Barbarossa by the anti-pope Pascal III.
She desired indeed to join the convent, but her father, who returned to Paris with the dignity of counsellor of state, disapproved of the plan, and took both brother and sister to Clermont, where Pascal remained for the greater part, of two years.
Pascal had already shown how philosophical scepticism might be employed as a bulwark for faith, and Glanvill follows in the same track.
Blaise Pascal and Immanuel Kant, among others, have Sextus's grouping in mind when they oppose themselves to " dogmatism " and " scepticism " legal or political, the decree (says Marcellus) of the legislative assembly; but it might also be of the emperor (Luke ii.
They are also the direct antitheses to the scepticism of Montaigne and Pascal, to the materialism of Gassendi and Hobbes, and to the superstitious anthropomorphism which defaced the reawakening sciences of nature.
The peculiarly disjointed and fragmentary condition of the sentiments expressed by Pascal aggravates the appearance of universal doubt which is present in the Pensees, just as the completely unfinished condition of the work, from the literary point of view, constantly causes slighter or graver doubts as to the actual meaning which the author wished to express.
The latter's cheerful man-of-the-world scepticism is transfigured in Pascal to a deep distrust of human reason, in part, perhaps, from anti-Protestant motives.
KOSHER, or Kasher (Hebrew clean, right, or fit), the Jewish term for any food or vessels for food made ritually fit for use, in contradistinction to those pascal, unfit, and terefah, forbidden.
Pascal and P. de Fermat had initiated he brought very nearly to perfection; but the demonstrations are so involved, and the omissions in the chain of reasoning so frequent, that the Theorie analytique (1812) is to the best mathematicians a work requiring most arduous study.
Pascal and other members of Port Royal openly expressed their doubts about the place allowed to God in the system; the adherents of Gassendi met it by resuscitating atoms; and the Aristotelians maintained their substantial forms as of old; the Jesuits argued against the arguments for the being of God, and against the theory of innate ideas; whilst Pierre Daniel Huet (1630-1721), bishop of Avranches, once a Cartesian himself, made a vigorous onslaught on the contempt in which his former comrades held literature and history, and enlarged on the vanity of all human aspirations after rational truth.
Again, Pascal, unlike most apologists, belongs to the small company of saintly souls.
TRISECTRI X, a curve which is a variety of the limacon of Pascal, and named from its property of trisecting an angle.
Compare the fine distinctions drawn by the casuists and attacked by Pascal in the twelfth of the Provincial Letters.
Not, of course, that they meant deliberate evil; Pascal expressly credits them with good intentions.
In the hands of Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) hydrostatics assumed the dignity of a science, and in a treatise on the equilibrium of liquids (Sur l'equilibre des liqueurs), found among his manuscripts after his death and published in 1663, the laws of the equilibrium of liquids were demonstrated in the most simple manner, and amply confirmed by experiments.
Any additional pressure applied to the fluid will be y transmitted equally to every point in the case of a liquid; this principle of the transmissibility of 1 1 pressure was enunciated by Pascal, 1653, and FIG.
trans., 1906), where he comes to the conclusion that "instead of being the sixth rex of Rome, he was originally the rex serous, the priest of the cult of Diana Aricina transferred to the Aventine, the priest of the protecting goddess of fugitive slaves"; C. Pascal, Patti e legende di Roma antica (Florence, 1903); also O.
Diophantine problems were revived by Gaspar Bachet, Pierre Fermat and Euler; the modern theory of numbers was founded by Fermat and developed by Euler, Lagrange and others; and the theory of probability was attacked by Blaise Pascal and Fermat, their work being subsequently expanded by James Bernoulli, Abraham de Moivre, Pierre Simon Laplace and others.
It was published with certain "remarks" on Pascal, mere offensive to orthodoxy than itself, and no mercy was shown to it.
Among the old houses one, dating from the 16th century, was the birthplace of Blaise Pascal, whose statue stands in a neighbouring square.
Early in the modern period occurs the great name of Blaise Pascal (1623-1662).
Pascal, than whom ' Usually a bow, sword, dagger or other small thing belonging to war.
It seems that Pascal in driving to Neuilly was run away with by the horses, and would have been plunged in the river but that the traces fortunately broke.
According to Flint, 4 there were four men who in this and the preceding century seized and made prominent this idea, namely, Bodin, Bacon, Descartes and Pascal.
which became one of Pascal's sources (see V.
Pascal's work exhibits both characters.
Mansel), has peculiarities in Pascal.
Mansel tried (1858) to play Pascal's game on Kantian principles, developing the sceptical side of 'Kant's many-faceted mind.
He also read largely, though somewhat indiscriminately, in French literature, and appears to have been particularly struck with Pascal's Provincial Letters, which he tells us he reperused almost every year of his subsequent life with new pleasure, and which he particularly mentions as having been, along with Bleterie's Life of Julian and Giannone's History of Naples, a book which probably contributed in a special sense to form the historian of the Roman empire.
In that case, all who accept a revelation without professing to understand its content would require to be ranked as mystics; the fierce sincerity of Tertullian's credo quia ab-' surdum, Pascal's reconciliation of contradictions in Jesus Christ, and Bayle's half-sneering subordination of reason to faith would all be marks of this standpoint.
" Les miracles discernent la doctrine, et la doctrine discerne les miracles " (Pascal's Pense'es des miracles).
This paper is principally based on the following general theorem, which is a remarkable extension of Pascal's hexagram: "If a polygon move so that each of its sides passes through a fixed point, and if all its summits except one describe curves of the degrees m, n, p, &c., respectively, then the free summit moves on a curve of the degree 2mnp. ..
Twelve years after the Areopagitica appeared Pascal's Provincial Letters (1656-16J7).
See also the editions of Pascal's Provincial Letters, by John de Soyres (with English notes, Cambridge, 1880), and A.
Thus Nicomedes invented the conchoid; Diodes the cissoid; Dinostratus studied the quadratrix invented by Hippias; all these curves furnished solutions, as is also the case with the trisectrix, a special form of Pascal's limacon.
These are the two points on which Pascal's thought turns.
Daniel also wrote a by no means successful reply to Pascal's Provincial Letters, entitled Entretiens de Cleanthe provinciales (1694); two treatises on the Cartesian theory as to the intelligence of the lower animals, and other works.
It is, however, certain that in the autumn of 1654 Pascal's second "conversion" took place, and that it was lasting.
Further, from the 23rd of November 1654 dates the singular document usually known as "Pascal's amulet," a parchment slip which he wore constantly about him, and which bears the date followed by some lines of incoherent and strongly mystical devotion.
Eight years after Pascal's death appeared what purported to be his Pensees, and a preface by his nephew Perier gave the world to understand that these were fragments of a great projected apology for Christianity which the author had, in conversation with his friends, planned out years before.
Accordingly the Pensees have always been a favourite exploring ground, not to say a favourite field of battle, to persons who take an interest in their problems. Speaking generally, their tendency is towards the combating of scepticism by a deeper scepticism, or, as Pascal himself calls it, Pyrrhonism, which occasionally goes the length of denying the possibility of any natural theology.
Pascal explains all the contradictions and difficulties of human life and thought by the doctrine of the Fall, and relies on faith and revelation alone to justify each other.
Hence conjecture, or at least inference, must always enter largely into any estimate of Pascal, except a purely literary one.
They owe not a little to Descartes, for Pascal's indebtedness to his predecessor is unquestionable from the literary side, whatever may be the case with the scientific. But Descartes had had neither the opportunity, nor the desire, nor probably the power, to write anything of the literary importance of the Provinciales.
The vividness and distinction of Pascal's phrase, his singular faculty of inserting without any loss of dignity in the gravest and most impassioned meditation what may be almost called quips of thought and diction, the intense earnestness of meaning weighting but not confusing the style, all appear here.
Hitherto the widest differences have been manifested in the estimate of Pascal's opinions on the main questions of philosophy, theology and human conduct.
Surveying these positions, we shall not be astonished to find much that is surprising and some things that are contradictory in Pascal's utterances on "les grands sujets."
But it is impossible for anyone who takes Pascal's simply as he finds them in connexion with the facts of Pascal's history to question his theological orthodoxy, understanding by theological orthodoxy the acceptance of revelation and dogma; it is equally impossible for any one in the same condition to declare him absolutely content with dogma and revelation.
It is of the essence of an active mind like Pascal's to explore and state all the arguments which make for or make against the conclusion it is investigating.
From the point of view that belief and knowledge, based on experience or reasoning, are separate domains with an unexplored sea between and round them, Pascal is perfectly comprehensible, and he need not be taken as a deserter from one region to the other.
There are few writers who are more in need than Pascal of being fully and competently edited.
Meanwhile, with the exception of the Provinciales (of which there are numerous editions, no one much to be preferred to any other, for the text is undisputed and the book itself contains almost all the exegesis of its own contents necessary), Pascal can be read only at a disadvantage.
There are five chief editions of the true Pensees earlier than Brunschvig's: that of Faugere (1844), the editio princeps; that of Havet (1852, 1867 and 1881), on the whole the best; that of Victor Rochet (1873), good, but arranged and edited with the deliberate intention of making Pascal first of all an orthodox apologist; that of Molinier (1877-1879), a carefully edited and interesting text, the important corrections of which have been introduced into Havet's last edition and that of G.
Works on Pascal are innumerable: Sainte-Beuve's Port Royal, Cousin's writings on Pascal and his Jacqueline Pascal, and the essays of the editors of the Pensees just mentioned are the most noteworthy.
Boutroux's Pascal (Paris, 1903) and, in English, an article in the Quarterly Review (No.
SA.) Pascal as Natural Philosopher and Mathematician.
- Great as is Pascal's reputation as a philosopher and man of letters, it may be fairly questioned whether his claim to be remembered by posterity as a mathematician and physicist is not even greater.
We know something of what it contained from a report by Leibnitz, who had seen it in Paris, and from a resume of its results published in 1640 by Pascal himself, under the title Essai pour les coniques.
Pascal also distinguished himself by his skill in the infinitesimal calculus, then in the embryonic form of Cavalieri's method of indivisibles.
Pascal solved the hitherto refractory problem of the general quadrature of the cycloid, and proposed and solved a variety of others relating to the centre of gravity of the curve and its segments, and to the volume and centre of gravity of solids of revolution generated in various ways by means of it.
Solutions were furnished by Wallis, Huygens, Wren and others; and Pascal published his own in the form of letters from Amos Dettonville (his assumed name as challenger) to Pierre de Carcavy.
There has been some discussion as to the fairness of the treatment accorded by Pascal to his rivals, but no question of the fact that his initiative led to a great extension of our knowledge of the properties of the cycloid, and indirectly hastened the progress of the differential calculus.
In yet another branch of pure mathematics Pascal ranks as a founder.
The mathematical theory of probability and the allied theory of the combinatorial analysis were in effect created by the correspondence between Pascal and Fermat, concerning certain questions as to the division of stakes in games of chance, which had been propounded to the former by the gaming philosopher De Mere.
It appears that Pascal contemplated publishing a treatise De aleae geometria; but all that actually appeared was a fragment on the arithmetical triangle (Traite du triangle arithmetique, " Properties of the Figurate Numbers"), printed in 1654, but not published till 1665, after his death.
Pascal's work as a natural philosopher was not less remarkable than his discoveries in pure mathematics.
Whether we look at his pure mathematical or at his physical researches we receive the same impression of Pascal; we see the strongest marks of a great original genius creating new ideas, and seizing upon, mastering, and pursuing farther everything that was fresh and unfamiliar in his time.
Jacqueline Pascal >>
He also published a small work, The Christ of the Gospels and the Christ of History, in which the views of Renan on the gospel history were dealt with; a monograph on Pascal for Blackwood's Foreign Classics series; and a little work, Beginning Life, addressed to young men, written at an earlier period.
The first mentioned of these was severely criticised by Pascal in the fifth and sixth of his Provincial Letters, as tending to inculcate a loose system of morality.
Muller (1884 and 1893), C. Pascal, Studi sugli scrittori Latini (1900); see also Mommsen, History of Rome, bk.
Blaise Pascal >>
Pascal, Observations historiques sur la vie, &c., du general Jomini (1842).
His chief works are a monograph on Aenesidemus the Sceptic (1840); Le Scepticisme: IEnesideme, Pascal, Kant (1845); a translation of Spinoza (1843); Precurseurs et disciples de Descartes (1862); Discours de la philosophie de Leibnitz (1857) - a work which had great influence on the progress of thought in France; Essai de philosophie religieuse (1859); Critique et histoire de la philosophie (1865).
Monod, Essai sur les rapports de Pascal II.
Thus arose lax casuists of the type of Antonio Escobar (1589-1669), the central figure of Pascal's Provincial Letters.
2 This work is a reply to C. Pascal's L'Incendio di Roma e i primi Cristiani (Milan, 1900), which throws the guilt on the Christians.
Lang, Myth, Ritual and Religion (1899); C. Pascal, Studii di antichita e mitologia (1896), who sees in Lycaon a god of death honoured by human sacrifice; Ed.
Later satires in an epistolary form are Pascal's Provincial Letters, Swift's Drapier Letters, and the Letters of Junius.
Wissowa, Religion and Kultus der Romer, p. 355 seq.; monograph by Wackermann (Hanau, 1888); C. Pascal, Studii di antichita e mitologia (1896).
Rouse's The Year's Work in Classical Studies (1907); C. Pascal, Studii di antichitd e Mitologia (1896).
Siegler Pascal in Un Contemporain egare au X VIII e siecle.
Seckendorf's principal works were the following: - Teutscher Farstenstaat (1656 and 1678), a handbook of German public law; Der Christenstaat (1685), partly an apology for Christianity and partly suggestions for the reformation of the church, founded on Pascal's Pensees and embodying the fundamental ideas of Spener; Commentarius historicus et apologeticus de Lutheranismo sive de Reformatione (3 vols., Leipzig, 1692), occasioned by the Jesuit Maimbourg's Histoire du Lutheranisme (Paris, 1680), his most important work, and still indispensable to the historian of the Reformation as a rich storehouse of authentic materials.
From the Fortune des Rougon to the Docteur Pascal (1893) there are some twenty novels in the Rougon-Macquart series, the second half of which includes the powerful novels Germinal (1885) and La Terre (1888).
Many other mathematicians have written on the cycloid - Blaise Pascal, W.
Blaise Pascal determined the area of the section made by any line parallel to the base and the volumes and centres of gravity of the solids generated by revolving the curve about its axis and base.
Having established his priority, Pascal published his investigations, which occasioned a great sensation among his contemporaries, and Wallis was enabled to correct his methods.
Applying to the French classics the rigorous method used with regard to the texts of the middle ages, he published the of Pascal, revised with the original manuscript (1887-1889), and the Provinciales (1891), edited with notes.
Henderson, 1854), and in the same year Pascal.
As the results of his work in this line, we have, besides the Des Pensees de Pascal, 1842, Etudes sur les femmes et la societe du X VII e siècle, 1853.
He has sketched Jacqueline Pascal (1844), Madame de Longueville (18J3), the marquise de Sable (1854), the duchesse de Chevreuse (1856), Madame de Hautefort (1856).
Pascal, Repertorio di matematiche superiori, ii.
The results to which this Probabilism, applied with an earnest desire to avoid dangerous rigour, led in the 17th century were revealed to the world in the immortal Lettres provinciales of Pascal.
Vinet's Chrestomathie francaise (1829), his Etudes sur la litterature francaise au XIX me siècle (1849-51), and his Histoire de la litterature francaise au X VIII me siecle, together with his Etudes sur Pascal, Etudes sur les moralistes aux X VIme ei X VII me siecles, Histoire de la predication parmi les Reformes de France and other kindred works, gave evidence of a wide knowledge of literature, a sober and acute literary judgment and a distinguished faculty of appreciation.
at court, and more important still, among learned men and thinkers, such as the great Arnaukl, Pascal and Racine.
If five points be given, Pascal's theorem affords a solution; if five tangents, Brianchon's theorem is employed.
The extraordinary advances made by him in this branch of knowledge were owing to his happy method of applying mathematical analysis to physical problems. As a pure mathematician he was, it is true, surpassed in profundity by more than one among his pupils and contemporaries; and in the wider imaginative grasp of abstract geometrical principles he cannot be compared with Fermat, Descartes or Pascal, to say nothing of Newton or Leibnitz.
In 1656 Arnauld was deprived of his degree, in spite of Pascal's Provincial Letters (1656-1657), begun in an attempt to save him (see Pascal; Casuistry).
Desargues has a special claim to fame on account of his beautiful theorem on the involution of a quadrangle inscribed in a conic. Pascal discovered a striking property of a hexagon inscribed in a conic (the hexagrammum mysticum); from this theorem Pascal is said to have deduced over 400 corollaries, including most of the results obtained by earlier geometers.
While Desargues and Pascal were founding modern synthetic geometry, Rene Descartes was developing the algebraic representation of geometric relations.
His treatment is synthetic, and he follows his tutor and Pascal in deducing the properties of conics by projection from a circle.
While still young, he, along with Blaise Pascal, made some discoveries in regard to the properties of numbers, on which he afterwards built his method of calculating probabilities.
In the same volume are treatises on "Geometric Loci, or Spherical Tangencies," and on the "Rectification of Curves," besides a restoration of "Apollonius's Plane Loci," together with the author's correspondence addressed to Descartes, Pascal, Roberval, Huygens and others.
Monod's Essai sur les rapports de Pascal II.
arsenal defender Pascal finally makes a tackle in English football.
Related Think - Vocabulary - Collocation with advanced levels 1 Comment Marianna Pascal, Malaysia Your ideas on collocation with advanced levels 1 Comment Marianna Pascal, Malaysia Your ideas on collocation were absolutely fascinating.
Her sleek exterior is from the drawing boards of Reymond Langton Design, with Pascal Reymond taking personal charge of the graceful interior.
Figure 2 - Graph showing the string scalings of the 1769 Pascal Taskin double-manual harpsichord, Russell Collection of Early Keyboard Instruments, Cat.
Vitalic's real name is Pascal Arbez; his adopted moniker is a Russian name as this is his second language.
multiplicand gear rotates it will produce its result on Pascal's machine.
Pascal programs for indentification of Lie algebras.
Pascal seconds (Pa s) or the poise (P ).
Pascal programming and the MUPPET utilities.
Pascal code, within a C-shell, has been adopted.
Pascal conference 2006.
I'll end with a story about one of my favorite people - Blase Pascal, a French polymath of the 17 th Century.
Pascal was a child prodigy, who was educated by his father.
Pascal was a keen bell ringer, having rung in most of the churches in Devon.
Metafox I took a C course and a Pascal class in college, but I'm mostly self-taught.
sleek exterior is from the drawing boards of Reymond Langton Design, with Pascal Reymond taking personal charge of the graceful interior.
unassailable position, at least in the weak sense of Pascal's wager.
var parameters in PASCAL ).
In a sense (see Apologetics) this was done in the middle ages, and possibly repeated by Pascal after the Reformation.
Huet (1630-1721) - within the conditions of his age a prodigy of learning (in apologetics see his Demonstratio Evangelica) - is not uninfluenced by Pascal (Traite de la faiblesse de l'esprit humaine).
- Omitting the Christian fathers as remote from the present day, we recognize as works of genius Pascal's Pensees and Butler's Analogy, to which we might add J.
In his Autobiography he alleges that he learned from the Provincial Letters of Pascal " to manage the weapon of grave and temperate irony, even on subjects of ecclesiastical solemnity."
It is not easy, however, to perceive much resemblance between the method of Pascal and that of Gibbon, though in particular passages we may discover the influence which Gibbon acknowledges.
Their great weapon was their logic; and a logician, as Pascal says, must be very unfortunate or very stupid if he cannot manage to find exceptions to every conceivable rule.
Saisset, AEnesideme, Pascal, Kant; Ritter and Preller, Ã¯¿½Ã¯¿½ 364-370.
Flechier, in his account of the Grands Jours at Clermont many years after, speaks of a "belle savante" in whose company Pascal had frequently been - a trivial mention on which, as on many other trivial points of scantily known lives, the most childish structures of comment and conjecture have been based.
Excluding here his scientific attainments (see below), Pascal presents himself for comment in two different lights, the second of which is, if the expression be permitted, a composite one.
As the results of his work in this line, we have, besides the Des Pensees de Pascal, 1842, Etudes sur les femmes et la societe du X VII e siÃ¨cle, 1853.
Vinet's Chrestomathie francaise (1829), his Etudes sur la litterature francaise au XIX me siÃ¨cle (1849-51), and his Histoire de la litterature francaise au X VIII me siecle, together with his Etudes sur Pascal, Etudes sur les moralistes aux X VIme ei X VII me siecles, Histoire de la predication parmi les Reformes de France and other kindred works, gave evidence of a wide knowledge of literature, a sober and acute literary judgment and a distinguished faculty of appreciation.
An important generalization of the conic sections was developed about the beginning of the 17th century by Girard Desargues and Blaise Pascal.
Metafox I took a C course and a Pascal class in college, but I 'm mostly self-taught.
At first sight that seems an unassailable position, at least in the weak sense of Pascal 's wager.
Other languages do this (e.g. var parameters in PASCAL).
At a random time once every week, a character named Pascal wanders the beach.
On a random weekday between 6 a.m. and midnight, Pascal dishes out deep philosophies before dunking back into the sea.
After dispensing his wisdom about the cosmos, Pascal will leave you a piece of Pirate furniture.
Saisset, AEnesideme, Pascal, Kant; Ritter and Preller, ï¿½ï¿½ 364-370.
Pascal treated these numbers in his Traite du triangle arithmetique (1665), using them to develop a theory of combinations and to solve problems in proba-, bility.
1875); Examples of Analytical Geometry of Three Dimensions (1858, 3rd ed., 1873); Mechanics (1867), History of the Mathematical Theory of Probability from the Time of Pascal to that of Lagrange (1865); Researches in the Calculus of Variations (1871); History of the Mathematical Theories of Attraction and Figure of the Earth from Newton to Laplace (1873); Elementary Treatise on Laplace's, Lame's and Bessel's Functions (1875); Natural Philosophy for Beginners (1877).
trans., 1906), where the story is connected with the ceremonies performed in honour of Jupiter Tigillus and Juno Sororia; C. Pascal, Fatti e legende di Roma antica (Florence, 1903); 0.
EUGENIUS II., pope, was a native of Rome, and was chosen to succeed Pascal I.
The typical and by far the greatest example of the Christian sceptic is Pascal (1623-1662).
Saisset, Le Scepticisme: IEnesidbme, Pascal, Kant (1875).
limax, a slug), a curve invented by Blaise Pascal and further investigated and named by Gilles Personne de Roberval.
Incited by the discoveries of Galileo, Pascal and Torricelli, he attempted the, creation of a vacuum.
His father was Etienne Pascal, president of the Court of Aids at Clermont; his mother's name was Antoinette Begon.
The Pascal family were Auvergnats by extraction as well as residence, had for many generations held posts in the civil service, and were ennobled by Louis XI.
The earliest anecdote of Pascal is one of his being bewitched and freed from the spell.
When Pascal was about seven years old his father gave up his official post at Clermont, and betook himself to Paris.
The Pascal family, some years after settling in Paris, had to go through a period of adversity.
Etienne Pascal, who had bought some of the hotel-de-ville rentes, protested against Richelieu's reduction of the interest, and to escape the Bastille had to go into hiding.
Mme d'Aiguillon's intervention in the matter was perhaps as powerful as Jacqueline's acting, and Richelieu gave Etienne Pascal (in 1641) the important and lucrative 2 In vi.
The family accordingly removed to the Norman capital, though Gilberte Pascal shortly after, on her marriage, returned to Clermont.
Then Pascal the elder was confined to the house by the consequences of an accident on the ice, and was visited by certain gentlemen of the neighbourhood who had come under the influence of Saint-Cyran and the Jansenists.
It does not appear that up to this time the Pascal family had been contemners of religion, but they now eagerly embraced the creed, or at least the attitude of Jansenism, and Pascal himself showed his zeal by informing against the supposed unorthodoxy of a Capuchin, the Pere Saint-Ange.
In a letter of Jacqueline's, dated the 27th of September, an account of a visit paid by Descartes to Pascal is given, which, like the other information on the relations of the two, give strong suspicion of mutual jealousy.
Descartes, however, gave Pascal the very sensible advice to stay in bed as long as he could (it may be remembered that the philosopher himself never got up till eleven) and to take plenty of beef-tea.
As early as May 1648 Jacqueline Pascal was strongly drawn to Port Royal, and her brother frequently accompanied her to its church.
It is sufficient to say that at this time, despite the Rouen "conversion," there is no evidence to show that Pascal was in any way a recluse, an ascetic, or in short anything but a young man of great intellectual promise and performance, not indifferent to society, but of weak health.
He, his sister and their father returned to Paris in the late autumn of 1650, and in September of the next year Etienne Pascal died.
It has sometimes been supposed that Pascal, from 1651 or earlier to the famous accident of 1654, lived a dissipated, extravagant, worldly, luxurious (though admittedly not vicious) life with his friend the duc de Roannez and others.
The extant letters of Pascal to the lady show no trace of any affection (stronger than friendship) between them.
It is said that he personally suggested to Pascal to try his hand, and that the first of the famous Provinciales (Provincial Letters, properly Lettres ecrites par Louis de Montalte ¢ un provincial de ses amis) was written in a few days, or, less probably, in a day.
Pascal and his friends rejoiced in proportion.
Pascal, equally discontented with the concordat, held fast to religion and continued to fight out the questions of difference with reason.
1762 Pascal Taskin's tuning-fork, Paris..
In addition to all these he published Denkwiirdigkeiten aus der Geschichte des Christentums (1823-1824, 2 vols., 1825, 3 vols., 1846); Das Eine and Mannichf altige des christlichen Lebens (1840); papers on Plotinus, Thomas Aquinas, Theobald Thamer, Blaise Pascal, J.
These were exempted generally by Pope Pascal II.
BLAISE PASCAL (1623-1662), French religious philosopher and mathematician, was born at Clermont Ferrand on the 19th of June 1623.
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