Nicholas and Denisov were walking up and down, looking with kindly patronage at the dancers.
The president of the Republic has a military household, and the minister a cabinet, both of which are occupied chiefly with questions of promotion, patronage and decorations.
In 1691, desiring to compromise Halifax, he discredited himself by the patronage of an informer named Fuller, soon proved an impostor.
Alexander II., entering Alexandria under Roman patronage, married, and within twenty days assassinated, his elderly cousin and stepmother.
Even small local worships, like that of the village of Baetocaece, might secure royal patronage (C.I.G.
Though evangelical in his views he by no means confined his patronage to that school.
An agreement was come to by which Francis received patronage for his circle of friends, while Hastings was to be unimpeded in the control of foreign affairs.
Under the patronage of the earl of Bath he entered into a good many literary controversies, vindicating Milton from W.
In this capacity Thomas controlled the issue of royal writs and the distribution of ecclesiastical patronage; but it was more important for his future that he had ample opportunities of exercising his personal fascination upon a prince who was comparatively inexperienced, and thirteen or fourteen years his junior.
The parishioners, violently excited at the time about the law of patronage, received him with open hostility; and tradition asserts that his uncle defended him on the pulpit stair with a drawn sword.
Political parties were forming without very evident basis for differences outside questions of political patronage and the good 'or ill use of power; and, in the absence of the laws just mentioned, the Moderates, being in power, used every instrument of government to strengthen their hold on office.
He had a brilliant position in society thanks to his intimacy with Countess Bezukhova, a brilliant position in the service thanks to the patronage of an important personage whose complete confidence he enjoyed, and he was beginning to make plans for marrying one of the richest heiresses in Petersburg, plans which might very easily be realized.
There was a shade of condescension and patronage in his treatment of Berg and Vera.
Questions of patronage now (by 37 & 38 Vict.
In pursuance of his patronage of Monmouth, Shaftesbury now secured for him the command of the army sent to suppress the insurrection in Scotland, which he is supposed to have fomented.
He became tutor to the son of Sir William Hickes, and was eventually glad to accept the patronage of William Pierrepont, earl of Kingston, whose kindly offer of a chaplaincy he had refused earlier.
In 1677, to secure Protestantism in case of a Roman Catholic succession, he introduced a bill by which ecclesiastical patronage and the care of the royal children were entrusted to the bishops; but this measure, like the other, was thrown out.
After completing these reductions, Airy made inquiries, before engaging in any theoretical investigation in connexion with them, whether any other mathematician was pursuing the subject, and learning that Hansen had taken it in hand under the patronage of the king of Denmark, but that, owing to the death of the king and the consequent lack of funds, there was danger of his being compelled to abandon it, he applied to the admiralty on Hansen's behalf for the necessary sum.
emperors against the "upstart" emperor of the West; he had also allied himself with Saladin, in order to acquire for his empire the patronage of the Holy Places and religious supremacy in the Levant.
After the death of `Abd ul `Aziz he resided at Fez, enjoying the patronage and confidence of the regent.
Mahmud ibn Sabuktagin, the second of the dynasty (998-1030), continued to make himself still more independent of the caliphate than his predecessors, and, though a warrior and a fanatical Moslem, extended a generous patronage to Persian literature and learning, and even developed it at the expense of the Arabic institutions.
Firdousi directed his steps to Mazandaran, and took refuge with Kabus, prince of Jorjan, who at first received him with great favour, and promised him his continued protection and patronage; learning, however, the circumstances under which he had left Ghazni, he feared the resentment of so powerful a sovereign as Mahmud, who he knew already coveted his kingdom, and dismissed the poet with a magnificent present.
It gained valuable powers of patronage by founding 6400 exhibitions (bourses) in connexion with the lycees; 2400 of which were reserved for the sons of soldiers and government officials.
3 The patronage of Constantinople, to which Jerusalem was thus practically surrendered, contributed to some slight extent in maintaining the kingdom against Nureddin.
His patronage was exercised, not from vanity or a mere dilettante love of letters, but with a view to the higher interest of the state.
The one pleasing aspect of his life is his patronage of the arts, and in his days a new architectural era was initiated in Rome with the coming of Bramante.
We learn from these prologues that the best Roman literature was ceasing to be popular, and had come to rely on the patronage of the great.
His artistic taste was shown by his patronage of Velasquez, and his love of letters by his favour to Lope de Vega, Calderon, and other dramatists.
The fanaticism of the caliph Hakim destroyed the church of the Sepulchre and ended the Frankish protectorate (Ioio); and the patronage of the Holy Places, a source of strife between the Greek and the Latin Churches as late as the beginning of the Crimean War, passed to the Byzantine empire in 1021.
Boris was now a rich man who had risen to high honors and no longer sought patronage but stood on an equal footing with the highest of those of his own age.
In that circle they discountenanced those who advised hurried preparations for a removal to Kazan of the court and the girls' educational establishments under the patronage of the Dowager Empress.
Poetry depended on patronage, and that was to be had now chiefly in the court of the caliph and the residences of his governors.
In 1873-1874 he was patronage secretary to the treasury, and in 1880 he became undersecretary for the home department.
His control of patronage, however, is not extensive and his veto power is very weak.
Many of these secured royal and aristocratic patronage and encouragement-the tsar of Russia, the kings of Prussia, Bavaria, Sweden, Denmark and Wurttemberg all lending their influence to the enterprise.
In 1748 he removed to Edinburgh, and there, under the patronage of Lord Kames, gave lectures on rhetoric and belles-lettres.
Clemenceau, however, had by this time abandoned his patronage of Boulanger, who was becoming so inconveniently prominent that, in May 1887, M.
In Spain, national pride in the founder aided the Society's cause almost as much as royal patronage did in Portugal; and the third house was opened in Gandia under the protection of its duke, Francisco Borgia, a grandson of Alexander VI.
This power he used largely for the patronage of learning.
He is said to have been of a merry and even jocular disposition, to have afforded a generous patronage to learning, and, strange to say for a sultan, to have been master of six languages.
The famous china manufactory of Nymphenburg, founded in 1754 at Neudeck by a potter named Niedermeyer, was shortly afterwards removed hither and, after being long under royal patronage, is now a private undertaking.
The long struggle between the Company and the ministers of the crown for the supreme control of Indian affairs and the attendant patronage had reached its climax.
Plutarch (Pericles) gives many interesting details as to Pericles' personal bearing, home life, and patronage of art, literature and philosophy, derived in part from the old comic poets, Aristophanes, Cratinus, Eupolis, Hermippus, Plato and Teleclides; in part from the contemporary memoirs of Stesimbrotus and Ion of Chios.
Upon Andrew Jackson's election to the presidency, the Telegraph became the principal mouthpiece of the administration, and received printing patronage estimated in value at $50,000 a year, while Green became one of the coterie of unofficial advisers of Jackson known as the "Kitchen Cabinet."
He supported himself as a teacher of Greek, first at Verona and afterwards in Venice and Florence; in 1436 he became, through the patronage of Lionel, marquis of Este, professor of Greek at Ferrara; and in 1438 and following years he acted as interpreter for the Greeks at the councils of Ferrara and Florence.
In 1840 he introduced a bill to settle the vexed question of patronage; but disliked by a majority in the general assembly of the Scotch church, and unsupported by the government, it failed to become law, and some opprobrium was cast upon its author.
He was vicepresident of the United States from 1845 to 1849, but the appointment of Buchanan as secretary of state at once shut him off from all hope of party patronage or influence in the Polk administration, and he came to be looked upon as the leader of that body of conservative Democrats of the North, who, while they themselves chafed at the domination of southern leaders, were disposed to disparage all anti-slavery agitation.
In concert with his friend Bunsen he laboured to bring about a rapprochement between the Lutheran and Anglican churches, the first-fruits of which was the establishment of the Jerusalem bishopric under the joint patronage of Great Britain and Prussia; but the only result of his efforts was to precipitate the secession of J.
His Essai sur la societe des gens de lettres avec les grands was a worthy vindication of the independence of literary men, and a thorough exposure of the evils of the system of patronage.
As chairman of the judiciary committee, he brought forward a number of measures for the improvement of judicial procedure, and in May 1826 joined with Benton in presenting a report on executive patronage.
In 1447 he migrated to Italy, where Cardinal Bessarion gave him his patronage.
The growth of Wisbech depended on its position and episcopal patronage.
He brought bills into parliament to reform Church patronage and Church discipline, and worked unremittingly for years in their behalf.
The hlaford and his hiredmen are an institution not only of private patronage, but also of police supervision for the sake of laying hands on malefactors and suspected persons.
There he enjoyed the society of Goethe, Wieland, Jean Paul (who came to Weimar in order to be near Herder), and others, the patronage of the court, with whom as a preacher he was very popular, and an opportunity of carrying out some of his ideas of school reform.
been held twice a year since 1862 under the patronage of the agricultural society; and the wool market was reinstituted in 1872 by the German Trade Society (Deutscher Handelsverein).
The native artist who crested the first great wave of Japanese painting was a court noble named Kos no Kanaoka, living under the patronage of the emperor Seiwa ~ mi (850859) and his successors down to about the end of J~~d the 9th century, in the midst of a period of peace and culture.
The palace of the Ashikaga shoguns then replaced the Imperial court as the centre of patronage of art and literature and established a new era in art history.
The Nabeshima porcelainso called because of its production at private factories under the special patronage of Nabeshima Naoshige, feudal chief of Hizenwas produced at Okawachiyama.
The Hirado porcelainso called because it enjoyed the specia patronage of Matsuura, feudal chief of Hiradowas produced al Mikawa-uchi-yama, but did not attain excellence until.
The raku faience owed much of its popularity to the patronage of the tea clubs.
Its manufacture dates from the close of the 17th Kutanl century, when the feudal chief of Kaga took the industry under his patronage.
When the mediatization of the fiefs, in 1871, terminated the local patronage hitherto extended so munificently to artists, the Japanese ceramists gradually learned Chany,~ of that they must thenceforth depend chiefly upon the Style after markets of Europe and America.
Owing to the intelligent patronage of this company, and the impetus given to the ceramic trade by its enterprise, the style of the Tokyo etsuke was much improved and the field of their industry extended.
In 1710, the Edinburgh magistrates, regarding the university patronage as their privilege, appointed another professor, ignoring the appointment of Cunningham, who had been installed in the office for at least ten years.
In 1816 it was definitely re-established and replaced under government patronage, remaining subject to the chancellor or garde-des-sceaux until 1857, when it was transferred to the control of the minister of public instruction.
The introduction of the India Bill in November 1783 alarmed many vested interests, and offended the king by the provision which gave the patronage of India to a commission to be named by the ministry and removable only by parliament.
Here he obtained the patronage of N.
The new influence of patronage, which in other times has chilled the genial current of literature, become, in the person of Maecenas, the medium through which literature and the imperial policy were brought into union.
A high ideal of culture, literary as well as practical, was realized in Germanicus, which seems to have been transmitted to his daughter Agrippina, whose patronage of Seneca had important results in the next generation.
Macleod, although he had no love for lay patronage, and wished the Church to be free to do its proper work, clung firmly to the idea of a national Established Church, and therefore remained in the Establishment when the disruption took place.
He was a man of singularly handsome presence, not without mental qualities of a high order; he was devoted to the arts - Beethoven and Mozart enjoyed his patronage and his private orchestra had a European reputation.
The imperial patronage had made education and social distinctions a greater possibility for the preacher, and the decline of political eloquence furnished an opening for pulpit oratory.
In France, indeed, the Catholic pulpit now came to its perfection, stimulated, no doubt, by the toleration accorded to the Huguenots up to 1685 and by the patronage of Louis XIV.
By keeping these distinctions in view, the right of patronage in the case of secular benefices becomes intelligible, being in fact the right, which was originally vested in the donor of the temporalities, to present to the bishop a clerk to be admitted, if found fit by the bishop, to the office to which those temporalities are annexed.
In cases where the patron is himself a clerk in orders, and wishes to be admitted to the benefice, he must proceed by way of petition instead of by deed of presentation, reciting that the benefice is in his own patronage, and petitioning the bishop to examine him and admit him.
Under his patronage Alcuin organized the school of the palace, where the royal children were taught in the company of others, and founded a school at Tours which became the model for many other establishments.
From this meaning is deduced that of the person in whom lies the right of presenting to public offices, privileges, &c., still surviving in the title of the Patronage Secretary of the Treasury in Great Britain.
A full list of saints, with the objects of the peculiar patronage of each, is given in M.
In addition to the usual privilege of granting pardons and reprieves, he controls considerable patronage, and possesses a power of veto which extends to separate items in appropriation bills.
In spite of the treaty of 1710 and the efforts of the Livonian nobles, it was not till 1802 that its restoration was effected under the patronage of Alexander I.
Wholly novel and distinctive it is not, for the rulers of Catholic countries, like Spain and France, and of England (before the publication of the Act of Supremacy) could and did limit the pope's claims to unlimited jurisdiction, patronage and taxation, and they introduced the placet forbidding the publication within their realms_ of papal edicts, decisions and orders, without the express sanction of the government - in short, in many ways tended to approach the conditions in Protestant lands.
Then most of the humanists were clerics, and in Italy they enjoyed the patronage of the popes.
Her leading politicians were out of sympathy with the conduct of national affairs (in the conduct of foreign relations, the distribution of political patronage, naval policy, the question of public debt) from 1804 - when Jefferson's party showed its complete supremacy - onward; and particularly after the passage of the Embargo Act of 1807, which caused great losses to Massachusetts commerce, and, so far from being accepted by her leaders as a proper diplomatic weapon, seemed to them designed in the interests of the Democratic party.
In 1762, in reply to the attacks on his order, he published an A pologie generale de l'institut et de la doctrine des Jesuites, which won him much fame and some exalted patronage; notably that of the ex-king Stanislaus of Poland and of his grandson the dauphin.
Under the patronage of Charles Alexander, also, Weimar became a famous musical centre, principally owing to the presence of Franz Liszt, who from 1848 to 1886 made Weimar his principal place of residence.
He had an unbounded admiration for Erasmus, with whom he entered into correspondence, and from whom he received a somewhat chilling patronage; whilst the brilliant humanist, Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), taught him to criticize, in a rationalizing way, the medieval doctrines of Rome.
By his example and patronage the art of working in metals was greatly stimulated.
Later, the Livingstons, piqued at Wash= ington's neglect to give them the offices they thought their due, joined the Clintons, but the Federal patronage was used against the anti-Federalists or Republicans with such effect that in 1792 John Jay received more votes for governor than George Clinton, although the latter was counted in on a technicality.
The election as governor in 1804 of Lewis, a relative of the Livingstons, was followed by a bitter quarrel with the Clintons over patronage, and resulted at the state election of 1807 in the choice of a Clintonian, Daniel D.
Two years later the Republicans, having split over a struggle for patronage into the two factions known as " Stalwarts " or administrative party and " Halfbreeds " of whom the leader was Roscoe Conkling, were defeated, Grover Cleveland being chosen governor.
Under his father's patronage he joined in the conservative reaction which came to a head in 411, when hopes of a Persian alliance or peace with Sparta strengthened the existing dissatisfaction with the democratic rule.
They resembled the monks in so far as they lived in community and took religious vows; but their state of life remained essentially clerical, and as clerics their duty was to undertake the pastoral care and serve the parish churches in their patronage.
Upon his return he preached a characteristic sermon entitled The United States of America compared with some European Countries, particularly England (published 1826), in which, although there was some praise for the English church, he so boldly criticized the establishment, state patronage, cabinet appointment of bishops, lax discipline, and the low requirements of theological education, as to rouse much hostility in England, where he had been highly praised for two volumes of Sermons on the Principal Events and Truths of Redemption (1824).
The Roman Catholic Church has enjoyed the patronage of the reigning family since 1697, though it was only the peace of Posen in 1806 which placed it on a level with the Lutherans.
Certain forms of popular divination were, however, under his patronage, notably the world-wide process of divination by pebbles (0pcai).
Cities and kingdoms were allotted to their several patronage on a system fully expounded by Manilius: Hos erit in fines orbis pontusque notandus, Quem Deus in partes per singula dividit astra, Ac sua cuique dedit tutelae regna per orbem, Et proprias gentes atque urbes addidit altas, In quibus exercent praestantia sidera vires.s Syria was assigned to Aries, and Syrian coins frequently bear the effigy of a ram; Scythia and Arabia fell to Taurus, India to Gemini.
The Ministry of Interior and certain technical departments are recruited from the civil service schools, but many appointments in government service go by patronage.
There was also the boundless abuse and arbitrary exercise of the right of ecclesiastical patronage (provisions, reservations); and further the ever-increasing traffic in dispensations, the abuse of spiritual punishments for worldly ends, and so forth.
With the papal see, since his visit to Avignon in 1364, he had been on the best of terms. His ecclesiastic patronage was immense, and throughout the land he had planted strong castles surely held by the royal bailiffs.
But the best established hierarchy is not so powerful as a caste, and the monarchs had one strong hold on the clergy by retaining the patronage of great ecclesiastical places, and another in the fact that the Semitic provinces on the Tigris, where the capital lay, were mainly inhabited by men of other faith.'
2); minor offices in the sanctuaries were in the patronage of the great priests and were often miserable enough,3 the petty priest depending largely on what " customers " he could find (2 Kings xii.
This council deals with the property, patronage and all other ecclesiastical matters.
A Socinian Bible was issued by Simon Budny in 1570 at Nieswiez, as he professed to find many faults in the version issued under the patronage of Radziwill; in 1597 appeared the Roman Catholic version of the Jesuit Wujek; and in 1632 the so-called Danzig Bible, which is in use among Protestants and is still the most frequently reprinted.
The mild rule of Ferdinand, his solicitude for the welfare of his subjects, his enlightened patronage of art and science, his encouragement of commerce, and his toleration render him an honourable exception to the generality of Italian princes.
were published under the patronage of the university of Laval in 1870.
In the patronage of learning and in the exercise of authority over the morals and education of youth Laud was in his proper sphere, many valuable reforms at Oxford being due to his activity, including the codification of the statutes, the statute by which public examinations were rendered obligatory for university degrees, and the ordinance for the election of proctors, the revival of the college system, of moral and religious discipline and order, and of academic dress.
The Jesuits abandoned the system of free education which had won them so much influence and honour; by attaching themselves exclusively to the interests of courts, they lost favour with the middle and lower classes; and above all, their monopoly of power and patronage in France, with the fatal use they had made of it, drew down the bitterest hostility upon them.
Jecker's creditors were mostly French, but he still held most of the bonds, and there is reason to believe that he won over Dubois de Saligny by corrupt means to support his claims. Intercepted correspondence (since confirmed from the archives of the Tuileries) showed that the Duc de Morny promised Jecker his patronage in return for 30% of the profits (De la Gorce, Hist.
He encouraged artists whose reputations were still in the making,but his patronage was somewhat capricious.
Under the patronage of his great-grandson, the last earl of Hereford (who lived in great splendour at the castle), the town became one of the chief centres of trade in South Wales, and a sixteen days' fair, which he granted, still survives as a hiring fair held in November.
Among them are some satirical sonnets describing Roman manners, and the later ones written after his return to Paris are often appeals for patronage.
In Paris he was still in the employ of the cardinal, who delegated to him the lay patronage which he still retained in the diocese.
Few indeed, if any, original annals of this class are written otherwise than to order, under patronage, or to serve a purpose to which truth is secondary.
He appoints some of the state officials, his nominations usually requiring the concurrence of the state senate; but his patronage is in most states not very largein many it is indeed insignificant because the offices of greatest importance are filled by direct popular election.
Through the power of confirming or rejecting the presidents nominations to office, the senators of the presidents party are able to influence a large amount of patronage.
Nevertheless, the distribution of offices under the so-called spoils system remains the most important ordinary function of the president, and the influence he exerts over Congress and legislation is due mainly to his patronage.
Fish, The Civil Service and Patronage (ibid., 1905); W.
Lafontaine, but resigned the next year, after a quarrel with the governor-general, Sir Charles Metcalfe, on a question of patronage, in which he felt that of responsible government to be involved.
El Motamid went, however, considerably further in patronage of literature than his father, for he chose as his favourite and prime minister the poet Ibn Ammar.
The embarrassed financial condition in which Gregory left the States of the Church makes it doubtful how far his lavish expenditure in architectural and engineering works, and his magnificent patronage of learning in the hands of Mai, Mezzofanti, Gaetano, Moroni and others, were for the real benefit of his subjects.
In addition to these three departments, standing committees exist to take a collective view of such matters as contracts, concessions, mineral and other leases, and patronage.
The king took an active part in the elections, and used his patronage to the utmost to influence legislation.
By his purchase of Avignon, and the creation of numerous French cardinals, the pope consolidated the close connexion of the Roman Church with France: but the interests of that Church suffered severely through the riches and patronage which Clement lavished on his relatives, and through the princely luxury of his court.
sciences and all the arts of peace, enjoyed only a brief pontificate, but his reign is not without importance, if only as an example of the generous patronage which the papacy - even in its darkest days - has lavished on literature and science.
Again, the patronage which he showed to art and artists was of the greatest importance.
The governor controls a large amount of patronage, appointing, subject to the advice and consent of two-thirds of the senate, a secretary of the commonwealth and an attorney-general during pleasure, and a superintendent of public instruction for four years, and may fill vacancies in various offices which occur during the recess of the senate.
Among his publications, besides Letters and Times of the Tylers, are Parties and Patronage in the United States (1890); Cradle of the Republic (1900); England in America (1906) in the "American Nation" series, and Williamsburg, the Old Colonial Capital (1908).
In Rome the converted Jew Felix Pratensis taught under the patronage of Leo X., and did useful work in connexion with the great Bomberg Bibles.
The Order of Isabella the Catholic was founded in 1815 under the patronage of St Isabella, wife of Diniz of Portugal; originally instituted to reward loyalty in defence of the Spanish possessions in America, it is now a general order of merit, in three classes.
He studied at Bologna, Florence and Rome, and by his learning attracted the patronage of Alexander Farnese, who, as Pope Paul III., made him nuncio to Florence, where he received the honour of being elected a member of the celebrated academy, and then to Naples, where his oratorical ability brought him considerable success.
His nomination was coldly received by the public; and when, after his election and accession, he actively engaged on behalf of Conkling in the great conflict with Garfield over the New York patronage, the impression was widespread that he was unworthy of his position.
But his public lessons were ill attended, and he soon fell back upon his old vocation of publisher under the patronage of a new pope, Clement VIII.
Consequently where the right of patronage (the right of the patron to present to the bishop the person whom he has nominated to become rector or vicar of the parish to the benefice of which he claims the right of advowson) remains attached to the manor, it is called an advowson appendant, and passes with the estate by inheritance The distinction between nomination to a living and presentation is to be noted.
Briefly, it prevents the dealing with the right of presentation as a thing apart from the advowson itself; increases the power of the bishops to refuse the presentation of unfit persons, and removes several abuses which had arisen in the transfer of patronage.
Under the Benefices Act, advowsons may not be sold by public auction except in conjunction with landed property adjacent to the benefice; transfers of patronage must be registered in the registry of the diocese, and no such transfers can be made within twelve months after the last admission or institution to the benefice.
Besides the qualifications required of a presentee by canon law, such as being of the canonical age, and in priest's orders before admission, sufficient learning and proper orthodoxy or morals, the Benefices Act requires that a year shall have elapsed since a transfer of the right of patronage, unless it can be shown that such transfer was not made in view of a probable vacancy; that the presentee has been a deacon for three years; and that he is not unfit for the discharge of his duties by reason of physical or mental infirmity or incapacity, grave pecuniary embarrassment, grave misconduct or neglect of duty in an ecclesiastical office, evil life, or conduct causing grave scandal concerning his moral character since his ordination, or being party to an illegal agreement with regard to the presentation; that notice of the presentation has been given to the parish of the benefice.
He was persuaded - against his will - to turn his attention to a court life, and he went to London under the patronage of Sir Henry Herbert, master of the revels, to follow that course; but he very soon returned home with a fixed resolve - confirmed by the death of his mother - to study divinity.
The difference manifested itself in one external point: Augustinian canons frequently and freely themselves served the parish churches in the patronage of their houses; Benedictine monks did so, speaking broadly, hardly at all, and their doing so was forbidden by law, both ecclesiastical and civil.
He seems to have been born in the south of India, and to have lived under the patronage of a king of southern Kosala, the modern Chattisgarh.
At the same time it is probable that, like Constantine's patronage of Christianity, his patronage of Buddhism, then the most rising and influential faith in India, was not unalloyed with political motives, and it is certain that his vast benefactions to the Buddhist cause were at least one of the causes that led to its decline.
But literature had ceased to flourish under the patronage of the great, and had not yet begun to flourish under the patronage of the public. One man of letters, indeed, Pope, had acquired by his pen what was then considered as a handsome fortune, and lived on a footing of equality with nobles and ministers of state.
But Johnson had had enough of the patronage of the great to last him all his life, and was not disposed to haunt any other door as he had haunted the door of Chesterfield.
Julius is deserving of particular honour for his patronage of art and literature.
Patronage of art is among the cherished traditions of the German princes; and even whereas for instance at Casselthere is no longer a court, the artistic impetus given by the former sovereigns has survived their fall.
For some years it had been recogpized that the collection and arrangement of the authorities for German history was too great an undertaking for any one man, and societies under very influential patronage were founded for this purpose.
Scientific research might prosper, just as poetry withered, under the patronage of kings, and such research had now a vast amount of new material at its disposal and could profit by the old Babylonian and Egyptian traditions.
But Hera's patronage of women, though undoubtedly ancient, is not necessarily primitive.
Moslem A uthorities.Arabic literature being cosmopolitan, and Arabic authors accustomed to travel from place to place to collect traditions and obtain oral instruction from contemporary authorities, or else to enjoy the patronage of Maecenates, the literary history of Egypt cannot be dissociated from that of the other Moslem countries in which Arabic was the chief literary vehicle.
The clergy recruited themselves therefore from the class next below them, and looked more and more to the crown for help and protection as they drew apart from the gentry, who, moreover, as dispensers of patronage, lost no opportunity of appropriating church lands and cutting down tithes.
The great Saxo Grammaticus wrote his Historia Danica under the same patronage.
All these men were aided by the generous and enlightened patronage 5 See Fr.
(4) The non-Arabic Moslems, who on their conversion to Islam, had put themselves under the patronage of Arabic families, and were therefore called maula's (clients).
The reign of Mamunthat reign in which art, science and letters, under the patronage of the caliph, threw so brilliant a lustre - had a very stormy beginning.
In 858 Motawakkil, hoping to escape from the arrogant patronage of Wasif, who had taken the place of Itakh as head of the Turkish guard, transferred his residence to Damascus.
His administration is rather the date at which a system of democracy, organized by the use of patronage, was introduced into the federal arena by Van Buren.
On the one hand, the Saxon ceorls (twihyndemen), although considered as including the typical freemen in the earlier laws (1Ethelberht, Hlothhere and Edric, Ine), gradually became differentiated through the action of political and economic causes, and many of them had to recognize the patronage of magnates or to seek livelihood as tenants on the estates of the latter.
In Seoul there were established an imperial English school with two foreign teachers, a reorganized Confucian college, a normal college under a very efficient foreign principal, Japanese, Chinese, Russian and French schools, chiefly linguistic, several Korean primary schools, mission boarding-schools, and the Pai Chai College connected with the American Methodist Episcopal Church, under imperial patronage, and subsidized by government, in which a liberal education of a high class was given and En-mun receives much attention.
Thus the republic was restored under the presidency and patronage of its "first citizen" (princeps civitatis).
Literature flourished under the royal patronage, education was encouraged, and the material condition of the country improved enormously.
Through the influence of Camille de Villeroy, archbishop of Lyons, Pere de la Chaise was nominated in 1674 confessor of Louis XIV., who intrusted him during the lifetime of Harlay de Champvallon, archbishop of Paris, with the administration of the ecclesiastical patronage of the crown.
Turgot was struck with the talent they displayed, and by virtue of his patronage Vergniaud, having gone to Paris, was admitted to the college of Plessis.
A man of wide learning and culture, he encouraged the settlement of Jewish scholars in Andalusia, and his patronage of literature, science and art promoted the Jewish renaissance in Europe.
In October she was obliged to appoint Cowper, a Whig, lord chancellor, with all the ecclesiastical patronage belonging to the office.
The queen was now able once more to indulge in her favourite patronage of the church, and by her influence an act was passed in 1712 for building fifty new churches in London.
The splendid patronage of letters by the successors of Alexander, and especially the great institutions which had been founded at Alexandria and Pergamum, had made an impression on the imagination of learned men which was reflected in the current notions of the ancient despots.
He soon became prominent as one of the leaders of the Democratic party in the state, and for many years was a member of the so-called "Albany Regency," a group of Democrats who between about 1820 and 1850 exercised a virtual control over their party in New York, dictating nominations and appointments and distributing patronage.
The disability in the case of the lord chancellor of Ireland was removed by statute in 2867, with necessary limitations as to ecclesiastical patronage.
Such patronage is by the act vested in the universities, Oxford taking the City of London and twenty-five counties in England and Wales, mostly south of the Trent, Cambridge the remaining twenty-seven.
No Roman Catholic may advise the crown as to the exercise of its ecclesiastical patronage (Ibid.
A few of the German princes, among whom Maximilian, the prince cardinal Albert of Mainz, Frederick the Wise of Saxony, and Eberhard of Wurttemberg deserve mention, exercised a not insignificant influence on letters by the foundation of new universities and the patronage of learned men.
In the school of Fontainebleau, under the patronage of Francis I., that Italian influence made itself distinctly felt; yet a true French manner had been already formed, which, when it was subsequently applied at Paris, preserved a marked national quality.
PIETRO CARNESECCHI (1508-1567), Italian humanist, was the son of a Florentine merchant, who under the patronage of the Medici, and especially of Giovanni de' Medici as Pope Clement VII., rapidly rose to high office at the papal court.
From the beginning of his career he was in favour of internal improvements as a means of opening up the fertile but inaccessible West, and was opposed to the abuse of official patronage known as "the spoils system."
The first parliament of the Regent Murray (1567), while confirming the establishment of the Reformed church as the only true church of Christ, settling the Protestant succession, and doing something to secure the right of stipend to ministers, reintroduced lay patronage, the superintendent being charged to induct the patron's nominee - an infringement of the reformed system against which the church never ceased to protest.
An act requiring all ministers appointed during the period when patronage was abolished to get presentation from their patrons and institution from their bishops was applied in the west of Scotland in such a way that 300 ministers left their manses.
The same parliament restored lay patronage in Scotland, an act against which the church always protested and which was the origin of great troubles.
The main subject of dispute arose at first from the exercise of patronage.
The church could have given more weight to the wishes of the people; she professed to regard patronage as a grievance, and the annual instructions of the assembly to the commission (the committee representing the assembly till its next meeting) enjoined that body to take advantage of any opportunity which might arise for getting rid of the grievance of patronage, an injunction which was not discontinued till 1784.
Still it was in the power of the church to give more weight than she did to the feelings of the people; and her working of the patronage system drove large numbers from the Establishment.
In 1763 there was a great debate in the assembly on the progress of schism, in which the Popular party laid the whole blame at the door of the Moderates, while the Moderates rejoined that patronage and Moderatism had made the church the dignified and powerful institution she had come to be.
The presbyteries ceased to disregard presentations, and lay patronage came to be regarded as part of the order of things.
An agitation against patronage, the ancient root of evil, and the formation of an antipatronage society, helped in the same direction.
In 1874 patronage was abolished.
The agitation on the subject went on in the tion of II" assembly from 1857 to 1869, when the assembly by a large majority condemned patronage as restored by the Act of Queen Anne, and resolved to petition parliament for its removal.
The request was granted, and the right of electing parish ministers was conferred by the Patronage Act 1874 on the congregation; thus a grievance of old standing, from which all the ecclesiastical troubles of a century and a half had sprung, was removed and the church placed on a thoroughly democratic basis.
The agitation for disestablishment sprang up afresh after the passing of the Church Patronage Act (Scotland); each assembly of the Free Church passed a resolution in favour of it, and the United Free Church continued this testimony.
In 1589 he received the first substantial piece of patronage from his powerful kinsman, the reversion of the clerkship of the Star Chamber.
In December 1588 the first complete Welsh Bible, commonly known as " Bishop Morgan's Bible," was issued from the royal press at Westminster under the patronage of queen and primate, about Boo copies being supplied for distribution amongst the parish churches of Wales.
But for this sudden revival of Cymric literature under the patronage of Elizabeth (for the obtaining of which Wales must ever owe a deep debt of gratitude to Bishop Richard Davies, " her second St David "), there is every reason to believe that the ancient language of the Principality must either have drifted into a number of corrupt dialects, as it then showed symptoms of doing, or else have tended to ultimate extinction, much as the Cornish tongue perished in the 17th century.
1574) and founded under Elizabeth's patronage in 1573.
The great canal of Languedoc was planned and constructed by Pierre Paul Riquet (1604-1680) under his patronage.
He had works in hand, moreover, which he wished in due time to publish; and in that connexion the friendly patronage of the De Witts might be of essential service to him.
Charles XII., under whose special patronage Rydelius wrote, was himself a metaphysician and physiologist of merit.
In spite of the patronage of Gustavus III.
Where she deserves blame is in her use of her power for personal patronage, as in compassing the promotions of Chamillart and Villeroi, and the frequent assistance given to her brother Comte Charles d'Aubigne.
and the twelve imams. All these poets flourished under the patronage of the Samnid princes, who also fostered the growing desire of their nation for historical and antiquarian researches, for exegetical and medical studies.
His principal book, Historical and Statistical Information respecting the Indian Tribes of the United States, illustrated with 336 plates from original drawings, in part a compilation, was issued under the patronage of Congress in six quarto volumes, from 1851 to 1857.
By these successes he gained the patronage of the Fuggers, and found himself fairly launched as the recognized apologist of the established order in church and state.
A scheme was announced for withdrawing the control of the army in Ireland from Rochester, the lord-lieutenant, and placing it in the king's own hands, and the commission to which the king had delegated ecclesiastical patronage was revoked.
It contains a monument to Richard Nicolls (1624-1672), who, under the patronage of the duke of York, brother to Charles II., to whom the king had granted the Dutch North American colony of New Netherlands, received the submission of its chief town, New Amsterdam, in 1664, and became its first English governor, the town taking the name of New York.
The crown occasionally interfered in a more unjustifiable manner with the companies in the exercise of their patronage.
During the whole of the July monarchy he was thus one of the chief dispensers of literary patronage in France, but in his later years his reputation declined.
Among his friends was the notorious Andrew Bowes of Gibside, to the patronage of whose house the rise of the Scott family was largely owing.
Finally, the bucolic poet Quita produced the tragedies Segunda Castro, Hermione and two others, but these imitations from the French, for all the taste they show, were stillborn, and in the absence of court patronage, which was exclusively bestowed on the Lisbon opera, then the best equipped in Europe, Portugal remained without a drama of its own.
But this was not a "peaceful" advancement, for it was only in the king's patronage by reason of the temporalities of the see of Ely having been seized into the king's hands the year before, on account of the bishop being implicated in certain murders and robberies, which he denied, contesting the king's action in the papal court.
331) asked and obtained a papal provision to this very church of Pulham on the ground that it had passed to the pope's patronage by the promotion of its former possessor to the see of London.
He resigned his see (1550) in favour of the Dominican Egidio Foscherari, reserving to himself an annual pension and the patronage of livings.
Without going so far as to deny that some words and phrases may be taken from the writings of the Arabian Jaber, he was disposed to hold that it is the original work of some unknown Latin author, who wrote it in the second half of the r3th century and put it under the patronage of the venerated name of Geber.
Authari's queen, Theodelinda, solemnly placed the Lombard nation under the patronage of St John the Baptist, and at Monza she built in his honour the first Lombard church, and the royal palace near it.
The patriarch of Constantinople dares not excommunicate Russia, but the chief of its many grievances against that country is its patronage of the Bulgarian exarchate.
Nor, though he enjoyed the personal friendship and patronage of Augustus (Tac. Ann.
The king of Sicily's fame as an amateur of painting has led to the attribution to him of many old paintings in Anjou and Provence, in many cases simply because they bear his arms. These works are generally in the Flemish style, and were probably executed under his patronage and direction, so that he may be said to have formed a school of the fine arts in sculpture, painting, gold work and tapestry.
His father was one of the leading citizens of Holland, both in politics and in the patronage of letters, and for some time burgomaster of Amsterdam.
Chelsea was formerly famous for a manufacture of buns; the original Chelsea bun-house, claiming royal patronage, stood until 1839, and one of its successors until 1888.
Having apparently enjoyed no patronage, he was by this time a man of middle age.
In almost everything she was the opposite of her gentle husband, but entered into his educational schemes, and gave her patronage to the foundation of Queen's College, Cambridge.
He entered the faculty of advocates in 1800, and attached himself, not to the party of his relatives, who could have afforded him most valuable patronage, but to the Whig or Liberal party, and that at a time when it.
Foxe was one of the earliest students of AngloSaxon, and he and Day published an edition of the Saxon gospels under the patronage of Archbishop Parker.
The parish clergy, with a few rare exceptions (when they are elected by the ratepayers), are appointed by patronage.
The patronage of the remaining benefices belongs in the main to the crown, the bishops and cathedral chapters, the lord chancellor, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
iWhen his fortunes were low, the patronage accorded to literature by the emperor Maurice (582) encouraged him to try writing history.
Other Italian scholars, as Leonardo Aretino, benefited by his patronage.
From that time he resided permanently in Italy, doing much, by his patronage of learned men, by his collection of books and manuscripts, and by his own writings, to spread abroad the new learning.
Up till 1477 he is still spoken of as a pupil or apprentice of Verrocchio; but in that year he seems to have been taken into special favour by Lorenzo the Magnificent, and to have worked as an independent artist under his patronage until 1482-1483.
Hostilities were at the moment imminent between Milan and Venice; it was doubtless on that account that in the letter commending himself to the duke, and setting forth his own capacities, Leonardo rests his title to patronage chiefly on his attainments and inventions in military engineering.
raised on all hands hopes of still ampler and more sympathetic patronage.
His fame as a statesman is based mainly on the foreign policy which he pursued in those years - the policy of non-intervention, and of the patronage, if not the actual support, of national and liberal movements in Europe (see the historical articles under Europe, Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Greece).
Passing to Rome, he obtained the patronage of Cardinal Carafa and adopted the ecclesiastical career.
The patronage of his uncle galled him: he was dull and unhappy We find in Swift few signs of precocious genius.
Under his patronage the town rapidly prospered.
From 1823 to 1829 Marcy was comptroller of the state, an office then especially important on account of the large expenditures for internal improvements, and during this period he became the leading member of the famous " Albany Regency," a group of able Democratic politicians who exerted a powerful influence throughout the state by their control of the party patronage and machinery.
In those cases the rights of the bishops were frankly usurped by the Holy See, now regarded as the ultimate source of the episcopal jurisdiction; the more usual custom was for the pope to claim the first-fruits only of those benefices of which he had reserved the patronage to himself.
The question of ecclesiastic patronage, which was tobe thesource of the first great quarrel between the crown and the church in the next generation, is not touched upon.
Indolent in his temper, James had been in the habit of leaving his patronage in the hands of a confidential favorite, and that position was now filled by George Villiers, marquess and afterwards duke of Buckingham.
It was well that ~ complaints that a great country ought not to be governed by patronage and bribery should be raised, although, as subsequent experience showed, the causes which rendered corruption inevitable were not to be removed by the expulsion of Walpole from office.
He had all the patronage of the government in his hands, and beyond the circle which was influenced by gifts of patronage, he could appeal to the ignorance and self-seeking of the nation, with which, though he knew it not, he was himself in the closest sympathy.
The whole patronage of India would be in its hands, and, as parliament was then constituted, the balance of parties might be more seriously affected by the distribution of that patronage than it would be now.
it was wrong for the king to influence the Lords by his message, it was equally wrong for the ministry to acquire for themselves fresh patronage with which to influence the Commons.
The Revolution Society, founded to commemorate the revolution of 1688, had long carried on a respectable existence under the patronage of cabinet ministers; the Society for Constitutional Information, of which Pitt himself had been a member, was founded in 1780 to advoca~te parliamentary reform; both had, however, developed under the influence of the events in France in a revolutionary direction.
In Scotland, the Presbyterian Churchmainly under the guidance of DrChalmers, one of the most eloquent preachers of the century was simultaneously engaged in a contest with the state on the subject of ecclesiastical patronage.
He loved art, filled his house with statues and pictures, and extended a generous patronage to the painters.
In other words, the bill gave the government to a board chosen directly by the House of Commons; and it had the incidental advantage of conferring on the ministerial party patronage valued at 00,000 a year, which would remain for a fixed term of years out of reach of the king.
That measure had weakened the influence of the crown by limiting its patronage.
The measure for India weakened the influence of the crown by giving a mass of patronage to the party which the king hated.
So great was the esteem in which it was held, that in the early legend of the struggle between the gods of sea and land, Poseidon and Athena, for the patronage of the country, the sea-god is represented as having to retire vanquished before the giver of the olive; and at a later period the evidences of this contention were found in an ancient olive tree in the Acropolis, together with three holes in the rock, said to have been made by the trident of Poseidon, and to be connected with a salt well hard by.
The patronage of the directors was ill bestowed, and the general maladministration heightened their unpopularity.
After it had suffered greatly in the Thirty Years' War and the War of the Spanish Succession, it recovered its prosperity under the patronage of the electoral prince John William of the Palatinate, who dwelt in the castle for many years before his death in 1716.
The first disputes about the jurisdiction of the clergy were moved by Gudmund in the 13th century, bringing on a civil war, while the questions of patronage and rights over glebe and mortmainland occupied Bishop Arni and his adversaries fifty years afterwards, when the land was under Norwegian viceroys and Norwegian law.
The former work, Arna Saga Biskups, is imperfect; it is the record of the struggles of church and state over patronage rights and glebes, written c. 1315; it now covers only the years 1269-1291; a great many documents are given in it, after the modern fashion.
They prospered greatly during the 14th century, but Turkish rule put a stop to this industry after 1 459; and the revival only began in 1835, under the patronage of Prince Milosh.
While staying in London in 1783 he was much encouraged by the patronage and friendship of Dr William Fordyce, while his pupil, Paul Solarich, another distinguished author, was befriended by the Hon.
He early took up his residence at Rome, where he enjoyed the patronage of Marcus Aurelius (161-180), to whom he dedicated his great treatise on prosody.
In his lectures at the college de France he first publicly expounded the analytical theory of gravitation, and his timely patronage secured the services of J.
Convents were founded at Medina, Malaga, Valladolid, Toledo, Segovia and Salamanca, and two at Alva under the patronage of the famous duke.
He himself confesses in his autobiography that "it was a great error in me to appear in this matter," and his conduct cost him the patronage of the duke of York.
During Queen Mary's lifetime ecclesiastical patronage passed through her hands, but after her death William III.
MULLAH (Arabic maula, a term which originally expresses the legal bond connecting a former owner with his manumitted slave, both patron and client being called maula, and thus suggests the idea of patronage), in Mahommedan countries, a learned man, a teacher, a doctor of the law, In India the term is applied to the man who reads the Koran, and also to a Mussulman schoolmaster.
After he had taken deacon's orders, however, he devoted himself exclusively to science, and, through the patronage of J.
Many of the faithful founded abbeys and churches on condition that the right of patronage, that is the choice of beneficiaries, should be reserved to them and their heirs.
The Churchs patronage provided some with a refuge from violence; others ingratiated themselves with the rich for the sake of shelter and security; others again sought place and honor from men of power; while women, churchmen and warriors alike claimed the kings direct and personal pro tection.
Thus by means of immunities, of the beneficium nnd of patronage, society gradually organized itself independently of the state, since it required further security.
The monarchical principle no longer sufficed to ensure social discipline; the fear of lorfeiting the grant became the only powerful guarantee of obedience, and as this only applied to his personal vassals, Charlemagne gave up his claim to direct obedience from the test of the people, accepting the mediation of the counts, lords and bishops, who levied taxes, adjudicated and administered in virtue of the privileges of patronage, not of the right of the state.
Lothair wanted, with the Empire, the sole right of patronage over the adherents of his house, but each of these latter chose his own lord according to individual interests, obeying his.fears or his preferences.
By giving the king the ecclesiastical patronage they not only made a docile instrument of him, but endowed him with a mine of wealth, even more productive than the sale of offices, and a power of favoring and rewarding that transformed a needy and ill-obeyed king into an absolute monarch.
It was a system of Greek thought, expressed in a Semitic tongue, and modified by Oriental influences, called into existence amongst the Moslem people by the patronage of their more liberal princes, and kept alive by the intrepidity and zeal of a small band of thinkers, who stood suspected and disliked in the eyes of their nation.
It was not till about the middle of the 12th century that under the patronage of Raymond, archbishop of Toledo, a society of translators, with the archdeacon Dominicus Gundisalvi at their head, produced Latin versions of the Commentaries of Avicenna, and Ghazali, of the Fons Vitae of Avicebron, and of several Aristotelian treatises.
The movement towards introducing Arabian science and philosophy into Europe, however, culminated under the patronage of the emperor Frederick II.
Spanish diplomacy endeavoured to obtain the patronage of Italy and Germany with a view to secure the admission of Spain into the European concert, and into international conferences whenever Mediterranean and North African questions should be mooted.
went even further in his patronage, for he consented to be the godfather of the posthumous son of Alphonso XII., and he never afterwards wavered in the steady sympathy he showed to Alphonso XIII.
He had, however, long been a student of science; and Dr Dircks, a physician practising at Tondern, prevailed with his father to send him in 1820 to Copenhagen, where he won the patronage of H.
followed in the footseps of James, and lent such patronage to the breeding of a better kind of horse that a memorial was presented to him, asking that some measures might be taken to prevent the old stamp of horse " fit for the defence of the country" from dying out.
This institution, opened in 1875, is under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and was named in honour of Cornelius Vanderbilt, who contributed $1,000,000 to its funds, and whose son, W.
She had also a temple on the Aventine, which was the meeting-place for dramatic poets and actors, whose organization into gilds under her patronage dated from the time of Livius Andronicus.
Owing to its patronage by the Jesuit missionaries the Guarani language became a widespread medium of communication, and in a corrupted form is still the common language in Paraguay.
Queen Eleanor was a Provençal, and belonged to a family in which the patronage of poetry was a tradition.
The funds for the erection of the theatre were raised in part by the issue of 1000 certificates of patronage (Patronatsscheine), but the bulk of the sum was raised by founding "Wagner Societies" from St Petersburg to Cairo, from London to New York; these societies sprang up with such success that the theatre was opened in the summer of 1876 with the first complete performance of Der Ring des Nibelungen.
advowson of the living was sold to the Church Society, the most fervent of the Evangelical Patronage Trusts.
aristocratic patronage of modern architecture.
Patronage The patron of each benefice is listed under the benefice name.
byword for political corruption at the time, exposed Elizabeth's inability to control government patronage.
The minister derives his stipend, £ 80, from the seat-rents and collections, under the patronage of the male communicants.
No help, support, or patronage will be given to those groups which directly contravene this equal opportunities policy.
The living is a donative curacy in the diocese of Durham, value £ 93, in the patronage of Sir M. W. Ridley.
curacy in the patronage of the Earl of Thanet, and incumbency of the Rev. John Wharton.
donative curacy in the diocese of Durham, value £ 93, in the patronage of Sir M. W. Ridley.
They and their own daughter houses were liberally endowed, even enjoying the patronage of the native princes.
incorporeal right of patronage, but was the built into the foundation of the Commandery.
And how many advisers are truly independent and original in their advice - rather than merely the beneficiaries of government patronage?
instigated as a result of patronage.
He soon upset the Senate by insisting that the nine newly created federal judgeships be filled according to merit rather than by patronage.
He asks patronage from the one - he asks no favor from the other, except that they shall not claim kindred with him.
lordly power, and reckless or unprincipled patronage.
Lord Rhys, as he was generally known, assumed patronage of Strata Florida and endowed the monastery with generous gifts.
In fact, there was a nearby mosque that was under the patronage of my mother's family.
Patronage politics are dominated by who knows who, who owes who, and how much they owe.
patronage The patron of each benefice is listed under the benefice name.
patronage of the dean and chapter of Carlisle, and incumbency of the Rev Wm.
patronage of the vicar.
patronage of the bishop.
patronage of the crown, valued in the Liber Regis at £ 11 17s.
patronage of the five trustees.
patronage of the parish church of Dumbarton, 358, 359.
dispensing patronage at the expense of the environment and conservation was one of the characteristics of the previous regime.
Improved bus service will attract patronage from car, from slow modes and will generate new travel.
He was a cultured man who enjoyed the patronage of Robert Dudley, later Earl of Leicester.
Both the Minster and York's many religious houses enjoyed royal and aristocratic patronage, while wealthy citizens often favored the numerous parish churches.
In the 14th century a deer park created by Edward I brought royal patronage.
Textiles were also tangible standards of value that were used as currency, as payment of taxes, and as symbols of imperial patronage.
The Prime Minister: The independent Appointments Commission has indeed taken away prime ministerial patronage.
Research Staff Dr. Tim Ayers Medieval stained glass in England; architectural and artistic patronage in the medieval universities.
The high point in Britain seems to have been the Restoration a time of extremely generous royal patronage.
patronage forecasts to take account of the delay in take-up.
patronage growth of about 5 per cent.
Whilst bus patronage has grown, traffic levels into the city center have remained at their 1997 level.
Light rail patronage is published in an annual DfT statistical release for the year to the previous March, published five months later.
Sensitivity tests should examine the degree to which forecast patronage is dependent on any such restraint.
The rural radial is also loss making, with high fares and very low patronage.
rectory in the patronage of the Duke of Cornwall; and the tithes are commuted at £ 250.
self-styled order by the patronage of an exiled monarch.
The visit marks the first year of Princess Anne's patronage of the annual showpiece military event.
Constantine lavished patronage to the Church from 312 AD and his own pronouncements seem unequivocal that he was committed to Christianity from 312 AD.
vicarage in the patronage of the Bishop of Exeter.
vicarage of the annual value of £ 327, in the patronage of the vicar of St. James ' .
Chicheley also incurred the papal wrath by opposing the system of papal provision which diverted patronage from English to Italian hands, but the immediate occasion was to prevent the introduction of the bulls making Beaufort a cardinal.
SYNOD OF PISTOIA, a diocesan synod held in 1786 under the presidency of Scipione de' Ricci (1741-1810), bishop of Pistoia, and the patronage of Leopold, grand-duke of Tuscany, with a view to preparing the ground for a national council and a reform of the Tuscan Church.
The patronage attached to the office consists of the right to appoint the judge of the Cinque Ports admiralty court, the registrar of the Cinque Ports and the marshal of the court; the right of appointing salvage commissioners at each Cinque Port and the appointment of a deputy to act as chairman of the Dover harbour board in the absence of the lord warden.
In the next year he returned, assumed the presidency of the democratic party, and by a system of corruption and popularity-hunting, combined with the patronage of arts and letters, established himself as the real but unacknowledged dictator of the commonwealth.
Hitherto he had rarely appeared at court; but now the queen entrusted him not only with the care of her conscience, but also with the benefices in the royal patronage.
His small kingdom of Judah enjoyed an unbroken dynasty which survived the most serious crises, a temple which grew in splendour and wealth under royal patronage, and a legitimate priesthood which owed its origin to Zadok, the successful rival of David's priest Abiathar.
ANTHEMIUS, Greek mathematician and architect, who produced, under the patronage of Justinian (A.D.
to the first efforts of the Pleiade (see Ronsard), and as having continued her patronage of literature at Turin.
The Attic drama of the period produced many great masterpieces, and the scientific thought of Europe in the departments of logic; ethics, rhetoric and history mainly owes its origin to a new movement of Greek thought which was largely fostered by the patronage of Pericles himself.
The liberated slave, whatever the process by which he had obtained his freedom, became at once a full citizen, his former master, however, retaining the right of patronage, the abolition of which would probably have discouraged emancipation.
The Benefices Act of that year absolutely invalidates any transfer of a right of patronage unless (a) it is registered in the diocesan registry, (b) unless more than twelve months have elapsed since the last institution or admission to the benefice, and (c) unless "it transfers the whole interest of the transferor in the right" with certain reservations; in other words, the act abolished the sale of next presentations, but it expressly reserved from its operation (a) a transmission on marriage, death or bankruptcy or otherwise by operation of law, or (b) a transfer on the appointment of a new trustee where no beneficial interest passes.
It abolished the sale by auction of an advowson in gross, and empowered a bishop to refuse to institute or admit a presentee to a benefice on a number of specified grounds: among others, on the ground of possible corrupt presentation through a year not having elapsed since the last transfer of the right of patronage, and constituted a new court to hear appeals against a bishop's refusal to institute.
names of Charles Bonnet (1720-1793), the entomologist, who described the reproduction of Aphis; Banks and Solander, who accompanied Captain Cook on his first voyage(1768-1771); Thomas Pennant (1726-1798), the describer of the English fauna; Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811), who specially extended the knowledge of the Linnaean Vermes, and under the patronage of the empress Catherine explored Russia and Siberia; De Geer (1720-1778), the entomologist; Lyonnet (1707-1789), the author of the monograph of the anatomy of the caterpillar of I Cossus ligniperdus; Cavolini (1756-1810), the Neapolitan marine zoologist and forerunner of Della Chiaje (fl.
At the age of 20 he received his first diplomatic appointment at Rome, and was thence transferred to Philippopolis and Bucharest, where, by the patronage of Princess Urussov (wife of a future Russian ambassador at Paris), he made his reputation.
At the same time a strong impetus was given to the production of faience at Tadenothen the chief factory in Satsumaowing to the patronage of Shimazu Tamanobu, lord of the province.
As a Rosicrucian Wollner dabbled in alchemy and other mystic arts, but he also affected to be zealous for Christian orthodoxy, imperilled by Frederick II.'s patronage of "enlightenment," and a few months before Frederick's death wrote to his friend the Rosicrucian Johann Rudolph von Bischoffswerder (1741-1803) that his highest ambition was to be placed at the head of the religious department of the state "as an unworthy instrument in the hand of Ormesus" (the prince of Prussia's Rosicrucian name) "for the purpose of saving millions of souls from perdition and bringing back the whole country to the faith of Jesus Christ."
concluded a new concordat with France, in which, in view of the repudiation of the offensive Pragmatic Sanction, the patronage of the French Church was turned over, with scarce any restriction, to the French monarch, although in another agreement the annates were reserved to the pope.
Although defeated in the mayoralty election, his work on behalf of the merit system, as opposed to the spoils system of politics, was such that he was made a Civil Service commissioner - probably the last office a politician would wish to hold who desired further promotion, for the conflict which a Civil Service commissioner must have with members of Congress and other party leaders on questions of patronage is usually, or, at any rate, has been in the past history of American politics, inevitably detrimental to further official advancement.
Under his patronage the science of jurisprudence was cultivated by men of high ability, and a number of humane and equitable enactments were passed in his name.
1860), is based upon the control of patronage, the distribution of state funds among favoured banks, the support of the Pennsylvania railway and other great corporations, and upon the ability of the leaders to persuade the electors that it is necessary to vote the straight Republican ticket to save the protective system.
Restrictions had also been imposed on the transfer of patronage of churches built under the Church Building Acts and New Parishes Acts, and on that of benefices in the gift of the lord chancellor, and sold by him in order to augment others; but agreements may be made as to the patronage of such churches in favour of persons who have contributed to their building or enlargement without being void for simony.
Charles, while careful to protest against its renewal, supported the anti-papal contentions of the French members of the council of Basel (1431-1449), and in 1438 he promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction at Bourges, by which the patronage of ecclesiastical benefices was removed from the Holy See, while certain interventions of the royal power were admitted.
Niccolo Grossi, who worked in wrought iron under the patronage of Lorenzo dei Medici, produced some wonderful specimens of metal-work, such as the candlesticks, lanterns, and rings fixed at intervals round the outside of the great palaces (see fig.
It also took away all patronage from the governor, reduced his term to two years, forbade him to proclaim martial law or suspend the writ of habeas corpus, and abolished all registration laws: all these provisions being reflections of Reconstruction struggles.
Their perpetual meddling in politics, and even in speculation and finance, stank in the nostrils of every government in Europe; while their high-handedness and corporate greed in the matter of ecclesiastical privileges and patronage alienated the clergy.
WR.) Busiri [Abu `Abdallah Muhammad ibn Sa`id ul-Busiri] (I 2 I 11294), Arabian poet, lived in Egypt, where he wrote under the patronage of Ibn Hinna, the vizier.
Queen Eleanor was a ProvenÃ§al, and belonged to a family in which the patronage of poetry was a tradition.
The Living is a rectory in the patronage of the Duke of Cornwall; and the tithes are commuted at £ 250.
The hand of history made good the mythical claims of a self-styled Order by the patronage of an exiled monarch.
The visit marks the first year of Princess Anne 's patronage of the annual showpiece military event.
We greatly value our clients ' patronage and strive to establish trustful relationships with each and every individual.
At the same time Dobson is quite prepared to use Blair 's patronage to tug on the heartstrings of Labor voters.
The living is a vicarage in the patronage of the Bishop of Exeter.
The benefice is a vicarage of the annual value of £ 327, in the patronage of the vicar of St. James '.
Celebrity patronage also adds to the appeal; the fact that Playboy jewelry and clothing is a popular trend makes it a fashion statement.
Once you find a store or designer whose styles fit and flatter you, give them your loyal patronage.
Cathy Jean claims to really listen and hold an interest in the opinions of their patronage.
But more important than his own efforts as an author were his protection and patronage of literary men, especially of Corneille, and his creation of the French Academy in 1635.
Thenceforward he devoted himself to literary work under the patronage of Vespasian, Titus and Domitian.
In Germany the only important school of practical medicine was that of Vienna, as revived by Gerard van Swieten (1700-1772), a pupil of Boerhaave, under the patronage of Maria Theresa.
Under the generous patronage of Nicholas humanism made rapid strides.
The Ecclesiastical Commissioners Act 1836, which created two new dioceses (Ripon and Manchester), remodelled the state of the old dioceses by an entirely new adjustment of the revenues and patronage of each see, and also extended or curtailed the parishes and counties in the various jurisdictions.
In the summer of 1520 the desire of Diirer to secure from Maximilian's successors a continuance of the patronage and privileges granted during his lifetime, together with an outbreak of sickness in Nuremberg, gave occasion to the master's fourth and last journey from home.
Federal patronage was freely used to advance the Lecompton measure and the compromise English Bill, and to prevent Douglas's election to the Senate in 1858.
then known to exist supplied materials, was published in seven volumes, by Charles Annibal Fabrot, under the patronage of Louis XIII.
Laws as to patronage, an inflammatory question, were made, abolished and remade, causing, from about 1730 onwards, passions which exploded in the great Disruption of 1842.
The kirk was incensed by the growth of Episcopalianism and of Popery, the restoration of patronage, and the pressure to accept an oath abjuring James, which divided a church that was absolutely anti-Jacobite.
In 1854 selection by examination as a method of appointment to posts in the English public service was first substituted for the patronage system, which had caused grave dissatisfaction (see Macaulay's speech on the subject, The Times of the 25th of June 1853).
He gave the name of Queen's Ware to his productions of this class, and this judicious royal patronage awarded to a most deserving manufacturer un - doubtedly helped Wedgwood greatly.
Hegel, indignant at what he deemed patronage, demanded that the note should be withdrawn.
From a mere fishing village, with a few hundred inhabitants in the beginning of the 1 9th century, Biarritz rose rapidly into a place of importance under the patronage of the emperor Napoleon III.
Fish, The Civil Service and the Patronage (Harvard Historical Studies, New York, 1905), ch.
The enlightened mind of Warren Hastings did indeed anticipate his age by founding the Calcutta madrasa for Mahom medan teaching, and by affording steady patronage alike to Hindu pundits and European students.
They also held the patronage of several major Anglo-Catholic shrines in the east end of London.
To judge, however, from the dedications, prologues and epilogues of his various plays, he seems to have enjoyed the patronage of the earl, afterwards duke, of Newcastle, "himself a muse" after a fashion, and Lord Craven, the supposed husband of the ex-queen of Bohemia.
Thus annates were abolished, the abuse of "reservation" of the patronage of benefices by the pope was much limited, and the right claimed by the pope of "next presentation" to benefices not yet vacant (known as gratiae expectativae) was done away with altogether.
The great ability of Beaton and the patronage of his uncle ensured his rapid promotion to high offices in the church and kingdom.
The penalty is forfeiture by the offender of any advantage from the simoniacal transaction, of his patronage by the patron, of his benefice by the presentee; and now by the Benefices Act 1892, a person guilty of simony is guilty of an offence for which he may be proceeded against under the Clergy Discipline Act 1892.
The Ecclesiastical Commissioners Act 1840, § 42, provides that no spiritual person may sell or assign any patronage or presentation belonging to him by virtue of any dignity or spiritual office held by him; such sale or assignment is null and void.
the right to present to a benefice in a newly appointed bishop's patronage at the option of the archbishop. By canon 40 of the canons of 1603 an oath against simony was to be administered to every person admitted to any spiritual or ecclesiastical function, dignity or benefice.
The declaration is to the effect that the clergyman has not received the presentation in consideration of any sum of money, reward, gift, profit or benefit directly or indirectly given or promised by him or any one for him to any one; that he has not made any promise of resignation other than that allowed by the Clerical Resignation Bonds Act 1828; that he has not for any money or benefit procured the avoidance of the benefice; and that he has not been party to any agreement invalidated by sec. 3 sub-sec. 3 of the act which invalidates any agreement for the exercise of a right of patronage in favour or on the nomination of any particular person, and any agreement on the transfer of a right of patronage (a) for the retransfer of the right, or (b) for postponing payment of any part of the consideration for the transfer until a vacancy or for more than three months, or (c) for payment of interest until a vacancy or for more than three months, or (d) for any payment in respect of the date at which a vacancy occurs, or (e) for the resignation of a benefice in favour of any person.
The general result of the law previous to the Benefices Act 1898, as gathered from the statutes and decisions, may be exhibited as follows: (1) it was not simony for a layman or spiritual person not purchasing for himself to purchase, while the church was full, as advowson or next presentation, however immediate the prospect of a vacancy; (2) it was not simony for a spiritual person to purchase for himself a life or any greater estate in an advowson, and to present himself thereto; (3) it was not simony to exchange benefices under an agreement that no payment was to be made for dilapidations on either side; (4) it was not simony to make certain assignments of patronage under the Church Building and New Parishes Acts (9 & 10 Vict.
He gained the patronage of the bishop of Cyprus, who brought him to Venice, where his abilities were immediately recognized by his appointment to the chair of philosophy at Ferrara.
Under the patronage of that admiral, he arrived at Rio de Janeiro in 1558 with a train of numerous and respectable colonists.
Besides the ministry which had come with the regent, Reorgan- the council of state, and the departments of the four ization on ministries of home, finances, war and marine then Portu- existing, there were created in the course of one year a supreme court of justice, a board of patronage and administration of the property of the church and military orders, an inferior court of appeal, the court of exchequer and royal treasury, the royal mint, bank of Brazil, royal printing-office, powder-mills on a large scale, and a supreme military court.
of the capital, must always enjoy a large share of public patronage, though it is not in such favour as a wateringplace as it once was.
The chancellor is elected for life by the general council, of which he is head; and the rights of the city as the original founder have been recognized by giving to the town council the election of four of the seven curators, with whom rest the appointment of the principal, the patronage of seventeen of the chairs, and a share in other appointments.
Jewish scholars, often under the patronage of Christian bishops, were especially active in the work.
The chief power then passed to the Ashikaga dynasty of Shoguns, who retained it for about 200 years and were distinguished for their patronage of the arts.
But if the motive of his patronage had been merely politic it never could have inspired the affection which it did in its recipients.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.