trace out in detail the history of the exploration of the High Alps, but the two sub-joined lists give the dates of the conquest of about fifty of the greater peaks (apart from the two climbed in 1358 and in 1492, see above), achieved before and after 1st January 1858.
The southern half on the other hand is covered by a mountain range whose chief peaks are situated along the southern border, namely Halimun mountain, the volcanoes Salak, Pangerango and Gede, and the Megamendung.
An Ambracian reinforcement was annihilated at one of the peaks called Idomene, and a disgraceful truce was accepted by the surviving Spartan leader Menedaeus.
The mountains rarely take the form of peaks.
The mountains are the northern continuation of the Abyssinian table-land, and some of the peaks are over 6000 ft.
The highest peaks, going from north to south, are Jebels Gharib, Dukhan, Es Shayib, Fatira, Abu Tiur, Zubara and Hammada (Hamata).
Among the highest peaks are Negoi (8345 ft.), Bucsecs (8230 ft.), Pietrosu (7544 ft.) and Konigstein (7352 ft.).
Alhama is finely situated on a ledge of rock which overlooks a deep gorge traversed by the river Marchan or Alhama; while the rugged peaks of the Sierra de Alhama rise behind it to a height of 6800 ft.
Their highest summit north of the Usk, on the eastern side, where they are known as the Black Mountains, or sometimes the Black Forest Mountains, is Pen y Gader (2624 ft.) between Talgarth and Llanthony, and on the south-west the twin peaks of the Mynydd Du ("Black Mountain") or the so-called Carmarthenshire Vans or Beacons, only the higher of which, Fan Brycheiniog (2632 ft.), is, however, in Breconshire; while the centre of the crescent is occupied by the masses of the Brecknockshire Beacons or Vans (often called the Beacons simply), the highest point of which, Pen y Fan, formerly also known as Cadair Arthur, or Arthur's Chair, attains an altitude of 2910 ft.
It nowhere rises into peaks, and only a few of its rounded summits reach 3000 ft.; the successive hills form a continuous comb; the north-west slopes are precipitous and seamed with winding gorges.
Nowhere in the world can there be found another such assemblage of snow-clad peaks, several of which are active volcanoes.
From the time of Humboldt's visit to this remarkable region down to the present time there have been many diverse calculations of the height of these peaks, but with a considerable variation.
These changes in elevation, if correct, are due to seismic disturbances, a cause that may be partially responsible for the varying computations of the heights of these well-known peaks.
It is the most northern of the higher peaks of Ecuador, with the exception of Cotocachi, and possibly of Chiles on the Colombian frontier, and reaches the elevation of 15,033 ft.
Sincholagua and Ruminagui are the next two peaks, going southward, and then the unrivalled cone of Cotopaxi - the highest active volcano in the world - from whose summit smoke curls upward unceasingly.
Hassaurek describes as " the most beautiful of all the snow peaks in the country."
Its summit comprises a group of eight snow-clad peaks, and its crater is surrounded by a steep and jagged wall of rocks.
Turning to the Cordillera Occidental and taking the principal peaks in order from south to north, the first to claim attention is Chimborazo (from Chimpu-raza, " mountain of snow "), the highest summit of Ecuador, and once believed to be the culminating point of the Andes.
Iliniza, which stands west by north of Cotopaxi, has two pyramidal peaks, and is one of the most interesting mountains of the Ecuadorean group. It stands at the western end of the Tiupullo ridge, and overlooks the Quito basin to the north-east.
Its summit comprises three groups of rocky peaks, of which the most westerly, Rucu-Pichincha (Old Pichincha), contains the crater, a funnelshaped basin 2460 ft.
The highest elevations are generally covered with ice and snow, and glaciers, according to Whymper, are to be found upon no less than nine of the culminating peaks, and possibly upon two or three more.
The condor (Sarcorhamphus gryphus) is commonly found between the elevations of 6000 and 16,000 ft., rarely, if ever, descending to the lowland plains or rising above the lower peaks.
The general height of the mountain-range on Vancouver Island is from 2000 to 3000 ft.; some peaks are 6000 ft.; and Victoria Peak is 7484 ft.
It has no high mountains, but its surface being very hilly - four of the peaks rise to a height over 1500 ft.
Among the higher peaks are Askival (2659 ft.), Ashval (2552), Sgor-nan-Gillean (2503) and Allival (2368).
More precisely, they may be considered as two groups, one of which, including Teneriffe, Grand Canary, Palma, Hierro and Gomera, consists of mountain peaks, isolated and rising directly from an ocean of great depth; while the other, comprising Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and six uninhabited islets, is based, on a single submarine plateau, of far less depth.
Teneriffe and Gomera, the only members of the principal group which have a common base, may be regarded as the twin peaks of one great volcanic mass.
Western Palestine is a region intersected by groups of mountain peaks and ranges, forming a southern extension of the Lebanon system and running southward till they finally lose themselves in the desert.
From this point southward the country assumes the appearance which is familiar to those who have visited Jerusalem - an elevated plateau, bounded on the west by the precipitous cliffs known as the mountains of Moab, with but a few peaks, such as Jebel Shihan (2781 ft.) and Jebel Neba (Nebo, 2643 ft.), conspicuous above the level of the ridge by reason of superior height.
There are about one hundred peaks, ranging from 1200 to 5000 ft.
Other noted peaks are M ` Intyre (5210 ft.), Haystack (4918), Dix (4916) and Whiteface (4871).
The mountain peaks are usually rounded and easily scaled, and as roads have been constructed over their slopes and in every direction through the forests, all points of interest may be easily reached by stage.
In early and middle Tertiary times, when the Indian peninsula was an island, and the sea which stretched into Europe washed the base of the Himalayan hills, Sokotra was in great part submerged and the great mass of limestone was deposited; but its higher peaks were still above water, and formed an island, peopled mainly by African species - the plants being the fragmentary remains of the old African flora - but with an admixture of eastern and other Asian forms. Thereafter it gradually rose, undergoing violent volcanic disturbance."
The culminating peaks of the Koh-i-Baba overlooking the sources of the Hari Rud, the Helmund, the Kunduz and the Kabul very nearly reach 17,000 ft.
These spurs retain a considerable altitude, for they are marked by peaks exceeding 11,000 ft.
There are peaks measuring over 12,000 ft.
These massive barriers have peaks of great height, culminating in the Takht-i-Suliman or Throne of Solomon, 11,317 ft.
The Vindhyas, however, are made up of several distinct hill systems. Two sacred peaks guard the flanks in the extreme east and west, with a succession of ranges stretching 800 m.
They consist of vast masses of forests, ridges and peaks, broken by cultivated valleys and broad high-lying plains.
But it is dotted with peaks and seamed with ranges exceeding 4000 ft.
Up or down this plain, at opposite seasons, sweep the monsoon winds, in a direction at right angles to that of their nominal course; and thus vapour which has been brought by winds from the Bay of Bengal is discharged as snow and rain on the peaks and hillsides of the Western Himalayas.
From this point the climb to the Plateau began through magnificent scenery of glaciers and peaks, the heights of which were estimated as 10,000, 15,000 and even 19,000 feet.
In Panay is Mt Madiaas (7264 ft.) and several other peaks exceeding 4000 ft.
The highest peaks in Masbate are about 2500 ft.
Out of the massif rise two peaks, "their bases confluent at a height of 8800 ft., their summits about 7 m.
Some forty peaks are catalogued between 5000 and 8000 ft., and there are eleven above 14,000.
Above the town to the north rise the snowclad peaks of the Bernina group. The railway goes on to Tirano, 16 m.
Others are Caistel Abhail (2 735 ft., "peaks of the castles"), Beinn Tarsuinn (2706 ft.), Cir Mhor (2618 ft.) and Beinn Nuis (2597 ft.).
Local glaciation has modified the higher levels of the Bighorn Mountains, giving glacial cirques, alpine peaks and many mountain lakes and waterfalls.
Various species of nutritious grasses cover much of the plains and foothills, and even clothe the mountain peaks.
It consists for the most part of isolated igneous peaks, sometimes connected by low intervening ridges.
In the Maribios district occur several volcanic lakelets, such as that of Masaya, besides numerous infernillos, low craters or peaks still emitting sulphurous vapour and smoke, and at night often lighting up the whole land with bluish flames.
Several minor ranges rise above the level of the eastern plateau, and in the south groups of volcanic peaks and cones extend for about 150 m.
The principal mountain chains are the Guadarrama, separating this province from Madrid; the Paramera and Sierra de Avila, west of the Guadarrama; and the vast wall of the Sierra de Gredos along the southern frontier, where its outstanding peaks rise to 6000 or even 8000 ft.
The ridges which ramify from the Paramera are covered with valuable forests of beeches, oaks and firs, presenting a striking contrast to the bare peaks of the Sierra de Gredos.
In its lowest portions just behind the front ranges are the natural "parks" - great plateaus basined by superb enclosing ranges; and to the west of these, and between them, and covering the remainder of the state east of the plateau region, is an entanglement of mountains, tier above tier, running from north to south, buttressed laterally with splendid spurs, dominated by scores of magnificent peaks, cut by river valleys, and divided by mesas and plateaus.
Cirques, valley troughs, numberless beautiful cascades, sharpened alpine peaks and ridges, glacial lakes, and valley moraines offer everywhere abundant evidence of glacial action, which has modified profoundly practically all the ranges.
Middle Park is not level, but is traversed thickly by low ranges like the Alleghanies; in the bordering mountain rim are several of the grandest mountain peaks and some of the most magnificent scenery of the state.
It forms the water-parting between the upper waters of the Canadian river and the Rio Grande, and contains many of the loftiest peaks in New Mexico, among them being Truchas (13,275 ft.), Costilla (12,634 ft.) and Baldy (12,623 ft.).
In the valleys there are usually about two snows a year and these quickly disappear; but on the mountain peaks and in the canyons the snow accumulates to great depths and forms a steady source of water-supply for the rivers.
It rises from the surrounding plains of Marwar like a precipitous granite island, its various peaks ranging from 4000 to 5653 feet.
The outline of the mountains is generally rounded, the rocks having been subjected to erosion from a very early geological age, but hard formations cause bold peaks at several points, as in Kebnekaise and the Sarjeksfj ?,ll.
This region is rainless, barren and inhospitable, absolutely destitute of vegetation except in some small river valleys where irrigation is possible, and on the slopes of some of the snow-covered peaks where the water from the melting snows nourishes a scanty and coarse vege tation before it disappears in the thirsty sands.
Beginning with the province of Aconcagua the coast elevations crystallize into a range of mountains, the Cordillera Maritima, which follows the shore line south to the province of Llanquihue, and is continued still farther south by the mountain range of Chiloe and the islands of the western coast, which are the peaks of a submerged mountain chain.
The Chilean lateral range, which extends from the 29th to the 19th parallels, traverses an elevated desert region and possesses several noteworthy peaks, among which are Cerro Bolson, 16,017 ft., and Cerro Dona Ines, 16,706 ft.
It has many peaks 9000 to 10,000 ft.
Some of these western ranges rise to considerable elevations; those forming the TurkoPersian frontier west of the lake of Urmia have peaks 11,000 ft.
Still farther south, towards Kerman, there are several peaks (BidKhan, Lalehzar, Shah-Kuh, Jamal Bariz, &c.) which rise to an elevation of 13,000 ft.
There are several important ranges in Khorasan, and one of them, the Binalud, west of Meshed and north of Nishapur, has several peaks of 11,000 to 12,000 ft.
The eastern portion of the state is open and highly cultivated; the western is diversified by hills and peaks, which form a continuation of the Aravalli range, from 12 to 20 m.
Near the south coast, west of the Bay of Elpaputeh, a complex mass of mountains forms a colossal pyramid, with peaks rising to nearly s000 ft.
At this point, as might be expected, are some of the grandest peaks and precipices in Baluchistan.
Secondly, to the west of this mountain wilderness, stretching upwards from the sea in a wedge form between the Brahui highlands and the group of towering peaks which enclose the Hingol river and abut on the sea at Malan, are the alluvial flats and delta of the Purali, forming the little province of Las Bela, the home of the Las Rajput.
Thence, bending slightly south, it extends in the line of snowy peaks which are seen from Simla to the famous peaks of Gangotri and Nanda Devi.
Interspersed between these main geological axes are many other minor ridges, on some of which are peaks of great elevation.
Shutting off the sources of the Indus affluents from those of the Central Asian system of hydrography, this great water-parting is distinguished by a group of peaks of which the altitude is hardly less than that of the Eastern Himalaya.
Although suggestions have been made of the existence of higher peaks north of the Himalaya than that which dominates the Everest group, no evidence has been adduced to support such a contention.
On the other hand the observations of Major Ryder and other surveyors who peaks.
J Y Y explored from Lhasa to the sources of the Brahmaputra and Indus, at the conclusion of the Tibetan mission in 1904, conclusively prove that Mount Everest, which appears from the Tibetan plateau as a single dominating peak, has no rival amongst Himalayan altitudes, whilst the very remarkable investigations made by permission of the Nepal durbar from peaks near Kathmandu in 1903, by Captain Wood, R.E., not only place the Everest group apart from other peaks with which they have been confused by scientists, isolating them in the topographical system of Nepal, but clearly show that there is no one dominating and continuous range indicating a main Himalayan chain which includes both Everest and Kinchinjunga.
The second is the zone of the snowy peaks and of the lower Himalaya, and is composed chiefly of crystalline and metamorphic rocks together with unfossiliferous sedimentary beds supposed to be of Palaeozoic age.
Taking the average elevation of the central axial line of snowy peaks as 19,000 ft., the average height of the passes is not more than 10,000 owing to this process of cutting down by erosion and gradual encroachment into the northern basin.
One half of the total mass of the atmosphere and three-fourths of the water suspended in it in the form of vapour lie below the average altitude of the Himalaya; and of the residue, one-half of the air and virtually almost all the vapour come within the influence of the highest peaks.
At the same time the rain is heavier as we approach the Himalaya and the greatest falls are measured in its outer ranges; but the quantity again diminishes as we pass onward across the chain, and on arriving at the border of Tibet, behind the great line of snowy peaks, the rain falls in such small quantities as to be hardly susceptible of measurement.
The Biafo glacier system, which lies in a long narrow trough extending south-west from Nagar on the Hunza to near the base of the Murtagh peaks, may be traced for 90 m.
Cultivation hardly extends above 7000 ft., except in the valleys behind the great snowy peaks, where a few fields of buckwheat and Tibetan barley are sown up to 11,000 or 12,000 ft.
North-east of Lake Titicaca there is a confused mass or knot (the Nudo de Apolobamba) of lofty intersecting ridges which include some of the highest peaks in South America.
The plateau is bleak and inhospitable in the north, barren and arid toward the south, containing great saline depressions covered with water in the rainy season, and broken by ridges and peaks, the highest being the Cerro de Tahua, 17,454 ft.
Overlooking the plateau from the west are the snowclad peaks of Pomarape (20,505 ft.), Parinacota (20,918 ft.), Sajama (21,047), Huallatiri (21,654), Lirima (19,128), and the three volcanic peaks, Oyahua (19,226), San Pedro y Pablo (19,423) and Licancaur (19,685).
The main part of this great range, known as the Cordillera Real, and one of the most imposing mountain masses of the world, extends from the Peruvian border south-east to the 18th parallel and exhibits a series of snowcrowned peaks, notably the triple-crested Illampu or Sorata (21,490 ft.), Illimani (Conway, 21,204), Cacaaca (20,571) and Chachacomani (21,434).
The more prominent peaks in and between these ranges are the Asanaque (16,857), Michaga (17,389), Cuzco (17,930), Potosi (15,381), Chorolque (18,480) and Tuluma (15,584).
Above these are cool, temperate slopes and valleys, and high above these, bleak, wind-swept passes and snowclad peaks.
The country possesses every gradation of temperature, from that of the tropical lowlands to the Arctic cold of the snow-capped peaks directly above.
It is situated at the foot of three front peaks of the Ochils - West Hill (1682 ft.), Middle Hill (1436 ft.) and Wood Hill (1723 ft.).
In the San Francisco mountains, in the north central part of the state, three peaks rise to from io,000 to 12,794 ft.; three others are above 9000 ft.; all are eruptive cones, and among the lesser summits are old cinder cones.
While the general elevation is 7000 to 9000 ft., the individual peaks, consisting largely of granites and metamorphic slates, reach altitudes of 10,000 ft.
That " soil " is thus prepared on barren rocks and mountain peaks may be concluded with some certainty.
The higher of the two peaks is known as Wallace's, seat, a tower, perhaps the one in which he was incarcerated, being named after him.
The region is made up in general of high ranges deeply glaciated, preserving some remnants of ancient glaciers, and having fine " Alpine " scenery, with many sharp peaks and ridges, U-shaped valleys, cirques, lakes and waterfalls.
Here also are the Kuitun (12,000 ft.) and several other lofty peaks.
The valley of the Bukhtarma, which has a length of 200 m., also has its origin at the foot of the Byelukha and the Kuitun peaks, and as it falls some 5000 ft.
South and south-east of Keweenaw Bay, in the Marquette iron district, is an irregular area of mountains, hills, swamps and lakes, some of the mountain peaks of the Huron Mountains (in Marquette county) rising to an elevation of 1400 ft.
Its principal peaks are 2393 and 2386 ft.
They consist of a series of ridges and peaks, with a breadth varying from 6 to 60 m.
The dazzling white effect of their peaks is produced, not by snow, as among the Himalayas, but by enormous masses of vitreous rose-coloured quartz.
Here some of the peaks rise to a height of over 7000 ft.; one of these, Mount Kosciusco, the highest peak in Australia, attains an elevation of 7328 ft.
The Alaskan Range, connecting with the Nutzotin and Skolai branches of the St Elias Range, lies a little farther inland; it is splendidly marked by many snowy peaks, including Mt.
At the head of Lynn Canal, the only place on the whole extent of the south-eastern Alaskan coast where a clear-cut waterparting is exhibited between the sea-board and interior drainage, the summits of the highest peaks in the Coast Range are 8000 to 9000 ft.
The surface is a gently rolling upland, forming a part of the " New England uplands," above which rise isolated mountain peaks and clusters of peaks, and below which are cut numerous river valleys.'
Few other regions have so many large lakes so variously ' This condition results from the fact that Maine and the adjacent region were worn down nearly to sea-level by stream erosion, except certain peaks and ridges inland; then the region was elevated and numerous river valleys were cut down below the general erosion surface formed before.
In both ranges, too, some of the highest summits stand on spurs of the main range, not on the main range itself; as Mont Perdu and Maladetta lie south of the main backbone of the Pyrenees, so Mount Elbruz and Kasbek, Dykh-tau, Koshtan-tau, Janga-tau and Shkara - all amongst the loftiest peaks of the Caucasus - stand on a subsidiary range north of the principal range or on spurs connecting the two.
But half a million of these people being Mahommedans, and refusing to submit to the yoke of Christian Russia, emigrated into Turkish territory List of Peaks in the west central Caucasus, with their altitudes, names and dates of mountaineers who have climbed them.
In this section of the Caucasus the loftiest peaks do not In addition to the peaks enumerated in the table, the following also exist between Elbruz and Kasbek all exceeding 13,000 ft.
Freshfield,' " consists of a number of short parallel or curved horseshoe ridges, crowned with rocky peaks and enclosing basins filled by the neves of great glaciers..
On the north the schists come first, sometimes rising into peaks and ridges in a state of ruin.
For the whole of that distance the main range keeps at an average elevation of 10,000 ft., though the peaks in many instances tower up 2000 to nearly 5000 ft.
Here the principal peaks, again found for the most part on the spurs and subsidiary ranges, are the Tsmiakom-khokh (13,570 ft.), Shan-tau (1 4,53 0 ft.), Kidenais-magali (13,840 ft.), Zilga-khokh (12,645 ft.), Zikari (12,565 ft.), Choukhi (12,110 ft.), Julti-dagh (12,430 ft.), Alakhun-dagh (12,690 ft.) and Maghi-dagh (12,445 ft.).
Upon it rise the conspicuous peaks of Tebulos-mta (14775 ft.), Tugo-mta (1 3795 ft.), Komito-tavi or Kachu (14,010 ft.), Donos-mta (13,560 ft.), Diklos-mta (13,740 ft.), Kvavlos-mta or Kolos-mta (13,080 ft.), Motshekh-tsferi (13,140 ft.) and Galavanas-tsferi (13,260 ft.).
On some of these peaks again there is a considerable amount of glaciation, more particularly on the slopes of Diklos-mta, where the glaciers descend to 7700 ft.
It includes some of the volcanic peaks which, north of Lake Kivu, stretch across the rift-valley and attain heights of 13,000 and 14,000 ft.; Albert Edward Nyanza and part of the Semliki river; part of Ruwenzori, the so-called" Mountains of the Moon,"with snow-clad heights exceeeding 16,50o ft.
If we accept the - Persian derivation of the term (which is advanced by Curzon as being perhaps the most plausible), pai-mir, or "the foot of mountain peaks," we have a definition which is by no means an inapt illustration of the actual facts of configuration.
They are hemmed in and separated by snowcapped mountain peaks and ridges, which are seamed with glaciers terminating in moraines and shingle slopes at the base of the foot-hills.
Here are water-mills and many permanent appliances of civilization suited to the lower altitude (11,500 ft., the average height of the upper Pamirs being about 13,000), and here we are no longer near the sources of the river at the foot of the mountain peaks.
It is traversed by mountain ridges, with peaks of 6000 to 8000 ft.
The highest peaks are found in the Simen (or Semien) and Gojam ranges.
Local glaciation has carved the higher levels of this range into a maze of amphitheatres containing lakes, separated from each other by aretes and alpine peaks.
The highest peaks exceed 11,000 ft.
The spur on which it stands is thickly wooded with oak and other trees; behind it the pine-clad slopes of the mountain tower towards the jagged peaks of the higher range, snow-clad for half the year; while below stretches the luxuriant cultivation of the Kangra valley.
Some peaks of Tertiary granite break the uniformity, such as Mt Sarmiento (7200 ft.), Mt Darwin, of which two peaks have been measured (6201 and 7054 ft.), and Mt Olivaia (4324 ft.).
The Bombay Island, or, as it ought to be more correctly called, the Bombay Peninsula, stands out from a coast ennobled by lofty hills, and its harbour is studded by rocky islands and precipices, whose peaks rise to a great height.
The birch and larch woods of this zone give way to pine forests as the altitude increases; and the pines to mosses, lichens and alpine plants, just below the jagged iron-grey peaks, many of which attain altitudes of 6000 to 8000 ft.
Roe-deer, foxes and wolves find shelter in the forests, where bears are not uncommon; and chamois frequent the loftiest and most inaccessible peaks.
There is no arrangement in chains, but only scattered rounded peaks and short ridges, with winding valleys about them.
In northern Ecuador the Andes narrows into a single massive range which has the character of a confused mass of peaks and ridges on the southern frontier of Colombia.
West of this range, and lying between the 10th parallel and the Caribbean coast, is a remarkable group of lofty peaks and knotted ranges known as the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, the highest snowcrowned summit of which rises 17,389 ft.
Only the southern slopes of the range are in Cape Colony, the highest peaks - over io,000 ft.
Several peaks exceed 7000 ft.
The climate varies considerably with the altitude, the highest peaks being covered with snow for the greater part of the year, while the valleys running N.E.
In southern Oregon the general elevation of this range is greater than in the N., but the individual peaks are less prominent, and the range in some respects resembles a plateau.
A number of ridges and peaks bearing special names, such as the Rogue river, Umpqua and Siskiyou Mountains, belong to this group. The Cascade Mountains, the most important range in Oregon, extend parallel with the coast and lie about too m.
The peaks of this system are much higher than those of the Coast Range, varying from 5000 to 11,000 ft., and the highest of them are cones of extinct volcanoes.
Mount Hood (11,225 ft.), which is the highest point in the state, Mount Jefferson (10,200 ft.), the Three Sister Peaks, Mount Adams, Bachelor Mountain, and Diamond Peak (8807 ft.) all have one or more glaciers on their sides.
This great range of hills, sometimes overhanging the ocean, and generally running parallel to it at a distance nowhere exceeding 50 m., with an average elevation of about 1800 ft., contains individual peaks rising to more than double that height.
In the neighbourhood of the Sahyadri hills, particularly towards the northern extremity of the range, the country is rugged and broken, containing isolated peaks, masses of rock and spurs, which, running eastward, form watersheds for the great rivers of the Deccan.
It is a rugged and difficult country, intersected by creeks, and abounding in isolated peaks and detached ranges of hills.
Fully one-half of its length is through the mountainous districts of central Bolivia, where it is fed by a large number of rivers and streams from the snowclad peaks, and may be described as a raging torrent.
Snow lies on the highest peaks of the Apennines for almost the whole year.
The only regular ranges in Panama are in the extreme western part where the Costa Rica divide continues into Panama, and, immediately south of this and parallel to it, the Cordillera of San Blas, or Sierra de Chiriqui, where the highest peaks are Chiriqui (11,265 ft.) and, on the Costa Rican boundary, Pico Blanco (11,740 ft.) and Rovalo (7020 ft.) there are two passes, 3600 and 4000 ft.
Most of the islands are rocky and mountainous, and some of their peaks are between 6000 and 7000 ft.
The highest peaks are between 4000 and 5000 ft.
The elevation of some of the summits in these ranges is considerable, for three of the peaks of Pindus are over 5000 ft., and Olympus, Ossa and Pelion reach respectively the height of 9790, 6398 and 5350 ft.
Towards the sea, the altitudes become gradually less, although not with a uniform decrease; for several isolated peaks and minor ranges such as Montserrat and Monseny rise conspicuously amid the lower summits to a height of 4000-6000 ft.
Barcelona can be divided into three climatic zones; a temperate one near the sea, where even palm and orange trees grow; a colder one in the valleys and plains, more inland; and a colder still among the mountains, where not a few peaks are snow-clad for a great part of the year.
During the Glacial epoch the whole of Iceland was covered by a vast sheet of inland ice, except for a few small isolated peaks rising along its outer margins.
Otters are common along the rivers; chamois may very rarely be seen on the least accessible peaks; roe-deer, red-deer, squirrels and rabbits people the lower woodlands; and hares abound in the open.
The promontory terminates in a bold headland, the Montagne des Singes, with seven distinct peaks.
The Kokshal-tau, which consists of several parallel ranges, is truly alpine in character and bears large glaciers, which send out polyp-like arms into U-shaped valleys, behind which the mountain peaks tower up into sharp-cut, angular " matterhorns."
It rises abruptly from the desert and lifts its snowy peaks to altitudes of 15,000-16,000 ft., separating the river Syr-darya from the river Zarafshan.
The highest peaks are not more than 1500 ft.
Most of the high peaks on the larger islands are basaltic, and the rocks generally are igneous, with occasional upheaved coral found sometimes over 1000 ft.
Every variety of form is seen, from steep flat-topped table-mountains as near Loughs Neagh and Erne, to peaks such as those of the Twelve Pins or Bens of Connemara.
One chain, the Kuku Mountains (average height 2000 ft.), approaches close to the Nile and presents, as seen from the river, several apparently isolated peaks.
The western chain of hills has loftier peaks than those of Kuku, Jebel Loka being about 3000 ft.
As it skirts the Dalmatian border, this range attains its greatest altitude in the adjacent peaks of Sveto Brdo (5751 ft.), and Vakanski Vrh (5768 ft.).
Its coasts, unlike those of the other two islands, are surrounded by low cliffs, from which there is a gentle slope up to two peaks, the one I too ft., the other 960 ft.
The highest peaks are the Babia G6ra (5650 ft.), the Wolowiec (6773 ft.) and the Cserna Gora (6505 ft.).
Moderately elevated tablelands are thus the characteristic feature of the continent, though the surface of these is broken by higher peaks and ridges.
Associated with these great valleys are a number of volcanic peaks, the greatest of which occur on a meridional line east of the eastern trough.
At no great distance east of this rift-valley are Kilimanjaro - with its two peaks Kibo and Mawenzi, the former 19,321 ft., and the culminating point of the whole continent - and Kenya (17,007 ft.).
Other volcanic peaks rise from the floor of the valleys, some of the Kirunga (Mfumbiro) group, north of Lake Kivu, being still partially active.
Though generally of slight elevation it contains mountain ranges with peaks rising to 8000 ft.
Not only is there a total lack of those passes, so common in the Alps, which lead across the great mountain chains at a far lower level than that of the neighbouring peaks, but between the two extremities of the range, where the principal highroads and the only railways run between France and Spain, there are only two passes practicable for carriages - the Col de la Perche, between the valley of the Tet and the valley of the Segre, and the Col de Somport or Pot de Canfranc, on the old Roman road from Saragossa to Oloron.
While, again, continuous mountain ranges and broad plains and table-lands give the prevailing character to the scenery, there are, on the one hand, lofty isolated peaks, such as Monseny, Montserrat and Mont Sant in Catalonia, the Pea Golosa in Valencia, Moncayo on the borders of Aragon and Old Castile, and, on the other hand, small secluded valleys, such as those of Vich and Olot among the Catalonian Pyrenees.
Formerly the ibex was common on the mountain-ranges of Germany, Switzerland and Tirol, but is now confined to the Alps which separate Valais from Piedmont, and to the lofty peaks of Savoy, where its existence is mainly due to game-laws.
By the addition of Basim and Mangrul taluks in 1905, the district includes the eastern part of the Ajanta hills, with peaks rising to 2000 ft., and the tableland of Basim.
Here and there these jagged peaks appear as if half overwhelmed by an advancing sea of sand.
Amongst the higher mountains are the two Ararats; Ala-geuz Dagh, north of the Aras; Bingeul Dagh, south of Erzerum; and the peaks near Lake Van.
It is the capital of the Bernese Oberland, the snowy peaks of which are well seen from it.
Here and there, rising abruptly from its surface, are to be seen isolated peaks, the most characteristic of which are Valentine's Peak (3637 feet) and Mount Pearse.
The appearance of the island throughout is wonderfully beautiful, with its open plains, bordered by far-extending precipitous mountain tiers, its isolated shaggy peaks and wooded ranges, and its many noble rivers and lakes.
On the western side one is reminded of scenes in the highlands of Ross-shire and Inverness-shire in Scotland, from the picturesque character of the blue, white, and pinkish crystalline peaks and the fantastic outlines of the mountain ranges which rise abruptly to a height of from z000 to nearly 3000 feet above the Button Grass.
The Cordillera of the Andes in Tierra del Fuego is formed of crystalline schists, and culminates in the snowcapped peaks of Mount Darwin and Mount Sarmiento (7200 ft.), which contains glaciers of greater extent than those of Mont Blanc. The extent of the glaciers is considerable in this region, which, geographically, is more complex than was formerly supposed.
These two rivers have emptied a large system of lakes, which in pre-Glacial times occupied the eastern zone, thus forming a region suitable for colonization in the broad valleys and hollows, where the rivers, as in the case with those in the north, cut through the Andes by narrow gaps, forming cataracts and rapids between the snowy peaks.
The highest peaks, however, seem to be of volcanic origin.
The highest peaks in the latter section are volcanic and their eruptions have sensibly modified the character of the primitive ridges.
The higher peaks are in the main chain, while north" the Domuyo (15,317 ft.) belongs to a lateral eastern war d .
To the north of this mountain, situated at the watershed of the Andes, extends a lofty region comprising peaks such as Chimbote (18,645 ft.) and Mount Polleras (20,266 ft.).
Canada Colorado YV YV ITV Pircala' ' R_Malargue - Sea --- ----- - - ------ -- M OV YV C (21,982 ft.) are the highest peaks of the central Argentine-Chilean Andes.
These three peaks are formed of eruptive rocks, surrounded by Jurassic beds which have undergone a thorough metamorphosis.
To the north of Mount P