The seat at the head of the table is always saved for the patriarch of the family.
In the West the only patriarch in the fully developed sense of the Eastern Church has been the bishop of Rome, who is patriarch as well as pope.
After his father died, Thomas stepped up to the role of family patriarch.
In Ethiopia, too, there were Catholici with less extensive powers, subject to the patriarch of Alexandria.
The patriarch of each Hebrew tribe was written about in the Old Testament.
As the matriarch of the Forrester family, Flannery has delivered a nuanced role of the powerful woman who clings too tightly to her children and battles other women for the love of Forrester patriarch Eric.
Without extensive research, it will be difficult to find the genetic roots of the ancestral patriarch of the family.
Commander Adama - Played by Lorne Greene originally, Edward James Olmos gave the patriarch of the fleet an edgier, darker side and a flintier personality to go with it.
A hundred years later the mitre, originally confined to the patriarch, was worn by all bishops.
The church is ruled by the patriarch of Venice, the metropolitan of the province formed by the Veneto.
was content to leave to the patriarch.
It is his duty to act as regent; it is his duty to compose the dissensions in the principality of Antioch, and to repress the violences of the prince towards his patriarch (1154); it is his duty to reconcile Antioch with Edessa, when the two fall to fighting.
In 1833-1835 he published The Splendid Village; Corn-Law Rhymes, and other Poems (3 vols.), which included "The Village Patriarch" (1829), "The Ranter," an unsuccessful drama, "Keronah," and other pieces.
See Theophanes, and the biographies of the patriarch Tarasius and Theodore of Studium; also F.
1553-1633), patriarch of Moscow, was the second son of the boyar Nikita Romanovich.
The republic managed the tithes, and the clergy acknowledged no chief above their own patriarch.
The tsar Michael, in the earlier 17th century, confirmed these immunities in the case of the clergy of the patriarch's own diocese, but provided that in country places belonging to his diocese, monasteries, churches and lands should be judged in secular matters by the Court of the Great Palace, theoretically held before the tsar himself (ib.
(379-395) the internal affairs of the Jews were formally committed to the patriarchs, and Honorius (404) authorized the collection of the patriarch's tax (aurum coronarium), by which a revenue was raised from the Jews of the diaspora.
On the fall of the republic St Mark's became the cathedral church of the patriarch.
The plan of conquering Egypt had indeed presented itself to the Franks from the first, as it continued to attract them to the end; and it is significant that Godfrey himself, in 1100, promised Jerusalem to the patriarch, "as soon as he should have conquered some other great city, and especially Cairo."
The assizes may speak of patriarch and king as conjoint seigneurs in Jerusalem; but as a matter of fact the king could secure the nomination of his own patriarch, and after Dagobert the patriarchs are, with the temporary exception of Stephen in 1128, the confidants and supporters of the kings.
Repeated appeals had been sent to the West from the beginning of the Egyptian affair (1163) onwards; while in 1184-1185 a great mission, on which the patriarch of Jerusalem and the masters of the Templars and the Hospitallers were all present, came to France and England, and offered the crown of Jerusalem to Philip Augustus and Henry II.
Venice had her own reward; a Venetian, Thomas Morosini, became patriarch; and the doge of Venice added "a quarter and a half" of the Eastern empire - chiefly the coasts and the islands - to the sphere of his sway.
On the appeal of the abbots the dispute was now referred by the Holy Synod to the court of the Patriarch of Constantinople, and the intervention of the Russian Government was invited.
The condemnation of the " heretics " by the Patriarch led to their repudiation by the community of Vatopedi, and at the instance of the Russian ambassador at Constantinople the refractory monasteries were subjected to a rigorous blockade.
- The Life of John of Damascus was written by John, patriarch of Jerusalem in the 10th century (Migne, Patrol.
In India he established a diocesan hierarchy, with seven archbishoprics, the archbishop of Goa taking precedence with the rank of patriarch.
The importance of his work in organizing and building up the American Lutheran Church, of which he has been called the Patriarch, can hardly be exaggerated; but his example in preaching in English as well as in German was, unfortunately for the growth of the Lutheran Church, not followed by his immediate successors.
In Alexandria an insurrection broke out over the supersession of the patriarch Dioscurus by the orthodox Proterius, who was killed during the struggle.
On the advice of Acacius, the energetic patriarch of Constantinople, Zeno issued the Henotikon edict (482), in which Nestorius and Eutyches were condemned, the twelve chapters of Cyril accepted, and the Chalcedon Definition ignored.
The patriarch of Constantinople is the nominal head of the Orthodox priesthood; but by an arrangement concluded in 1879, his authority was delegated to the Austrian emperor, in exchange for a revenue equal to the tribute previously paid by the clergy of the provinces; and his nominations for the metropolitanate of Serajevo, and the bishoprics of Dolnja Tuzla, Banjaluka and Mostar require the imperial assent.
After some days' stay in Constantinople, during which he granted wide privileges to the Greeks and to their patriarch, the sultan proceeded northwards and entirely subdued the southern parts of Servia.
The execution of the patriarch Gregorios, as technically responsible for the revolt, was an outrage to all Christendom; and it led at once to a breach of diplomatic relations with Russia.
In spite of the emperor Alexander's engagements to the Grand Alliance and the ideal of European peace, this was no easy matter; for the murder of the patriarch was but the culmination of a whole series of grievances accumulated since the Treaty of Bucharest.
the jurisdiction of the Greek patriarch of Constantinople.
sbot) is borne among the Syrians only by the patriarch, in all the other rites by all bishops, in the Greek 1 Among curious exceptions is the pastoral staff still carried by the Lutheran abbot of Lokkum.
The Coptic patriarch uses an iron cross-staff.
AMMONITES, or the "children of Ammon," a people of east Palestine who, like the Moabites, traced their origin to Lot, the nephew of the patriarch Abraham, and must have been regarded, therefore, as closely related to the Israelites and Edomites.
- An Orthodox Eastern Patriarch in full Pontificals.
They number about 80,000, are found in Syria, Palestine and Egypt, and are under the immediate rule of -the patriarch of Damascus and twelve bishops.
pp. 36-46 (1882), and Vita Euthymii (patriarch of Constantinople, d.
ARSENIUS AUTORIANUS (13th century), patriarch of Constantinople, lived about the middle of the 13th century.
Lascaris to the position of patriarch at Nicaea, and four years later, on that emperor's death, became joint guardian of his son John.
Arsenius then took refuge in the monastery of Paschasius, retaining his office of patriarch but refusing to discharge its duties.
Throughout these years he declined to remove the sentence of excommunication which he had passed upon Michael, and after his death, when the new patriarch Josephus gave absolution to the emperor, the quarrel was carried on between the "Arsenites" and the "Josephists."
1 994); the ascription depends on whether the patriarch Arsenius did or did not sojourn at Mount Athos.
4 The Nestorians may be said to have a fourfold ministry, for they reconsecrated a bishop when he was made catholicos or patriarch.
The two most notable cases were the formation of the Uskok pirate settlements along the Dalmatian coast in the 16th century, and the settlement of the Serbian patriarch and many thousand Serb refugee families in Slavonia and S.
- The lore of the farmer, gardener, sportsman, fancier and field-naturalist, including thremmatology, or the science of breeding, and the allied teleology, or science of organic adaptations: exemplified by the patriarch Jacob, the poet Virgil, Sprengel, Kirby.
in 1272, succeeded St Bonaventura as general of his order in 1274, was made cardinal-priest of Sta Prassede and Latin patriarch of Constantinople by Nicholas III., cardinal-bishop of Palestrina by Martin IV., and succeeded Honorius IV.
It seems to have been the objection of Nestorius to the use of this expression which mainly led to his condemnation and deposition at the Council of Ephesus (431) under the influence of Cyril, when as patriarch of Constantinople (428-431) he had distinguished himself by his zeal for Nicene orthodoxy."
(399-420); that along with Isaac, patriarch of Seleucia (390-410), he obtained from the Persian monarch a concordat which secured a period of religious toleration; and that he arranged for and presided at the Council of Seleucia in 410, which adopted the full Nicene creed and organized the hierarchy of the Persian Church.
Jerabis on the Euphrates, and wrote a commentary on the Song of Songs, a number of hymns and a biography of Severus, the Monophysite patriarch of Antioch (512-519).
champion who was patriarch of Antioch from 512 to 519.
c. 550-570) who translated into Syriac some of the writings of Cyril, and Peter of Callinicus, Jacobite patriarch of Antioch 578-591, who wrote a huge controversial treatise in 4 books, each of 25 chapters, against Damian, patriarch of Alexandria, as well as other less important works.
Another important Chronicle is that of Michael I., who was Jacobite patriarch from 1166 to 1199.
The first Armenian writer who notices them is the patriarch Nerses II.
The patriarch John IV.
About 320 he was bishop of Beroea, and he was patriarch of Antioch before the council of Nicaea in 325.
Her pet name was "Belle et Bonne," and nobody had more to do with the happiness of the last years of the "patriarch" than she had.
The kraal is under the immediate rule of its headman, who is a patriarch responsible for the good behaviour of all its members.
The latter were about to bury him without delay or ceremony, but the gastald or chief magistrate of the city interfered and appointed a public funeral; rumours of his wondrous travels and of posthumous miracles were diffused, and excitement spread like wildfire over Friuli and Carniola; the ceremony had to be deferred more than once, and at last took place in presence of the patriarch of Aquileia and all the local dignitaries.
the redactor of the Mishna, and his successor as Nasi (patriarch).
Gamaliel Iv., grandson of the above, patriarch in the latter half of the 3rd century: about him very little is known.
Gamaliel V., son and successor of the patriarch Hillel II.: beyond his name nothing is known of him.
He is the patriarch Gamaliel whom Jerome mentions in his letter to Pamachius, written in 393.
Among his first acts were the deposition of Cyrus, the orthodox patriarch of Constantinople, in favour of John, a member of his own sect, and the summoning of a conciliabulum of Eastern bishops, which abolished the canons of the sixth general council.
Tradition tells that a few years before his death he did actually send letters to the emperor Heraclius, to the negus of Abyssinia, the king of Persia, and Cyrus, patriarch of Alexandria, the " Mukaukis " of Egypt, summoning them to accept Islam and threatening them with punishment in case of refusal.
The Nestorian Church in Eastern Syria and Persia was under the jurisdiction of an archbishop (catholikos), who in 498 assumed the title "Patriarch of the East" and had his seat at SeleuciaCtesiphon on the Tigris, a busy trading city and a fitting centre for the great area over which the evangelizing activity of the Nestorians now extended.
The patriarch was able to secure from the caliph permission for the Christians to practice their religion in return for tribute money and this was afterwards remitted.
On the death of the bishop Mar Athanasius Matthew in 1877, litigation began as to his successor; it lasted ten years, and the decision (since reversed) was given against the party that held by the Nestorian connexion and the habitual autonomy of the Malabar church in favour of the supremacy of the Jacobite patriarch of Antioch.
Forming at once a church and a nation, they own allegiance to their hereditary patriarch, Mar Shimun, Catholicus of the East, who resides at Qudshanis, a village about 7000 ft.
not to change any doctrines held by them which are not contrary to that faith which the Holy Spirit, speaking through the Oecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church of Christ, has taught us as necessary to be believed by all Christians, but to strengthen an ancient Church, at the earnest request of the Catholicos, and with the knowledge and blessing of the Catholic patriarch of Antioch, one of the four patriarchs of the Holy Orthodox Eastern Church, and occupant of the Apostolic See from which the Church of the East revolted at the time of Nestorius."
Two missionpriests reside in Turkey, one at Qudshanis with Mar Shimun, the Nestorian Catholicus and Patriarch.
Eutychius, patriarch of Alexandria about 930, included "Nubi" among the six kinds of writing which he mentions as current among the Hamitic peoples, and "Nubi" also appears among a list of six writings mentioned in an ancient manuscript now in the Berlin Museum.
Almost in the centre of this south facade is an exquisitely sculptured window, from which letters from the Greek patriarch at Constantinople used to be read.
Amathus still flourished and produced a distinguished patriarch of Alexandria (Johannes Eleemon), as late as 606-616, and a ruined Byzantine church marks the site; but it was already almost deserted when Richard Coeur de Lion won Cyprus by a victory there over Isaac Comnenus in 1191.
In this interval the use of the lens was discovered and clearly described by Daniello Barbaro, a Venetian noble, patriarch of Aquileia, in his work La Pratica della perspettiva (p. 192), published in 1568, or twenty-one years before Porta's mention of it.
In 1609 Philaret fell into the hands of pseudoDemetrius II., who named him patriarch of all Russia, though his jurisdiction only extended over the very limited area which acknowledged the impostor.
13, 1619), and on the 2nd of June was canonically enthroned patriarch of Moscow.
From 1619 to 1633 there were two actual sovereigns, Tsar Michael and his father, the most holy Patriarch Philaret.
The years which followed the Council of Chalcedon (451) were a stormy period in the Syrian Church: Philoxenus soon attracted notice by his strenuous advocacy of Monophysite doctrine, and on the expulsion of Calandio (the orthodox patriarch of Antioch) in 485 was ordained bishop of Mabb5g 3 by his Monophysite successor Peter the Fuller (Barhebraeus, Chron.
Flavian II., who had accepted the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon and was patriarch of Antioch from 49 8 to 512.
He was crowned on Christmas Day, I ioo, by the patriarch himself; but the struggle of church and state was not yet over, and in the spring of IIoi Baldwin had Dagobert suspended by a papal legate, while later in the year the two disagreed on the question of the contribution to be made by the patriarch towards the defence of the Holy Land.
A little later (January 1657) he suppressed with ruthless severity a rising of the spahis; a certain Sheik Salim, leader of the fanatical mob of the capital, was drowned in the Bosporus; and the Greek Patriarch, who had written to the voivode of Wallachia to announce the approaching downfall of Islam, was hanged.
It was affirmed by the council of Jerusalem in 1672, which also affirmed the Confession of Dositheus, patriarch of Jerusalem.
Both of these confessions were drawn up to confute the teaching of a remarkable man who had been patriarch of Constantinople, Cyril Lucar.
Lucaris, who died in 1638 as patriarch of Constantinople, had corresponded with Western scholars and had imbibed Calvinistic views.
Curiously enough, the synod refused to believe that the heretical confession it refuted was actually by a former patriarch of Constantinople; yet the proofs of its genuineness seem to most scholars overwhelming.
- The confession of Dositheus, or the eighteen decrees of the Synod of Jerusalem, appeared in 1676 at Paris as Synodus 1 Patriarch of Jerusalem (1669-1707), who presided over the synod.
A peculiar passage, more valuable for the light it throws upon primitive ideas than for its contribution to the history of Abram, narrates the patriarch's visit to Egypt.
E), but the tone of the narrative is noticeably more advanced, and the presents which the patriarch receives are compensation for the king's offence.
To mark the solemnity of the occasion, the patriarch's name was changed to Abraham, and that of his wife to Sarah.
The measures taken by the patriarch for the marriage of Isaac are circumstantially described.
Sarah is said to have died at a good old age, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah near Hebron, which the patriarch had purchased, with the adjoining field, from Ephron the Hittite (xxiii.); and here he himself was buried.
3 But it is important to remember that the narratives are not contemporary, and that the interesting discovery of the name Abi-ramu (Abram) on Babylonian contracts of about 2000 B.C. does not prove the Abram of the Old Testament to be an historical person, even as the fact that there were "Amorites" in Babylonia at the same period does not make it certain that the patriarch was one of their number.
A fervent Roman Catholic, he devoted himself to advocating a patriarch type of Christian Socialism.
In the same year the patriarch of Jerusalem sent him the keys of the Holy Sepulchre; and in 807 Harun not only sent further gifts, but appears to have confirmed the emperor's rights in Jerusalem, which, however, probably amounted to no more than an undefined protectorate over the Christians in that part of the world.
The account of the pilgrimage of Charlemagne and his twelve paladins to the Holy Sepulchre must in its first form have been earlier than the Crusades, as the patriarch asks the emperor to free Spain, not the Holy Land, from the Saracens.
This is the story of the appearance at Rome (1122), in the pontificate of Calixtus II., of a certain Oriental ecclesiastic, whom one account styles "John, the patriarch of the Indians," and another "an archbishop of India."
Oppert supposes the title "Gur Khan" to have been confounded with Yukhanan or Johannes; and it is probable that even in the Levant the stories of "John the patriarch of the Indies," repeated in the early part of this article, may have already mingled with the rumours from the East.
fn4 In a Spanish work of about the same date, by an anonymous Franciscan, we are told that the emperor called "Abdeselib, which means servant of the Cross," is a protector of Preste Juan, who is the patriarch of Nubia and Ethiopia, and is lord of many great lands, and many cities of Christians, though they be black as "Catalani."
This enumeration was also adopted in 1575 as against the Augustan confession of the year 1540 by Jeremiah Patriarch of Constantinople, and again in a council held in the same city in 1639 to anathematize Cyril Lucar, who with the Anglicans recognized two only, baptism and the Eucharist.
He revoked numerous pensions and grants conferred by his predecessors upon idle courtiers, and, meeting the reproach of sacrilege made by the patriarch of Constantinople by a decree of exile, resumed a proportion of the revenues of the wealthy monasteries.
In 633 he was one of the party of Sophronius of Jerusalem (the chief original opponent of the Monothelites) at the council of Alexandria; and in 645 he was again in Africa, when he held in presence of the governor and a number of bishops the disputation with Pyrrhus, the deposed and banished patriarch of Constantinople, which resulted in the (temporary) conversion of his interlocutor to the Dyothelite view.
SAINT BENEDICT OF NURSIA (c. 480-c. 544), the patriarch of Western monks.
His first recorded act was, after a synod had been held at Rome, to write to Constantius, then in quarters at Arles (353-354), asking that a council might be called at Aquileia with reference to the affairs of Athanasius; but his messenger Vincentius of Capua was compelled by the emperor at a conciliabulum held in Arles to subscribe against his will a condemnation of the orthodox patriarch of Alexandria.
During his reign the patriarch of Aquileia was forced to cede his territories to the republic (1420), which also acquired Friuli and Dalmatia.
c. 451), Syrian ecclesiastic, patriarch of Constantinople from 428 to 431, was a native of Germanicia at the foot of Mount Taurus, in Syria.
On the death of Sisinnius, patriarch of Constantinople (December 427), Theodosius perplexed by the various claims of the local clergy, appointed the disinguished preacher of Antioch to the vacant see.
This Anastasius, in a pulpit oration which the patriarch himself is said to have prepared for him, caused great scandal to the partisans of the Marian cultus then beginning by saying, "Let no one call Mary the mother of God, for Mary was a human being; and that God should be born of a human being is impossible."
Letters of the archdeacon Epiphanius to the patriarch Maximianus (Migne, Patr.
As Nestorius himself said, "the Council was Cyril"; it simply registered the Alexandrian patriarch's views.
Since the emperor ruled the Church there was no longer any question of independence far the bishops, least of all for the patriarch in Constantinople; they were in every respect subordinate to the emperor.
The latter followed, almost without opposition, the impulse received from Syria; from the rule of the patriarch Babaeus (Syr.
Here the Lechici, as they called themselves (a name derived from the mythical patriarch, Lech), seemed to have lived for centuries, in loosely connected communities, the simple lives of huntsmen, herdsmen and tillers of the soil, till the pressure of rapacious neighbours compelled them to combine for mutual defence.
His first considerable exploit was to destroy the "great water caravan" consisting of the treasury-barges and the barges of the patriarch and the wealthy merchants of Moscow.
Even his own settlements at Saratov and Samara refused to open their gates to him, and the Don Cossacks, hearing that the patriarch of Moscow had anathematized Stenka, also declared against him.
330 Frumentius was made first bishop of Ethiopia by Athanasius, patriarch of Alexandria.
Abu Salih records (12th century) that the patriarch used always to send letters twice a year to the kings of Abyssinia and Nubia, till Al Hakim stopped the practice.
Cyril, 67th patriarch, sent Severus as bishop, with orders to put down polygamy and to enforce observance of canonical consecration for all churches.
Instead, the pope sent out Joao Nunez Barreto as patriarch of the East Indies, with Andre de Oviedo as bishop; and from Goa envoys went to Abyssinia, followed by Oviedo himself, to secure the king's adherence to Rome.
891), the patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the author of a Bibliotheca reviewing and criticizing the contents of 280 MSS., and incidentally preserving important extracts from the lost Greek historians.
xl.-lxvi., and by Photius, patriarch of Constantinople in the 9th century, who, according to Diestel (Gesch.
is no exception to this statement: archaeology has made probable the historic reality of Chedorlaomer, which some critics had previously divined; it has not proved the historical reality of the patriarch Abraham or the part played by him in the story, which some critics, whether rightly or wrongly, had questioned.
It was given by Cyril Lucar, A patriarch of Constantinople, to Charles I.
appears probable that Cyril Lucar had brought it with him from Alexandria, of which he had formerly been patriarch.
A note by Cyril Lucar states that it was written by Thecla, a noble lady of Egypt, but this is probably merely his interpretation of an Arabic note of the 14th century which states that the MS. was written by Thecla, the martyr, an obviously absurd legend; another Arabic note by Athanasius (probably Athanasius III., patriarch c. 1308) states that it was given to the patriarchate of Alexandria, and a Latin note of a later period dates the presenta tion in 1098.
His election was proposed by the patriarch Job, who acted on the conviction that Boris was the one man capable of coping with the extraordinary difficulties of an unexampled situation.
The German college, for the children of poor nobles, was founded in 1552; and in the same year Ignatius firmly settled the discipline of the Society by putting down, with promptness and severity, some attempts at independent action on the part of Rodriguez at Coimbra - this being the occasion of the famous letter on obedience; while 1553 saw the despatch of a mission to Abyssinia with one of the fathers as patriarch, and the first rift within the lute when the pope thought that the Spanish Jesuits were taking part with the emperor against the Holy See.
He came to Jerusalem at Christmas 1099, and had Dagobert of Pisa elected as patriarch, perhaps in order to check the growth of a strong Lotharingian power in the city.
He did so; but Alexius, aided by the Venetians, proved too strong, and Bohemund had to submit to a humiliating peace (I108), by which he became the vassal of Alexius, consented to receive his pay, with the title of Sebastos, and promised to cede disputed territories and to admit a Greek patriarch into Antioch.
As Turkish interests demanded the isolation of the Oriental Christians from their western brethren, and as the orthodox Greek nationalists feared Latinization more than Mahommedan rule, a patriarch hostile to the union was chosen, and a synod of Constantinople in 1472 formally rejected the decisions of Florence.
375 seq.), who wrote in the 5th century against Marcion and Mani; and the Alexandrian patriarch Eutychius d.
a patriarch, three archbishops, the two generals of the Carthusians and Cistercians, the king (St Louis), and three of his sons, the queen mother, Baldwin, count of Flanders and emperor of Constantinople, the duke of Burgundy, and six lords, visited the abbey, the whole party, with their attendants, were lodged within the monastery without disarranging the monks, 400 in number.
Aquileia; it became a naval station and, probably, the seat of the correctorVenetiarum et Histriae; a mint was established here, the coins of which are very numerous, and the bishop obtained the rank of patriarch.
In 1027 and 1044 Patriarch Poppo of Aquileia entered and sacked Grado, and, though the pope reconfirmed the patriarch of the latter in his dignities, the town never recovered, though it continued to be the seat of the patriarchate until its formal transference to Venice in 1450.
The cathedral, a flat-roofed basilica, was erected by Patriarch Poppo in 1031 on the site of an earlier church, and rebuilt about 1379 in the Gothic style by Patriarch Marquad.
The patriarch's increasing wealth caused him to incur the jealousy of his father-in-law, Laban, and he was forced to flee in secret with his family.
on John, patriarch of Aquileia.
In 1060 the community was withdrawn from the authority of the patriarch of Constantinople, and a monastic republic was practically constituted.
Another important question was decided in this reign, the relation of the patriarch of Constantinople to the emperor.
This virtually determined the subordination of the patriarch of Constantinople to the emperor.
The rivalry of the see of Alexandria with Constantinople was also displayed in the contest, Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, assisting the court in bringing about the fall of Chrysostom.
(and indeed of Godfrey himself, who had promised to cede Jerusalem to the patriarch Dagobert as soon as he should himself acquire Cairo).
He opposed the restoration of the patriarch Anthimus, whom Agapetus had deposed, and thus brought upon himself the hatred of Theodora, who desired to see Vigilius made pope.
and of the patriarch Theophylact in the loth.
He staunchly supported the patriarch Ignatius against his rival, Photius, at Constantinople; he upheld the rights of Teutberga, who had been repudiated by her husband, Lothair II.
To complete the situation, a formal rupture had occurred in 1054 between the patriarch Michael Cerularius and Pope Leo IX.
At its inception the Latin kingdom of the Holy Land was within a little of becoming an ecclesiastical principality, ruled by a patriarch under the authority of the pope.
Daimbert, the first patriarch of Jerusalem, was convinced that the Roman Church alone could be sovereign of the new state, and attempted to compel Godfrey of Bouillon to hand over to him by a solemn agreement the town and citadel of Jerusalem, and also Jaffa.
The Albanians of the Caucasus were also converted in the age of Gregory, early in the 4th century, and were loyal to the Armenians in the great struggle against Mazdaism in the 5th; but broke away for a time towards 600, and chose a patriarch without sending him to Armenia for ordination.
From the age of the crusades on, the Armenians of Cilicia, whose patriarch sat at Sis, improved their acquaintance with Rome; and more than one of their patriarchs adopted the Roman faith, at least in words.
Biblical traditions connect it closely with the patriarch Abraham and make it a "city of refuge."
Fortune after that, however, led it successively through the hands of the dukes of Meran, the duke of Bavaria and the patriarch of Aquileia, to the republic of Venice.
The right to nominate to the order was shared with the pope as grand master by the guardian of the Patres Minores in Jerusalem, later by the Franciscans, and then by the Latin patriarch in Jerusalem.
In this enterprise there has been great advance in Egypt among the Copts, and in 1899 the Pope signalized " the resurrection of the Church of Alexandria " by appointing a Patriarch for Egypt, Libya and Nubia.
The decrees of councils would have no binding force "without the authority and consent of the apostolic see": appeals might be made to Rome against the decisions even of the patriarch of Constantinople: all bishops, including the patriarchs, if guilty of heresy or uncanonical proceedings, were subject to correction by the pope.
in 1259, Michael, by the assassination of Muzalon (which he is believed but not proved to have encouraged) became joint guardian with the patriarch Arsenius of the young emperor, John Lascaris, then a lad of eight years.
For this last act he was excommunicated by Arsenius, and the ban was not removed until six years afterwards (1268) on the accession of a new patriarch.
He assisted Blackwell and Smollett in their difficulties and became the acknowledged patriarch of literature.
enjoyed the support of the Templars (who, like the Knights of St John, had estates in Tripoli) and of the Greek inhabitants of Antioch, to whom he granted their own patriarch in 1207, while Leo appealed (1210-1211) both to Innocent III.
The Greek Church, represented by the patriarch of Constantinople, and the Russian Church, represented by the Holy Synod, also canonize their saints after a preliminary examination of their titles to public cultus.
According to the History of Armenia which bears his name he was a pupil of the two fathers of Armenian literature, the patriarch or catholicos Sahak the Great and the vartabed Mesrob.
In the later Armenian tradition we find other notices of this celebrated man' - such as, that he was the nephew of Mesrob, that he was publicly complimented by the emperor Marcian, that he had been ordained bishop of Bagrewand by the patriarch Giut, and that he was buried in the church of the Apostolic Cloister at Mush in the district of Taron; but these accounts must be received with great caution.
DIONYSIUS TELMAHARENSIS (" of Tell-Malire"), patriarch or supreme head of the Syrian Jacobite Church during the years 818-848, was born at Tell-Mahre near Rakka (ar-Rakkah) on the Balikh.
At the death of the Jacobite patriarch Cyriacus in 817, the church was agitated by a dispute about the use of the phrase "heavenly bread" in connexion with the Eucharist.
The patriarch of the Copts was formerly consecrated in this church.
The Coptic organization includes in Egypt three metropolitans and twelve bishops, under the headship of the patriarch of Alexandria.
Cyril, the patriarch of Alexandria (AD.
The Greek rulers of the Orthodox faith were unable to protect the tillers of the soil, and these being of the Monophysite persuasion and having their own church and patriarch, hated the Orthodox patriarch (who from the time of Justinian onwards was identical with the prefect) and all his following.
The Monophysites, who had taken advantage of the Persian occupation, were persecuted and their patriarch expelled.
due to the treachery of the governor of Egypt, Cyrus, patriarch of Alexandria, and the incompetence of the generals of the Roman forces.
During the siege of Babylon he had been recalled and exiled, but after the death of Heraclius had been reinstated as patriarch by Heraclonas, and been welcomed back to Alexandria with general rejoicing in September 641.
He certainly corresponded with Elias III., the patriarch of Jerusalem, and probably sent a mission to India.
One of Justinian's first public acts was to put an end to this schism by inducing Justin to make the then patriarch renounce this formula and declare his full adhesion to the creed of Chalcedon.
Not long afterwards, his attention having been called to the spread of Origenistic opinions in Syria, he issued an edict condemning fourteen propositions drawn from the writings of the great Alexandrian, and caused a synod to be held under the presidency of Mennas (whom he had named patriarch of Constantinople), which renewed the condemnation of the impugned doctrines and anathematized Origen himself.
Some, who not unnaturally held that it was rank Monophysitism, refused at once, and were deprived of their sees, among them Eutychius the eminent patriarch of Constantinople.
The civilians, looking on him as a patriarch of their science, have as a rule extolled his wisdom and virtues; while ecclesiastics of the Roman Church, from Cardinal Baronius downwards, have been offended by his arbitrary conduct towards the popes, and by his last lapse into heresy, and have therefore been disposed to accept the stories which ascribe to him perfidy, cruelty, rapacity and extravagance.
It is the chief centre of the Jacobite Christians, who have many villages in the Tor Abdin hills to the north-east, and whose patriarch lives at Deir Zaferan, a Syrian monastery of the 9th century not far off in the same direction.
The great bulk of the Christian population belongs to the Orthodox Church, of which the oecumenical patriarch at Constantinople is the nominal head, having precedence over all other ecclesiastical dignitaries.
On the other hand, the Greek prelates in Bulgaria are subject to the patriarch.
The Armenians are divided between the Gregorian and Uniate-Armenian churches, each under a patriarch.
ten assemblies of the church were held at Antioch and it became the residence of the patriarch of Asia.
A further revision of this code is stated to have been made by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the son and successor of Leo, but this statement rests only on the authority of Theodorus Balsamon, a very learned canonist of the 12th century, who, in his preface to the Nomocanon of Patriarch Photius, cites passages from the Basilica which differ from the text of the code as revised by the emperor Leo.
It may seem strange that so important a body of law as the Basilica should not have come down to us in its integrity, but a letter has been preserved, which was addressed by Mark the patriarch of Alexandria to Theodorus Balsamon, from which it appears that copies of the Basilica were in the 1 2th century very scarce, as the patriarch was unable to procure a copy of the work.
LAMECH (19), the biblical patriarch, appears in each of the antediluvian genealogies, Gen.
Ba11, 3 Lamech is an adaptation of the Babylonian Lamga, a title of Sin the moon god, and synonymous with Ubara in the name Ubara-Tutu, the Otiartes of Berossus, who is the ninth of the ten primitive Babylonian kings, and the father of the hero of the Babylonian flood story, just as Lamech is the ninth patriarch, and the father of Noah.
Most scholars regard as genuine the polemical treatises Contra Nestorianos et Eutychianos, Contra Nestorianos, Contra Monophysitas, Contra Severum (patriarch of Antioch); and the Exam, generally called De Sectis.
The abbot (iyovµevos) has the rank of a bishop, and is subject only to the patriarch of Constantinople.
781, is followed by a series of short inscriptions in Syriac and the Estrangelo character, containing the date of the erection, the name of the reigning Nestorian patriarch, Mar Hanan Ishua, that of Adam, bishop and pope of China, and those of the clerical staff of the capital.
After the customary probation he was ordained priest by the patriarch of Jerusalem.
Monasteries and churches were burnt and sacked, and Jerusalem was taken; the Holy Sepulchre church was destroyed and its treasures carried off; the other churches were likewise razed to the ground; the patriarch was taken prisoner.
When these terms were agreed upon and signed Omar, under the leadership of the Christian patriarch Sophronius, visited the Holy Rock (the prayer-place of David and the site of the Jewish temple).
In 1602 he was elected patriarch of Alexandria, and in 1621 patriarch of Constantinople.
It appeared the same year in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English, and in the Eastern Church started a controversy which culminated in 1691 in the convocation by Dositheos, patriarch of Jerusalem, of a synod by which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemned.
Finally, when Sultan Murad was about to set out for the Persian War, the patriarch was accused of a design to stir up the Cossacks, and to avoid trouble during his absence the sultan had him killed by the Janissaries (June 1637).
The orthodoxy of Lucaris himself continued to be a matter of debate in the Eastern Church, even Dositheos, in view of the reputation of the great patriarch, thinking it expedient to gloss over his heterodoxy in the interests of the Church.
NICEPHORUS PATRIARCHA (c. 758-829), Byzantine historian and patriarch of Constantinople (806-815).
Both will be found, together with some controversial writings and his biography by his pupil Ignatius, also patriarch of Constantinople, in J.
As the tenth patriarch Noah corresponds to the tenth prehistoric Babylonian king, Xisuthros in Berossus, Ut-napistim or Atrahasis in the cuneiform tablets, the hero of the Babylonian flood story.
A revolt which broke out in Greece, mainly on religious grounds, was crushed by the imperial fleet (727), and two years later, by deposing the patriarch of Constantinople, Leo suppressed the overt opposition of the capital.
The former summoned councils in Rome to anathematize and excommunicate the image-breakers (730, 732); Leo retaliated by transferring southern Italy and Greece from the papal diocese to that of the patriarch.
Philaret became patriarch of Moscow in 1619, and supported his son's government until his death in 1634.
Writers are fond of viewing him as representing all the degrees of the ecclesiastical hierarchy; they say that he is bishop of Rome, metropolitan of the of Roman province, primate of Italy, patriarch of the western Church and head of the universal Church.
In 1625 he set out again, accompanied by Mendez, the patriarch of Ethiopia, and eight missionaries.
His work, however, endured, and in the middle ages the Jacobite hierarchy numbered 150 archbishops and bishops under a patriarch and his maphrian.
About the year 728 six Jacobite bishops present at the council of Manazgert established communion with the Armenians, who equally rejected Chalcedon; they were sent by the patriarch of Antioch, and among them were the metropolitan of Urha (Edessa) and the bishops of Qarha,n, Gardman, Nferkert and Amasia.
Their patriarch is styled of Antioch, but seldom comes west of Mardin.
Deposed almost immediately by an ecclesiastical superior on account of disputes about the patriarchate, he was restored to his see in 1258, and in 1264 was promoted by the patriarch Ignatius III.
to be maphrian - the next rank below that of patriarch - an office which he held till his death at Maragha in 1286.
(See Patriarch.) The archiepiscopal sees number 204.
The Armenian patriarch, whose jurisdiction embraces the Catholic Armenians in the Balkan Peninsula, in Russian Armenia and in Asiatic Turkey, formerly resided in Lebanon, but has had his seat since 1867 at Constantinople.
The patriarch resides in the monastery of Ain-Traz in the Lebanon and has jurisdiction over all the Uniats of Greek nationality in the Turkish Empire, who number about 120,000.
The patriarch has jurisdiction over about 500,000 people (see Maronites).
The patriarch, who was given two suffragan bishops, has his seat at Cairo.
He obtained from Phocas recognition of the "headship of the church at Rome," which signifies, no doubt, that Phocas compelled the patriarch of Constantinople to abandon (momentarily) his claim to the title of oecumenical patriarch.
The patriarch has therefore the title paxapt&Taros and the right to sign his name in red ink.
PHOTIUS (c. 820-891), patriarch of Constantinople (858-867 and 878-886).
The dissensions between the patriarch Ignatius and Bardas, the uncle of the youthful Emperor Michael III., brought promotion to Photius.
858), and upon refusing to resign his office was illegally deposed, while Photius, although a layman, received all the necessary sacerdotal orders within six days, and was installed as patriarch in his place.
attended, prepared to acknowledge Photius as legitimate patriarch, a concession for which John was much censured by Latin opinion.
The standard modern work is that of Cardinal Hergenrother, Photius, Patriarch von Constantinopel (1867-1869).
Judah, grandson of Gamaliel II., known as the Prince or Patriarch (nasi), as Rabbenu (" our teacher "), or simply as " Rabbi " par excellence, was the editor.
He was Francois de Vendome, duke of Beaufort, who disappeared (and pretty certainly died) at the siege of Candia (1669); Avedick, an Armenian patriarch seized by the Jesuits, who was not imprisoned till 1706 and died in 1711; Fouquet, who undoubtedly died at Pignerol in 1680; and even, according to A.
518), bishop or patriarch of Antioch, was chosen by the emperor Anastasius I.
His doing so, while it brought upon him the anathema of the patriarch of Constantinople, failed to secure the favour of Anastasius, who in 511 found in the riots which were occurring between the rival parties in the streets of Antioch a pretext for deposing Flavian, and banishing him to Petra, where he died in 518.
This dignity was intermediate between the patriarchal and the metropolitan, the name patriarch being restricted after A.D.
451 to the chief bishops of the most important cities (see PATRIARCH).
The title of Exarch was also formerly given in the Eastern Church to a general or superior over several monasteries, and to certain ecclesiastics deputed by the patriarch of Constantinople to collect the tribute payable by the Church to the Turkish government.
In the modern Greek Church an exarch is a deputy, or legate a latere, of the patriarch, whose office it is to visit the clergy and churches in the provinces allotted to him.
The title of exarch has been borne by the head of the Bulgarian Church, since in 1872 it repudiated the jurisdiction of the Greek patriarch of Constantinople.
It is said that, though he was a pupil of Ammonius, he was at first a Christian, and he has been credited with the authorship of a commentary on the Mosaic Cosmogony in eight books, dedicated to Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople, and edited by Balthasar Corderius in 1630.
The Nestorians in Persia, all living in cities and villages close to the Turkish frontier, numbered about 25,000 to 30,000 but many of them, some say half, together with two or three bishops, recently went over to the Greek Orthodox (Russian) Church, in consequence of the unsatisfactory protection afforded them by their patriarch, who resides in Mosul.
Peroz had already favored the diffusion of Nestorianism, and in 483 it was officially adopted by a synod, after which it remained the Christian Church of the Persian Empire, its head being the patriarch of SeleuciaCtesiphon.
One of his first acts was to exile the patriarch Photius and restore his rival Ignatius, whose claims were supported by the pope., Yet he had no intention of yielding to Rome's pretensions beyond a certain point.
In 877 Photius became patriarch again, and there was a virtual though not a formal breach with Rome.
Bury, London, 1898); Hergenrother, Photius, Patriarch von Constantinopel, vol.
He was at once ransomed by his brother-in-law, the emperor Manuel, and went to Constantinople, whence he returned with a Greek patriarch.
the patriarch of Antioch helped to found a commune, which persisted, with its mayor and jurats, during the 13th century.
1468), patriarch of Constantinople from 1454 to 1456, philosopher and theologian, was one of the last representatives of Byzantine learning.
After a couple of years Gennadius found the position of patriarch under a Turkish sultan so irksome that he retired to the monastery of John the Baptist near Serrae in Macedonia, where he died about 1468.
There are three ecclesiastical provinces - Braga, Lisbon and Evora, each under an archbishop. The archbishop of Braga, whose see is the most ancient, has the title of Primate; the archbishop of Lisbon has the honorary title of Patriarch, and is usually elected a cardinal.
was also empowered to create a multitude of new ecclesiastical dignities, and the archbishop of Lisbon was granted the rank and style of Patriarch ex officio.
To the patriarchate was appended a Sacred College of 24 prelates, who were privileged to officiate in the scarlet robes of cardinals, while the patriarch wore the vestments of a second pope.
Brother Gregory, surnamed the patriarch of the brotherhood, has left a large number of writings dealing mainly with theological matters.
In process of time the common title patriarch was restricted to the most eminent of these exarchs, and councils decided who were worthy of the dignity.
When the empire was divided, there was one patriarch in the West, the bishop of Rome, while in the East there were at first two, then four and latterly five.
Each patriarch is, within his diocese, what the Gallican theory makes the pope in the universal church.
The transfer of the seat of empire from Rome to Constantinople gave the bishops of Rome a possible rival in the patriarch of Constantinople, but the absence of an overawing court and of meddling statesmen did more than recoup the loss to the head of the Roman Church.
(1227-1241) and Germanus, patriarch of Constantinople.
The patriarch refused the terms. Then, later in the 13th century, came negotiations under Innocent IV.
John Palaeologus the emperor, Joseph the patriarch of Constantinople, and several Eastern bishops came to Italy and appeared at the council of Florence - the papal council, the rival of the council of Basel.
These testimonies were called forth mainly by the protest of Greek theologians against Jesuitism on the one hand, and against the reforming tendencies of the patriarch Cyril Lucaris on the other.
Melanchthon himself sent a Greek translation of the Augsburg Confession to Joasaph, patriarch of Constantinople, and some years afterwards Jacob Andreae and Martin Crusius began a correspondence with Jeremiah, patriarch of Constantinople, in which they asked an official expression of his opinions about.
The reformatory movement of Cyrillos Lucaris, patriarch of Constantinople (1621), brought the Greek Church face to face with Reformation theology.
They are under the jurisdiction of the metropolitan; a few of the most important deal direct with the patriarch and are called Stauropegia.
Still, the Oecumenical Patriarch, as he has been called since early in the 6th century, is the most exalted ecclesiastic of the Eastern churches, and his influence reaches far outside the lands of the patriarchate.
The patriarch under the old Ottoman system had his own court at Phanar, and his own prison, with a large civil jurisdiction over, and responsibility for, the Greek community.
The election of the patriarch is also, to a considerable extent, popular.
the patriarch, the Holy Synod and the National Mixed Council at once meet and elect a temporary substitute for the patriarch (Toirornpnriis).
The patriarch has the assistance and support of a large household, a survival from Byzantine times.
Amongst them, actually or potentially, are the grand steward (0yas oircovo,uos), who serves him as deacon in the liturgy and presents candidates for orders; the grand visitor (µryas oaKEAAaptos), who superintends the monasteries; the sacristan (o - KEvocAuAa); the chancellor (X apr041,Xa), who superintends ecclesiastical causes; the deputyvisitor (o rou caKEAAiov), who visits the nunneries; the protonotary (7rpwrovorapcos); the logothete (Aoy06Erns), a most important lay officer, who represents the patriarch at the Porte and elsewhere outside; the censer-bearer, who seems to be also a kind of captain of the guard (Kavarpio-cos or Kavvrp11vQLos); the referendary (pEckpevSapcos); the secretary (i)7rown L uoyp x4wv); the chief syndic (7rpwrEK&Kos), 1 The numbers have varied from time to time.
The Patriarchate of Alexandria, consisting of Egypt and its dependencies, was at one time the most powerful, as it was the most centralized, of all, and the patriarch still preserves his ancient titles of " pope " and " father of fathers, pastor of pastors, archpriest of archpriests, thirteenth apostle, and oecumenical judge."
At the height of his power the patriarch of Antioch ruled over 12 metropolitans and 250 suffragan bishops.
The patriarch, though he is " father of fathers and pastor of pastors," thus retains little of his old importance.
The modern patriarch has undet his jurisdiction 5 archbishops and 5 bishops.
While the Greek empire lasted the emperors had a right of investiture on the election of a new patriarch, and this right was retained by the Turkish sultans after the conquest of Constantinople.
The archbishop is chosen, from a list of candidates submitted by the monks of St Catherine, by the patriarch of Jerusalem and his Synod; and the patriarch consecrates him.
The constitution of the Church of Modern Greece is the result of the peculiar position of the patriarch of Constantinople.
But the patriarch was in the hands of the Turks; he had been appointed by the sultan, and he was compelled by the Turkish authorities to ban the movement for freedom.
When the Greeks achieved independence they refused to be subject ecclesiastically to a patriarch who was nominated by the sultan (June 9, 1828); and, to add to their difficulties, there were in the country twenty-two bishops who had been consecrated by the patriarch, twelve bishops who had been consecrated irregularly during the war, and about twenty bishops who had been deprived of their sees during the troubles - i.e.
The patriarch of Constantinople in 1850 acknowledged the independence of the church, which gradually grew to be more independent of the state.
- After the suppression of the Church of Ipek in 1766 Servia became ecclesiastically subject to Constantinople; but in 1830 the sultan permitted the Serbs to elect a patriarch (as a matter of fact he is merely styled metropolitan), subject to the confirmation of the patriarch of Constantinople.
The Orthodox Church in Austria-Hungary, which, however, really consists of four independent sections: the Servians of Hungary and Croatia, under the patriarch of Karlowitz; the Rumanians of Transylvania, under the archbishop of Hermannstadt; the Ruthenians of Bukovina, under the metropolitan of Czernowitz; and the Serbs of Bosnia-Herzogovina, where there are four sees, that of Sarajevo holding the primacy.
The metropolitan, who was subject to the patriarch of Constantinople, resided at Kiev on the Dnieper.
In 1582 Jeremiah, patriarch of Constantinople, raised Job, 46th metropolitan, to the patriarchal dignity; and the act was afterwards confirmed by a general council of the East.
In this way the Russian Church became autocephalous, and its patriarch had immense power.
In 1700 Peter the Great forbade the election of a new patriarch, and in 1721 he established the Holy Governing Synod to supply the place of the patriarch.
The Church of Georgia, which has existed from a very early period, and was dependent first on the patriarch of Antioch and then on the patriarch of Constantinople, has since 1802 been incorporated in the Russian Church.
Naturally, this was resented by the patriarch Anthimus, who stigmatized the racial basis of the Bulgarian Church as the heresy of Phyletism.
It never actually acknowledged the Bulgarian Church, and Bulgarian prelates may not officiate publicly in Russian churches; on the other hand, the Holy Synod of Moscow refused to recognize the patriarch's condemnation, and Russian ecclesiastics have secretly supplied the Bulgarians with the holy oil.
The position is further complicated by the fact that many Bulgarians, both within and without the kingdom of Bulgaria, still remain subject to the patriarch.
The patriarch of Constantinople dares not excommunicate Russia, but the chief of its many grievances against that country is its patronage of the Bulgarian exarchate.
On the whole it seems likely that the patriarch will ultimately have to yield, in spite of the strong Greek feeling against the Bulgars.'
(1895) called forth a reply from the patriarch Anthimus V.
Aristarchi, who edited a valuable collection of 83 newly discovered homilies of the patriarch Photius.
This was published in 1900 at the Phanar press, erected as a memorial to Theodore of Tarsus, archbishop of Canterbury, by Greek and English churchmen, which was set up by the patriarch Constantine V.
The patriarch Constantine V.
The patriarch's great rival was Joachim of Ephesus.
The Oecumenical Patriarch is, of course, officially the superior; but the Russian Church is numerically by far the greatest, and the tendency to regard Russia as the head, not only of the Slav races, but of all orthodox nations, inevitably reacts upon the church in the form of what has been called pan-Orthodoxy.
In 1899 there was further an interchange of courtesies between the archbishop of Canterbury and Constantine V., patriarch of Constantinople.
To promote the " brotherly feeling between the members of the two churches," for which the patriarch expressed a desire, a committee was formed under the presidency of the Anglican bishop of Gibraltar.
We may indeed with Mr Andrew Lang explain the many myths of the bestial transformations of Zeus on the theory that the God was the tribal ancestor and assumed the shape of the animal-totem in order to engender the tribal patriarch; 7 but on the actual cults of Zeus theriomorphism has left less trace than on those.
He suspended the patriarch of Aquileia for crowning the emperor's son, Henry, king of Italy (January 1186), in violation of his: own rights as archbishop of Milan; and only the entreaties.
On the 12th of June 1893 he was created a cardinal, and three days later was nominated patriarch of Venice.
JOHANNES BESSARION, or Basilius (c. 1395-1472), titular patriarch of Constantinople, and one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great revival of letters in the 15th century, was born at Trebizond, the year of his birth being variously given as 1389, 1 395 or 1403.
In 1463 he received the title of Latin patriarch of Constantinople; and it was only on account of his Greek birth that he was not elevated to the papal chair.
But nothing sure is known of him, and not much more about a more historical personage, Yuhanna Marun (John Sirimensis of Suedia), said to have been patriarch of Antioch, to have converted Lebanon from Monothelism, and to have died in A.D.
680; that these converted part of the old mountain folk, who already held some kind of Incarnationist creed; and that their first patriarch and his successors, for about 500 years at any rate, were Monothelite, and perhaps also Monophysite.
It is worth noting that even as late as the close of the 16th century the Maronite patriarch found it necessary to protest by anathema against imputations of heresy.
In 1182 it is said that Amaury, patriarch of Antioch, induced some Maronite bishops, who had fallen under crusading influences, to rally to Rome; and a definite acceptance of the Maronite Church into the Roman communion took place at the Council of Florence in 1445.
But it is evident that the local particularism of the Lebanon was adverse to this union, and that even Gregory XIII., who sent the gallium to the patriarch Michael, and Clement VII.
The patriarch receives confirmation from Rome, and the political representation of the Maronites at Constantinople is in the hands of the vicar apostolic. Rome has incorporated most of the Maronite saints in her calendar, while refusing (despite their apologists) to canonize either of the reputed eponymous founders of Maronism.
There are five archbishoprics and five bishoprics under the patriarch, who alone can consecrate.
The sees are Aleppo, Baalbek, Tripoli, Ehden, Damascus, Beirut, Tyre, Cyprus and Jebel' (held by the patriarch himself ex officio).
Feudalism died hard, but since 1860 has been practically extinct; and so far as the Maronites own a chief of their own people it is the "Patriarch of Antioch and the whole East," who resides at Bkerkeh near Beirut in winter, and at a hill station (Bdiman or Raifun) in summer.
Its independence was formally recognized by the oecumenical patriarch of Constantinople, in 1885.
The Rumanian Church had claimed its independence from very ancient times, but under the Turkish suzerainty and Phanariote hospodars Greeks were generally elected as bishops, and the influence of the Greek patriarch at Constantinople came to be more and more felt.
It was subsequently decided to consecrate the holy oil in Rumania instead of procuring it from Russia or Constantinople; but the Greek patriarch protested.
The patriarch feared on the one hand that the growing influence of the Russian Church would give a colour of Slavism to the whole church, and that a Russian might eventually be appointed oecumenical patriarch at Constantinople, while the Rumanians hoped by means of the independence of their church to deprive the Russians of all excuse for interfering in their internal affairs under the pretext of religion.
The Rumanians, although obtaining complete independence, agreed to recognize the patriarch at Constantinople as the chief dignitary of the Orthodox Church.
Many estates were held by alien foundations, such as the convents of Mount Athos and Jerusalem; while the revenues of many more were spent abroad by the patriarch of Constantinople.
The Turkish envoy then in Bucharest was persuaded to invest Brancovan with the caftan, or robe of office, in token of Turkish approval, and the patriarch of Constantinople, who was also present, and the archbishop of Walachia, Theodosius, consecrated him together at the high altar of the cathedral, where he took the coronation oath to devote his whole strength to the good of his country and received the boiars' oath of submission.
The church was Orthodox Oriental, and depended from the patriarch of Ochrida.
He brought the Moldavian Church into more direct relation with the patriarch of Constantinople, but also showed considerable favour to the Latins, allowing them to erect churches at Suciava, Jassy and Galatz.
office at Constantinople, where they were consecrated by the Greek patriarch.
Carra, a Swiss who had been tutor to Prince Ghica's children, and who published in 1781 an account of the actual state of the principalities, speaks of some of the boiars as possessing a taste for French literature and even for the works of Voltaire, a tendency actively combated by the patriarch of Constantinople.
The whole book was first published in Syriac in 1899, with a Latin translation by Mgr Rahmani, the Uniat Syrian Patriarch of Antioch.
The Maqam of Abraham is also connected with a relic of heathenism, the ancient holy stone which once stood on the Ma`jan, and is said to bear the prints of the patriarch's feet.
A collection in which the texts are simply reproduced in their chronological order is obviously inconvenient; towards 550, Johannes Scholasticus, patriarch of Constantinople, drew up a methodical classification of them under fifty heads.
John, patriarch of Antioch, at the beginning of the 12th century, informs us that in his time most monasteries had been handed over to laymen, beneficiarii, for life, or for part of their lives, by the emperors.
The servitia communia are traceable to the oblatio paid to the pope when consecrating bishops as metropolitan or patriarch.
A reconciliation was effected by the patriarch of Antioch, but tradition says that Eusebius finally resigned his charge and lived a studious life in Antioch.
Ismail Agha Shekak, better known as Simko, living between Van and Urmia, murdered the patriarch of the Nestorians, who fled to Persian territory and called upon the Russians to avenge the murder.
The famous William Canynges, the patriarch of Bristol merchants, possessed 2500 tons of shipping, I including some ships of 900 tons, and traded in every sea.
It is probable that the apparent severity of the medieval Latin Church on this subject was largely due to the real strictness of the Greek Church, which, under the patriarch Photius in 864, had taken what was virtually a new departure in its fasting praxis.
The new dignity proved still more onerous than honourable; and during his short reign of a year Godfrey had to combat the Arabs of Egypt, and the opposition of Raymund and the patriarch Dagobert.
But already, at the end of 1099 Dagobert, archbishop of Pisa, had been substituted as patriarch for Arnulf (who had been acting as vicar) by the influence of Bohemund; and Dagobert, whose vassal Godfrey had at once piously acknowledged himself, seems to have forced him to an agreement in April Too, by which he promised Jerusalem and Jaffa to the patriarch, in case he should acquire in their place Cairo or some other town, or should die without issue.
The chief patriarch of the Greek church still signs himself " archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome."
(1490-1516) he became successively bishop of Eger, the richest of the Hungarian sees, archbishop of Esztergom (1497), cardinal (1500), and titular patriarch of Constantinople (1510).
404), bishop or patriarch of Antioch, was born about 320, most probably in Antioch.
On the 1st of October 1653 a national assembly met at Moscow to sanction the war and find the means of carrying it on, and in April 1654 the army was blessed by Nikon (now patriarch).
Warnings of the danger of the routes to southern Syria turned him from his purpose; and his friend and fellow-pilgrim, Rabban Marcos, becoming Nestorian patriarch (as Mar Yaballaha III.) in 1281, suggested Bar Sauma's name to Arghun Khan, sovereign of the Ilkhanate or Mongol-Persian realm, for a European embassy, then contemplated.
with similar proprietary rights; and the supplication of the patriarch Nikon to Alexis Mikhaelovitch, for example, shows clearly the oppression to which the Lapps were subjected.
The staryeshina may be the patriarch of the community, but is often chosen by the rest of the members on account of his prudence and ability; nor is his wife necessarily the domanyitsa.
At the same time he raised the archbishop of Ipek, the primate of Servia, to the dignity of patriarch.
2 At a somewhat later date he wrote to Arcadius of Cyprus, commanding that "two energies" should not be spoken of; and in 626, while in Lazistan (Colchis), he had a meeting with the metropolitan, Cyrus of Phasis, during which this command was discussed, and Cyrus was at last bidden to seek further instruction on the subject from Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople, a strong upholder of the pia EvEp-yECa, and the emperor's counsellor with regard to it.
3 Sophronius, however, who meanwhile had been made patriarch of Jerusalem (634), refused to be silenced, and in his Epistola synodica strongly insisted on the "two energies."
He was the syncellus (cell-mate, the confidential campanion assigned to the patriarchs, sometimes little more than a spy; see Syncellus) or private secretary of Tara(u)sius, patriarch of Constantinople (784-806), after whose death he retired to a convent, and wrote his Chronicle of events from Adam to Diocletian (285).
It was held in feudal tenure from the patriarch of Aquileia by the bishop of Pola, and afterwards, in 1139, by the counts of Duino, who retained it till the end of the 14th century.
27) lead to the introduction of the first great patriarch Abraham (q.v.).
The thread is resumed in the account of the separation of the patriarch and his nephew Lot, who divide the land between them.
The story of Simeon and Levi at Shechem is clearly not that of two individuals, sons of the patriarch Israel; in fact the story actually uses the term "wrought fully in Israel" (cf.
This patriarch and his "brother" Ishmael are closely associated with the district south of Judah, both are connected with Beer-lahai-roi (xxiv.
But the patriarch is more closely identified with Hebron, which had a sanctuary (cf.
2), and where the patriarch appears at Beersheba it is in incidents which tend to connect him with his "son" Isaac. There is a very distinct tendency to emphasize the importance of Hebron.
His first act was to repudiate the Henoticon, a deed of union, originating, it is supposed, with Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, and published by the emperor Zeno with the view of allaying the strife between the Monophysites and their opponents in the Eastern church.
in the case of the Breton bishops or the adversaries of Photius, patriarch of Constantinople, exactly as he acted later; all that can be said is that the False Decretals, though not expressly cited by the pope, "led him to accentuate still further the arguments which he drew from the decrees of his predecessors," notably with regard to the exceptio spolii.
The senate is composed of members of three classes: (I) members by right of birth or officeprinces, nobles who possess an annual income of 60,000 pesetas (L2,400), and hold the rank of grandee (grande), a dignity conferred by the king either for life or as an hereditary honor, captains-general of the army, admirals of the navy, the patriarch of the Indies, archbishops, cardinals, the presidents of the council of state or of the Supreme Court, and other high officials, all of whom must have retained their appointments for two years; (2) members nominated by the sovereign for life; and (3) members elected three each by the 49 provinces of the kingdom, and the remainder by academies, universities, dioceses and state corporations.
The relations of the amir to the Christian bishops were very much those of the Ottoman sultan to the Greek patriarch.
Nestorius was present with an armed escort, but refused to attend the council on the ground that the patriarch of Antioch (his friend) had not arrived.
The disturbances that followed the arrival of John, the patriarch of Antioch, are sufficiently described in the article Nestorius.
It was written during the reign of Heraclius (610-641), and is generally attributed to an unknown Byzantine cleric and friend of the patriarch Sergius, who is specially alluded to as responsible for the introduction of certain ritual innovations.
After the partition, the invention of the Armenian alphabet, and the translation of the Bible into the vernacular, 410, drew the Armenians together, and the discontinuance of Greek in the Holy Offices relaxed the ecclesiastical dependence on Constantinople, which ceased entirely when the Patriarch, 491, refused to accept the decrees of the council of Chalcedon.
Under this system the Armenian bishop of Brusa, who was appointed patriarch of Constantinople by the sultan, became the civil, and practically the ecclesiastical head of his community (Ermeni millet), and a recognized officer of the imperial government with the rank of vizier.
Under regulations, approved by the sultan in 1862, the patriarch remained the official representative of the community, but all real power passed into the hands of clerical and lay councils elected by a representative assembly of 140 members.
In 1846 the patriarch anathematized all to the formation of the " Evangelical Church of the Armenians," which was made, after much opposition from France and Russia, a community (Protestant millet), at the instance of the British ambassador.
When Echmiadzin passed to Russia, in 1828, the Catholicus began to claim spiritual jurisdiction over the whole Armenian Church, and the submission of the patriarch of Constantinople was obtained by Russia when she helped the sultan against Mehemet Ali.
Disturbances occurred at Tarsus; Armenians who did not espouse 'the " national " cause were murdered; the life of the patriarch was threatened; and a report was circulated that the British ambassador wished some Armenians killed to give him an excuse for bringing the fleet to Constantinople.
In 730 Germanus the patriarch resigned rather than subscribe to a decree condemning images; later he was strangled in exile and replaced by an iconoclast, Anastasius.
The chief upholders of images, the patriarch Germanus, George of Cyprus and John of Damascus, were anathematized, and Christians forbidden to adore or make images or even to hide them.
Irene's patriarch Nicephorus was now deposed and one Theodotus, a kinsman of Constantine Copronymus, consecrated in his place on the ist of April 815.
In 842 Theophilus died, leaving his wife Theodora regent; she was, like Irene, addicted to images, and chose as patriarch a monk, Methodius, whom the emperor Michael had imprisoned for laying before him Pope Paschal I.'s letter of protest.
A fresh council was now held which re-enacted the decrees of 787, and on the 29th of February 842 the new patriarch, the empress, clergy and court dignitaries assisted in the church of St Sophia at a solemn restoration of images which lasted until the advent of the Turks.
95; Nicephorus Patriarch, "Antirrhetici," Patr.
The modern name is Bahr Lut or "Sea of Lot" - a name hardly to be explained as a survival of a vague tradition of the patriarch, but more probably due to the literary influences of the Hebrew Scriptures and the Koran filtering through to the modern inhabitants or their ancestors.
In 1204 Baldwin, conqueror of Constantinople, conferred the kingdom of Thessalonica on Boniface, marquis of Montferrat; but in 1222 Theodore, despot of Epirus, one of the natural enemies of the new kingdom, took the city and had himself there crowned by the patriarch of Macedonian Bulgaria.
On the establishment of Christianity Damascus became the seat of a bishop who ranked next to the patriarch of Antioch.
With the help of the regent Theophano and the patriarch, he received supreme command of the eastern forces, and being proclaimed emperor by these marched upon the capital, where meanwhile his partisans had overthrown his enemy Bringas.
Thanks to his popularity with the army, Nicephorus was crowned emperor by the side of Romanus's infant sons, and in spite of the patriarch's opposition married their mother Theophano.
CYPRUS The Church of Cyprus is in communion and in doctrinal agreement with the other Orthodox Churches of the East (see Orthodox Eastern Church), but iS independent and subject to no patriarch.
At any rate, its independence "by ancient custom" was recognized, as against the claims of the patriarch of Antioch, by the council of Ephesus, A.D.
In 1821, it is true, all the bishops and many of their flock were put to death by way of discouraging sympathies with the Greeks; but successors were soon consecrated, by bishops sent from *Antioch at the request of the patriarch of Constantinople, and on the whole the Church has prospered.
Ashen Italian patriarch Ronnie runs this brilliant parlor caff on the verges of Shoreditch.
The suggestion here is that the biblical patriarch Abraham was involved in the historical affairs of flesh-and-blood gods.
The world said, ` Abraham is rich, ' but the aged patriarch only smiled.
In 412 Cyril (later St Cyril) became patriarch of Alexandria.
When shall we see the first black patriarch of Africa?
When your mind moment by moment never differentiates, it may be called the living patriarch.
There is considerable evidence to suggest that Apollonius was seen as an " exalted patriarch " in some sense.
The newest prophet, even, is of a sight more consequence than the oldest patriarch.
These similar and familiar stories are also ascribed to Menu, the great patriarch of Hindustan and also to Vishnu in his ninth incarnation.
patriarch steven imes a secret agenda the national research.
family patriarch Misael has had shadowy skeletons rattling in his closet for nineteen years.
The prototype that most readily suggests itself is the Old testament patriarch Joseph.
But Clive finds himself cast in Jim's long shadow and struggles to emerge from it as the family's new patriarch.
patriarch of the sizeable family starts to shout - - Down in front!
patriarch of a fledgling dynasty.
In 1847 Pope Pius IX was responsible for restoring the Latin patriarchate in Jerusalem, with Mgr Valerga being appointed the first Patriarch.
Theodoret was also considered the prime mover of the condemnation of Eutyches by the Patriarch Flavian.
Are where you patriarch Steven imes a secret agenda the national research.
In 1118 he was on his way to spend Easter at Jerusalem, when he received the news of the death of Baldwin I.; and when he arrived at Jerusalem, he was made king, chiefly by the influence of the patriarch Arnulf.
ACEPHALI (from a-, privative, and Kal)aXii, head), a term applied to several sects as having no head or leader; and in particular to a strict monophysite sect that separated itself, in the end of the 5th century, from the rule of the patriarch of Alexandria (Peter Mongus), and remained "without king or bishop" till they were reconciled by Mark I.
Immediately afterwards Peter was proclaimed tsar by the patriarch, and the first ukaz issued in Peter's name summoned Matvyeev to return to the capital and act as chief adviser to the tsaritsa Natalia.
That the Arabian species was one of the earliest animals to be domesticated is evident from the record of Scripture, where six thousand camels are said to have formed part of the wealth of the patriarch Job.
Outside of Rome relations between the clergy and the authorities were as a rule quite cordial, and in May 1903 Cardinal Sarto, the patriarch of Venice, asked for and obtained an audience with the king when he visited that city, and the meeting which followed was of a very friendly character.
In both cases, as it seems, an attempt was made by the bishop of Rome to depose the erring patriarch by his authority as primate of Christendom, acting in concert with a Western synod.
No oecumenical synod has tried a patriarch of Old Rome while yet in the flesh.
The bishop of Constantinople, even before he became properly " patriarch," would often assemble a synod from these visiting bishops, which acquired the technical name of o voSos ivSnµouQa, the synod of sojourners.
The patriarch of Constantinople is enabled to exercise an extensive criminal jurisdiction over Christians (Neale, Hist.
So in Egypt the bishop or " pope " (afterwards patriarch) of Alexandria was the only true metropolitan (Neale, History of the Eastern Church, Gen.
Clerks and the dependants of the metropolitan (afterwards the patriarch) appear to have been immune from secular jurisdiction, except in the case of crimes against life, from the time of Ivan the Terrible (ib.
This tsar limited the " peculiar " monasteries to three, and gave the patriarch jurisdiction over them (ib.).
This court was not in operation during the time when the patriarch Nikon was also in effect first minister; but upon his decline exercised its full jurisdiction (ib.
In the Balkan States, the system - inherited from Byzantine and Turkish times - of ecclesiastical jurisdictions prevails, except that they are now autocephalous,and independent of the patriarch of Constantinople.
But in 1603 he was able, on the partition of the Dacre lands, to make his home at Naworth Castle, where he lived, a border patriarch, cultivating his estates and serving as a commissioner of the borders.
Other works of a different kind also originated in Italy about this time: the very popular history of the Jews, called Josippon (probably of the 10th or even 9th century), ascribed to Joseph ben Gorion (Gorionides) 1; the medical treatises of Shabbethai Donnolo (loth century) and his commentary on the Sepher Ye,zirah, the anonymous and earliest Hebrew kabbalistic work ascribed to the patriarch Abraham.
bishop, provincial synod, exarch of the diocese, patriarch of Constantinople (obviously the council could not here have been legislating for the entire church); forbidding clerics to be running to Constantinople with complaints, without the consent of their respective bishops; (7) confirming the possession of rural parishes to those who had actually administered them for thirty years, providing for the adjudication of conflicting claims, and guaranteeing the integrity of metropolitan provinces; (8) confirming the third canon of the second ecumenical council, which accorded to Constantinople equal privileges ('oa 7fp€ose7a) with Rome, and the second rank among the patriarchates, and, in addition, granting to Constantinople patriarchal jurisdiction over Pontus, Asia and Thrace.
At their head was Gregory, the Patriarch; a layman, said later to be Rockycana's nephew; in Michael Bradacius, the priest of Senftenberg, they found a spiritual teacher; and fresh recruits came streaming in, not only from the other little societies at Kremsir, Meseritsch, Chelcic, Wilenow and Diwischau, but also from the Waldenses, the Adamites, the Utraquist Church at KOniggratz, and the university of Prague They called themselves Jednota Bratrska, i.e.
The trouble began early in the 17th century with the attempt, made in connexion with the printing of the liturgical books, to emend certain ritual details in which there was proved to have been a departure from primitive usage; 1 it came to a head under the patriarch Nikon.
Hitherto the highest authority in the Russian Church was the metropolitan, who was The nominally under the jurisdiction of the patriarch of patri- Constantinople, and as soon as Constantinople fell archate.
into the hands of the infidel, and the tsars of Muscovy claimed to be the successors of the Byzantine emperors, it seemed right and proper that the Russian Church should become autocephalous and be governed by an independent Russian patriarch.
In the reign of Alexius a conflict took place between the tsar and the patriarch, which is often described as a conflict between Church and State, and which illustrates the relations between the temporal and the spiritual power in Russian state-organization.
Until the beginning of the 17th century the Byzantine tradition that in all matters outside the sphere of dogma the ecclesiastical is subordinate to the civil power had been observed in Russia; but the traditional conceptions had been to some extent undermined during the reign of Michael, when the metropolitan Philaret, who was the tsar's father (vide supra), became patriarch and was associated with his son in the government on a footing of equality.
His immediate successors, being men of humble origin and submissive character, made no pretensions to such an exalted position, but when the haughty, ambitious and energetic Nikon, who enjoyed in large measure the affection and favour of the devout Tsar Alexius, became patriarch, he took Philaret as his model, and propounded, like the popes in western Europe, the doctrine that the spiritual is higher than the temporal power, the former corresponding to the sun and the latter to the moon in the firmament.
In accordance with this view he declared that the patriarch was the image of Christ, the head of the Church, and was therefore subject to no earthly authority, and he complained of the tsar's interference in ecclesiastical affairs.
As no voice was raised in his defence and the decision of the ecclesiastical council which condemned him was universally accepted without protest, we must conclude that the conflict was not really between Church and State but simply between the haughty, ambitious Patriarch Nikon and the devout, long-suffering Tsar Alexius.
In the middle ages it became a flourishing and populous city; in 1222 or 1238 the patriarch Berthold made it the capital of Friuli, and in 1420 it became Venetian.
The inauguration stone of the Irish kings, the Lia Fail, or Stone of Destiny, fabled to have been the pillow of the patriarch Jacob on the occasion of his dream of the heavenly ladder, was said to have been presented by Murkertagh to the king of Dalriada, by whom it was conveyed to Dunstaffnage Castle in Scotland (see Scone).
The cause of his leaving Amid was probably either the great pestilence which broke out there in 534 or the furious persecution directed against the Monophysites by Ephraim (patriarch of Antioch 529-544) and Abraham (bishop of Am id c. 520-541).