A conspiracy headed by the patrician Arsaber had a similar issue.
In 467 the emperor Anthemius rewarded him for the panegyric which he had written in honour of him by raising him to the post of prefect of Rome, and afterwards to the dignity of a patrician and senator.
The patrician stood for the consuls.
That union would answer rather to the union of the three patrician tribes of Rome.
PHILIPPICUS, East Roman emperor, 711-713, was the son of the patrician Nicephorus, and became distinguished as a soldier under Justinian II.
of the patrician caste.
The khakan, who had defied the summons sent him by the invaders, now aided the Byzantine patrician -in the defence of Armenia.
In 44 Caesar added two patrician aediles, called Cereales, whose special duty was the care of the corn-supply.
On his return to Germany, the emperor learned that Gregory had been driven from Rome, which was again in the power of John Crescentius, patrician of the Romans, and that a new pope, John XVI., had been elected.
If so, there would be no place in Athens for those great plebeian houses, once patrician in some other commonwealth, out of which the later Roman nobilitas was so largely formed.
Exasperated by the tyranny of the Salimbeni and other patrician families allied to the Ghibellines, it decreed in 127 7 the exclusion of all nobles from the supreme magistracy (consisting since 1270 of thirty-six instead of twenty-four members), and insisted that this council should be formed solely of Guelf traders and men of the middle class.
They took over the management of the Roman and Megalesian games, the care of the patrician temples and had the right of issuing edicts as superintendents of the markets.
The title of patrician was revived and offered to Conrad, king of Italy, but not crowned emperor.
These were naturally those families which had been patrician in some other Italian city, but which were plebeian at Rome.
And in the Great Council itself we have the lively image of the aristocratic popular assembly of Rome, the assembly of the populus, that of the curiae, where every man of patrician birth had his place.
The whole lesson is lost if the words "patrician" and "plebeian" are used in any but their strict sense.
JOHN XVIII., pope from 1003 to 1009, was, during his whole pontificate, the mere creature of the patrician John Crescentius, and ultimately he abdicated and retired to a monastery, where he died shortly afterwards.
Again, as Romulus was the author of the patrician groundwork of the constitution, so Servius was regarded as the originator of a new classification of the people, which laid the foundation of the gradual political enfranchisement of the plebeians (for the constitutional alterations with which his name is associated, see Rome: Ancient History; for the Servian Wall see Rome: Archaeology).
The amelu was a patrician, the man of family, whose birth, marriage and death were registered, of ancestral estates and full civil rights.
Thus, at a comparatively early period, three classes of equites may be distinguished: (a) The patrician equites equo publico of the sex suifragia; (b) the plebeian equites in the twelve remaining centuries; (c) the equites equo private, both patrician and plebeian.
Down to the end of this era painting was entirely in the hands of a patrician castecourtiers, priests, feudal nobles and their military retainers, all men of high education and gentle birth, living in a polished circle.
On his return to Rome at the end of three years he was made censor, raised to the rank of patrician, and appointed governor of Aquitania (74-78).
On the Scheldt, near the Place Laurent, is the Geerard-duivelsteen (château of Gerard the Devil), a 13th-century tower formerly belonging to one of the patrician families, now restored and used as the office of the provincial records.
The four Ionic tribes at Athens seem to have answered very closely to the three patrician tribes at Rome; but the Athenian demos grew up in a different way from the Roman plebs.
When one branch of a family was admitted and one shut out we have an analogy to the patrician and plebeian Claudii, though the distinction had come about in quite another way.
MARCUS AEMILIUS SCAURUS (c. 163-88 B.C.), Roman statesman, was a member of a great patrician family which had sunk into obscurity.
PUBLIUS CORNELIUS DOLABELLA, Roman general and son-in-law of Cicero, was born about 70 B.C. He was by far the most important of the Dolabellae, a family of the patrician gens Cornelia.
Many names and customs were introduced into his court from that of Constantinople; he proposed to restore the Roman senate and consulate, revived the office of patrician, called himself "consul of the Roman senate and people" and issued a seal with the inscription, "restoration of the Roman empire."
His mother Domitia Calvilla (or Lucilla) was a lady of consular rank, and the family of his father Annius Verus (prefect of the city and thrice consul), originally Spanish, had received patrician rank from Vespasian.
LUCIUS CORNELIUS SULLA (138-78 B.C.), surnamed Felix, Roman general, politician and dictator, belonged to a minor and impoverished branch of the famous patrician Cornelian gens.
The case is again often misunderstood because the words "patrician" and "plebeian," like so many other technical Roman and Greek words, have come in modern language to be used in a way quite unlike their original sense.
There is no exact parallel in England to the conflict between these two classes in Scotland in the 16th century, or to the great continental revolution of the 13th and 14th centuries, by which the crafts threw off the yoke of patrician government and secured more independence in the management of their own affairs and more participation in the civic administration.
Whatever power they did secure, whether as potent subsidiary organs of the municipal polity for the regulation of trade, or as the chief or sole medium for the acquisition of citizenship, or as integral parts of the common council, was, generally speaking, the logical sequence of a gradual economic development, and not the outgrowth of a revolutionary movement by which oppressed craftsmen endeavoured to throw off the yoke of an arrogant patrician gild merchant.
Besides many hundreds of princes, dukes, marquesses, counts, barons and viscounts, there are a large number of persons of patrician rank, persons with a right to the designation nobile or signor-i, and certain hereditary knights or cavalieri.
The Catuli and Metelli, among the proudest nobles of Rome, were plebeians, and as such could not have been chosen to the purely patrician office of interrex, or of Jupiter.
Bernhard Walther, a rich patrician, became his pupil and patron; and they together equipped the first European observatory, for which Regiomontanus himself constructed instruments of an improved type (described in his posthumous Scripta, Nuremberg, 1544).
Though patrician in sympathy, he saw the necessity of making concessions to the plebeians and was instrumental in passing the Licinian laws.
He received in France a personal visit from Pope Stephen II., who conferred on him the title of Patrician of the Romans and recrowned him.
The exclusion of the handicraftsmen from the Rath led, early in the 15th century, to a rising of the craft gilds against the patrician merchants, and in 1410 they forced the latter to recognize the authority of a committee of 48 burghers, which concluded with the senate the so-called First Recess; there were, however, fresh outbursts in 1458 and 1483, which were settled by further compromises.
MARCUS FURIUS CAMILLUS, Roman soldier and statesman, of patrician descent, censor in 403 B.C. He triumphed four times, was five times dictator, and was honoured with the title of Second Founder of Rome.
The real cause of complaint against him was no doubt his patrician haughtiness and his triumphal entry into Rome in a chariot drawn by white horses.
Soon after the Joyeuse Entrée a serious feud began between the citizens and the patrician class, and eventually the duke threw in his lot with the latter.
We see indeed faint traces of distinction among the patricians themselves, which may lead us to guess that the equality of all patricians may have been won by struggles of unrecorded days, not unlike those which in recorded days brought about the equality of patrician and plebeian.
Patricians and plebeians went on as orders defined by law, till the distinction died out in the confusion of things under the empire, till at last the word "patrician" took quite a new meaning.
Both consuls might be plebeians, both could not be patricians; a patrician could not wield the great powers vested in the tribunes of the commons.
Just as the old patricians had striven to keep plebeians out of high offices, so now the new nobles, patrician and plebeian alike, strove to keep "new men," men who had not the jus imaginum, out of high office.
Livy could never get rid of the idea that the old struggle between patrician and plebeian was something like the struggle between the nobility and the people at large in the later days of the commonwealth.
It is first mentioned in 1322, was bought with the adjacent hostelry in 1405 by the city and rearranged as a town hall, and has since, from time to time, been enlarged by the purchase of adjoining patrician houses, forming a complex of buildings of various styles and dates surmounted by a clock tower.
These were greater advantages than the exclusive patrician possession of the offices of interrex, rex sacrorum and the higher flamens.
At Rome down to the last it made a difference whether the candidate for office was patrician or plebeian, though the difference was in later times commonly to the advantage of the plebeian.
The eorl of the old system would doubtless commonly become a thegn under the new, as the Roman patrician took his place in the new nobilitas; but others could take their place there also.
A conspicuous instance was the exclusion of Cologne from 1471 until its obedience in 1476, but the penalty had been earlier imposed, as in the case of Brunswick, on towns which overthrew their patrician governments.
The wealth of the burghers during this period was equalled by their turbulent spirit of independence; feuds were frequent, - against the rival city of Bruges, against the counts, or, within the city itself, between the plebeian crafts and the patrician governing class.
This was the growth of the new nobility of Rome, that body, partly patrician, partly plebeian, to whom the name nobilitas strictly belongs in Roman history.
In the following year, according to Procopius, Justinian perceived the value of the Ghassanids as an outpost of the Roman empire, and as opponents of the Persian dependants of Hira, and recognized Harith as king of the Arabs and patrician of the Roman empire.
There had consequently grown up within the state a large artisan class, excluded from the old patrician gentes and therefore from the state cult: at the same time the beginnings of commerce had opened relations with neighbouring peoples.
He now took the title " king of the Lombards," to which he added the dignity of " Patrician of the Romans," which had been granted to his father.
He did not stay long at Prague, and we find him next at Zurich, whence he accepted an invitation to Venice from a young patrician, Giovanni Mocenigo.
LENTULUS, the name of a Roman patrician family of the Cornelian gens, derived from lentes (" lentils"), which its oldest members were fond of cultivating (according to Pliny, Nat.
In all other cities of the Netherlands the craft gilds remained in humble subjection to a council co-opted from a limited number of wealthy patrician families.
His worship, introduced from the Greek colonies in Etruria and in the south of Italy, seems to have been established in Rome from the earliest times, as two old Patrician genies were associated with his cult and the Fabii claimed him as their ancestor.
The earliest forerunner of the great sisterhood of nurses of whom we have any record was Fabiola, a patrician Roman lady, who in A.D.
On the marriage in 1735 of another Agostino Chigi (1710-1769) with Giulia Albani, heiress of the Albani, a Venetian patrician family, said to be of Albanian origin, her name was added to that of Chigi.
This brought him into conflict with the aristocratic party, who prevented him from obtaining the aedileship. When about forty years of age he married a lady of patrician rank, Julia, the aunt of Julius Caesar.
GIOVANNI BATTISTA ADRIANI (1513-1579), Italian historian, was born of a patrician family of Florence, and was secretary to the republic of Florence.
He renewed the donation of Pippin, and as Patrician he took Rome under his protection.
JOHN XII., pope from 955 to 964, was the son of Alberic, whom he succeeded as patrician of Rome in 954, being then only sixteen years of age.
Claudius, Appius, surnamed Crassus, a Roman patrician, consul in 471 and 451 B.C., and in the same and following year one of the decemvirs.
He holds that Claudius was never the leader of the patrician party,.
but a patrician demagogue who ended by becoming a tyrant to patricians as well as plebeians.
Claudius, Appius, surnamed Caecus, Roman patrician and author.
His family was of patrician rank and traced a legendary descent from lulus, the founder of Alba g Y, Longa, son of Aeneas and grandson of Venus and Anchises.
Caesar made the most of his divine ancestry and built a temple in his forum to Venus Genetrix; but his patrician descent was of little importance in politics and disqualified Caesar from holding the tribunate, an office to which, as a leader of the popular party, he would naturally have aspired.
By treaty of December 1145 he recognized the republic under his suzerainty, substituted a papal prefect for the "patrician" and returned to Rome.
(Argyrus), emperor 1028-1034, was an undistinguished Byzantine patrician, who was compelled by the dying emperor Constantine IX.
Ricimer then obtained from Leo I., emperor at Constantinople, the title patrician, but in 457 set up Majorianus as his own emperor in the West, and induced Leo to give his consent.
The traditions connect them closely with the beginning of Rome, and with a large number of its early institutions, such as the worship of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus, and the patrician form of marriage (confarreatio).
There were also collections on the same scale belonging to individuals; a patrician of Nuremberg named Muffel was able to gain possession of 308 relics (Chroniken der deutschen State, xi.
CETHEGUS, the name of a Roman patrician family of the Cornelian gens.
In the Via Morone near the Piazza della Scala is a collection of art treasures bequeathed to the town in 1879 by a Milanese patrician, the Cavaliere Poldi-Pezzoli.
In 697 we hear of a revolt against Rome led by Sergius the Patrician, who allied himself with the Arabs.
Such was the position to which John de Witt, a young man of twenty-eight years of age, belonging to one of the most influential patrician families of Dordrecht (his father, Jacob de Witt, was one of the prisoners of Loevenstein) was appointed in 1653.
Under the close oligarchical rule of the patrician families, who filled all offices in the town councils, the States of Holland, in which the influence of Amsterdam was dominant, and which in their turn exercised predominance in the States-General, became more and more an assembly of " shopkeepers " whose policy was to maintain peace for the sake of the commerce on which they thrived.
340) - genus huic materna superbum Nobilitas dabat, incertum de patre ferebat - indicates a very different system of family ties from the famous patria potestas and agnation of the Patrician and Sabine clans.
4 Of the gentes from which these tribes took their names, six entirely disappeared in later days, while the other ten can be traced as patrician - a proof that the patricians were not noble families in origin (Mommsen, Romische Forschungen, i.
Lucius (or Gaius) Minucius, the patrician praefectus annonae (president of the market), thereupon accused him of courting popularity with a view to making himself king.
But though in Bremen the efforts of the craftsmen's "arts" to secure a share of power had been held in check and the gilds never gained any importance, the city government did not, as at Cologne and elsewhere, develop into a close patrician oligarchy.
Among the more prominent secular buildings are the Giirzenich, a former meeting-place of the diets of the Holy Roman Empire, built between 1441 and 1447, of which the ground floor was in 1875 converted into a stock exchange, and the upper hall, capable of accommodating 3000 persons, is largely utilized for public festivities, particularly during the time of the Carnival; the Rathaus, dating from the 13th century, with beautiful Gobelin tapestries; the Tempelhaus, the ancestral seat of the patrician family of the Overstolzens, a beautiful building dating from the 13th century, and now the chamber of commerce; the Wallraf-Richartz Museum, in which is a collection of paintings by old Italian and Dutch masters, together with some works by modern artists; the Zeughaus, or arsenal, built on Roman foundations; the Supreme Court for the Rhine provinces; the post-office (1893); the Imperial Bank (Reichsbank); and the municipal library and archives.
The Wolkenburg, a fine Gothic house of the 15th century, originally a patrician residence, was restored in 1874, and is now the headquarters of the famous men's choral society of Cologne (Kolner Mannergesangverein).
As yet, however, none of the trade or craft gilds, as such, had a share in the government, which continued in the hands of the patrician families, membership of which was necessary even for election to the council and to the parochial offices.
In the 14th century a narrow patrician council selected from the Richerzeche, with two burgomasters, was supreme.
In many of them there had been for more than a century a struggle between the old patrician families and the democratic gilds.
DANDOLO, the name of one of the most illustrious patrician families of Venice, of which the earliest recorded member was one of the electors of the first doge (A.D.
That was the official title; we often hear of a patrician of Sicily, but patrician (q.v.) was in strictness a personal rank.
In 813 a peace for ten years was made between the Saracens and the patrician Gregory.
They were first appointed in 367 B.C. instead of the patrician duumviri who had hitherto performed these duties.
It may therefore be assumed that long before the clients obtained the right to hold land in their own names and appear in the courts in their own persons there was a free plebs existing alongside of the patricians enjoying limited rights of citizenship. But it is equally certain that before the time of Servius Tullius the rights and duties of citizenship were practically exercised only by the members of the patrician clans.
At the close of the monarchy, the plebeian possessed the private rights of citizenship in entirety, except for his inability to contract a legal marriage with a patrician, and one of the public rights, that of giving his vote in the assembly.'
But in the matter of liability to the duties of citizenship, military service and taxation, he was entirely on a level with the patrician.
This position was probably tolerable during the monarchy, when the king served to hold the power of the patrician families in check.
But while the patrician disabilities were of a kind that had gained in importance with the lapse of centuries, these privileges, even if still retained, had become merely formal in the second half of the republican period.
Since the plebeian element in the state had an immense numerical preponderance over the patrician these disabilities were not widely spread, and seem generally to have been cheerfully borne as the price of belonging to the families still recognized as the oldest and noblest in Rome.
But the adoption of P. Clodius Pulcher into a plebeian family in J9 B.C. with a view to election to the tribunate shows that a rejection of patrician rights (transitio ad plebem) was not difficult to effect by any patrician who preferred actual power to the dignity of ancient descent.
Patrician rank seems to have been regarded as a necessary attribute of the princeps; and in two cases we are told that it was conferred upon a plebeian princeps by the senate (Vita Juliani, 3; Macrini, 7) .
Instead of the old hereditary nobility, consisting of the members of the patrician clans, there arose a nobility of office, consisting of all those families, whether patrician or plebeian, which had held curule office.
In the early days of Rome, office was only open to the member of a patrician gens.
In the principate, patrician rank, a sort of abstract conception based upon the earlier state of affairs, was held to be a dignity suitable to be conferred on an individual holder of office.
But the conferment of the rank upon an individual as distinct from a whole family (gens) is enough to show how widely the modern conception of patrician rank differed from the ancient.
Under Constantine an entirely new meaning was given to the word Patrician.
The dignity was not hereditary and belonged only to individuals; thus a patrician family was merely one whose head enjoyed the rank of patricius.
From the first, however, it was clear that Friederike Brion could never become the wife of the Frankfort patrician's son; an unhappy ending to the romance was unavoidable, and, as is to be seen in passionate outpourings like the Wanderers Sturmlied, and in the bitter self-accusations of Clavigo, it left deep wounds on the poet's sensitive soul.
The old patrician council left the city to appeal to the Hansa and to the imperial authorities, while a new council with democratic tendencies, elected chiefly from the gilds, took their place.
The patrician Nicetas, count of Opsikion, who sought to oppose his march, was defeated by Harun's general, Yazid b.
The distinction between patrician and plebeian, domestic slavery, and beating and slicing to death were abolished.
In 46 B.C. he shared in the glory of Caesar's African triumph, and in 45 he was made a patrician by the senate, and designated as one of Caesar's "masters of the horse" for the next year.
The grand old patrician houses of the days of its Hanseatic glory, with their lofty and often elaborately ornamented gables and their balconied windows, are the delight of the visitor to the town.
The most interesting secular buildings are the houses of the old patrician families.
The government of the town was vested in the patrician families, who, contrary to the usual course of events in the free towns, succeeded in permanently excluding the civic gilds from all share of municipal power, although in 1347 there was a sharp rising against this oligarchy.
The downfall of the town was accelerated by the illiberal policy of its patrician rulers; and the French Revolution reduced it to such a degree that in 1796 it offered itself and its territories to the king of Prussia on condition that he would pay its debts.
CATILINE [LUCIUS SERGIUS CATILINA] (c. 108-62 B.C.), a member of an ancient but impoverished patrician family of Rome, the prime mover in the conspiracy known by his name.
He was a tribune of the people, associated unflinchingly not merel y with the unpopular but with the unpolished; always carrying about him not merely a certain Roman look, but a patrician air.
After slavery had fallen Phillips associated himself freely with reformers occupied in other paths, herein separating himself from the other patrician of the movement, Edmund Quincy, who always frankly said that after slavery was abolished there was nothing else worth fighting for.
Fabius Pictor, a patrician and a senator, can scarcely have published his annals before the close of the Second Punic War, but these annals covered the whole period from the arrival of Evander in Italy down at least to the battle by Lake Trasimene (217 B.C.).
In the former case he is clothed with various Roman titles and offices, as patrician and consul; but in all cases alike he remains the national East Gothic king.
Thus his refusal to sacrifice Polish to Lithuanian or Lithuanian to Polish interests caused both Poles and Lithuanians to accuse the f ar-seeing monarch of partiality and favouritism; while his anti-German policy, on which the future safety of the dual state depended, could only be carried through by the most humiliating concessions to patrician pride and greed.
The influence of the towns was steadily on the increase, and their government began to fall into the hands of the burgher patrician class, who formed the Cod party.
Michael Constantine Psellus the younger, born in 1018 (probably at Nicomedia; according to some, at Constantinople) of a consular and patrician family.
The Ogulnian law in the same year increased the number to nine, five plebeian being added to the four patrician members.
For the first six years of this lamentable period Burke was actively employed in stimulating, informing and guiding the patrician chiefs of his party.
He was the son of a converted Jew, who took the name of Manin because that patrician family stood sponsors to him, as the custom then was.
originally of all legal patrician marriages; (6) the administration of the law of adoption and of testamentary succession.
On the very day of his coronation Pippin allowed himself to be proclaimed patrician of the Romans by the pope, just as Clovis had been made consul.
The Flemings, however, soon wearying of the oppressive administration of the French governor, Jacques de Chtillon, and the recrudescence of patrician domination, rose and overwhelmed the French chivalry at Courtrai (1302) a prelude to the coming disasters of the Hundred Years War.
At the time he mounted the papal chair Crescentius was patrician of Rome, but, although his influence was on this account very much hampered, the presence of the empress Theophano in Rome from 989 to 991 restrained also the ambition of Crescentius.
In 964-966 he definitely conquered Cilicia and again overran Mesopotamia and Syria, while the patrician Nicetas recovered Cyprus.
Ter came from a patrician family and brought a substantial dowry.
Having been baptized, she refused to marry a pagan patrician and so was martyred for Christ in Rome.
patrician families of Persia.
patrician clan of the Julii.
patrician parents, he married early in life.
patrician arrogance which simply begged to be cut down to size.
Born in Poitiers in France of pagan patrician parents, he married early in life.
The primary government is aristocratic. Patrician tyranny rouses the populace to revolt, and then democratic equality is established under a republic. Democratic excesses cause the rise of an empire, which, becoming corrupt, declines into barbarism, and, again emerging from it, retraces the same course.
On the Scheldt, near the Place Laurent, is the Geerard-duivelsteen (chÃ¢teau of Gerard the Devil), a 13th-century tower formerly belonging to one of the patrician families, now restored and used as the office of the provincial records.
No general law was ever passed to abolish the privileges of the patricians; still less was any law ever passed to abolish the distinction between patrician and plebeian.
While at Rome the distinction of patrician and plebeian was never wiped out, while it remained to the last a legal distinction even when practical privilege had turned the other way, at Athens, after the democracy had reached its full growth, the distinction seems to have had no legal existence whatever.
Yet even in good writers on Roman history the words "patrician" and "plebeian" are often misapplied by being transferred to the later disputes at Rome, in which they are quite out of place.
The process which at Rome gradually gave the plebeian a political advantage over the patrician was carried at Florence to a far greater length at a single blow.
He was of patrician family, wealthy, highly educated,, and for some time occupied as a teacher of rhetoric at Carthage.
AGRIPPA MENENIUS LANATUS, Roman patrician and statesman, consul 503 B.C. On the occasion of the first secession of the people to the Sacred Mount, Agrippa, who was known to be a man of moderate views, was one of the commissioners empowered by the senate to treat with the seceders.
The closing of the great council and the creation of the patrician caste brought about a revolution among those who suffered disfranchisement.
This conspiracy was championed by Bajamonte Tiepolo, and seems to have been an expression of patrician protest against the serrata, just as Bocconio's revolt had represented popular indignation.
Cornelius Celsus, a Roman patrician, who lived probably in the ist century, appears to have studied medicine as a branch of general knowledge.
Soon after the Joyeuse EntrÃ©e a serious feud began between the citizens and the patrician class, and eventually the duke threw in his lot with the latter.
The gens contained a patrician and a plebeian family; the chief representatives of the former were the Pulchri, of the latter the Marcelli (see Marcellus).
The Institutiones grammaticae is a systematic exposition of Latin grammar, dedicated to Julian, consul and patrician, whom some have identified with the author of a well-known epitome of Justinian's Novellae, but the lawyer appears to be somewhat later than Priscian.
These were the inauguration of the rex sacrorum and the flamens, and that abjuration of hereditary worship (detestatio sacrorum) which was made by a man who passed from his clan (gens) either by an act of adrogation (see Roman Law and Adoption) or by transition from the patrician to the plebeian order.
The assumption that Latin was properly the language of the Latian plain and of the Plebs at Rome, which the conquering patrician nobles learnt from their subjects, and substituted for their own kindred but different Safine idiom, renders easier to understand the borrowing of a number of words into Latin from some dialect (presumably Sabine) where the velars had been labialized; for example, the very common word bos, which in pure Latin should have been *vos.
The practical result was the establishment of the hegemony of Holland in the Union, and the handing over of the control of its policy to the patrician oligarchies who formed the town councils of that province.
The victory had been won over the archbishop; but a fresh peril had developed in the course of the 13th century in the growth of a patrician class, which, as in so many other cities, threatened to absorb all power into the hands of a close oligarchy.
Mommsen that the plebeian order had its sole origin in the clients who attached themselves in a position of semi-freedom to the heads of patrician houses, and gradually evolved a freedom and citizenship of their own (see Patron And Client).
It is possible, though far from certain (see Senate), that the powers of the interregnum and the senatorial confirmation (patrum auctoritas) necessary to give validity to decisions of the people, remained the exclusive privileges of the patrician members of the senate.
His father, Simeon Poisson, served as a common soldier in the Hanoverian wars; but, disgusted by the ill-treatment he received from his patrician officers, he deserted.
In the Old Town region, patrician homes are the common style of architecture.
Chute, Patrician M., and Mary Ellen Nevins.
At Pavia the barbarian conquerors of Italy proclaimed him king, and he received from Zeno the dignity of Roman patrician.
The practical result of the Licinian reform was that the great plebeian families became, for all practical purposes, patrician.
What is equally noteworthy, as explaining the characteristics of Napoleon, is that his descent was on both sides distinctly patrician.
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