Patriarchs sentence example

patriarchs
  • Fred was referring to a coffee klatch of elderly town patriarchs whose words and advice on just about anything was often quoted in the local paper.
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  • The two are reconciled when the God of the patriarchs reveals His name for the first time unto Moses (Exod.
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  • 130 The period of the Patriarchs' sojourn in Canaan was thus..
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  • not to change any doctrines held by them which are not contrary to that faith which the Holy Spirit, speaking through the Oecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church of Christ, has taught us as necessary to be believed by all Christians, but to strengthen an ancient Church, at the earnest request of the Catholicos, and with the knowledge and blessing of the Catholic patriarch of Antioch, one of the four patriarchs of the Holy Orthodox Eastern Church, and occupant of the Apostolic See from which the Church of the East revolted at the time of Nestorius."
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  • In consequence of the occupants of the thrones of Constantinople and Alexandria falling successively into opposite heresies, the question arose how " patriarchs " were to be judged.
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  • " Century IX.") Since these transactions patriarchs have been deposed by the Byzantine emperors; and the Turkish sultans since the 15th century have assumed to exercise the same prerogative.
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  • The bishops had consistorial courts; the patriarchs, chanceries and consistories (ib.).
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  • The change was approved by the four patriarchs of the East in 1723 (ib.
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  • Eliezer, of the 8th or 9th century, a sort of history of creation and of the patriarchs, and the Tanna debe Eliyahu (an ethical work of the 10th century but containing much that is old), besides a large number of minor compositions.'
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  • The old castle, at one time the residence of the patriarchs of Aquileia, and now used as a prison, was erected by Giovanni Fontana in 1517 in place of the older one destroyed by an earthquake in 1511.
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  • of Jamnia (Jabne Yebneh) had been raised to this dignity a century before, and, as members of the house of Hillel and thus descendants of David, the patriarchs enjoyed almost royal authority.
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  • (379-395) the internal affairs of the Jews were formally committed to the patriarchs, and Honorius (404) authorized the collection of the patriarch's tax (aurum coronarium), by which a revenue was raised from the Jews of the diaspora.
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  • 1aTpcapXfs, from irarput, clan, and apxii, rule), originally the father or chief of a tribe, in this sense now used more especially of the " patriarchs " of the Old Testament, i.e.
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  • The service opened with a procession of Old Testament characters, prophets, patriarchs and kings, together with heathen prophets, including Virgil, the chief figure being Balaam on his ass.
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  • The assizes may speak of patriarch and king as conjoint seigneurs in Jerusalem; but as a matter of fact the king could secure the nomination of his own patriarch, and after Dagobert the patriarchs are, with the temporary exception of Stephen in 1128, the confidants and supporters of the kings.
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  • TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS.
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  • Patriarchs (Oxford University Press, 1908).
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  • Charles's Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (1908), Introd.
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  • Charles's Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs.
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  • Patriarchs from MSS., with the Variants from the Armenian and Slavonic Versions and tie Hebrew Fragments (1908).
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  • - Charles, The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs translated from the Editor's Greek Text (1908).
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  • It is only since the 11th or 12th century that Kabbalah has become the exclusive appellation for the renowned system of theosophy which claims to have been transmitted uninterruptedly by the mouths of the patriarchs and prophets ever since the creation of the first man.
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  • Yobai (the second century A.D.) of doctrines which God communicated to Adam in Paradise, and which have been received uninterruptedly from the mouths of the patriarchs and prophets.
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  • The influence of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is still more apparent in the Pauline Epistles and the Gospels, and the same holds true of Jubilees and the Assumption of Moses, though in a very slight degree.
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  • Aleppo is an important consular station for all European powers, the residence of the Greek and Armenian Patriarchs of Antioch, and of Jacobite and Maronite bishops, and a station of Roman Catholic and Protestant missions.
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  • It is an imaginary history of the patriarchs and their descendants.
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  • Elias bar Shinaya, who in 1008 became Nestorian bishop of Nisibis, was the author of a valuable Chronicle, to which are prefixed numerous chronological tables, lists of popes, patriarchs, &c., and which covers by its narrative the period from A.D.
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  • Nestorianorum patriarchs (Paris, 1904).
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  • He based his teaching on the Gospels and the Epistles of Paul, repudiating other scriptures; and taking the Pauline name of Silvanus, organized churches in Castrum Colonias and Cibossa, which he called Macedonia, after Paul's congregation of that 1 In the Armenian Letterbook of the Patriarchs (Tiflis, 1901), p. 73.
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  • (14) Christ did not lay hands on patriarchs and metropolitans and bishops and presbyters and deacons and monks, nor ordain their several prayers.
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  • Patriarchs.
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  • Patriarchs, i.e.
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  • Patriarchs.) Psalms of Solomon.
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  • Again the heavens had opened and the divine teaching come to mankind, no longer merely in books bearing the names of ancient patriarchs, but on the lips of living men, who had taken courage to appear in person as God's messengers before His people.
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  • GAMALIEL VI., grandson of the above, the last of the patriarchs, died in 425.
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  • The biblical author of the history of the sacred institutions (P) expressly declares that the name Yahweh was unknown to the patriarchs (Exod.
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  • Archbishops rank immediately after patriarchs and have the same precedence as primates.
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  • The Religions of the World (1847); Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy (at first an article in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, 1848); The Church a Family (1850); The Old Testament (1851); Theological Essays (1853); The Prophets and Kings of the Old Testament (1853); Lectures on Ecclesiastical History (1854); The Doctrine of Sacrifice (1854); The Patriarchs and Lawgivers of the Old Testament (1855); The Epistles of St John (1857); The Commandments as Instruments of National Reformation (1866); On the Gospel of St Luke (1868); The Conscience: Lectures on Casuistry (1868); The Lord', Prayer, a Manual (1870).
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  • It was written in 1640 in Russian, was translated into Greek, and approved by the council of Jassy and the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.
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  • ABRAHAM, or Abram (Hebrew for "father is high"), the ancestor of the Israelites, the first of the great Biblical patriarchs.
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  • According to this the patriarchs and Adam and Eve also appear at the death-bed, to praise their daughter, through whom they had been rescued from the curse of God; a Jew who touches the body loses both his hands, which are restored to him by the Apostles; and the body lies three days in the grave without corruption before it is taken up into heaven.
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  • Mahomet as a prophet with Abraham and the patriarchs.
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  • To the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Antioch and Alexandria was added at the council of Chalcedon (session 7) the bishop of Jerusalem, the mother church of Christendom, and the bishops thus recognized as possessing supreme jurisdiction were finally known as patriarchs.
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  • The patriarchs of Aquileia resided here from 773 to 1031, when they returned to Aquileia, and finally in 1238 removed to Udine.
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  • If the ten patriarchs of Gen.
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  • I-9); afterwards in a series of vivid pictures he gives the story, as tradition told it, of the patriarchs, of Moses and the Exodus, of the journey through the wilderness, and the conquest of Canaan.
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  • It has contributed nothing whatsoever to our knowledge of any Hebrew individual of this period,' and consequently what elements of history underlie the stories in Genesis, in so far as they relate to the Hebrew patriarchs, must still be determined, if at all, by a critical study of the Old Testament.
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  • The figures in parentheses indicate the entire ages assigned to the several patriarchs; these are generally the same in the three texts.
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  • The variations are analogous to those under (1), except that here the birth-years of the patriarchs in both Sam.
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  • The ages assigned to the several patriarchs (except Enoch) in Gen.
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  • are much greater than those assigned to the patriarchs mentioned in Gen.
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  • (ii.) The ages to which the various patriarchs lived (Abraham, 175; Isaac, 180; Jacob, 147), though not so extravagant as those of the antediluvian patriarchs, or (with one exception) as those of the patriarchs between Noah and Abraham, are much greater than is at all probable in view of the structure and constitution of the human body.
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  • This growth in the conception of the prophetic function is reflected in parts of the Pentateuch, which may be dated with probability as belonging to the period just named; the name of nabhi ¢ is extended to the patriarchs as Yahweh's intimates (Gen.
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  • On the next topic of importance, the primacy of the pope, the project of union nearly suffered shipwreck; but here a vague formula was finally constructed which, while acknowledging the pope's right to govern the church, attempted to safeguard as well the rights of the patriarchs.
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  • It states essentially the Roman doctrine of purgatory, and asserts the world-wide primacy of the pope as the "true vicar of Christ and the head of the whole Church, the Father and teacher of all Christians"; but, to satisfy the Greeks, inconsistently adds that all the rights and privileges of the Oriental patriarchs are to be maintained unimpaired.
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  • As for the Greeks, the union met with much opposition, particularly from the monks, and was rejected by three Oriental patriarchs at a synod of Jerusalem in 1443; and after various ineffective attempts to enforce it, the fall of Constantinople in 1453 put an end to the endeavour.
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  • Of the palace of the patriarchs only two isolated columns remain standing.
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  • 15, of the patriarchs as consecrated persons.
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  • The muniment rooms of the monasteries contain a marvellous series of documents, including chrysobulls of various emperors and princes, sigilla of the patriarchs, typica, irades and other documents, the study of which will throw an important light on the political and ecclesiastical history and social life of the 852 East from the middle of the 10th century.
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  • According to Byzantine ideas, the Church was governed - under the supreme authority, of course, of the emperor - by the five patriarchs of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.
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  • The pontifical "chapel" (capella) is the papal court for purposes of religious worship. In it the pope is surrounded by the cardinals according to their order; by the patriarchs, archbishops and bishops attending at the throne, and others; by the prelates of the Curia, and by all the clergy both secular and regular.
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  • patriarchs and bishops, have taken monkish vows and worn the cowl.
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  • From the age of the crusades on, the Armenians of Cilicia, whose patriarch sat at Sis, improved their acquaintance with Rome; and more than one of their patriarchs adopted the Roman faith, at least in words.
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  • The patriarchs of Great Armenia first resided at Ashtishat, on the Araxes.
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  • There are Armenian patriarchs, subject to the spiritual jurisdiction of Echmiadzin, in Constantinople and Jerusalem.
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  • It is clear, then, that this vestment can only have been assumed with the emperor's permission; and Braun suggests (p. 305) that its use was granted to the patriarchs, after the completion of the schism of East and West, in order "in some sort to give them the character, in outward appearance as well, of popes of the East."
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  • churches it is confined to the patriarchs and metropolitans; in the Russian, Ruthenian and Bulgarian churches it is worn by all bishops.
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  • Since 1880 several notices of the Haram, within which are the tombs of the Patriarchs, have appeared.
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  • The decrees of councils would have no binding force "without the authority and consent of the apostolic see": appeals might be made to Rome against the decisions even of the patriarch of Constantinople: all bishops, including the patriarchs, if guilty of heresy or uncanonical proceedings, were subject to correction by the pope.
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  • in his controversies with the bishops of Ravenna concerning the use of the pallium, with Maximus the "usurping" bishop of Salona, and with the patriarchs of Constantinople in respect of the title "ecumenical bishops"), contributed greatly to build up the system of papal absolutism.
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  • Nicephorus was also the author of lists of the emperors and patriarchs of Constantinople, of a poem on the capture of Jerusalem, and of a synopsis of the Scriptures, all in iambics; and of commentaries on liturgical poems.
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  • He was the author of a Catechism (Kiev, 1645) and other minor works, but is principally celebrated for the Orthodox Confession, drawn up at his instance by the Abbot Kosslowski of Kiev, approved at a provincial synod in 1640, and accepted by the patriarchs of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria and Antioch in 1642-1643, and by the synod of Jerusalem in 1672.
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  • The emperors Zeno and Anastasius had been strongly suspected of it, and the Roman bishops had refused to communicate with the patriarchs of Constantinople since 484, when they had condemned Acacius for accepting the formula of conciliation issued by Zeno.
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  • The four Eastern patriarchs, and the great majority of the Eastern prelates generally, subscribed, though reluctantly, for it was felt that a dangerous precedent was being set when dead authors were anathematized, and that this new movement could hardly fail to weaken the authority of the council of Chalcedon.
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  • According to his usual practice, he issued an edict enforcing this view, and requiring all patriarchs, metropolitans, and bishops to subscribe to it.
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  • Thus the opposition between God and the devil already plays a part in the Jewish groundwork of the Testaments of the Patriarchs, which was perhaps composed at the end of the period of the Maccabees.
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  • The biblical history is a " canonical " history which looks back to the patriarchs, the exodus from Egypt, the law-giving and the covenant with Yahweh at Sinai, the conquest of Palestine by the Israelite tribes, the monarchy, the rival kingdoms, the fall and exile of the northern tribes, and, later, of the southern (Judah), and the reconstructions of Judah in the times of Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes.
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  • It reveals itself in the days of the Patriarchs, before the " Amarna " age - or rather in the narratives relating to these remote ancestors.
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  • As regards the premonarchical period, some evidence points to a settlement (apparently from Aramaean localities) of the patriarchs, and of Israel (Jacob) and his sons, i.e.
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  • An enormous gap severs the pre-monarchical period from this age, and while the tribal schemes and tribal traditions can hardly be traced during the monarchies, the inclusion of Judah among the " sons " of Israel would not have originated when Judah and Israel were rival kingdoms. Yet the tribes survive in post-exilic literature and their traditions develop henceforth in Jubilees, Testament of the XII Patriarchs, &c.
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  • There was, in one case, a retrospect which did not include the deluge, and in another the patriarchs were actual settlers, a descent into Egypt and subsequent exodus being ignored; moreover, the standpoints of those who did not go into exile and of those who did and returned would naturally differ.
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  • The Monophysites, who like the Greeks knew themselves simply as the Orthodox, were grievously persecuted by the emperor Justinian and the graecizing patriarchs of Antioch, because they rejected the decrees of the council of Chalcedon, in which they - not without good reason - saw nothing but a thinly veiled relapse into those opinions of Nestorius which the previous council of Ephesus had condemned.
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  • They include those of patriarchs, archbishops, metropolitans and bishops in the first rank of the hierarchy, with their subordinate officials, such as archdeacons, archpriests, deans and canons, &c., in the lower ranks.
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  • Of these the four greater patriarchates are those of Alexandria (with two patriarchs, Latin and Coptic); Anticch (with four, Latin, Graeco-Melchite, Maronite and Syriac); Constantinople (Latin) and Jerusalem (Latin).
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  • This principle has even been carried to the extent of recognizing several bishops having jurisdiction over the adherents of various rites in the same see; thus there are three uniat patriarchs of Antioch (GraecoMelchite, Maronite and Syrian).
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  • As the Genesis begins with a line identical in meaning, though not in wording, with the opening of Cmdmon's Hymn, we may perhaps infer that the writer knew and used Cmdmon's genuine poems. Some of the more poetical passages may possibly echo Cmdmon's expressions; but when, after treating of the creation of the angels and the revolt of Lucifer, the paraphrast comes to the Biblical part of the story, he follows the sacred text with servile fidelity, omitting no detail, however prosaic. The ages of the antediluvian patriarchs, for instance, are accurately rendered into verse.
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  • Patriarchs, p. 117), and does not differ essentially from the saying ascribed to Gamaliel II.
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  • He published several Latin translations of Arabic works, of which the most important was the Chronicon Orientate of Ibnar-Rahib (Paris, 16J3), a history of the patriarchs of Alexandria.
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  • The prophets and patriarchs, having been often deceived by the Demiurge, suspected a trick and would not avail themselves of the promised salvation, remaining content with the bliss of being in Abraham's bosom.
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  • It is based on the fact that a British Museum MS. contains a Syriac fragment entitled "Names of the wives of the Patriarchs according to the Hebrew Book of Jubilees."
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  • He glorifies Levi's successors as high-priests and civil rulers, and applies to them the title assumed by the Maccabean princes, though he does not, like the author of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, expect the Messiah to come forth from among them.
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  • HILLEL II., one of the patriarchs belonging to the family of Hillel I., lived in Tiberias about the middle of the 4th century, and introduced the arrangement of the calendar through which the Jews of the Diaspora became independent of Palestine in the uniform fixation of the new moons and feasts.
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  • The council of Nicaea recognized three patriarchs - the bishops of Rome, Alexandria and Antioch.
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  • It is an oligarchy of patriarchs.
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  • He is supreme, and not amenable to any of his brother patriarchs, but is within the jurisdiction of an oecumenical synod.
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  • The theological calmness of the West, amid the violent theological disputes which troubled the Eastern patriarchates, and the statesmanlike wisdom of Rome's greater bishops, combined to give a unique position to the pope, which councils in vain strove to shake, and which in time of difficulty the Eastern patriarchs were fain to acknowledge and make use of, however they might protest against it and the conclusions deduced from it.
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  • But this pre-eminence, or rather the Roman idea of what was involved in it, was never acknowledged in the East; to press it upon the Eastern patriarchs was to prepare the way for separation, to insist upon it in times of irritation was to cause a schism.
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  • The most important of these testimonies are (i) the Orthodox confession or catechism of Peter Mogilas, confirmed by the Eastern patriarchs and by the synod of Jerusalem (1643), and (2) the decree of the synod of Jerusalem or the confession of Dositheus (1672).
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  • THE Four Patriarchs, Of Equal Dignity, Have The Highest Rank Among The Bishops, And The Bishops united in a General Council represent the Church and infallibly decide, under the guidance of the Holy Ghost, all matters of faith and ecclesiastical life.
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  • On the union of the two principalities under Alexander Couza (December 1861) the Church was declared autocephalous under a metropolitan at Bucharest; and the fact was recognized by the patriarchs, as it was in the case of Servia, after the treaty of Berlin had guaranteed their independence.
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  • Lastly, still following the main lines of human culture, the primitive germs of religious institutions have to be traced in the childish faith and rude rites of savage life, and thence followed in their expansion into the vast systems administered by patriarchs and priests, henceforth taking under their charge the precepts of morality, and enforcing them under divine sanction, while also exercising in political life an authority beside or above the civil law.
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  • Patriarchs appears to quote xxxiv.
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  • We may mention: Chronographia (from 976-1077), which in spite of its bias in favour of the Ducases is a valuable history of his time, chiefly on domestic affairs; three Epitaphioi or funeral orations over the patriarchs Cerularius, Lichudes and Xiphilinus.
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  • Gregoras, the Vita Palamae by Philotheus, and the encomium by Nilus (both patriarchs of Constantinople); also C. Krumbacher,.
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  • He was the syncellus (cell-mate, the confidential campanion assigned to the patriarchs, sometimes little more than a spy; see Syncellus) or private secretary of Tara(u)sius, patriarch of Constantinople (784-806), after whose death he retired to a convent, and wrote his Chronicle of events from Adam to Diocletian (285).
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  • Legates were despatched to Constantinople; the memorial of the schismatic patriarchs was condemned; and union was resumed with the Holy See.
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  • v., and prepares the way for the history of the patriarchs.
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  • 19) is of great importance for the traditions of the patriarchs, and, like the references to the death of Sarah and Abraham, belongs to the latest source (xxiii., xxv.
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  • 10-14, 15-19).1 Finally, Genesis turns from the patriarchs to the" generations of Jacob "(xxxvii.
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  • But it has not been demonstrated that these are exclusively pre-Mosaic. On the other hand, a better acquaintance with the ancient political, sociological and religious conditions has made it increasingly difficult to interpret the records as a whole literally, or even to find a place in pre-Mosaic Palestine for the lives of the patriarchs as they are depicted.'
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  • By the side of much that seems trivial, and even nonmoral - for the patriarchs themselves are not saints - it is noteworthy how frequently the narratives are didactic. The characteristic sense of collective responsibility, which appears more incidentally in xx.
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  • So in still later tradition, all the sons of Jacob with the exception of Joseph find their last resting-place at Hebron, and in Jewish prayers for the dead it is besought that their souls may be bound up with those of the patriarchs, or that they may go to the cave of Machpelah and thence to the Cherubim.
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  • Patriarchs; Acts vii.
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  • But here the same external evidence warns us that these considerations throw no light upon the original significance of the patriarchs.
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  • The movements of the patriarchs serve mainly to connect them with traditions which were originally independent.
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  • On one of the neighbouring heights is situated the monastery of Ipek, founded by Archbishop Arsenius in the 13th century, and famous as the seat until 1690 of the patriarchs of the Servian church.
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  • Among its numerous objects of interest are the white marble tombs of Arsenius and other chiefs of the Servian church, and the white marble throne on which the patriarchs were crowned.
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  • Under the millet system the unionists were frequently persecuted by the patriarchs, but this ended in 1830, when, at the intervention of France, they were made a community (Katoluk millet), with their own ecclesiastical head.
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  • The Protestant movement, initiated at Constantinople by American missionaries in 1831, was opposed by the patriarchs and Russia.
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  • He was captured and beheaded with his accomplices in November 742, and in February 754 Constantine held in the palace of Hieria a council of 388 bishops, mostly of the East; the patriarchs of Rome, Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem refused to attend.
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  • Theodore refused to attend or recognize the new council, and was banished first to Bithynia and thence to Smyrna, whence he continued to address his appeals to the pope, to the eastern patriarchs and to his dispersed monks.
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  • Attempts have been made subse, quently by the patriarchs of Antioch to claim authority over it, the last as recently as 1600; but they came to nothing.
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  • antediluvian patriarchs, published in Weekly Visitor.
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  • The orthodox churches have nine patriarchs and the Eastern Catholics have seven.
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  • Scriptural pedigree is fascinating: " Isaac begat Jacob; Jacob begat the twelve patriarchs.
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  • Were I to live to the age of the biblical patriarchs I can never forget the beauty of that scene.
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  • The Bishop of Jerusalem is now one of the four ancient patriarchs who preside over the Eastern Churches.
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  • Do not the twelve patriarchs say, it is good to behold Christ?
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  • 3), but the latter is only one view, and the traditions of the patriarchs point to another belief (cf.
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  • In both cases, apparently, an oecumenical synod ignored the Roman deposition and judged the alleged offences of the respective patriarchs in first and last instance.
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  • (1) Lastly there was the appeal to the patriarchs, i.e.
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  • Nikon was himself tried for abdicating his see, causing disorder in the realm, oppression and violence, first before a synod of Moscow composed of his suffragans and some Greek bishops, and afterwards before another synod in which sat the patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch, the metropolitans of Servia and Georgia, the archbishops of Sinai and Wallachia, and the metropolitans of Nice, Amasis, Iconium, Trebizond, Varna and Scio, besides the Russian bishops.
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  • The use of the word "father" as a title of respect is found in the Old Testament, where it is applied to patriarchs (Gen.
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  • Of books of this period which are known to have existed in Hebrew or Aramaic up to the time of Jerome (and even later) we now possess most of the original Hebrew text of Ben Sira (Ecclesiasticus) in a somewhat corrupt form, and fragments of an Aramaic text of a recension of theTestaments of theTwelve Patriarchs,both discovered within recent years.
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  • Charles has done much by his editions to restore to their proper prominence in connexion with Jewish history the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, The Book of Jubilees, Enoch, &c. But Scharer gives a complete bibliography to which it must suffice to refer.
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  • The true prelacy is composed of the persons who constitute the ecclesiastical hierarchy; jurisdiction is inherent in their office and gives pre-eminence, as with patriarchs, archbishops and bishops.
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  • At the Council of Chalcedon (451) the patriarchs still bore the title of " exarch "; it was not till the 7th century that that of " patriarch " was fixed as proper to the bishops of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, " exarch " being reserved for those of Ephesus and Caesarea, who had fallen to a lower rank.
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  • He believes, with the Jews, in a restoration and extension of the city of Jerusalem; he assumes that this city will be the seat of the Messianic kingdom, and he takes it as a matter of course that there all believers (here he is at one with Barnabas) along with patriarchs and prophets will enjoy perfect felicity for one thousand years.
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  • The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (see Apocalyptic Literature: Ii.
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  • Charles's The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, translated from the Editor's Greek Text (A.
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  • Patriarchs " (Proceedings of the Soc. of Bibl.
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  • Patriarchs, pp. xxxvi.-xli.
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  • As to the belief in the efficacy of the prayers of the saints for those still living on earth, and similarly in the efficacy of the prayers addressed to the saints, St Cyril of Jerusalem indicates in the following words the advantages of the commemoration of the saints: "Then we make mention also of those who have fallen asleep before us, first of patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs, that God would at theirs prayers and intercessions receive our supplication" (Cat.
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  • The sakkos, which, as a liturgical vestment, first appears in the 12th century as peculiar to patriarchs, is now a scapular-like robe very similar to the modern dalmatic (see fig.
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  • - The Uniat Churches in Asia and Africa occupy a peculiar position in so far as Rome has recognized the traditional rights of the patriarchates (see, e.g., Leo XIII.'s encyclical Praeclara gratulationis of June 1894), and they therefore enjoy almost complete autonomy; thus the patriarchs nominate their own suffragans and have the right to summon synods for specific purposes (see Patriarch).
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  • Some appear written for the first time in the book of Jubilees, in " the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs " (both perhaps 2nd century B.C.) and in later sources; and although in Genesis the stories are now in a post-exilic setting (a stage earlier than Jubilees), the older portions may well belong to the 7th or 6th cent.
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  • The " priestly " traditions of the creation and of the patriarchs mark a very distinct advance upon the earlier narratives, and appear in a further developed form in the still later book of Jubilees, or " Little Genesis," where they are used to demonstrate the pre-Mosaic antiquity of the priestly or Levitical institutions.
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  • The Christians are an important element, constituting probably as much as a fifth of the whole population; the majority of them belong to the Orthodox Greek Church, which has two patriarchs in Syria, at Antioch and Jerusalem.
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